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GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE ELEPHANT AND WALWORTH NEIGHBOURHOOD FORUM


CONTENTS

PROJECT DETAILS

1 Introduction 3 2 Green Links 5 Introduction5 Analysis6 Design10 3 Cross Roads 20 Introduction20 Analysis  22 Designs  25 4 Low Line 28 Introduction  28 Typologies29 Constraints  30 Design Approaches  37 Design Visualisation  43 Appendix A 47 Original Project Brief  48 Final Project Brief  48 Appendix B 49 Green Links Precedents  50 Appendix C 52 Ci TFL proposals  53 Cii Development Proposals  55 Appendix D 62 Di Benefits  62 Dii Typologies  64 Diii Existing Developments  74 References  76

Course Code: BENVGPLD - From Strategic Vision to Urban Plan Year: Term 2 2014/2015 Module coordinator: Elena Besussi Tutors: Amparo Vento, Richard Lee (Just Space) Word Count*: 4478 *(Excluding legends, references, chapter heading etc.)

GREEN LINKS: ELEPHANT AND WALWORTH NEIGHBOURHOOD FORUM

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1 INTRODUCTION

This report has been produced by Planning MSc students at UCL for the Elephant and Walworth Neighbourhood Forum to develop an evidence base and design ideas to improve connectivity and green infrastructure within their current proposed plan boundary. Guidance provided by the Neighbourhood Forum members during three meetings helped to shape the brief. The Neighbourhood Forum requested support in developing the following three projects (full briefs are in Appendix A):

1. TAKE THE LOW LINE

Transform the unused space alongside the existing railway viaduct into a vibrant space with high quality green environment. Support the development of SME business and retail uses in the arches.

2. NEW KENT ROAD

1

Transform the start of the New Kent Road to feel more like a “busy high street� than a traffic corridor, with slowed traffic and enhanced public realm to incorporate three pedestrian / cyclist crossings.

3. GREEN LINKS

Create safer streets, which prioritise pedestrians over cars, between important green spaces in the neighbourhood forum area.

http://elephantneighbourhoodforum.org 3


PROJECT SCOPE 1:12,000 (A3) Waterloo

Neighbourhood Forum Boundary

Borough

N

0m

100

200

500

BOROUGH

Green Links "Linking East to West"

BERMONDSEY

Cross Roads "New Kent Road"

Lameth Nth

Arch-Way "Take the Low Line"

Elephant & Castle

LONDON CONTEXT, NTS

NEWINGTON WALWORTH

9

4 5

6

Kennington

1

7 3

8

KENNINGTON

2

kennington Park

Burgess Park

Oval

CAMBERWELL 1 CITY OF LONDON 2 PARLIAMENT 3 BUCKINGHAM PALACE

4 REGENTS PARK 5 UCL 6 COVENT GARDEN

7 WATERLOO 8 LONDON BRIDGE 9 KINGS CROSS

GREEN LINKS: ELEPHANT AND WALWORTH NEIGHBOURHOOD FORUM

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INTRODUCTION

2 GREEN LINKS

THE VISION The ‘Green Links’ vision is to create a series of vegetated, pedestrian and cycle friendly routes that allow safe and easy passage between Elephant and Walworth’s parks and gardens. This will result in the creation of a green network that improves connections throughout the area while also improving the accessibility to green space for the local community. Proper access to green space is vital to the health and wellbeing of the local community who will play a key role in the development and maintenance of this green network.

CONTEXT

2

Currently there is a significant lack of green infrastructure in Elephant and Walworth. The main roads and roundabouts such as Old Kent Road and the Elephant and Castle roundabout are important access routes into central London and thus there is a strong presence of vehicular traffic in this area. As a result the streets in this area are designed as routes for vehicle traffic rather than places that allow people to congregate, socialize and improve community cohesion. This vehicle dominance along with continual redevelopment and construction creates an unpleasant walking environment for many pedestrians and local residents, particularly those most vulnerable such as children, the elderly and the disabled.

5


ANALYSIS

GREEN LINKS IN NEIGHBOURHOOD CONTEXT 1:12,000 (A3)

NEIGHBOURHOOD ANALYSIS

Waterloo Borough

Large busy roads are viewed as barriers which divide the community, in the case of Walworth Road a key division is made between East and West Walworth. As can be expected many local residents have expressed their distaste towards the car/transport first, people/community wellbeing second mentality which seems to have been adopted in their area. This has created a demand for the ‘Green Links’ project which will connect the once divided sections of Elephant and Walworth, connect the major green spaces and create a more pleasant environment which puts the wellbeing of pedestrians and local residents above vehicle users who are simply passing through.

N

0m

100

200

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BOROUGH BERMONDSEY Lameth Nth

Elephant & Castle

As it stands there is a reasonable amount of green space available in Elephant and Walworth, including spaces such as Pasley Park, Nursery Row Park and Faraday Gardens. The issue is that many local residents feel that these spaces are too segregated and difficult to access. Local residents require a safe route which allows them to access and move between these green spaces with ease. In spite of this only one green link has been created connecting East Walworth with Burgess Park to the south.

NEWINGTON WALWORTH

Kennington

KENNINGTON

Cycle Super Highway kennington Park

Existing Greenlink Proposed Greenlink Network (Stage 1)

Burgess Park

Oval

Proposed Greenlink Network

CAMBERWELL

Destination Park

GREEN LINKS: ELEPHANT AND WALWORTH NEIGHBOURHOOD FORUM

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L A

S T R E E T

RR BE

PE S

-Passes by many local schools and playgrounds which allow local children to easily utilize the proposed green links/ SAND FORD ROW network and move around Elephant and Walworth more safely. T R A F A L G A R

S T R E E T

-Crosses Walworth Road at advantageous locations where traffic lights and pedestrian crossings are already in place.

ST

W O O L E R

E R P O O L

G R OV E

S T R E E T

-According to TFL PTAL reports all streets selected are within 8 minutes of public transport and therefore it is possible for A Y L Ewith S B ease with restricted access those affected to still travel UR Y to personal vehicles. R O P O R T L

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F L I N T

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Faraday Gardens

ES D A W

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-Many streets along this route already have existing E A S vegetation and traffic calming measures present thus little T further action is required and there will be minimal impact to S T R the selected streets. E E BLACKW

TO I N G

R O A D

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P L

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A R E S Q U

R E R I M O

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C L O S E

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R E I M O R L O R R

B R O N T I

-It only passes through residential areas and therefore any interventions will not interfere with the running of any local businesses/commercial activity in the Darea. In addition there EA 'S BUILDINGSin this will be no large vehicles (lorries, trucks or Nvans) present route for the same reason. R E E T

E

G R O V E

-It only passes through quiet back streets with low vehicle counts and low average speeds. Therefore any planning Nursery Row Park interventions/traffic calming measures will have minimal impact to vehicle users and the surrounding traffic system. T

S T

A

P E N R O S E

S T R E E T

is the most direct route possible between the major green T E A D S T R E that E T require connecting spaces of ElephantS and Walworth (Nursery Row Park, Faraday Gardens, and Pasley Park).

S T R E E T

Q U E E N

C H T

Y

A N D

ATION R

S T R E E T

W A D D I N G

M O R E C A M BE

G K I N

OCCUP

S T R E E T -It

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E

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BR O W N I N G

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R O A D

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After reviewing potential routes for the green links project, the proposed route has been specifically selected for the following reasons: D

R P

E R O S

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1:3,000 H E N S H(A3) A W

O

N ST

E

Pasley Park

M A U RI

J O HN

R

T V

E P L A C

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GREEN LINK ROUTE ANALYSIS

CHARLESTO

S T R E E T

L D I E Y F

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S

E A C P L

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R D

M A N O R

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Pullens Gardens

RC O M

B R A N D O N

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Z

V E R T A R

A M E L I A

S T R E E T

M

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Y A R D

W A L W O R T H

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A

A

E

E T R E T S

I L I F F E

V I C T O R Y

U R

L

A

O NT P E

SERIAL VISION

S T R E E T

S T R E E T

W A N S E Y

S T R E E T

I L I F F E

R A M P T O N

A R T E B

E T R E T S

A D

-Restricting vehicle access to selected streets gives scope for new potential street markets as is present on East Street or space for community organized activities which help strengthen community cohesion.

GREEN LINKS: ELEPHANT AND WALWORTH NEIGHBOURHOOD FORUM

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E

Y R D

S T R E E T

O R B

L A

Nursery Row Park

S T DEAN

'S

BUILDINGS

RR BE

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T

E

P E N R O S E

F L I N T

R E E T

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Q U E E N

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PE

A

S T R E E T

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A N D

ATION R

M O R E C A M BE

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U R

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W A D D I N G S T E A D

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Pasley Park

S T R E E T

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R O A D

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BR O W N I N G

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N ST

M A U RI

J O HN

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2 OF 3, 1:3,000 H E N S H(A3) A W CONTENT ST

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L D I E Y F

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S

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Pullens Gardens

RC O M

V I C T O R Y

B R A N D O N

E

A

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A M E L I A

N

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Z

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Y A R D

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S T R E E T

W A N S E Y

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A

A

A

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S T R E E T

R A M P T O N

L

A

I L I F F E

O NT P E

A R T E B

E T R E T S

G R O V E

S

SAND

FORD

ROW

Faraday Gardens

T R A F A L G A R

S T R E E T

ST

T

R

E

E

T

E E T S T R

S T

N

G

S T

W O O L E R E R P O O L

G R OV E

N

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120

GREEN LINKS: ELEPHANT AND WALWORTH NEIGHBOURHOOD FORUM

P O R T L

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S T R E E T

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C A D I Z

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B R O N T I

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R E I M O R L O R R

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A Y L E S B U R Y

R O A D

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3 OF 3, 1:3,000 (A3)

Y R

O A

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S T R E E T S T R E E T

O R B

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Nursery Row Park

S T DEAN

'S

BUILDINGS

RR BE

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T

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P E N R O S E

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Pasley Park

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L

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A R T B E

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S

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ROW

Faraday Gardens

T R A F A L G A R

S T R E E T

ST

N

I

G

S T

W O O L E R E R P O O L

G R OV E

N

T

GREEN LINKS: ELEPHANT AND WALWORTH NEIGHBOURHOOD FORUM

P O R T L

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Existing Significant Trees

DESIGN

1:3,000 (A3) Road Improved with Tree/Planting

Improved Plating

D

S T R E E T

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Nursery Row Park

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Low Line

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T R A F A L G A R

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ST

E E T S T R

S Q UA R E

Faraday Gardens

S T

N

G

W O O L E R E R P O O L

G R OV E

GREEN LINKS: ELEPHANT AND WALWORTH NEIGHBOURHOOD FORUM

P O R T L A

S T

L I V

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C T

S

SAND

S

ES D A W

OD

S T R E E T

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T

DA T E

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EY N 120 L O

F I E L

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C A D I Z

R D

R O A D

UT H E R L A N D

TO ING

0m

O DR A C

NE Y

R OA D

P

E

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EG L

A R E S Q U

E M O R N

E T S T R E

C L O S E

BLACKW O

E R C A R T

C A R T E R

W A L W O R T H

A D R O

O R E O R RI M

B R O NT I

F L I NT

R E E T

S T

C H

PE

S T R E E T

Y

W A D D I NG

S T R E E T

Q UE E N

M O R E C A M BE

A ND

ATION R

G K I N

OCCUP

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C H A

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H E NS H A W

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M A U RIC E

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CHARLESTO

CONTENT ST

Improved Plating

B R A N DO N

S T

Area for Investigation

E R O S

N

V I C T O R Y

P L Area for Investigation

S T R E E T

RC O M

Shared Street

E

Pasley Park

S T R E E T

W A NS E Y

F O U R

Existing Significant Trees Road Improved with Tree/Planting

R D

M A N O R

P

Shared Street

R O A D

L D I E Y F

G

T

E A C P L

R

S V E R T A R

One-way Traffic Direction

W A L W O R T H

E

E

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N

B

A

Pullens Gardens

S T R E E T

M

R S T

C RA M P T O N

A

O NT P E

In the following section a series of potential design proposals are presented. A single design proposal will not be applicable for all streets that make up the green links route, each street involved varies in size and structure. To account for this variation in size, the design proposals have been categorized into wide (double lane) streets and narrow (single lane) streetsEas E Tcertain interventions will only be viable R T depending onSthe street’s size. In addition, itI is recognized L I F F E A S T R E E T T R will be conflicting opinions as to whether certain that there E B L interventions are too radical or too conservative. Therefore, A I L I F E Y A R D for both categories (wide and narrow streets) a high Fimpact (radical) scenario and a low impact (conservative) scenario A M E L I A TAppendix B for precedents). is also presented. (See EE

S T R E E T

A Y L E S B U R Y

R O A D

10


MANOR STREET (NARROW) Low intervention scenario: -Vegetated central reservation. This will divide the road and create a safe ‘half way haven’ which allows pedestrians to cross these wide roads with two way traffic with ease. Also adds some much needed greenery to the street, an essential element of the ‘green’ links network.

LOW INTERVENTION

-Raised pedestrian crossings. These both psychologically and physically put pedestrians above vehicles, forcing vehicles users to reduce their speed in order to pass over the crossing. -Two way street is maintained to reduce impact on normal traffic flow. -Trees are planted in central reservation rather than on pavements either side to allow maximum space for pedestrians on relatively narrow street. High intervention scenario: -Street is made one way and road reduced to a single lane. This will limit vehicular traffic flow and make crossing the road more manageable for pedestrians.

HIGH INTERVENTION

-Generous pavement width (as wide as possible without preventing vehicle flow). The purpose of the green links project is to put pedestrians first and therefore should be allocated as much of the street space as possible. -Parking bays will be spaced along the eastern side of road to allow some limited parking. -Many trees planted on both pavements. Plentiful trees will be used throughout the green links network. The abundant presence of vegetation/trees has many physical benefits to the city (reduces urban heat island effect, reduces risk of surface flooding) as well as many psychological and health benefits to local people. In addition trees act as a buffer between the road and pavement, while also reducing the severity of air and noise pollution (a common problem in built up areas such as Elephant and Walworth).

GREEN LINKS: ELEPHANT AND WALWORTH NEIGHBOURHOOD FORUM

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Private Property Footpath New Tree (Parking) New Tree

Road

New Tree Footpath Private Property

Private Property

Road

New Tree

Road

Parking

Road

Road

Footpath

1.8 8.3

Private Property

Footpath

3.0 Private Property

3.0

MANOR PLACE

MANOR PLACE

MANOR PLACE

12 GREEN LINKS: ELEPHANT AND WALWORTH NEIGHBOURHOOD FORUM

5.3 8.3

Footpath

Footpath

3.0

Private Property

2.3

2.3

11.9 11.9

11.9

5.3 3.0 3.6 3.0

1.8 1.8

1.8

HIGH INTERVENTION LOW INTERVENTION EXISTING

1:200 (A3)

MANOR STREET (NARROW)


MANOR STREET (WIDE) Low intervention scenario: -Vegetated central reservation. This will divide the road and create a safe ‘half way haven’ which allows pedestrians to cross these wide roads with two way traffic with ease. Also adds some much needed greenery to the street, an essential element of the ‘green’ links network.

LOW INTERVENTION

-Additional Trees and flower beds planted on pavements for maximum presence of vegetation. -Two way street is maintained to reduce impact on normal traffic flow. -Parking maintained on both sides of road to cater to car dependent residents and vehicle users that desire nearby parking to Walworth Road. High intervention scenario: -Street is made one way and road reduced to a single lane. This will limit vehicular traffic flow and make crossing the road more manageable for pedestrians. -Extra wide pavements. Reduction in road width allows much more space for pavements and additional vegetation.

HIGH INTERVENTION

-Pocket parks. Extra wide pavements allow space for the introduction of pocket parks. These mini green spaces encourage people to use the street as a public space for leisure and socialising rather than just for travel. -Parking limited to one side of road to compensate for reduction in road width and to discourage vehicle presence in this area.

GREEN LINKS: ELEPHANT AND WALWORTH NEIGHBOURHOOD FORUM

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Private Property

Footpath

Parking

Ex. Tree

Road

New Tree

Pocket Park

Ex. Tree Footpath Private Property

5.3 Private Property

Footpath

Road

New Tree

Road

Parking

2.3

Ex. Tree

Parking

3.0

Footpath

Ex. Tree

Parking

Road

Road

Parking

Ex. Tree

Footpath

Private Property

Private Property

Footpath

Ex. Tree

2.5

MANOR PLACE

MANOR PLACE

MANOR PLACE

14 GREEN LINKS: ELEPHANT AND WALWORTH NEIGHBOURHOOD FORUM

2.3

4.0 3.0 10.8 3.0

4.0 2.3

Private Property

20.0 20.0

20.0

13.0

13.0

HIGH INTERVENTION LOW INTERVENTION EXISTING

3.0

4.0 2.3 8.5 2.3 3.0

1:200 (A3)

MANOR STREET (WIDE)

Pocket Park


DATE STREET (PARK FRONTAGE) Low intervention scenario: -One large shared space, no pavements. Putting sufficiently wide pavements either side of these narrow streets is simply not possible in many cases. Having one large shared surface creates more space for green infrastructure and pedestrians while still allowing vehicles to pass through.

LOW INTERVENTION

-Parking maintained along north side of street. This is space consuming and allows a larger vehicle presence but still allows all residents to park with ease. -Removal of unnecessary fencing, posts and pedestrian crossings to create as much space as possible for the shared space. -Very low speed limit. This is necessary for the safety of pedestrians using the shared space, vehicle users must be particularly cautious in these zones. High intervention scenario: -One large shared space, no pavements. Putting sufficiently wide pavements either side of these narrow streets is simply not possible in many cases. Having one large shared surface creates more space for green infrastructure and pedestrians while still allowing vehicles to pass through.

HIGH INTERVENTION

-Restricted parking. Only some parking spaces will be available to reduce vehicle presence and to discourage car dependency where public transport is easily available. -Additional trees planted and flower beds. With parking restricted more space is created for a greater presence of vegetation. -Make an agreement with residents to remove unnecessary fences which currently block off unused greenery in order to create space for green infrastructure improvements. -Very low speed limit. This is necessary for the safety of pedestrians using the shared space, vehicle users must be particularly cautious in these zones.

GREEN LINKS: ELEPHANT AND WALWORTH NEIGHBOURHOOD FORUM

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DATE STREET (PARK FRONTAGE) EXISTING

LOW INTERVENTION

Faraday Gardens

3.3

2.3

1.5

2.0

8.5

12.0

10.5

Faraday Gardens

1.5

(Parking) New Tree

10.0

Faraday Gardens

Shared Road

8.4

Ex. Tree

1.6

Private Property

8.5

Faraday Gardens

HIGH INTERVENTION

Parking

1.5

Shared Road

2.3

Ex. Tree

Footpath

3.3

Private Property

Parking

1.5

Road

Ex. Tree

Faraday Gardens

1:200 (A3)

10.5

Faraday Gardens

DATE STREET

DATE STREET

DATE STREET

GREEN LINKS: ELEPHANT AND WALWORTH NEIGHBOURHOOD FORUM

16


WALWORTH ROAD INTERSECTION Proposed interventions: • Diagonal pedestrian crossing: This not only creates a more direct pathway between the streets involved in the green links network but it also psychologically reinforces that pedestrians have right of way. • Increased ‘green’ presence. This comes in the form of additional trees, potted plants and green sails stretched overhead. This increases the presence of greenery and once again reinforces to vehicle users that they are approaching a green links zone and should slow down. • Alternate surface at crossing point (a continuation of the pavement surface across the road). This will emphasize that it is no longer primarily a road but a part of the green links network and a space for pedestrians to cross where vehicle users should give way

1:200 (A3)

PROPOSED DESIGN

WALWORTH ROAD

GREEN LINKS: ELEPHANT AND WALWORTH NEIGHBOURHOOD FORUM

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DESIGN ELEMENTS 1 CROSSING POINT

STREET FURNITURE

STREET FURNITURE / PLANTERS

4

5

2

6

1

3

GREEN LINKS: ELEPHANT AND WALWORTH NEIGHBOURHOOD FORUM

7

18


DESIGN ELEMENTS 2 COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION

WATER (DRAINAGE) GARDENS

DELIVERY CONSIDERATIONS

Community Participation: When delivering the green links network the local community should be encouraged to play a role in developing it through planting growing gardens, trees, potted plants and pocket parks etc. The act of taking part in a public event such as this will both improve community cohesion and approval of the green links network. Maintenance: Unlike traditional ‘hard’ engineered interventions, green infrastructure revolves around live vegetation which requires regular maintenance. It is vital trees and other plants are properly cared for, a task which can be carried out by both the local authority and community.

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Parking restrictions: Many of the proposed designs involve reducing the amount of parking space. Whilst it is important to encourage people to walk, cycle and use public transport and also to discourage an over dependence on cars, this may be resisted by residents and businesses. Good community consultation and an incremental approach could help pursuade stakeholders of the benefits. Cost: The proposed interventions, particularly ones which alter the structure of the street will be costly. Costs could potentially be met through funding sources such as Southwark council’s ‘Cleaner Greener Safer’ programme, the Mayor of London’s Pockets Parks scheme, and the Community Infrastructure Levy (CIL) on new developments, of which 25% can be claimed by a constituted neighbourhood forum.

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GREEN LINKS: ELEPHANT AND WALWORTH NEIGHBOURHOOD FORUM

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INTRODUCTION

3 CROSS ROADS

The Working Group has been asked by the Elephant and Walworth Neighbourhood Forum to suggest ways to improve the street layout of New Kent Road (A201), between the Elephant and Castle roundabout and the junction of Balfour Street, incorporating the improvements proposed by Transport for London (TfL) and developers in the vicinity (specifically Lend Lease and Delancey). The New Kent Road causes severe severance accross the top of the Neighbourhood Forum area, isolating the Rockingham Estate. It is traffic heavy and crossing points do not follow desire lines. However the regeneration also provides the opportunity to improve the road.

OBJECTIVES

In conjunction with the Neighbourhood Forum the following objectives were identified for the New Kent Road Focus Area:

3

• Help build and strengthen the communities it serves; • Meet the needs of all, embodying the principles of inclusive design; • Improve part of a well-established network; • Be attractive and have its own distinctive identity; • Be safe for all road users.  

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BACKGROUND

GREEN LINKS CONCEPT AREA 1:12,000 (A3)

New Kent Road is a 1 kilometre (0.6 mi) road created in 1751 when the Turnpike Trust upgraded a local footpath. The road forms part of the London Inner Ring Road and as such forms part of the boundary of the London congestion charge zone.

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GREEN LINKS: ELEPHANT AND WALWORTH NEIGHBOURHOOD FORUM

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ANALYSIS TRAFFIC TYPE AND VOLUME

TRAFFIC CONGESTION

DEVELOPER PROPOSALS

Department for Transport data was analysed to determine the type and volume of traffic movements on New Kent Road. The key findings were:

Analysis of congestion data was carried out to determine the traffic conditions on New Kent Road at different times of the day on different days of the week. The analysis found the following key points:

There are three key stakeholders with proposals which will effect New Kent Road:

• Overall total traffic volume has decreased over time. • Pedal cycle use has seen an upwards trend but potentially plateauing. • There has been an increase in larger vehicle volume. The decreasing trend of traffic volumes suggests that people are using motors cars less and using other forms of transport such as cycling, walking and public transport more. However cyclists numbers have levelled which demonstrates a need for further intervention in this area. Larger vehicles using New Kent Road suggest that noise and pollution should be considerations in future designs of the road. For more information see Appendix C.

TRAFFIC INCIDENTS

• Congestion on New Kent Road is at its worst at the western end of the road. • Congestion is at its worst during peak commuting hours. • The Elephant and Castle roundabout flows well despite congestion on New Kent Road. It is not considered feasible (or desirable) to redesign New Kent Road to increase the capacity of traffic. As with other areas in the UK, and in line with current Department for Transport and Transport for London policy, congestion is best combated through encouraging alternative methods of transport such as cycling and walking. The fact that most traffic is during peak commuting hours suggestions more can be done to encourage alternative modes of transport. For congestion maps see Appendix C.

TfL – the peninsularisation of the northern roundabout will have significant impacts on the Focus Area in terms of traffic flows. Additionally the creation of a new crossing point at the entrance of New Kent Road and improvements to the existing crossing points will improve pedestrian flows. See Appendix Ci for more information. Lend Lease – planning permission for 3,000 homes including the redevelopment of the Heygate estate, and retail, leisure and new open spaces. See Appendix Cii for more information. Delancey – planning permission for 373 new homes, 450 new student rooms and redevelopment of the existing Elephant and Castle shopping centre. See Appendix Cii for more information.

Analysis of traffic collision data was carried out to understand safety issues on New Kent Road. The analysis found the following key points: • Generally New Kent Road has a higher rate of traffic incidents than surrounding areas. • There are a large amount of incidents involving pedestrians away from existing crossing points including a fatality. The analysis suggests that pedestrians attempt to cross the road at places other than existing dedicated crossing points because the current crossing points do not serve desire lines. For traffic incident maps please see Appendix C.

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SERIAL VISION

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K E NT NE W Key recommendations: • Transform the environment from a hard and grey ‘motorway’ feel to one of a softer, greener appearance. • Install new pedestrian-level lighting. • Rebalance the priority of road users. • Take advantage of existing wide C pavements Cby E better using the space I R available. A U M • Enhance existing mature trees and green N E T E H R O route through more planting.

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Key points: • There is a ‘motorway’ feel to the Focus Area, with motorised traffic having a perceived dominance and priority over other road users. • Pedestrians, cyclists and motorised traffic are segregated and do not have to cooperate with one another. • There are wide pavements along most of L the Focus Area. O T • Some existing mature trees and H an T R existing green route in between Falmouth A Road and Harper Road. R

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PEDESTRIAN DESIRE LINES Using information from Southwark LBC’s Elephant and Castle Opportunity Area SPD, Lend Lease’s Design and Access Statement, and from predicting future pedestrian flows resulting from the new development it is possible to understand existing and future pedestrian movements around New Kent Road. This analysis suggested that:

PRE-2014 PEDESTRIAN DESIRE LINES

• Current crossing points do not match existing or future desire lines. • There will be a considerable increase in pedestrian traffic resulting from the redevelopment of Elephant and Castle shopping centre and the new residential developments taking place around New Kent Road. The analysis suggests that, at the very least, new crossing points should be installed to reflect desire lines and increased future demand for road crossing. It is unlikely the current crossing points will be adequate to meet this demand. Ideally a whole redesign of New Kent Road with increased priority for pedestrians should occur

PROPOSED PEDESTRIAN DESIRE LINES

GREEN LINKS: ELEPHANT AND WALWORTH NEIGHBOURHOOD FORUM

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DESIGNS OPTION 1 (EXISTING) The existing layout represents the priority of motorised traffic which is reflected in the segregation of traffic types, presence of guard railings and motorway-style lighting. All these factors emphasise New Kent Road as a route for traffic rather than a place of enjoyment.

GREEN LINKS: ELEPHANT AND WALWORTH NEIGHBOURHOOD FORUM

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OPTION 2 Option 2 represents a middle ground in terms of ideal interventions and realistic expectations. The road will be transformed into a street with increased pedestrian activity and community ownership of place through new street gardens, welcoming street furniture and pedestrian level lighting.

GREEN LINKS: ELEPHANT AND WALWORTH NEIGHBOURHOOD FORUM

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OPTION 3 Option 3 represents an ideal outcome for New Kent Road. The current segregated road will become a shared space for all road users. The same material will be used for pavement and road surfaces emphasising the continuity of space and the increased co-operation amongst road users. This will have the effect of improving the atmosphere of the area, enhancing safety and increasing the efficiency of pedestrian and cycle movements along and across the road.

GREEN LINKS: ELEPHANT AND WALWORTH NEIGHBOURHOOD FORUM

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INTRODUCTION

4 LOW LINE

The current Thameslink line, which runs though the neighbourhood forum area, slices through the street network creating a series of underused spaces. The current business use for the railway arches is predominantly light industrial. These uses have not changed despite the high level of residential and office construction taking place alongside them. However the railway is also an opportunity space: If pedestrians and cyclists could follow the train line it would create a, currently lacking, traffic free direct route to connect the North and South of Walworth. The railway arches could also be used by a wider range of businesses, increasing and diversifying employment space in the area. An explanation of the benefits of the project is in Appendix Di

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TYPOLOGIES Better integrating railway infrastructure into its surrounding area to deliver more is becoming increasingly popular in cities around the world. However the “Low Line” differs from these projects in 4 ways: 1. The Low Line will be alongside an in-use railway, not using the remaining infrastructure from a defunct line. 2. The Low Line success will require reinvigorating the uses in the railway arches not just on improving public realm. 3. The Low Line is operating within constrained spaces between the railway and buildings, it does not have wide roads to animate. 4. The Low Line aims to be a through route, not just a destination. In order to address each of these specific typologies, a range of examples are provided in Appendix Dii which may have design ideas, business uses or implementation that could have relevance for developing the Low Line. No example addresses all the specific typologies of the Low Line but across all the examples are inspirational elements to support the development of the Low Line.

Railway In Use?

Rail Arches repurposed?

Through Route?

Constrained Access?

HIGH LINE VIADUC DES ARTS LONDON FIELDS FORTH STREET DEANSGATE LOCKS MALTBY STREET DLR MORNING LANE BISHOPSGATE GOODSYARD CENTRE PLACE

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CONSTRAINTS

PLAN 4A - SHEET LAYOUT, 1:12,000 (A3)

There are 3 major constraints, which will influence how this project can be delivered:

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The railways arches are already home to a mix of businesses some of which require constant car access. Any change in how this route is designed and used (to encourage pedestrian and cyclist access) will impact on how they canPL operate.

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In addition a different range of businesses uses could be encouraged into the arches in order to attract more pedestrians and cyclists to use the routes. This may require more animating uses, such as cafés and restaurants, as well as the potential for workspace and retail use. This too would have a major impact on ST the existing businesses. The area closest to the railway station already accommodates a diverse mix with cafés, shops and mechanics operating side by side. TH OU M However the use becomes less diverse and more car ON AV focused further south.

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FIGURE 4D, SHEET 1 OF 2, 1:2500 (A3)

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A. Restaurants and Cafés (A3) SE RO PEN B. Butcher (A1) C. Offices (B1) D. Cycle Shop (B1) E. Garage/ Car Maintenance (Sui generis)or(B2) F. Bar (A4) G. Freight (B8) H. £1 Shop (A1) I. Hairdresser (A1) J. Print-shop (A1) K. Dwelling (C3)

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DESIGN APPROACHES

ACCESS 10+M TYPICAL SECTION

3M TYPICAL SECTION

RAILWAY ARCH

Typical sections at various widths demonstrates what can be achieved in a given space. 1. Option 1 - An ideal scenario: A 10m wide route along side the eastern edge of the railway arches. This would create the most user-friendly space, creating a direct route usable by pedestrians, cyclists and with space for street furniture and planting. However this will require the significant alteration of approximately twenty two buildings (marked in red below). 2. Option 2 - A middle way: The route still only runs along the eastern edge of the railway arches but varies in width. This would only require the removal of seven buildings and barriers. 3. Option 3 - The most feasible scenario: The route flows between the two sides of the railway arches, using the paths of least resistance. This would still require the removal of a small number of temporary barriers such as fences and informal building additions.

RAILWAY ARCH

EXISTING BUILDING

LANDSCAPE

ONE WAY TRAFFIC

LANDSCAPE (TREE)

PEDESTRIAN MOVEMENT

LANDSCAPE

EATING & BROWSING

TRAINS

DELIVERY CONSIDERATIONS: Landownership – The railway arches and land adjacent are owned and maintained by National Rail, however if the more radical solutions are proposed landownership will have to be identified for the buildings affected. Planning enforcement – Some of the structures currently blocking the route may be informal or illegal constructions which effective planning enforcement could remove. However some of these are business extensions and there may be resistance from the owners.

RAILWAY ARCH

5M TYPICAL SECTION

Cost – The cost of delivery could be met through the 25% of Community Infrastructure Levy the Neighbourhood Forum would be entitled to spending once formally designated. National Rail could lead on this project, however it is likely they would want to charge higher rents for the arches in compensation.

RAILWAY ARCH

7M TYPICAL SECTION

Road Crossings – There are currently two major road crossings which do not have pedestrian crossings at a convenient point for a continuous route along the low line. To encourage the use of the route crossings would be required.

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FIGURE 4F, ACCESS OPTIONS, 1:5000 (A3)

OPTION 1

OPTION 2

OPTION 3

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BUSINESS USE 1. Option 1 - Mingling: As now, pepper-pot the car reliant businesses with other types of businesses. However this may result in spatial conflict between the different business types and reduce the quality of the route for pedestrians and cyclists, especially in the narrowest areas. 1. Option 2 - Cluster: Place the vehicle reliant businesses in one area of the low line where their impact will be least felt. Areas where this may be appropriate could be the southern most end of the route, between Fielding St and Empress Street. 2. Option 3 Block Ends: Place the vehicle reliant businesses at the block ends so they are nearest the road access. This will limit the car penetration into the route. 3. Option 4 - Removal: remove all car servicing garages and car reliant businesses away from the arches. Design Features: Alongside each of these interventions design and policy features could be included which would enhance how pedestrian and cyclist friendly the route could be. These include using a different road surface, such as bricks or concrete, a very low speed limit, moveable bollards to limit car access, or time constraints for vehicle access.

DELIVERY CONSIDERATIONS: Business Consultation – Any suggestion to move the existing businesses will require sensitive consultation and discussion with the existing businesses, to ensure the change doesn’t adversely affect business models. Rent Levels – Promoting the arches as potential retail, restaurant and workshop business space alongside enhancing the urban realm has the potential to increase rents, which will affect both existing businesses and the type of future businesses able to rent arches. Managing these rents to ensure the spaces are used by local SME businesses could link to the development of the BME business policy. Precedents exist (see appendix Diii). Planning Use Class designation – Through a Neighbourhood Plan, it will be possible to use the planning use class system to suggest the locations of businesses.

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LAND USE

FIGURE 4G OPTIONS FOR CAR GARAGES 1:5000 (A3)

OPTION 1 - MINGLING

OPTION 2 - CLUSTER

OPTION 3 - BLOCK END

OPTION 4 - REMOVAL

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DESIGN STYLES

GREEN INVASION

ART

1) Greening: Providing space for planting: flowerbeds, vertical wall planting, trees and hanging baskets where light and space enable it. This can also be enhanced in the widest areas by breakout pocket parks. 2) Art: Enlivening the space through mosaics, graffiti, murals both on walls and the road surface which can encourage use and are not limited by light or space requirements. 3) Lighting: The narrow spaces lend themselves to overhead lighting which could be strung between the arches and buildings. This would also make the space feel safer, and could enable night-time use. 4) Corporate: There are some examples across London where arches have been used by large corporate businesses. One or two such tenants could act as anchor tenants drawing in more customers and therefore businesses. However this could compete with units on Walworth Road and reduce the unique offer of the Low Line. Through the regeneration there will already be new build business spaces to accommodate large retail and chain stores and there is less space proposed for SME businesses.

E&C SUBWAY

CONSIDERATIONS FOR DELIVERY: Night time use – Currently most of the spaces are gated with gates locked outside of business hours. This prevents crime and antisocial behaviour. There is a risk that if the space is opened up but not animated at night-time it could become unsafe. Lighting and later operating businesses could help address this, however this would need to be in consideration of nearby residential developments. Legacy – Consideration will have to be given to maintaining the design features. This is particularly important with green features. The Council or National Rail (as the majority landowner) may be able to take on the maintenance, otherwise businesses could be encouraged to, or residents living adjacent, especially those without access to outside space. Community Participation – Greater ownership and therefore use of the route could be encouraged by co-designing the space. This could draw in a range of stakeholders including residents and business owners and could draw on local expertise such as students from the London College of Communication, local allotment owners, and specialist local design businesses. This could also reduce the cost of design.

LOCAL ART

POT PLANTS

LOCAL IDENTITY

MILLWALL PARK SPILL OUT PARKS

POLAND LIVING WALLS

PAVEMENTS

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ARTIST STUDIOS

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LIGHTING

CORPORATE

ATHENS

BURRELL ST.

EXISTING

LOS ANGELES FAIRY LIGHTS

HEALTH CLINIC NURSERY PARK LANTERNS

TREE LIGHTS

CONTEMPORARY VAUXHALL

CLINK ST. BIG BRANDS

HIGH QUALITY

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DESIGN VISUALISATION

ROBERT DASHWOOD WAY

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1:750 (A3)

AMELIA

EXISTING BUILDINGS

EXISTING BUILDINGS

STREET

EET AN STR

STEEDM

POTENTIAL FOR FUTURE LINK TO WALWORTH ROAD

Insert

ADDITIONAL PLANTING

RAILWAY ARCHES

1:200 (A3)

REMOVED PARKING BAYS FOR PLANTING VERTICAL PLANTING / CLIMBERS STRING LIGHTING ACROSS ROUTE AND IN TREES

8.5

3.0

Private Property

3.0

(Parking)

5.5

Shared Road

New Tree

Footpath

Tables & Stalls

NEW ACTIVE USES

Reused Rail Arches

NEW ROAD SURFACE

11.5

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ROCKINGHAM STREET (NTH - STH)

ART

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1:500 (A3)

POCKET PARK

ROA D

RO CK IN

GH AM

ST RE

ET

POTENTIAL LINK INTO SEMI PRIVATE OPEN SPACE / PLAYGROUND

NEW

KENT

RAILWAY ACRHES

1:200 (A3) GREEN ROOF ON EXISTING GARAGES / STORAGE

NEW FOCAL TREE NEW ROAD SURFACE NEW RAISED PLANTING

STRING LIGHTING ACROSS ROUTE AND IN TREES

Footpath

1.5

3.0

8.0

Private Property

Planting

3.5

Storage (green roof)

Footpath

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Reused Rail Arches

NEW ACTIVE USES

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APPENDIX A

A

47


ORIGINAL PROJECT BRIEF

FINAL PROJECT BRIEF

Green infrastructure:

Support the Elephant and Walworth Neighbourhood Forum to develop an evidence base and policies to improve connectivity and green infrastructure within the proposed plan boundary.

The neighbourhood forum has identified a list of projects for supporting the development of green infrastructure in the area. Further work is needed to understand how these projects can be embedded in the neighbourhood plan and the opportunities that exist for funding these projects. The tasks are to: • Produce an evidence base for the “Take the Low Line” project (a green route that links with the development of the railway arches) and consider how this might be delivered by producing a fact-sheet of existing examples where railway arches and railway lines have been developed; • Produce evidence for crossings on New Kent Road (that will support cyclists and pedestrians and also connect with green routes) and consider how these might be delivered by looking at the plans of Transport for London, and the developers Lend Lease and Delancey.

1. TAKE THE LOW LINE Project Ambition: Transform the unused space alongside the existing railway viaduct into a vibrant pedestrianized street with high quality green environment. Support the development of workshops, independent retail, cultural and leisure uses in the arches. Outputs: • Site Analysis of: Design typologies – serial analysis Existing land use Constraints • Fact-sheet of other examples where arches / railways have been developed for small business spaces / vibrant pedestrian areas • Draft Design proposals and land use proposals to illustrate the potential of the area 2. NEW KENT ROAD

3. GREEN LINKS Project Ambition: Creating safer streets, which prioritise pedestrians over cars, between important green spaces in the neighbourhood forum area and to provide safer and more appealing connections between East and West Walworth. Outputs: • Site Analysis »» Traffic »» Existing pedestrian / cycling provision »» Design features • Develop design proposals and legibility improvements for the four key routes: »» Nursery Row Park to Faraday Gardens »» Faraday Gardens to Paisley Park »» Paisley Park to Nursery Row Park »» Nursery Row Park to Darwin Street (to join existing green link) • Create transferable design typologies, which can be used on similar roads in the rest of the neighbourhood forum area.

Project Ambition: Transform the New Kent Road between the Elephant and Castle Roundabout and Harper Road so it feels more like a “busy high street” than a motorway / current traffic corridor, with slowed traffic and enhanced public realm to incorporate three new pedestrian / cyclist crossings. Outputs: • Site Appraisal »» Traffic analysis »» Road Layout analysis »» Design analysis • Analyse current Lend Lease; Delancey and TfL plans, including for new cycle infrastructure. • Develop design proposals for the stretch of road between the Elephant and Castle roundabout and Harper Road to slow and green the road.

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APPENDIX B

B

49


GREEN LINKS PRECEDENTS EXISTING GREEN LINK Chatham Street

ENGLAND

STREET PLANTING Portland Oregon

Hereford Widemarsh Street

New York

Virginia

London Exhibition Road Alvey Street

Derbyshire Street Chicago Bagshot Street

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SHARED SPACE

TEMPORARY BARRIERS / TRIALS

PLANTING Amsterdam

East Street - Horsham

Derbyshire Street

Brighton

Times Square

Garden with Year Round Colour and Form

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APPENDIX C

C

52


Ci TFL PROPOSALS

TfL consulted on proposed changes to the Elephant and Castle roundabout during 2014. As a result of this consultation they have decided to proceed with the improvements and incorporate Option B into the design of Elephant and Castle. Work is due to commence in late spring 2015.

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Cii DEVELOPMENT PROPOSALS Delancey are yet to bring forward their plans for regeneration in Elephant and Castle but initial contact through their agent suggests they are committed to improving linkages for pedestrians and cyclists throughout their development area on New Kent Road. This commitment is likely to include some level of pedestrian and cyclist permeability through the new development. Delancey’s planning permission includes 373 new homes, 450 new student rooms and redevelopment of the existing Elephant and Castle shopping centre.

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Lend Lease do not yet have specific proposals for improving cycling and pedestrian transport in the area but have set out detailed analysis and objectives in their Design and Access statement which accompanied their Heygate residential development planning application. Lend Lease’s planning permission includes 3,000 homes, retail, leisure and new open spaces.

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Ciii ROAD ANALYSIS TRAFFIC CONGESTION MONDAY

FRIDAY

SATURDAY

MORNING PEAK

MORNING PEAK

MORNING PEAK

MIDDAY

MIDDAY

MIDDAY

AFTERNOON PEAK

AFTERNOON PEAK

AFTERNOON PEAK

EVENING

EVENING

EVENING

SOURCE: GOOGLE ANALYTICS

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TRAFFIC TYPE AND VOLUME

Year 2000 All Motor 46273 Vehicles

2001 45906

2002 42675

2003 44843

2004 50138

2005 47633

2006 48052

2007 48348

2008 41163

2009 46290

2010 43957

2011 43380

2012 36119

2013 36089

SOURCE: DEPARTMENT FOR TRANSPORT, © CROWN COPYRIGHT.

Year

Pedal Cycles

Motorcycles

Cars/Taxis

2001 2005 2009 2013

1754 1100 2892 2257

2311 1248 3294 2404

32348 34065 29954 22382

Buses/ Coaches 2564 2443 2754 3087

LGVs

HGVs

7161 7610 8389 6014

1522 2267 1899 2202

All Motor Vehicles 45906 47633 46290 36089

SOURCE: DEPARTMENT FOR TRANSPORT, © CROWN COPYRIGHT.

Year 2000 Pedal 1540 Cycles

2001 1754

2002 687

2003 2706

2004 893

2005 1100

2006 1401

2007 1796

2008 1933

2009 2892

2010 3845

2011 3780

2012 2369

2013 2257

SOURCE: DEPARTMENT FOR TRANSPORT, © CROWN COPYRIGHT.

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TFL PROPOSALS FOR NEW KENT ROAD

New Kent Road Crossing at Meadow Row The proposal here is to convert this crossing to a Toucan which will also incorporate pedestrian countdown facilities. Changes to the layout would generally be limited to the signal infrastructure only. However, further improvements to this crossing would be considered as the Elephant Park regeneration scheme develops during the next few years. New Kent Road Crossing at Falmouth Road / Rodney Place This crossing would be also be converted to a Toucan with Pedestrian Countdown facilities. They are also planning to introduce a new central traffic island to improve safety and legibility of the signals. To accommodate a satisfactory island width TfL has considered options to widen one side of the carriageway or both with widening both sides being the preferred option. It is also proposed that the central strip from Falmouth Road will be extended eastwards to prevent illegal right turning from this side road. In summary it is expected that road traffic would be slightly reduced by the proposals.

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TRAFFIC INCIDENTS CYCLISTS

SOURCE: CRASHMAP.CO.UK

MOTORISTS

SOURCE: CRASHMAP.CO.UK

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PEDESTRIANS

SOURCE: CRASHMAP.CO.UK

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Di BENEFITS

APPENDIX D

D

1. IMPROVED CONNECTIVITY: • There are currently limited direct walking and cycling routes running north-south in the forum area. • Currently the only direct route is along Walworth road which is a busy high street with constrained space for pedestrians and cyclists. • Elephant and Castle is a key transport node which pedestrians and cyclists should be able to reach easily.

This approach is supported by the Elephant and Castle Opportunity Area Planning Framework: SPD 11: Walking and Cycling: We will work with TfL, developers and other stakeholders to provide a high quality network of pedestrian and cycle routes in the opportunity area. Development in the opportunity area should… Reduce severance created by the railway viaducts and main roads…Link new and existing public and open spaces creating a network of spaces that act as a focus for activity and draw people through the area. 4.4.7 Cycling and walking routes are currently very constrained by the railway viaduct and road network.

62


BENEFITS 2. SPACE FOR NEW SME BUSINESSES:

3. IMPROVED AMENITY:

4. REGENERATION:

• The railway arches are currently underused as business spaces with many of the arches empty or used for storage. • Where they are used, it is predominantly for light industrial (B2) uses which detract from the area’s amenity. • There are examples across London where railway arches have successfully been used for a range of businesses. • A broader range of businesses, including office or studio space interspersed with retail, food manufacture, cafés and restaurants would help draw pedestrians through the route.

• There is a high level of new development occurring alongside the railway arches, including new student housing and the redevelopment of Manor Place. • These new developments are in close proximity to the railway line and overlook the route or have back entrances onto it. • The current underutilised, unanimated and low quality of the urban realm provide a poor visual outlook for the new developments. • Improving the outlook for the developments which encourage further use of balconies and back entrances, creating a virtuous circle improving use and safety.

• The Elephant and Castle area is currently undergoing an extensive regeneration project as one of London’s opportunity areas. • There have been many examples in London and across the world of using railway infrastructure as a focus for regeneration. • The railway arches and route alongside have the right ingredients to become positive regeneration project, improving the public realm and public enjoyment, as well as employment space and economic value.

This approach is supported by the Elephant and Castle Opportunity Area Planning Framework: SPD 4: Jobs and Business: Provision of new business space, including incubator space, will be supported and must be designed flexibly to accommodate a range of unit sizes to help meet the needs of the local office market and SME businesses and to enable businesses to remain in the area as they grow…The railway arches should continue in active use for a range of B uses including small business space, creative and cultural industries, light industrial uses and appropriate A or D class uses. 4.1.18 The railway arches are a key feature of the area and provide a significant amount of space for businesses… Through saved Southwark Plan policy 1.5 we promote the use of the railway arches for a variety of uses, including shops, cafés, restaurants, business units and community uses. SPD 37: Land Uses: A range of retail (A class use), business (B class use) and leisure (D class) uses will be allowed in railway arches. 5.5.10 … A range of non- residential uses will be permitted in railway arches to encourage the regeneration of arches, generate more activity around them and reduce their impact as a barrier to movement.

This approach is supported by the Elephant and Castle Opportunity Area Planning Framework: SPD 15: Public realm:

This approach is supported by the Elephant and Castle Opportunity Area Planning Framework: SPD 4: Jobs and Businesses:

We will work with TfL, developers and the community to transform the quality of the public realm in the opportunity area, ensuring that it: • Prioritises pedestrian and cycle movement and creates places in which people will want to linger. • Helps create a sense of place and reinforces or encourages the positive development of the area’s character. • Is inclusive, well lit, overlooked and which feels safe at different times of the day and in the evening.

4.1.18 The railway arches are a key feature of the area and provide a significant amount of space for businesses. However, the contribution which the arches make to the character of the area is currently limited by the fact that the public realm around them is often poor… There are many examples in Bankside and Waterloo where use of arches for shops, creative industries and restaurants when combined with public realm improvements to the external environment, can help create lively and attractive places.

4.5.2 There is also the opportunity for proposals to provide unique elements located within the public realm or on buildings to enhance the sense of place and quality of the new neighbourhood and create features of surprise or delight. These might be achieved by the following: • Public art opportunities • Wayfinding elements • Street Furniture • Lighting • Hard and soft landscaping

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Dii TYPOLOGIES Existing Arch Precedents: High Line Viaduc Des Arts London Fields/ Forth ST. Deansgate Locks Ropewalk / Maltby Street / Spa Terminal Docklands Light Rail (DLR) Proposed Arch Precedents: Morning Ln. Bishopsgate Goodsyard Other Relevant Examples: Centre Pl.

Railway In Use?

Rail Arches repurposed?

Through Route?

Constrained Access?

HIGH LINE VIADUC DES ARTS LONDON FIELDS FORTH STREET DEANSGATE MALTBY STREET DLR MORNING LANE BISHOPSGATE GOODSYARD CENTRE PLACE

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HIGH LINE Location: New York, USA

Relevance for the Low Line:

Difference form the Low Line:

Typology: Disused railway infrastructure; railway tracks repurposed; through route

* New walking route created

* Current railway in not use

* Repurposed underused railway infrastructure

* More space and light available to enable the creation of growing spaces

Linear park created on top of a disused railway line. The underneath of the highline currently underused. DELIVERY Community led scheme:

* Regeneration vehicle

In 1999, following the closure of the active rail link in the 1980s, a charitable organisation called Friends of the High Line was established by residents in the surrounding area, to lobby for the preservation of the infrastructure and re-purposing as a public open space. Gathered high profile and public support and in 2004 New York Mayor Bloomberg committed $50m towards the project. This was in addition to private sponsorship (mostly by major adjacent landowners, who recognised the regeneration possibilities) and the total raised was more than $150m. In 2005/6 New York City adopted the line from Federal Transport, tendered the design, and started construction. The legacy is preserved through a partnership between New York City and the Friends of the Highline and maintenance is funded through private contributions raised by Friends of the Highline. http://www.thehighline.org

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VIADUC DES ARTS Location: Paris, France

Relevance for the “Low Line”:

Typology: Disused railway infrastructure; railway tracks and arches repurposed; through route

* New walking route created

Disused railway arches with linear park on top and renovated railway arches underneath. Railway arches renovated for use by high end retail and cafés. The arches sit alongside a major vehicle boulevard with wide pavements, street planting, cycle lanes. DELIVERY Regeneration led scheme:

* Renovated railway arches now used for high end retail and cafés * Regeneration vehicle

Difference from the “Low Line”: * Current railway not in use * More space and light available to enable the creation of growing spaces * Access routes less constrained with more room for pedestrians, cyclists, and servicing.

OCCUPIED RAIL ARCH

BUS

In 1979, ten years after the closure of the rail line, the “Atelier Parisien d’Urbanisme”, (the quasi-governmental non profit Urban Planning Organisation for Paris, comprised of representatives from the Paris municipality, state government and business) commissioned a report to explore options for the line. In 1983 the planted element of the transformation opened and in 1988 the arches were renovated for use as art galleries, shops and cafés. The area is still managed as a collaboration between the Mayor of Paris, the local arrondisement, SEMEAST (a private regeneration vehicle part owned by the city) and the shop keepers guild. http://www.leviaducdesarts.com/ http://www.semaest.fr/

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LONDON FIELDS/ FORTH ST. Location: Hackney/Newcastle, United Kingdom

Relevance for the “Low Line”:

Typology: In use railway; repurposed arches; wide access; destination

* Current railway in use

In use railway lines with retail use in the railway arches. Mix of retail uses including a bakery, brewery, antique furniture stores, storage. Quiet but wide access roads. Low scale buildings on the opposite side of the road. Access alongside the arches is limited to distinct, separate blocks.

* Repurposed railway arches used for a range of retail and cafés as well as storage and very light industrial uses.

Difference from the “Low Line”: * No through route created for pedestrians * More space and light available to enable the creation of growing spaces * Access routes less constrained with more room for pedestrians, cyclists, and servicing.

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OCCUPIED RAIL ARCH

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DEANSGATE LOCKS Location: Manchester, United Kingdom

Relevance for the “Low Line”:

Typology: In use railway; arches repurposed; canal-side; destination

* Current railway in use

In use railway line with arches underneath, renovated into a night-time quarter for Manchester. The horizontal divisions of the high roofed arches create an increased density of use. The area is entirely pedestrianised and sits alongside a canal.

* Renovated railway arches now used for leisure

Difference from the “Low Line”: * No through route created for pedestrians * Canal side, creating more light and open space

OCCUPIED RAIL ARCH

* Redevelopment focused on night-time economy OCCUPIED RAIL ARCH

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ROPEWALK / MALTBY STREET / SPA TERMINAL Location: Southwark, United Kingdom

Relevance for the “Low Line”:

Typology: In use railway; arches repurposed; narrow access; destination

* Current railway in use

In use railway with arches used for retail and small scale production; the Saturday market has become a popular visitor attraction. The Ropewalk is a narrow passage between the arches and residential developments. DELIVERY: Business led scheme:

* Renovated railway arches now used for high end retail and small scale production

Difference from the “Low Line”: * No pedestrian through route created

* Extremely narrow through route which still accommodates pedestrians and shop access

OCCUPIED RAIL ARCH

OTHER BUILDING

There is little public information about the history of this market but it appears to have been an offshoot of Borough market, first into the Ropewalk, probably following increased rent after the regeneration of the market and the refocus on hot food, and then into the “Spa Terminus” (a hub of rail arches), in order to secure longer leases. Their focus is on food production and the wholesale market and has a no hot food policy to prevent it becoming an extension of Borough Market. Their website suggests they are working with both national rail and Southwark Council. http://www.spa-terminus.co.uk/ Information about a recent planning application, including documentation about the nature of the site: http://planningonline.southwark.gov.uk/ AcolNetCGI.exe?ACTION=UNWRAP&RIPNAME=Root. PgeDocs&TheSystemkey=9552818

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DOCKLANDS LIGHT RAIL (DLR) Location: Canery Wharf, United Kingdom

Relevance for the “Low Line”:

Typology: In use railway; some arches repurposed; pedestrian route; through route

* Current railway in use

Railway in use, with some arches used for retail, restaurants and cafés. There are pedestrian routes along or under some long stretches of the DLR, including Cable Street and Southquay to Cross-harbour Stations.

* Walking route created * A small number of renovated railway arches now used for high end retail and cafés

Difference from the “Low Line”: * More space and light available to enable the creation of growing spaces * Access routes less constrained with more room for pedestrians, cyclists, and servicing.

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PARK

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MORNING LN. Location: Hackney, United Kingdom

Relevance for the “Low Line”:

Typology: In use railway; some arches repurposed; no access constraints; destination

* Current railway in use

Railway in use, with some arches currently being redeveloped as retail and work spaces as part of a wider redevelopment of Morning Lane. DELIVERY: Mayor of London led scheme: Following the 2011 London Riots, the Mayor of London established a £70m Regeneration Fund to support economic growth in the affected areas. One of the projects is focussed on Morning Lane in Hackney Central. The Council is receiving £2m from the Regeneration Fund, combined with £2.6m from Hackney Council to create a fashion hub. As part of the wider regeneration 12 railway arches will be refurbished for workshops, retail and cafés and restaurants. However there has been resistance expressed by local businesses and residents concerned by displacement from higher rents.

* Renovated railway arches * Seen as a regeneration catalyst and in receipt of funding

Difference from the “Low Line”: * More space and light available to enable the creation of growing spaces * Access routes less constrained with more room for pedestrians, cyclists, and servicing. * Not a through routes, just one small section of arches being repurposed.

Community Feedback: “ *Slow hand-clap* Thanks guys (and Guy) for sending the people’s money straight out of the borough, for the benefit of shoppers from out of the borough, and shop owners from, you guessed it, out of the borough. How many jobs for Hackney people will this create? Let’s have a sweepstake. I’m going for 12.” “Will the road be wide enough? As already it can be a tight squeeze cycling towards an oncoming fast car in between the parked cars.”

https://www.london.gov.uk/priorities/regeneration/ high-streets/projects/hackney-central http://hackneyfashionhub.co.uk/ http://www.newstatesman.com/politics/2013/08/ hackney-fashion-hub-parallel-universe-tourist-wealthlaunching-2014

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BISHOPSGATE GOODSYARD Location: Shoreditch, United Kingdom

Relevance for the “Low Line”:

Typology: Some in use railway; Arches repurposed; access constraints; destination

* Some of the railway in use

Major redevelopment site with both the London Overground running through the site and two sets of heritage railway arches which are no longer part of the rail network. The scheme includes a large number of retail units, a park and the creation of workspaces and retail units underneath the heritage railway arches.

* Renovated railway arches * Arches seen as an asset within the wider redevelopment scheme

Difference from the “Low Line”: * Currently empty site, except for the railway infrastructure, which enables much ore flexibility about access.

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CENTRE PL. Location: Melbourne, Australia

Relevance for the “Low Line”:

Typology: No railway infrastructure; access constraints; through routes

* Severely constrained space reactivated and turned into pleasant spaces

Deliberate creation of a series of laneways between and behind the main block structure. Planning laws used to encourage the creation of businesses facing towards these alleys to encourage their use.

Difference from the “Low Line”: * Not focussed around railway infrastructure

* Through routes created

DELIVERY: Policy led scheme: Melbourne’s large block formation has been punctuated by informal “laneways” and alleys since the city was first developed. These became increasingly neglected urban spaces until 1994 when the city of Melbourne decided to take a proactive approach to increasing their use and animation. A key document in this change of approach was the adoption of the Lanes Policy in 2007, which includes the preservation or enhancement of connectivity, 24-hour public access, views, active street frontages, service functions, and pedestrian amenities. In addition the city established the Laneway Commissions Program in 2001, which encouraged the establishment of art galleries, street graffiti and festivals. They are now thriving routes throughout the city.

MAIN BUILDING

MAIN BUILDING

ACTIVE FRONTAGE

ACTIVE FRONTAGE

https://courses.washington.edu/gehlstud/gehlstudio/wp-content/themes/gehl-studio/downloads/ Autumn2008/Melbourne_Lanes.pdf

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Diii EXISTING DEVELOPMENTS 2-10 STEEDMAN ST. Received planning permission from Southwark Council in 2011 and building works are now underway. The current design supports the delivery of the “low line” by renovating the existing route between the building line and the railway arches and by including five railway arches which will be refurbished and used for incubator space. The planning permission report also stipulates a discounted affordable rent value for these incubator units. This could provide a precedent for a future Neighbourhood Plan. Officers Report – Planning Committee 28/11/2011: http://planbuild.southwark.gov.uk/documents/?casereference=11/AP/0868&system=DC

APPENDIX 3

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- Create a commercial cluster to the north of the site - Potentially providing spaces for small businesses to thrive - Cater for small businesses – office/light industrial businesses such as studios and office spaces

MANOR PLACE DEPOT The development is currently in the pre-application stage, although a planning application is due to be submitted shortly. The current design recognises the value of the “low line” by creating an 8m wide route between the new residential buildings and the railway line and by regenerating the railway arches, which run through the site, for business use. The consultation material states: “We aim to: • Renovate a selection of the disused railway arches • Transform the arches to encourage complementary business uses to the area • Create a commercial cluster to the north of the site • Potentially providing spaces for small businesses to thrive • Cater for small businesses – office/light industrial businesses such as studios and office spaces” www.manorplacedepot.co.uk

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GREEN LINKS

REFERENCES

Design Elements 1 (Page 19)

lessons-from-exhibition-road/

1) http://www.americantrails.org/resources/trailbuilding/ Ludlam-trail-design-miama-dade.html

Derbyshire: http://worldlandscapearchitect.com/derbyshire-streetpocket-park
-london-uk-greysmith-associates/

2) http://www.redmond.gov/PlansProjects/ connectingCommunity/clevelandStreetStreetscape/ 3) http://www.externalworksindex.co.uk/company/150939/ KFS-Enterprises/category/3-1601/type/13/All-entries/ Products? 4) http://www.externalworksindex.co.uk/company/150939/ KFS-Enterprises/category/3-1601/type/13/All-entries/ Products? 5) http://www.citysquared.co.uk/products/matchboxplanter-bench.html 6) http://www.woodscape.co.uk/our-projects/streetfurniture-uk/ 7) http://www.museumofthecity.org/portlands-green-streets/ Design Elements 2 (Page 20) 8) http://www.museumofthecity.org/portlands-green-streets/ 9) http://www.fortstjohn.ca/sites/default/files/images/ planting-day.jpg 10) http://alltheclevernamesweretaken.blogspot. co.uk/2011_12_01_archive.html 11) http://www.cityofchicago.org/city/en/depts/cdot/ provdrs/future_projects_andconcepts/news/2013/mar/ complete_streetsdesignguidelines.html Precedents Hereford Widemarsh Street: http://www.hamilton-baillie.co.uk/index. php?do=projects&sub=details&pid=116 London Exhibition Road: https://aseasyasridingabike.wordpress.com/2013/01/21/

Portland Oregon: http://www.designsponge.com/2009/11/rain-solutions-yurtsdomes.html New York: http://tripwow.tripadvisor.com/tripwow/ta-00a0-b6be-73db Virginia: http://urbanforestry.frec.vt.edu/STREETS/resources.html Chicago: http://www.cityofchicago.org/city/en/depts/cdot/provdrs/ street/svcs/landcaped_medians.html East Street - Horsham: http://www.hamilton-baillie.co.uk/index. php?do=projects&sub=details&pid=116 Brighton: https://davisla.wordpress.com/2014/01/16/new-roadbrighton-shared-space/ Times Square: http://www.inetours.com/New_York/Pages/photos/TimesSquare-day.html Amsterdam: ttp://thisoldcity.com/policy/postcard-new-amsterdam-vision-zero-new-york%E2%80%99s-commitment-safer-streetsfewer-deaths#.VQ1yMsmeS5I Derbyshire: http://worldlandscapearchitect.com/derbyshire-streetpocket-park
-london-uk-greysmith-associates/ Garden with Year Round Color and Form: http://natureforcities.snre.umich.edu/streetside-gardens/ easement-garden-designs/garden-with-year-round-colorand-form/

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NEW KENT ROAD

LOW LINE

Manual for Streets (DfT, 2007)

Elephant and Castle Opportunity Area Planning Framework, 2012 http://www.southwark.gov.uk/info/200151/supplementary_ planning_documents_and_guidance/2040/elephant_and_castle_ spd_oapf

Manual for Streets 2 (DfT, 2010) Link & Place: A Guide to Street Planning and Design (Jones, Boujenko & Marshall, 2007)

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Green Infrastructure  

A report and analysis on 'green' infrastructure interventions for the Elephant and Walworth Neighbourhood Forum. The report was written by a...

Green Infrastructure  

A report and analysis on 'green' infrastructure interventions for the Elephant and Walworth Neighbourhood Forum. The report was written by a...

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