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rna

Andrew Guernsey


Second Quarter

First Quarter 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9)

Nasonia & Pupae Lab Microscope Activity 1 Microscope Activity 2 Microscope Activity 3 Microscope Activity 4 Cork Cell Drawing Animal Cell Drawing Plant Cell Drawing Diffusion & Cell Size

10) Mitosis Drawing

1) Meiosis Drawing 2) Mendelian Genetics Lab 1 3) Mendelian Genetics Lab 2 4) Mendelian Genetics Lab 3 5) Mendelian Genetics Lab 4 6) DNA Model & Replication Lab 7) RNA Transcription 8) RNA Translation Lab 9) Assessment Questions 10) Classification Lab 11) Concepts of Classification Kit

Third Quarter 1) Natural Selection Lab 2) Phylogenetic Tree Drawing 3) Clam Lab Report 4) Mollusk Coloring 5) Earthworm Lab Report 6) Earthworm Coloring 7) Crayfish Lab Report 8) Starfish Lab Report 9) Starfish Coloring 10) Vertebrate Phylogenetic Tree 11) Phylum Chordata Coloring

Fourth Quarter 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)

Perch Lab Report Frog Lab Report Frog Coloring Heart Rate Lab Report Blood Type Lab Report A Day Meal Plan

7) Biology Reflection Essay


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Lab Report Sheet Part A: Observations

September 26, 2008

Pupae

Nasonia

Description:

Description:

The cocoon is brown; dark and light brown are scattered throughout. It is slightly transparent.

Some Nasonia are brown, others are yellowish. The wings are retracted and not fully developed. The thorax and wings are of a lighter shade than the head and abdomen..

Behavior:

The Nasonia crawled on top of the pupae and attempted to sting them..

Part B: Hypothesis

I believe the Nasonia are trying to sting the pupae because the pupae would become predators .


Part C: Experimental Design Step 1: Set up two test tubes. One will have Nasionia and pupae in it, and the other will have only pupae. Step 2: Record activity over the next two weeks. Part D: Data Collection


Part E: Conclusion I conclude that the Nasoniae laid eggs in the pupae and that the pupae were then eaten by the Nasoniae larvae.

Analysis My original hypothesis was incorrect.

Nasonia are called parasites because they attacked the pupae, their hosts, and used them to lay and shelter their eggs in. The eggs hatched within the cocoon and the pupae were a food source.

I think they fly off to find food, a mate, and lay eggs. .find other food sources. Butterflies are another insect. They inserted their eggs into the pupae by sticking the stinger-like object on their abdomens into the pupae’s cocoons. I created a hypothesis, observed, modeled an experiment, collected data and drew a conclusion.

Nasonia begin in eggs, then hatch into larvae. The larvae eat the Sarcophaga pupae and develop into pupae themselves. The Nasonia pupae molt and become adults. The adults mate. The pregnant female then lays her fertilized eggs in living Sarcophaga pupae. Then the life cycle begins again.


The lens looks like a transparent dome. In some ways it also resembled an eye.

The lens magnifies the text very little. The shadow made by the index card makes it hard to see.

The objects were magnified only a little. It was hard to see the large images because of the small size of the lens.

A device that bends light and focuses it to enlarge an image.

A tool which uses lenses and mirrors to enlarge images with clarity.


The image is backwards and upside down.

40x The paper, which looks brownish blue under the microscope, seems to have many little holies in it, like some ancient manuscript.


40x


40x

1.1

100x

2 1.4

400x

For example: What is the magnification ratio of an apparent image at the lowest power total magnification (40X) if 4mm if it measures 4 mm?

Magnification =


400x


I.

Title: Diffusion and Cell Size

II.

Purpose: To determine the extent and rate of diffusion into three different-sized ..................agar cubes.

III.

Materials: 1) 3 cm x 3 cm x 6 cm agar block .................... 2) Plastic Knife .....................3) Plastic Cup .....................4) Plastic Ruler .....................5) Diffusion Medium

IV.

Procedures: 1) Using a plastic knife, trim a 3 cmx 3 cm x 6 cm agar block into a .........................cube 3 cm x 3 cm x 3 cm block. Repeat this procedure to make two .........................more cubes 2 cm3 and 1 cm3 2) Place the three cubes carefully into a plastic cup. Add diffusion medium until the cup is approximately half full. Be sure the cubes are completely submerged. Using a plastic spoon, keep the cubes submerged for 10 minutes, turning them occasionally and being careful not to scratch any surface of the cubes. 3) As the cubes soak, calculate the surface area, volume, and surface area to volume ratio for each cube. Record these values in Data Table 1. 4) After 10 minutes, use a spoon to remove the agar cubes and carefully blot them dry on a paper towel. Then, cut the cubes in half. Note the color change from red or pink to clear that indicates the diffusion of the diffusion medium into the cube. 5) Using a metric ruler, measure the distance in centimeters that the diffusion medium diffused into each cube. Record the data in Data Table 2. Next, record the total time of diffusion. Finally, calculate and record the rate of diffusion for each cube as centimeters per minute. 6) Examine the extent of diffusion for each cube. Visually estimate the percentage of diffusion into the cube. Record your estimate in Data Table 3. 7) Calculate the volume of the portion of each cube that has not changed color. Record your results in Data Table 3. 8) Calculate the extent of actual diffusion into each cube as a percent of the total volume.


V.

Data:

a. Data Table 1: Agar Cubes: Cube Size

Surface Area (cm2)

Volume (cm3)

Surface to Volume Ratio

3 cm3

54

27

2:1

2 cm3

24

8

3:1

1 cm3

6

1

6:1

b. Data Table 2: Rate of Diffusion: Cube Size

Depth of Diffusion (cm)

Time (min.)

Rate of Diffusion (cm/min.)

3 cm3

0.8

10

0.08

2 cm3

0.8

10

0.08

1 cm3

0.5

10

0.05

c. Data Table 3: Extent of Diffusion:

VI.

Cube Size

Total Volume of cube (cm3)

Estimated % Volume of of cube that Cube that has has changed not changed color color 17 22.41

% Volume of cube which has changed color (extent of diffusion) 17

3 cm3

27

2 cm3

8

14

6.88

14

1 cm3

1

40

0.6

40

Analyze and Conclude: 1) The use of a pH indicator allowed me to visualize the .............................................extent of diffusion into the cubes because the diffusion .............................................medium, vinegar, caused the pH indicator to change .............................................from pink to clear as far as diffusion occurred. 2) According to Data Table 2, the diffusion medium diffused the deepest into the 3 cm3 and 2 cm3 cubes. 3) The diffusion medium diffused by the most by volume into the 1 cm3 cube.


4) The rate of diffusion was the same for the 3 cm3 and 2 cm3 cubes, but lower in the 1 cm3 cube. Thus, I make the generalized statement that smaller cells have quicker rates of diffusion than larger cells. 5) As a cell grows larger, surface area and volume increase, but their ratio decreases. 6) If each cube represented a living cell and the diffusion medium a substance needed within the cell, then the largest cell would not receive the substances it need fast enough. It would take too long to travel. 7) Based on my results, I conclude that ideally, cells want to have as large surface area as possible, with the smallest volume as is possible. This allows for diffusion to occur most efficiently within cells. 8) A 0.01 mm human cell would have a surface area of 0.0006 mm2 and a volume of 0.000001 mm3. The surface area to volume ratio would therefore be 600:1 for this cell. As compared to the smallest agar cube, the agar cube would diffuse much faster because of its much larger surface area. However the extent of diffusion would be much greater into much smaller volume of human cell. 9) Diffusion is not the only method in which substances enter and exit a cell. In the simulation, factors such as active transport, facilitated diffusion, and several others are not accounted for. 10)

Osmosis

Diffusion of water only Movement across cell membrane

Diffusion

Passive Transport Occurs within body

Diffusion of any substance Movement is not always across a cell membrane


Mieosis I


Mieosis II


Nitrogen Base

Hydrogen Bond Phosphate Group

Deoxyribose Sugar


10)

Codons

Found in mRNA Move from the nucleus to the cytosol

Osmosis

Diffusion

Anticodons

A group of three nucleotides Necessary for protein synthesis Contain uracil, not thymine as a nitrogen base

Found in tRNA Found in the cytosol only


Kingdom Archaebacteria Cell(s) without a nucleus. Makes own food from chemicals. Body form: single cells; rod-shaped; spherical, or irregular in shape Found only in extreme environments: extremely hot temperatures, extremely salty water, or environments without oxygen. Reproduces only by asexual means.

Taxonomy No: 54 Name: Sulfolobus acidocaldarius Group: Thermophile Archaebacteria No: 26 Name: Methanoccus voltaei Group: Methanogen Archaebacteria

Group characteristics Cells irregular in shape; found only in extremely hot, sulfur-rich water; makes its own food from chemicals Cells spherical in shape; makes methane gas as a waste product.

Kingdom Eubacteria Cell(s) without a nucleus Motile OR non-motile. Makes its own food OR feeds on others. Body form: single cells, cells in chains, groups, or slender threads. Reproduces only by asexual means.

Taxonomy No: 52 Name: Borelia burgdorteri Class: Spirochaete Bacteria Phylum: True Bacteria No: 45 Name: Rhizobium leguminosarum Class: Nitrogen-fixing Bacteria Phylum: True Bacteria No: 20 Name: Lactobacillus acidophilus Class: Fermentation Bacteria Phylum: True Bacteria No: 43 Name: Gloeocapsa minuta Class: Sphere cyanobacteria Phylum: Cyanobacteria No: 25 Name: Microcystis aeruginosa Class: Sphere cyanobacteria Phylum: Cyanobacteria No: 13 Name: Spirdina platensis Class: Thread cyanobacteria Phylum: Cyanobacteria No: 16 Name: Oscillatoria chalybea Class: Thread cyanobacteria Phylum: Cyanobacteria No: 50 Name: Anabaena variabilis Class: Thread cyanobacteria Phylum: Cyanobacteria No: 17 Name: Bacillus subtilis Class: Thread cyanobacteria Phylum: True Bacteria

Methanogen

Phylum characteristics

E. Coli

Class Characteristics

Cell has a nucleus visible with a microscope appearing as: spheres, spirals, chains, or small groups; cannot make its own food by photosynthesis.

Spiral-shaped; parasitic

Cell has a nucleus visible with a microscope appearing as: spheres, spirals, chains, or small groups; cannot make its own food by photosynthesis.

Makes nitrogen compounds

Cell has a nucleus visible with a microscope appearing as: spheres, spirals, chains, or small groups; cannot make its own food by photosynthesis.

Makes energy molecules by fermentation.

Cell without a nucleus, visible only through a microscope; appearing as long hair-like threads or in groups called “colonies.” Cells have blue-green color. Cells make their own food from the sun by photosynthesis. Cell without a nucleus, visible only through a microscope; appearing as long hair-like threads or in groups called “colonies.” Cells have blue-green color. Cells make their own food from the sun by photosynthesis. Cell without a nucleus, visible only through a microscope; appearing as long hair-like threads or in groups called “colonies.” Cells have blue-green color. Cells make their own food from the sun by photosynthesis. Cell without a nucleus, visible only through a microscope; appearing as long hair-like threads or in groups called “colonies.” Cells have blue-green color. Cells make their own food from the sun by photosynthesis. Cell without a nucleus, visible only through a microscope; appearing as long hair-like threads or in groups called “colonies.” Cells have blue-green color. Cells make their own food from the sun by photosynthesis. Cell has a nucleus visible with a microscope appearing as: spheres, spirals, chains, or small groups; cannot make its own food by photosynthesis.

Cells arranged in groups called “colonies.”

Cells arranged in groups called “colonies.”

Rectangle or bead-shaped cells arranged one-on-top of another to form a thread. Rectangle or bead-shaped cells arranged one-on-top of another to form a thread. Rectangle or bead-shaped cells arranged one-on-top of another to form a thread. Rectangle or bead-shaped cells arranged one-on-top of another to form a thread.


Kingdom Protista Cell(s) with a nucleus. Motile OR non-motile. Paramecium Makes its own food OR feeds on others – many switch from one feeding method to the other. Great variety in body form: single cells, groups of like cells; thread-like chains of cells. Reproduces by either asexual or sexual means. Taxonomy Phylum characteristics No: 30 Cells arranged end-to-end in a thread. Name: Spirogyra communis Phylum: Thread Protists No: 33 Cells do not move about; have glass-like shells with distinct and delicate patterns. Name: Navicula capitata Phylum: Diatoms No: 55 Cells move using long, hair-like structures called “flagella.” Name: Trypanosoma brucei Phylum: Flaggelates No: 9 Cells move using finger-like projections or “psedopods;” some may have shells. Name: Amoeba proteus Phylum: Amoebas No: 34 Cells move using short hair-like structures called “cilia.” Name: Dileptus anser Phylum: Cilates No: 51 Cells not arranged in a thread, but together in a colony. Name: Volvox globator Phylum: Colony Protists No: 40 Cells move using long, hair-like structures called “flagella.” Name: Euglera viridis Phylum: Flagellates No: 60 Cells move using short hair-like structures called “cilia.” Name: Paramecium caudatum Phylum: Ciliates


Kingdom Fungi Body made up of many cells, each having a nucleus. Panther Cap Non-motile. Gets food from others by absorbing nutrients found outside its cells. Body made up of a system of thread-like structures called “hyphae.” Reproduces by either asexual or sexual means. Taxonomy Phylum characteristics No: 4 Fungus appears spherical, shelf-like, or “mushroom-shaped.” Name: Coprinus comatus Phylum: Mushrooms No: 56 Spore cases look like lollipops or brooms. Name: Rhizopus Stolonifer Phylum: Molds No: 24 Spore cases are sac-like fingers with inside spores arranged like peas in a pod. Name: Lycoperdon genmatum Phylum: Sac Fungi No: 44 Spore cases are sac-like fingers with inside spores arranged like peas in a pod. Name: Rhytisma acerinum Phylum: Sac Fungi No: 49 Fungus appears spherical, shelf-like, or “mushroom-shaped.” Name: Ganoderma tsugae Phylum: Mushrooms No:11 Spore cases look like lollipops or brooms. Name: Aspergillus niger Phylum: Molds No: 47 Spore cases are sac-like fingers with inside spores arranged like peas in a pod. Name: Difflugia Oblonga Phylum: Sac Fungi No: 48 Spore cases look like lollipops or brooms. Name: Penicillium chrysogenum Phylum: Molds


Kingdom Plantae Body structure made up of many cells, each having a nucleus. Most with fluid-transporting tissues. Organs present – roots, stems and leaves. Non-motile. Makes its own food from the energy in sunlight (photosynthesis). Reproduces by either asexual or sexual means.

Taxonomy No: 59 Name: Thalassia testudinum Class: Monocot Phylum: Angiosperm No: 57 Name: Anthoceros punctatus Class: n/a Phylum: Hornworts No: 2 Name: Helianthus annuus Class: Dicots Phylum: Ferns No: 53 Name: Zea mays Class: Monocots Phylum: Angiosperms No: 15 Name: Quercus alba Class: Dicots Phylum: Angiosperms No: 23 Name: Picea pungens Class: n/a Phylum: Conifers No: 19 Name: Lycopodium obscarum Class: n/a Phylum: Club Mosses No: 10 Name: Polypodium virginianum Class: n/a Phylum: Ferns No: 37 Name: Polytrichum longissimum Class: n/a Phylum: Mosses

Phylum characteristics

Saguaro Cactus

Class Characteristics

Plant body leafy and upright.

Plant has leaves with parallel veins; plant embryo has single “seed leaf.”

Flat “liver-shaped” plant body

n/a

Plant has broad, triangular leaves; round spore cases containing spores found on the underside of leaves; root-like stems called “rhizomes” present.

Plant has leaves with netlike veins; plant embryo has two “seed leaves.”

Plant with broad shaped leaves; seeds produced within fruit; flowers present.

Plant has leaves with parallel veins; plant embryo has single “seed leaf.”

Plant with broad shaped leaves; seeds produced within fruit; flowers present.

Plant has leaves with netlike veins; plant embryo has two “seed leaves.”

Plant with needle-shaed leaves; seeds produced in cones; no fruits or floweres present.

n/a

Spore cases shaped like cones.

n/a

Plant has broad, triangular leaves; round spore cases containing spores found on the underside of leaves; root-like stems called “rhizomes” present.

n/a

Plant body “leafy” and upright

n/a


Kingdom Animalia (Eumetazoa) Body structure made up of many cells, each having a nucleus. Most with tissues and organs. Most are motile. Cannot make its own food – all feed on others Reproduces by either asexual or sexual means.

Taxonomy

Phylum characteristics

Liger

Class Characteristics

No: 21 Name: Homarus americanus Class: Decapods Phylum: Arthropods No: 22 Name: Onychorhynchus mykiss Class: Bony Fishes Phylum: Chordates

Body divided into two or three parts; with jointed appendages and a hard outer covering.

Large in size; has 10 legs.

Body not within a shell; has an internal stiffening rod or backbone made of cartilage or bone; a nerve or spinal cord; with gill slits sometime during life; most with paired appendages.

No: 41 Name: Panthera leo Class: Mammals Phylum: Chordates

Body not within a shell; has an internal stiffening rod or backbone made of cartilage or bone; a nerve or spinal cord; with gill slits sometime during life; most with paired appendages.

No: 9 Name: Alces alces Class: Mammal Phylum: Chordates

Body not within a shell; has an internal stiffening rod or backbone made of cartilage or bone; a nerve or spinal cord; with gill slits sometime during life; most with paired appendages.

No: 38 Name: Alligator mississippiensis Class: Reptiles Phylum: Chordates

Body not within a shell; has an internal stiffening rod or backbone made of cartilage or bone; a nerve or spinal cord; with gill slits sometime during life; most with paired appendages.

No: 18 Name: Scolopendra polymorpha Class: Centipedes Phylum: Arthropods No: 27 Name: Lycosa carolinesis Class: Spiders Phylum: Arthropods No: 46 Name: Hydra fusca Class: n/a Phylum: Cnidarians

Body divided into two or three parts; with joined appendages and a hard outer covering.

Body with an internal skeleton made of bone; body covered with flattened scales; breathes through covered gills; with paired fins. Body with an internal skeleton made of bone; body covered with hairs; teeth usually with four types; young born alive and feed on milk. Body with an internal skeleton made of bone; body covered with hairs; teeth usually with four types; young born alive and feed on milk. Body with an internal skeleton made of bone; body covered in dry, scaly skin; breathes through internal sacs or lungs; has leathery-feeling eggs. Flattened body; one pair of legs per body part.

Body divided into two or three parts; with joined appendages and a hard outer covering.

Body with stinging tentacles at one end.

Lives on land; simple eyes; breathes air through tiny tubes. n/a


No: 5 Name: Cyclops bicuspidatus Class: Copepods Phylum: Arthropods No: 28 Name: Daphnia magna Class: Branchipods Phylum: Arthropods No: 1 Name: Carcharodon carcharias Class: Cartilaginous Fishes Phylum: Chordates No: 31 Name: Philodina roseoia Class: n/a Phylum: Rotifer No: 29 Name: Dugesia tigrina Class: Turbellarians Phylum: Flatworms No: 32 Name: Petromyzon marinus Class: Jawless Fishes Phylum: Chordates No: 35 Name: Falco peregrinus Class: Birds Phylum: Chordates

Body divided into two or three parts; with joined appendages and a hard outer covering.

Very small in size; one pair of long out-stretched antennae; bowling pin body shape.

Body divided into two or three parts; with joined appendages and a hard outer covering.

Very small in size; one of the two pairs of antennae very small; bird-like shape; flattened leaf-like legs. Body with an internal skeleton made of cartilage; with jaws outside gill slits and paired fins.

No: 12 Name: Romalea guttata Class: Insects Phylum: Arthropods No: 6 Name: Spongilla lacustris Class: n/a Phylum: Sponges No: 56 Name: Asterias vulagaris Class: Sea Stars Phylum: Echinoderms No: 8 Name: Rana pipiens Class: Amphibians Phylum: Chordates

Body divided into two or three parts; with joined appendages and a hard outer covering.

Body not within a shell; has an internal stiffening rod or backbone made of cartilage or bone; a nerve or spinal cord; with gill slits sometime during life; most with paired appendages. Body with characteristic “wheel organ� made up of two discs of rotating cilia in the head; either with or without a shell. Smallest of animals.

n/a

Body worm-like in appearance; flat.

Not a parasite; no parts or segments

Body not within a shell; has an internal stiffening rod or backbone made of cartilage or bone; a nerve or spinal cord; with gill slits sometime during life; most with paired appendages. Body not within a shell; has an internal stiffening rod or backbone made of cartilage or bone; a nerve or spinal cord; with gill slits sometime during life; most with paired appendages.

Body with an internal skeleton made of cartilage; without jaws or paired appendages, with outside gill slits. Body with internal skeleton made of bone; body covered with feathers; no teeth; forelimbs modified as wings; hard-shelled eggs. Three pairs of legs on the middle body part; one or two pairs of wings.

Body without organized form; no tissues or organs.

n/a

Body covered with projecting spines; five projecting arms joined at the base; moves about by tube feet.

Star-shaped; usually with five broad arms joined at the bases.

Body not within a shell; has an internal stiffening rod or backbone made of cartilage or bone; a nerve or spinal cord; with gill slits sometime during life; most with paired appendages.

Body with an internal skeleton made of bone; body covered in smooth skin; breathes through both skin and lungs; eggs laid in clusters; most with two pairs of wings.


No: 30 Name: Euarctos americanus Class: Mammals Phylum: Chordates

Body not within a shell; has an internal stiffening rod or backbone made of cartilage or bone; a nerve or spinal cord; with gill slits sometime during life; most with paired appendages.

No: 3 Name: Heterorhabditis morelatus Class: n/a Phylum: Roundworm No: 14 Name: Lumbricus terrestris Class: n/a Phylum: Annelid No: 39 Name: Argonauta pacifica Class: Octopitsa Tsa id Phylum: Mollusks No: 42 Name: Helx pomacen Class: Snails and Slugs Phylum: Mollusks

Body worm-like, not segmented; transparent with tapered ends; some are parasites.

Body divided into many similar sections; no jointed appendages. Body has a soft outer covering; worm-like in appearance.

Body with an internal skeleton made of bone; body covered with hairs; teeth usually with four types; young born alive and feed on milk. n/a

n/a

Body with either an internal or external shell; some with tentacles.

Internal shell; tentacles on head

Body with either an internal or external shell; some with tentacles.

Shell, if present, coiled; head distinct


Carolus Linnaeus


I. Title: Natural Selection II. Purpose: To determine how natural selection acts on the color and size of a moth. III. Materials: 1) an environmental tray with a dark interior 2) an environmental tray with a light interior 3) one set of moths with nine varying intensities 4) one set of squares with different sizes IV. Procedures: 1) Select five moths three times, each time using a different-colored tray. 2) Keep a tally. 3) Select five squares, three times, each time using a different-colored tray. 4) Keep a tally. V. Data:

A) The Selection of Varying Intensities of Moths Color

White

Gray

Black

# of Moths Selected Class Count

1

3

1

0

3

1

2

0

4

25

59

16

14

26

9

7

2 7

41

B) The Selection of Different Sized Squares Size

½”

1”

1 ¼”

2

¾ ” 0

# of Each Square Size Selected Class Count

1 ¾” 4

2

0

1 ½” 0

6

32

1

10 0

1

2

53

40

3

VI. Analyze & Conclude: 1) If the respective rows of colored moths or different sized squares are arranged in single file from white to black or small to large, there is about an equal number of objects on either side of the middle object. 2) Looking at the class data for which colored moths were selected, the class selected out more lighter-colored moths than dark-colored moths. 3) I would explain the class results by the observation that the lighter colored moths stood out against the dark-colored background; not surprisingly, they were picked more frequently


4) Looking at the class data for which different sized squares were selected, the class selected out more smaller-sized squares than larger-sized squares. 5) I would explain the class results by the observation that the smaller squares were easier to pick up, and due to experimental error, smaller squares were more numerous than larger squares. 6) If most of the trees in a forest of over 100 years ago had bark that was light in color, darker-colored moths would be eaten more frequently by birds because they would have stood out against the bark more than lighter-colored moths. 7) If the uneaten moths mated, they would produce more and more lightercolored offspring over time. 8) If after a number of years, smoke began to settle on the white tree trunks because a nearby city became industrialized, the color of the tree trunks would darken. 9) Whiter-colored moths would now be eaten more frequently by birds because they would stand out against the dark-colored bark, while the darkercolored moths would blend in and survive. 10) If the uneaten moths mated, they would tend to produce more and more dark-colored moths. 11) If the trees became darker and darker and the moths continued to mate as the years continued, I think that in time, nearly the entire population of moths would be composed of darker-colored moths. 12) The change in the color of the bark of the trees (the environment) caused the moths to evolve from one color to another. 13) Any favorable phenotype will increase an organism’s chances for survival. 14) According to Darwin nature was selecting favorable traits. 15) According to Darwin’s theory, the short-necked giraffes died off because they could not eat of the tall trees. However, the long-necked giraffes could eat of them, and therefore they were able to survive and pass on their genes to their offspring. Thus natural selection gave the giraffe its long neck. 16) In summary, according to Darwin, an individual fit for its environment survives. 17) The case of the peppered moth is an example of microevolution because the moth became specialized, but did not radically change into an entirely different organism. Nevertheless, if these changes occur on a small scale such as this, would they not work on a grand scale --- macroevolution?


The Clam Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Mollusca Class: Bivalvia Genus: Mya Species: arenaria


I.

Purpose: The purpose is to examine the clam internally and externally by dissection.

II.

Materials: 1) Dissection Tray 2) Clam 3) Scalpel 4) Dissecting Needle 5) Scissor 6) Forceps 7) Dissecting Probe


III.

Methods: A. External Upon examining the external anatomy of the shell, the dissector first noticed the smooth ridges of the shell and the crack near its uttermost edges on the ventral side. Another attribute the dissector noticed on the exterior of the clam was the concentric growth lines which resembled the rings of growth on tree trunks. The dissector observed a color gradient of whiteness near the umbo which gradually became brown nearing the ventral side. Next the dissector examined the thin hinge ligaments which held together the two valves. B. Internal Before being able to examine the internal anatomy of the clam, the dissector, with a firm but delicate thrust, pried open the clam’s two valves, tearing through the posterior and anterior adductor muscles to reveal the mantle’s thin, pink tissue. The dissector next proceeded to remove the mantle, followed by the thin, lined gills. The dissector could now see clearly the intricately composed visceral mass and protruding foot. The dissector removed the entire visceral mass from its attached valve for further dissection; a thin, transparent, and membranous tissue became immediately visible on the interior of the valve. The dissector continued, and opened the visceral mass to reveal green digestive glands, tan and mushy gonads, and an abundance of tubular structures. Finally, the dissector observed the tubular, circularly-lined incurrent and excurrent siphons which allow for the exchange of materials into and out of the clam.


IV.

Observations: A. External Anatomy of a Clam


B. Internal Anatomy of a Clam


V.

Conclusions: 1) Why are clams called bivalves? Clams are called bivalves because they have two valves. 2) What is the function of the mantle? The function of the mantle is to cover the internal organs of the visceral mass, to line the interior of the shell, and to secrete the nacre (which makes the shell). 3) Describe the path of water through a clam. First, cilia on the gills, mantle and visceral mass push water through the incurrent siphon into the mantle cavity. Water (carrying food and other materials to be filtered) passes through small openings called ostia on the lamellae of the gills into the gill chambers. From there, water moves upwards by tubes to the cloacal chamber. Finally the water is expelled through the excurrent siphon. 4) Describe the filter-feeding process of a clam. As water, having entered the clam via the incurrent siphon, passes through the gills, food particles and other materials become trapped in the mucus that lines the surface of the gills. Food-containing mucus is moved to the labial palps. Here, indigestible material is separated from digestible material. Food into the mouth, while rejected material is transported to the mantle edge for expulsion. 5) Identify and describe the role of digestive organs in a clam. The role of digestive organs in a clam is to efficiently extract nutrients from obtained food to produce energy for the clam. 6) Describe how clams reproduce. Some clams are hermaphrodites, while others have distinct sexes. Regardless, gonad(s) are embedded in the upper portion of the foot. Eggs are lodged in the gills and sperm is released into the surrounding waters via the excurrent siphon. Water carrying sperm passes through the gills and fertilizes the eggs. The embryos develop in the gills until they are able to survive on their own. 7) Describe the nervous system of the clam The central nervous system of the clam is the ganglia, each pair of which is a source of nerve fibers which lead to adjacent organs. Statocysts, pairs of small sense organs, detect changes in equilibrium, and are located posterior to the pedal ganglions. 8) Describe how a clam uses its foot to move. In response to its environment the foot extends, expands, and contracts to move the clam.


9) Describe the development of a freshwater clam. The fertilized egg of a freshwater clam first develops within the gills of its mother and enters a larval stage, during which it is known as a glochidium. When the glochidium reaches a particular size it is expelled by the parent into the surrounding waters. Here the glochidium either sinks to the bottom or becomes suspended in water. Glochidia in either case attach by clamping their valves to superficial tissue on a passing-by fish. If the glochidium does not attach to a host within a few days of leaving their parents, it dies. Tissues of the fish it attaches to grow around the glochidium, and during this encystment the glochidium undergoes marked changes and the adult organs are formed. After 10 to 30 days the young clam breaks free of its host, falls to the bottom and begins the juvenile phase. This phase lasts for one to eight years until the clam becomes sexually mature. 10) Summarize your dissection experience of the clam. The experience of dissecting an organism was not a first for the dissector; however, the clam was not a specimen dissected previously. Despite its repugnant smell and small size, dissecting the clam proved to be a delightful experience. The dissector furthermore achieved a more well-rounded understanding of mollusks, particularly clams; this is a feat which could not have been achieved without this dissection. The dissector enjoyed looking at the simple yet complex design of the gills underneath a microscope. The initial opening of the clam also brought much delight. All in all, this dissection experience has proven to be a more than beneficial exploration of the world of mollusks.


The Earthworm Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Annelida Class: Oligochaeta Genus: Lumbricus Species: terrestris


I.

Purpose: The purpose is to examine the earthworm internally and externally by ‌‌...dissection.

II.

Materials: 1) Dissection Tray 2) Earthworm 3) Dissecting Needle 4) Dissecting Probe 5) Scissors 6) Pins 7) Forceps 8) Scalpel


III.

Methods: C. External Anatomy With a plastic ruler, the dissector first measured the earthworm to be 28.5 cm. Upon examining the external anatomy of the earthworm, the dissector first noticed the repeating segments which were about 150 in number. Each segment had a smooth texture individually; however, the overall feel of the earthworm was bumpy, due to the linking of these many segments. The dissector further observed that the segments gradually both became lighter in color as they progressed from the anterior to the posterior end, and also were lighter on the ventral side than on the dorsal side. On the ventral surface, the dissector felt the bristly setae and distinguished the small sperm ducts in the anterior portion of the earthworm. On the dorsal surface, despite finding no setae, the dissector distinguished the dorsal blood vessel running along the length of the earthworm. Next, the dissector inserted his dissecting probe into the mouth to see the protruding upper lip, and conducted similar procedures to view the anus. The pinkish, smooth band termed the clitellum was conspicuous to the dissector, closer to the anterior end of the earthworm than the posterior. From segments near the clitellum, he peeled away portions of smooth, membranous cuticle, which lined the uttermost surface of the earthworm. Having done these things, the dissector proceeded to pin the worm down at both ends, dorsal side up, in order to begin a dissection of the worm. D. Internal Anatomy In order to examine the internal anatomy of the earthworm, the dissector made a shallow, dorsal cut 3 segments posterior to the clitellum, towards the head, pulling apart the resistant septae, which anchored the internal organs to the skin. The dissector then pinned the skin on both sides to the dissection tray to expose the internal organs. Beginning his observations at the utmost anterior end and moving posterior, the dissector first observed the cerebral ganglion. He then proceeded to see the fleshy pharynx which led to the esophagus. The dissector next observed the large white seminal vesicles and tiny seminal receptacles which were beside the esophagus. Immediately, he then caught notice of the five aortic arches on the ventral side of the worm which resembled black sausages. The dissector further observed that the esophagus led to the soft-felt crop, and from there to the firm, hard gizzard. He noticed that the gizzard was smaller in size than the crop, thus hypothesizing that this was a result of the function of the crop to store food. Following the gizzard, the dissector took notice of the stomach, leading into the intestine, which spanned the length of the worm. Cutting open the intestine, the dissector discovered organic material, namely dirt. As a concluding internal observation of the earthworm, the dissector found the white ventral nerve cord and the ventral blood vessel running underneath the internal organs and intestine.


IV.

Observations: C. External Anatomy of an Earthworm


D. Internal Anatomy of an Earthworm


V. Conclusions: 1) List the characteristics shared by all annelids. Characteristics shared by all annelids are a body divided into segments or metameres know as somites, well developed cephalization (sense organs concentrated at the anterior or “head” end), an elongate body, and a closed circulatory system with hemoglobin and amebocytes. 2) What is the function of the setae? The function of the setae is to provide traction for locomotion. 3) What is another name for the body segments of an earthworm? Another name for the body segments of an earthworm is “metameres.” 4) What is the function of the clitellum? The clitellum functions as the attachment location for the exchange of sperm in sexual reproduction, it produces mucus for copulation, and it also secretes the cocoon into which eggs are deposited. 5) How many hearts does an earthworm have? An earthworm has five pairs of “hearts” or aortic arches. 6) Describe the process of digestion in an earthworm. First, food is sucked into the mouth. After proceeding down the pharynx, the food then passes through a tube called the esophagus, and is deposited into the crop, the temporary storage area. From the crop the food passes on to the gizzard where it is ground and mashed, releasing and breaking up organic matter. The food then proceeds to the lengthy intestine, where the digested nutrients are absorbed by the blood. Typhlosole, an infolding of the intestinal wall, aids in this process of absorption by making more surface area available. The undigested material is expelled from the earthworm’s body through the anus. 7) What is the function of the typhlosole? The function of the typhlosole is to increase surface area of the intestine available for the digestion and absorption of food, which thus increases the efficiency of the processes. 8) What is the term given for the slowing down of an earthworm’s body ......functions? The term given for the slowing down of an earthworm’s body functions is diapause.


9) Describe between the different families of class Oligochaeta. Oligochaetes of the family “Aeolosomatidae” are microscopic, live exclusively in fresh water, reproduce asexually, and feed on algae. The members of the family “Tubificidae” contain the tubifex worms (or “bloodworms”) which live on the muddy bottoms of freshwater ponds or in streams, occur in large clumps, and have cranial ends which they wave back and forth to collect floating detritus. The family “Enchytraeidae” includes both aquatic and terrestrial species. They are whitish in appearance and are up to 25 millimeters long. 10) Summarize your dissection experiences (in one paragraph). Although the dissector’s experience of dissecting an earthworm was not a new one, this second time doing it proved to be much more beneficial than the first due to an increased understanding of the internal processes of the earthworm. The earthworm was in many ways relatively simple. However this simplicity gives it extraordinary beauty. The slimy skin proved to be a familiar feel to the dissector’s vivid memories of bug hunting in early childhood. The dissector also appreciated that the earthworm did not smell so pungently as the previously dissected clam. Nevertheless, dissection is always a pleasure to the dissector because it brings the abstract concepts of the internal workings of biology, in particular regarding the earthworm, into a concrete flesh and blood (though dead) experience, thus distinguishing biology from the other theoretical sciences.


The Crayfish Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Crustacea Genus: Cambarus Species: sp.


V.

Purpose: The purpose is to examine the crayfish internally and externally by ……...dissection.

VI.

Materials: 1) Dissection Tray 2) Crayfish 3) Scissors 4) Dissecting Probe 5) Dissecting Needle 6) Forceps


VII.

Methods: E. External To begin the examination of the external anatomy of the crayfish, the dissector identified the specimen to be male, indicated by the large pair of uttermost anterior swimmerets found in on the dorsal side of the crayfish. The specimen measured 12 centimeters from the rostrum to the uropod, and displayed impressive 10 centimeter chelipeds. In color, the crayfish was red-violet at its cephalothorax; the dissector also found this color present in the claws and jointed legs, which were attached to the body segments. The dissector observed that the first pair of walking legs, on which were found sensory hairs, formed small claws, which he pried open with no significant difficulty. On the ventral side, the dissector noted the ventral blood vessel, running along the length of the crayfish. On the dorsal side, moving posterior to anterior, the dissector located the telson on the 7th abdominal segment with the uropods attached to both sides of it. Seven segments towards the anterior of the specimen, the dissector encountered the bumpy carapace, noting the line of fusion between the head and the thorax known as the cervical groove. By slightly prying open the carapace, the dissector was able to catch a dorsal view of the feathery gills, connected to the legs. Using his forceps, the dissector removed the swimmerets, walking legs, and clawed chelipeds, the latter two of which emerged from segments underneath the carapace. Furhermore, he organized the appendages into piles. Having reached the head, the dissector removed the glossy pair of compound eyes, followed by the long antennae and shorter antennules. The dissector then proceeded to remove the many-haired, claw-looking, first pair of maxillipeds on the dorsal side. He also removed both pairs of feathery maxillae. With difficulty and wiggling, the dissector at last uprooted the mandibles which were orangish in color. F. Internal In order to begin to examine the internal anatomy of the crayfish, the dissector inserted the scissors, making a shallow, window cut around the entire dorsal side of the crayfish, from the head to the anus. Having completed this task, the dissector pulled out the cut exoskeleton with the forceps. An immediate glance into the newly unveiled interior of the specimen found the black cardiac stomach, in the area under the carapace, as its target. Next to it, the digestive glands spilled out yellow matter upon being cut. The dissector further identified, the mushy gonads, which contained the testes. Upon removing the gills, the dissector found the anteriorly-located green glands, preceded by the ear-looking bladder in location to the immediately dorsal brain, which was connected to the ventral nerve cord by strings of nerves. By removing these internal organs, the dissector was able to identify the ventral blood vessel, which spanned the body length of the crayfish. In the abdominal region, the crayfish’s innards were composed mainly of powerful muscles, in the middle of


which ran the intestine, leading from the digestive gland to the anus. At this point, the dissector realized that the heart was nowhere to be found in the interior. A quick look through the removed segments and carapace revealed that it was most likely attached to the carapace during removal. The heart was later identified by the dissector from among the other organs strewn about the dissecting tray.


VIII.

Observations: E. External Anatomy of a Crayfish


F. Internal Anatomy of a Crayfish


V. Conclusions: 2) Identify at least four animals that belong to subphylum Crustacea. Four animals that belong to subphylum Crustacea are crabs, crayfish, lobsters, and shrimp. 3) Identify at least three distinguishing characteristics of subphylum Crustacea. Distinguishing characteristics of crustaceans include two pairs of branched antennae, a pair of maxillae and mandibles, gills, and a body covered by a chitinous exoskeleton strengthened with calcium salts. 4) What characteristics do annelids share with arthropods? Both annelids and arthropods are metameric (segmented bodies), exhibit protostome development, and have a brain located cranially and dorsally followed by a ventral nerve cord with a ganglionic swelling in each segment. Also, primitive arthropods show paired appendages for each segment which can be compared with the paired parapodia (or setae in the earthworm) of each metamere in the annelids. 5) What distinguishing characteristics do crustaceans have from annelids? Distinguishing characteristics in crustaceans which are not shared by annelids include hard protective body coverings called exoskeletons. Crustaceans also have a complex series of specialized muscles to control the limbs and tail in contrast to the simple body musculature of annelids. The circulatory system also is a point of dissimilarity as a crustacean’s is open while an annelid’s is closed. Additionally, annelids have five hearts, while arthropods have evolved theirs into a single distinct dorsal heart. 6) Identify and describe the functions of all the mouthparts found in a crayfish. The mouthparts found in the crayfish are multiple, but critical for sense and feeding. The two pairs of maxillae originate from the head, and manipulate food and draw water currents over gills. The mandibles also originate from the head, and are used for chewing food. The three sets of maxillipeds, which arise from the thorax in the region nearest the mouth, function in touch, taste, and the manipulation of food. 6) Identify the five major arteries found in a crayfish. What organs are ......supplied by these arteries? The five major arteries are the Ophthalmic artery which supplies the head and esophagus, the Antennary artery which supplies the green gland, the Dorsal Abdominal artery which supplies the intestine and tail muscles, the Hepatic artery which supplies the hepatopancreas, and the Sternal artery which supplies the leg and tail muscles.


7) Identify the habitats of crayfish. Some habitats of crayfish are freshwater ponds, lakes, and streams around the world. They typically burrow in stream banks; the burrows often have entrances that open to the ground surface. 8) Identify the four genera of crayfish. The four genera of crayfish are Procambus, Orconectes, Cambarus, and Astacus. 9) What do crayfish eat? The crayfish’s diet consists of snails, tadpoles, insects, aquatic and terrestrial plants, and decaying organic matter. 10) Describe your dissection experience (in one paragraph). Like the earthworm, the crayfish was not a new specimen for the dissector. The dissector again however learned more the second time then the first. The crayfish allowed for useful experience in the art of dissecting. Because of the delicate nature of the crayfish’s exoskeleton and in order to find the dorsal heart, the dissector had to take care not to exert too much pressure when pulling out the mandibles and removing the exoskeleton. This careful handling is good preparation for the cadaver we will dissect next quarter. Utmost care must be taken when dissecting the human brain. Setting aside the humerus for the moment (no pun intended), the dissector truly did enjoy dissecting the crayfish as a learning experience with regard to arthropods---both inside and out. Despite rumors of their notorious smell, the dissector looks forward to dissecting an echinoderm in the near future.


The Starfish Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Echinodermata Class: Asteroidea Genus: Asterias Species: sp.


IX.

Purpose: The purpose is to examine the starfish internally and externally by ‌‌...dissection.

X.

Materials: 1) Dissection Tray 2) Starfish 3) Scissors 4) Dissecting Probe 5) Dissecting Needle 6) Forceps


XI.

Observations: G. Anatomy of a Starfish


V. Conclusions: 7) In what way are starfish unique to the other invertebrates that you have studied so far? Star fish are unique due to the fact that they exhibit deuterostome development unlike the past invertebrates that we have studied which all displayed protostome development. 8) What are the major differences between protostomes and deuterostomes? Protostomes have complete segmentation, determinate embryonic cleavage, brains above their guts with nerve cords below their guts, no mesodermal skeletons, and their blastopores become mouths. In contrast, deuterostomes have incomplete segmentation, indeterminate embryonic cleavage, both their brains and nerve cords above their guts, mesodermal skeletons often present, and their blastopores become anuses. 9) Where do all Echinoderms live? All Echinoderms live in saltwater. 10) Identify five classes of Echinoderms. Five classes of Echinoderms are Crinoidea, Ophiuroidea, Echinoidea, Holothuroidea, and Asteroidea. 11) How many species of starfish are there? There are about 1,700 species of starfish. 12) Identify at least four external features of a starfish. Four external features of a starfish are a large button-like madreporite, an inconspicuous anus, numberous tube feet, and a small eyespot which is located at the end of each arm. 13) Describe the process of water movement through a starfish’s water vascular system. First, water enters the system through the madreporite on the aboral surface. Next, it passes down the stone canal and then into the ring canal which encircles the mouth. On the inner edge of the radial canal there are nine sacs called Tiedemann’s bodies. These sacs produce the amoeboid cells that are found in the fluid of the water vascular system. From the ring canal, water passes into radial canals which extend into each arm. Ampullae are linked to the radial canals, which then contract to force water into the tube feet, extending and enabling it to attach to the substratum with its sucker. Muscles in the tube feet contract to force water back into the ampulla, thus shortening the foot. Eventually, water is excreted via the tube feet, skin gills, or anus, to be replaced by fresh water from the ocean.


14) Identify and describe the digestive organs of a starfish. The cardiac stomach is ejected through the mouth to engulf and digest its prey. The cardiac stomach, containing partially digested food is then brought back inside the body where food is moved to pyloric stomach. The pyloric stomach breaks down food with enzymes it receives from the large paired hepatic ceca (or digestive glands) though the hepatic duct. The hepatic ceca function as secretory glands to aid digestion. Further digestion occurs in the intestine. 15) Describe the skeleton of a starfish. The skeleton of the starfish is an endoskeleton composed of a network of ossicles. The largest ossicles, ambulacral ossicles, support the ambulacral groove and provide attachment for the tube feet. The skeleton is hard, but flexible, and facilitates the feeding process of starfish. 16) Summarize your dissection experience (in one paragraph) The dissector enjoyed the dissection of a starfish perhaps the most out of the previous ones because he did not have to compose a methods portion of the lab. The smell that emitted from the starfish was particularly putrid, but well worth plugging one’s nose to observe. The dissector found the intricate interweaving of the endoskeleton quite beautiful, as well as the orderly symmetry displayed in each ray of the starfish. The dissector had a hard time initially finding the gonads as they were pulled out together with the digestive glands, but he found them eventually. A point of highlight in the dissection was distinguishing the gender of the starfish by observing the gonads under a microscope. A flagellum indicated the starfish was male. In the opinion of the dissector, the starfish was overall very worthwhile and quite worthy of the time invested in its exploration. The dissector now looks forward to moving up the animal kingdom and dissecting vertebrates in the near future.


Analysis: 1) All vertebrates are characterized by vertebrae that form a vertebral column, a cranium, and an endoskeleton of bone or cartilage. 2) Unlike members of class Chrondrichthyes, members of class Osteichthyes have skeletons of bone, swim bladders, opercula, and most reproduce externally. Unlike members of class Osteichthyes, members of class Chrondrichthyes have skeletons of cartilage, gill slits, placoid scales, and all have internal fertilization 3) The adaptations of hair, endothermy, nursing their young, specialized teeth, and a completely divided heart led to the success and divergence of mammals. 4) Reptiles and Birds share the most recent common ancestor.


The Perch Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Vertebrata Class: Osteichthyes Genus: Perca Species: flavescens


I.

Purpose: The purpose is to examine the perch internally and externally by ‌‌...dissection.

II.

Materials: 1) Dissection Tray 2) Perch 3) Scissors 4) Dissecting Probe 5) Dissecting Needle 6) Forceps


III.

Methods: A. External Anatomy Beginning observation of the external anatomy of the perch, the dissector first measured the specimen to be 18 centimeters of length. Next observing the color of the perch, the dissector noticed that the ventral side was lighter, and the dorsal side darker. The head region in particular, the dissector noted to be of a very dark shade. Proceeding to feel the surface of the perch, the dissector felt the scales of the fish, which felt smooth when stroking towards the posterior end and bristly when stroking towards the anterior end. These scales covered virtually all of the perch’s exterior like shingles on a roof. The dissector removed one of these scales and observed it under a microscope. The observed scale had many rings on it and retained a shape similar to a baseball mitt. Next, the dissector observed the mouth region of the fish, prying open its mouth closed shut by the maxilla (upper jaw) and mandible (lower jaw). In the mouth, the dissector observed the tongue and felt its tiny teeth. Then, the dissector took note of the nostrils which he poked with his dissecting probe. Turning the perch 180 degrees to ventral surface, the dissector located the isthmus, the fleshy throat region of the perch which separates the two gill chambers. The dissector next located the operculum, the flappy outer gill covering on the side of the perch near the eyes. Turning to the fins, the dissector observed the unpaired, spiny, dark anterior dorsal fin composed of hard spine and the smaller also unpaired posterior dorsal fin made up of soft rays. Slightly beneath these fins, the dissector located the lateral line which ran the length of the fish. The dissector next observed the large unpaired caudal fin composed of soft rays, and located at the utmost posterior end of the perch. On ventral surface of the perch, the dissector observed the unpaired anal fin composed of both hard spines and soft rays, and situated just posterior to the anus. Also on the ventral surface, the dissector observed the paired pelvic fin located anterior to the anus, and composed of both hard spines and soft rays. Dorsal to the pelvic fins and just posterior to the opercula, the dissector observed the paired pectoral fins, composed of soft rays. To conclude the external anatomy of the perch, the dissector observed the flappy anus situated on the ventral side of the fish anterior to the anal fin. B. Internal Anatomy In order to examine the internal anatomy of the perch, the dissector made a shallow, ventral cut through the anus towards the head and a ventral cut along the lateral line also towards the head to make a window cut. The dissector encountered some resistance cutting through the muscle near the lateral line. After removing the window-cut portion, the dissector noticed he had popped the buoyancy-controlling swim bladder near the backbone. Even closer to the backbone, the dissector observed


the kidney, an excretory organ. The dissector next took note of the large, soft liver which was to the left and a little below the soggy stomach which contained a dark paste of digested foods. The intestine, the dissector noted, was below the stomach and was also of a soggy texture. Above the stomach, the dissector observed the smooth, elongated gonads which he concluded to be testes because of their lesser size than the typical ovary. Anterior to the liver, the dissector pulled away the feathery gills, (including the gill arches and gill filaments) to reveal the small heart. Of the heart, the dissector distinguished the atrium which lay atop the ventricle. Moving dorsal from the heart, the dissector observed the brain by carefully made another window cut using his forceps between the eyes. The exposed brain presented five major sectors: the olfactory lobes comprised the most anterior part of the brain, followed by the cerebrum, optic tectum, cerebellum, and the medulla oblongata. Thus the dissector concluded the internal anatomy of the perch.


IV.

Observations: A. External Anatomy of a Perch


B. External Anatomy of a Perch


V. Conclusions: 1) Describe the teeth of the fish and explain how their structure is adaptive to their diet. The perch has tiny, backward-slanting teeth lining the interior of its jaws. They also lack large canines. Thus, their teeth are adapted to diet of small aquatic organisms, which typically shift from plankton to benthic invertebrates as they grow in size. 2) Describe the location of the nostrils and explain where they lead. The nostrils of the perch were located just anterior to the eye, in the head region. The nostrils lead to the olfactory bulbs at the brain, which intake the sense of smell. 3) Into what structure does the esophagus lead? The esophagus leads into the stomach. 4) Suggest a function of the spiny anterior dorsal fin. The spiny anterior dorsal fin helps keep the fish upright and moving in a straight line. 5) List all the fins and describe their location on the fish. Which are paired? Which fins contain spines? The fins on the perch are the anterior dorsal fin, which has spines, is unpaired, and is located on the utmost dorsal side; the posterior dorsal fin which has rays, is unpaired, and is located just posterior to the anterior dorsal fin; the caudal fin which has rays, is unpaired, and is located at utmost posterior end; the anal fin which has both spines and rays, is unpaired, and is located just posterior to the anus; the pelvic fins which have both spines and rays, are paired, and are located anterior to anus; the pectoral fins which have rays, are unpaired, and are located dorsal to the pelvic fin and just posterior to the operculum. 6) Describe the scales on your fish. The tiny, thin, round scales on my fish overlapped like shingles on a roof. They all pointed toward the tail to minimize friction while the perch swims. Under a microscope at 100x magnification, circular rings were visible on the scales, resembling the rings on the trunk of a chopped-down tree. Individually, the scales looked the shape of tiny baseball mitts. 7) What takes place in the gills? Respiration is the primary event that takes place in the gills. During this process, water is taken into the mouth and pumped over the gills, where it flows across the gill filaments before exiting behind the operculum. Oxygen diffuses from the water into the bloodstream. The gills also serve as the site at which ammonia generated by metabolism diffuses from the


blood into the water passing over the gills to be removed from the body. Lastly, the gills regulate the concentration of ions in the body. 8) What is the function of the gill filaments? The function of the gill filaments is to provide the organism with a large surface area for gas exchange to occur efficiently. 9) Describe how circulation takes place in a fish. Circulation begins in a fish as deoxygenated blood flows from the body via veins into the sinus venosus, the first chamber of the heart. From there blood moves into the larger atrium. Contraction of the atrium speeds up the blood into the muscular ventricle, which in turn, contracts to give the blood the force that drives it through the circulatory system. The final chamber of the heart, the conus arteriosus, receives blood from the ventricle, and smoothes the flow of blood out of the heart into the arteries. Blood then passes through capillaries in the gills to receive oxygen and excrete ammonia. From there, blood circulates through the rest of the fish’s body, until it returns in a loop back to the heart, via the veins. Then the process repeats 10) Summarize your dissection experience in one paragraph. The dissector found the yellow perch to be a delightful dissection for manifold reasons. Firstly, the perch displayed a level of complexity unlike our previous dissections. This was indicated by the presence of many organs similar to us humans, such as a complex brain, a liver, pancreas, and a gall bladder. The dissector further enjoyed this dissection because it revealed the truth of what we are actually eating when we savor a mouthwatering fish filet. Despite the many positive elements of the dissection, the one negative was that many of the internal organs were hard to locate because of their near-uniform coloration. All in all, the dissection of yellow perch was nearly as enjoyable as its consumption. The dissector now looks forward to dissecting the fish’s relative, the frog.


The Frog Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Vertebrata Class: Amphibia Order: Anura Genus: Rana Species: pipiens


I.

Purpose: The purpose is to examine the frog internally and externally by ‌‌...dissection.

II.

Materials: 1) Dissecting Tray 2) Frog 3) Scalpel 4) Scissors 5) Forceps 6) Dissecting Needle 7) Dissecting Probe


III.

Methods: A. External Anatomy To begin the examination of the external anatomy of the frog, the dissector observed light coloration on the ventral surface, contrasted with darker coloration on the dorsal surface. The frog was spotted, green, and had smooth, wrinkled skin. Moving posteriorly from the anterior end, the dissector inserted his dissecting probe into the external nares, caudal to the lip. Just caudal to the external nares, the dissector located the specimen’s two tough, glassy, membranous eyes composed of the movable upper eyelid, the immovable lower eyelid, and the nictitating membrane. Proximal to both eyelids, the dissector identified the two tympanic membranes, used for hearing. The two laterally-located, unwebbed, forelimbs had four digits each. At the posterior end of the frog, the dissector examined the muscular hind limbs. The dissector estimated them to be three times as large as the forelimbs and slightly longer than the body. The hind limbs were further characterized by the webbing in between each of the five digits of unequal length. Just caudal to the attachment area of both hind limbs, the dissector identified the cloacal opening. Due to the presence of internal organs, the sides of the frog were squishy to the touch around the middle, but more firm near the anterior and far posterior end. Having concluded the observation of the immediately visible external features, the dissector broke the jaw of the frog, to reveal the fleshy tongue attached at the front of the mouth. Caudal to the tongue, the dissector identified the glottis, leading to the lungs, posterior to which was located the esophagus, leading to the stomach. Running his finger along the upper jaw, the dissector felt the tiny maxillary teeth, complemented by the pair of larger vomerine teeth in the upper middle portion of the jaw. On either side of the vomerine teeth were found the internal nares. Posterior to the vomerine teeth, the dissector identified the two retractor bulbi, which support the eyes during the movements of respiration. Since the specimen was female, no vocal sac openings could be found in the mouth of the frog. Thus, the dissector completed the external examination of the frog. B. Internal Anatomy In order to examine the internal anatomy of the frog, the dissector made a medial cut from the vent to the jaw, followed by various window cuts. This done, the dissector peeled away as much skin as possible, to show the muscles surrounding the entire frog. Next, the dissector made another medial cut through muscles on the ventral side, followed by window cuts, to expose the internal organs. The prominently large threelobed liver drew the dissector’s attention first. Upon removing the liver, the dissector turned his eyes to the anteriorly-located heart. Of it, the dark-colored left and right atria were visible, followed by the light-colored single ventricle. On either side of the heart, the large, red and blue, flappy lungs were positioned, jam-packed with capillaries. Turning now to digestive organs, the dissector identified the conspicuous


J-shaped stomach, the gall bladder green with bile, the long small intestine, lined with mesentery, and the shorter large intestine, which led to the cloaca for excretion out of the vent. By the large intestine, the dissector located the dark-colored spleen and the kidneys


IV.

Observations: A. External Anatomy of a Frog


B. External Anatomy of a Frog


V. Conclusions: 1) Name two different functions of the skin. Two functions of the skin are respiration and protection from environmental influences. 2) Name a function of the mucous glands. A function of the mucous glands is the secreting of mucus to keep the skin moist. 3) How many eyelids does a frog have? Frogs have three eyelids. 4) What is an adaptive value of the nictitating membrane? The adaptive value of the nictitating membrane is the frog’s ability to keep its eyes moist and protected while retaining its ability to see. 5) Name four structures that empty their discharges into the cloaca. Four structures that empty their discharges into the cloaca are the large intestine, kidney, ovary, and testes. 6) Name two ways that a frog’s forelimbs differ from their hindlimbs. The forelimbs and hindlimbs differ in a frog firstly by the fact that the forelimbs attach to the pectoral girdle and the hindlimbs to the pelvic girdle, and secondly, by the fact that the hindlimbs are much larger and more powerful than the forelimbs. 7) How is the tongue of a frog attached to its mouth? A frogs tongue is attached to its upper lip. 8) Where does the opening of the glottis lead? The opening of the glottis leads to the esophagus. 9) How many chambers are there in a frog’s heart? Name them. There are three chambers in the heart of a frog: the left atrium, the right atrium, and the ventricle. 10) Name the three arteries that branch from the truncus arteriosus. Where do they lead? Three arteries which branch from the truncus arteriosus are: the carotid arteries which lead to the brain, the aortic arteries which lead to the body, and the Pulmocutaneous arteries which lead to the lungs. 11) How many lobes make up the liver of a frog? Three lobes make up the liver of the frog. 12) Why is the gall bladder green? What is its main function? The gall bladder is green because of the green bile which it contains. Its main function is to store bile secreted by the liver when it is not needed. 13) What is the main function of mesentery? The main function of the mesentery is to hold the small intestine in place.


14) What system does the kidney belong to? What is its main function? The kidney belongs to the excretory system. Its main function is the filtration of blood from harmful toxins especially ammonia. 15) Describe your dissection experience (in two paragraphs) Although the dissection of a frog was not the dissector’s favorite dissection (the fish was the favorite) but it was by far the easiest one in which to observe the internal organs. Breaking the jaw of the frog was not a pleasant experience, nor feeling the digestive juices of the frog on one’s forehead, yet the dissection was perhaps the most profitable because of the conspicuity of the internal organs. The only organ the dissector was not able to locate with precision was the testes. All in all, the dissector thoroughly enjoyed this dissection as he did previous dissections and is disappointed yet relieved (lab-report wise) that this is our last dissection. Not unlike the previous dissector, the other dissector was greatly impressed by the frog dissection, and greatly enjoyed it. He found the frog’s body plan unmistakably similar to the human body, both in terms of type of organs, and their placement. The frog thus serves as a well-suited precursor to the human body this quarter. This dissector found the brain somewhat difficult to uncover in his specimen. However, he did get a clear picture of the brain from another frog, to identify the parts. Dissection is a very great privilege, for which the dissector is most grateful, especially when the latex gloves are used in the dissection. He hopes that this reeking, yet captivating dissection of the frog will prove beneficial in the upcoming study of the human body.


I. Title: What’s Your Pulse? II. Purpose: To determine how body positioning and physical activity affect your heart rate III. Materials: 1) body 2) pulse 3) stopwatch IV. Procedure: 1) Find the pulse in your wrist and count heart beats for 15 seconds. Multiply .........................this number by 4 to calculate your heart rate in beats/minute. Record your data. 2) Repeat Step 1 while standing and lying down. 3) Repeat Step 1 after a variety of physical activities. V. Data:

Body Positioning

Heart Rate per Minute

Seated

68

Standing Up

96

Lying Down

76

Physical Activity

Right After

After 1 Minute

Walk

92

88

Jog

94

104

Run

136

80

Knockout

80

76

3 on 3

84

132

VI. Conclusions: 1) Standing up had the fastest heart rate. This is because standing up involves more muscles that require more blood to maintain balance and resist gravity. For me, sitting had the lowest heart rate. This is perhaps due to the fact that the seated heart rate was taken after little to no movement. The reading for lying down, which would seem to cause the lowest hear rate from least muscle activity, was taken after movement. 2) The heart rate was fastest after running. This is because running at full speed involves many muscles working hard, requiring the heart to pump blood extra quickly. Interestingly, the heart rate taken after playing 3 on 3 was the slowest. This is perhaps due to the fact that I did not take the heart rate immediately after the exercise, but a minute or so after. Presumably walking would tend to be the slowest.


MEAL

FOOD

NUTRIENTS

Breakfast

Orange Juice Egg Toast Bacon

Vitamin C, Water, Carbohydrate Sugars , Thiamin, Potassium Vitamins A, B, and D, Protein, Saturated Fat, Cholesterol Carbohydrates, Proteins, Iron, Nictitate, Sodium Saturated Fat and other Lipids, Protein, Sodium,

Lunch

Skim Milk PB&J Sandwich Apple Oreo Cookie

Water, Calcium, Lipids, Sodium, Potassium, Carbohydrates, Vitamin D Lipids, Sodium, Carbohydrates, Protein, Fiber, Vitamin B3 Carbohydrates, Sugars, Vitamin C Lipids, Sodium, Carbohydrates, Protein, Iron

Dinner

Hamburger Lemonade French Fries Caesar Salad

Protein, Lipids, Sodium, Iron, Calcium, Selenium, Vitamin B12, Zinc Water, Carbohydrates, Vitamin C Lipids, Sodium, Carbohydrates, Protein, Calcium Lipids, Cholesterol, Sodium, Carbohydrates, Protein, Vitamin B3


Andrew Guernsey Mr. Snyder Biology I May 22, 2009 A Year in Biology Biology is the zenith of scientific study. No other field of science but biology studies life’s origins, characteristics, and evolution. From the complexities of the cell to the majesty of the animal kingdom, all biology leaves one in awe of the grandeur of creation and its providential Creator. Furthermore, the diversities of life encountered in this biology course even allow for a glimpse into the Trinitarian life. Beginning in the first quarter with cells, continuing in the second quarter with evolution and genetics, progressing in the third quarter through the animal kingdom, and lastly culminating with the human body, this year in biology has set me on a course to pursue future studies in the discipline. Most importantly, however, this biology course taught me all things necessary for an authentic, Catholic understanding of the life in the cosmos. Not unlike our own universe, the first quarter of biology began with a “big bang,� diving straight into an intercellular metropolis on the microscopic level. Herein, I learned what qualifications constitute life, and then how cells function. Studies of such structures as ribosomes, nuclei, cilia, and flagella, and such byzantine processes as mitosis and meiosis reveal more complexity in both plant and animal cells than I ever might have ever imagined. I also discovered how cells maintain equilibrium by such processes as osmosis, active transport, and passive transport. Despite all their complexity, cells are on a macroscopic level remarkably simple; they are the building blocks of all life. This showed me how the intricacies of the cell in all their simplicity are microcosmic of all biology, and the cosmos as a whole, in which simple structures compose larger bodies.


The second quarter of biology travelled through the genetic discoveries of Gregor Mendel and Charles Darwin’s revolutionary theory of evolution. The discoveries of Gregor Mendel revealed how genotypes are passed on from parent to offspring with predictable probabilities for different phenotypes. Darwin’s theory of evolution complemented Mendel with its law that only the fittest organisms survive to pass on their genotypes. The discussion that ensued from Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection I found to be the most enthralling topic of the year. The theory of evolution, which in many ways constitutes the heart of biology, also raised questions concerning our understanding of God interaction with creation. The “challenges” to the theory of evolution proposed by Creationist and Intelligent Design advocates proved to be nothing more than God of the Gaps fallacies that substitute in God whenever they feel science cannot presently explain a phenomenon. The realization of this was the result of much philosophical argumentation that flowed through into an essay, and continued even into the fourth quarter. Thus Darwin’s theory of evolution led me to embrace a greater Catholic understanding of how God loves, participates, and sustains the cosmos, but does not intervene to bridge gaps. However, the quarter was not limited to genetics and evolution. It also involved studies in RNA and DNA synthesis, and how mRNA from the nucleus directs the processes of protein transcription and translation. The quarter ended with a study of taxonomy, or classification, of animals. After identifying dozens of critter cards with animals, I will never again forget that “Kings Play Chess On Fine Green Silk.” The third quarter was by all means a most exciting experience. In particular, the dissection of various animals provided a most uncommon occasion to engage in the flesh what is normally learned on pages of textbooks. Moving up the phylogenetic tree from simple to complex, the quarter began with the dissection of the clam. I had only but realized it when we


had advanced from the clam to the earthworm, crayfish, starfish, perch, and finally the frog. The frog proved to be the perfect precursor to the human body, for its similar body plan and internal organs included the brain, heart, liver, gall bladder, and kidneys. Aside from dissection, I also learned how members of the animal kingdom are organized by evolutionary relationships on the phylogenetic tree. We continued this study into the early fourth quarter by discovering similarities and differences within each of the orders of Class Mammalia, the class containing human beings. Like the biology itself, this year culminated in a fourth quarter study of the human body. The human body can be summarized in one word: “wonderful.� A human body is no mere mass of cells, but a collection of complex systems interdependently organized such that processes like breathing, circulation, and digestion can occur. The muscular system, for example, cannot function without energy from digestion, oxygen from breathing and circulation, and nervous impulses from the brain to stimulate movement. So also the circulatory system cannot move blood from the heart to the entire body without the muscular system to pump, the nervous system to stimulate the pumping, the veins and arteries to carry blood, the digestive system to supply energy, or the lungs to receive oxygen from. Most fascinatingly, the fourth quarter’s study of human biology has provided me with understanding of how my own internal mechanisms work to carry out the complex functions that we often take for granted. Such knowledge of how the body works is essential to becoming a more complete human being. In fact, the human body is so important that Leonardo da Vinci once described it as a microcosm of the entire cosmos: By the ancients man has been called the world in miniature; and certainly this name is well bestowed, because, inasmuch as man is composed of earth, water, air and fire, his body resembles that of the earth; and as man has in him bones the supports and framework of his flesh, the world has its rocks the supports of the earth; as man has in him a pool of blood in which the lungs rise and fall in breathing, so the body of the earth has its ocean tide which likewise rises and falls every six hours, as if the world breathed; as in that pool of blood veins have their origin, which ramify all over the human body, so


likewise the ocean sea fills the body of the earth with infinite springs of water. The body of the earth lacks sinews and this is, because the sinews are made expressly for movements and, the world being perpetually stable, no movement takes place, and no movement taking place, muscles are not necessary.–But in all other points they are much alike.1

To his own benefit, Leonardo da Vinci was wrong about the world lacking movement; this further completes his analogy with the muscular system. Indeed, every body structure from the eye to hand, to the nose, to the tongue, contributes to the fullness of the human person. Being made in imago Dei, the human body most truly reflects the goodness, love, and transcendence of the Creator God. My freshman year of biology has taught me more than I might have ever expected. Topics such as evolution, genetics, and the human body have all contributed to my understanding of life in the cosmos, and where the human person fits into the picture. A classical study of biology overlaps into lofty philosophical concepts because of life’s dependence upon metaphysical concepts like the soul, and God’s distinct, yet intimate relationship with all creation to account for the life that we see today. On a personal level, this year’s studies have even made me to consider a possible career in evolutionary biology. All things considered, this year’s course in biology has been an indispensable time of scientific, philosophical, and theological growth that has resulted in progressive advancement in the liberal arts, all in accordance with the Donahue Academy’s mission “to produce well-rounded individuals rooted in the truths of the Catholic faith and the educational scholarship needed to prosper in the worldwide community.”2

1 2

Leonardo da Vinci, from the Codex Leicester in: The Notebooks of Leonardo Da Vinci, vol. ii, p. 179 Rhodora J. Donahue Academy Mission Statement at http://donahueacademy.org/mission/


Andrew Guernsey's Biology Portfolio 2008-2009