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AROUND THE WORLD


AROUND THE WORLD

INTRODUCTION This magazine was carried out in order to make known to our audiences some of the most amazing creations from all over the world, highlighting in particular, some which have been highlighted by unique constructions and be truly impressive, and that never more years that pass go to cease to be important in the history of architecture.


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INDICE

GRECIA ………………………………………………………………………………… Pag Parthenon …………………………………………………………………………….. Pag Temple of Athena Nike ……………………………………………………………. Pag AUSTRALIA …………………………………………………………………………… Pag Opera Sidney ………………………………………………………………………….. Pag Central Park tower …………………………………………………………………… Pag EGYPT ……………………………………………………………………………………. Pag Pyramid of Giza ……………………………………………………………………….. Pag UNITED STATES ……………………………………………………………………… Pag Statue of liberty ……………………………………………………………………….. Pag Las Vegas ………………………………………………………………………………… Pag ITALY …………………………………………………………………………………….. Pag The cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore ………………………………………. Pag Tower of Pisa …………………………………………………………………………… Pag CHINA ……………………………………………………………………………………. Pag Great Wall of China …………………………………………………………………. Pag National stadium in Beijing ………………………………………………………. Pag DUBAI…………………………………………………………………………………….. Pag Hotel burj al Arab …………………………………………………………………….. Pag Tower burj khalifa ……………………………………………………………………. Pag Hotel dusit thani Dubai ……………………………………………………………. Pag National bank …………………………………………………………………………. Pag World Island……………………………………………………………………………. Pag


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GRECIA PARTENĂ“N The Parthenon is one of the main temples that are preserved in Greece , built between the years 447 and 432. C. Their approximate dimensions are: 69.5 meters long, 30.9 wide, and the columns are 10.4 meters in height and is dedicated to the Greek goddess Athena, to which the Athenians felt his protector. The construction of the monument was carried out entirely in white marble, was initiated by Pericles as thanks to the gods by his victory against the Persians, and developed between the years 447 and 432. C. The architects in charge of the work were Ictino and Calicrates and were, in most cases, under the orders of the architect and great Athenian sculptor Phidias. The Parthenon retained their religious character and was converted successively in a Byzantine church, a Latin church and a Muslim mosque. But in 1687, the Turks used it as a store of gunpowder during the venetian site, under the command of Admiral Francesco Morosini. One of the venetian bombs fell on the Parthenon and caused a huge explosion that destroyed a large portion of the building. The design of the Parthenon was created to accommodate the image of gold and ivory of Athena Parthenos in the western zone, to the bottom of the inside of the colonnade of four columns, there was the basement of the statue, for the worship of Athena Parthenos pond with a broad, shallow, which produced a glow effect through the water in front of this. This construction is one of the clearest examples of knowledge in geometry on the part of the Greek mathematicians and architects. The architects managed to get the visual effect that will show the Parthenon not to allow them to appreciate the unsightly deformation that is perceived to be placed in the vicinity of the major monuments. Managed to get the visual effect with accurate more aesthetic alterations in its construction


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TEMPLE OF ATHENA NIKE


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The project was awarded to Calicrates, an architect who also worked in the construction of the Parthenon, together with Ictino,. The temple in its current state has been faithfully restored, but has lost part of the entablature, the cover and the pediments. The elevation of the temple has 8 meters of height: from the step platform - an area of 5712 m2 (51 x 112 m), above the crepidoma-, to the highest part of the pediment there is barely 3 meters.1 2 on the crepidoma is seated the walls and the ionic columns of marble composed of based, Fuste monolithic with splines of angles and capitel killed with volutes. The entablature consists of an architrave of three bands, a frieze that had a bench decoration mythological allusion to the Medical wars and a cornice, the pediments on she dedicated to Athena.

PLANT The plant, to very small dimensions, it is own of a temple anfiprostilo, in which the front lobby as the rear become small porches. The "room of the goddess", it is square. It is therefore a very small temple, of human dimensions very harmonious in its proportions. All measures are mathematically studied to make that sense of gracefulness, despite their small size. On its small dimensions, Marie-Christine Hellmann said that its structure was due to space limitations


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OPERA Sテ好NEY

The Sydney Opera House or Sydney Opera House, located in the city of Sydney, Australia, is one of the most famous buildings and flags of the twentieth century Declared in 2007 World Heritage Site, was designed by the Danish architect", says Utzon in 1957 and inaugurated on 20 October 1973, with the presence of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom. The Sydney Opera House is a building with an expressionist radically innovative design, formed by a series of prefabricated large shells, each one taken from the same hemisphere, which form the roofs of the structure. The Opera Theater covers 1.8 hectares, with 183 meters long and about 120 meters of width, maximum. Although the structures of the roofs of the Sydney Opera House is the commonly known as husks, these in fact they are not in the architectural sense of the word, in that they are formed by precast concrete panels which are supported by prefabricated ribs of the same material. Sites and facilities of the operating theater to concerts and the great organ: the Sydney Opera House contains five theaters, five studies of trials, two main rooms, four restaurants, six bars and souvenir shops. In addition to theater productions, the facilities of the Sydney Opera House are also used for other functions, such as weddings, parties and conferences. For this type of events, the theater has the following smaller rooms: Room of recordings, exhibition room, reception hall, five rehearsal rooms, 42 dressing rooms, 2 restaurants, 6 bars for the theater, 6 halls, living rooms Offices for the administration and library files "green room" for the artists and staff (bar, dining room, living room) plant and areas of operation for electrical installations, air-conditioning, Walk of granite around the entire "Opera House". In total there are around 800 different environments or rooms throughout the resort.


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CENTRAL PARK Central Park is a 51-story skyscraper in Perth, Western Australia. The building has a height of 226 m from its base in St Georges Terrace until its rooftop terrace, and 249 m to the top of its antenna. With its completion in 1992, the tower became the tallest building in Perth. It is also currently the ninth tallest building in Australia. The base of the building includes a small park, which receives its name the tower. Department stores from as early as 1930, the place housed a few department stores Foy & Gibson, who were known locally as Foys. The store was extended all the way between St Georges terrace and there are Street, included a popular coffee shop and "had large areas of shop windows with windows of island beyond the facade of the street". Store the change to be a big department store David Jones after the acquisition of that string with Foy's Western Australian Operations. In the late 1970s, David Jones was withdrawn from the market in Western Australia, and the place was vacant after decades as a milestone of St Georges terrace. The place was subsequently acquired by Central Park developments, a joint venture of the Superannuation Board of Western Australia, Bond Corporation and L. R. Connell and Partners, and in 1986 had a value of A$20 million.


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EGYPT PYRAMID OF GIZA

The Great Pyramid of Giza (also known as the Pyramid of Khufu or the Pyramid of Cheops) is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now El Giza, Egypt. It is the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, and the only one to remain largely intact. Egyptologists believe that the pyramid was built as a tomb for fourth dynasty Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu (Cheops in Greek) over a 10 to 20-year period concluding around 2560 BCE. Initially at 146.5 meters (481 feet), the Great Pyramid was the tallest man-made structure in the world for over 3,800 years. Originally, the Great Pyramid was covered by casing stones that formed a smooth outer surface; what is seen today is the underlying core structure. Some of the casing stones that once covered the


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structure can still be seen around the base. There have been varying scientific and alternative theories about the Great Pyramid's construction techniques. Most accepted construction hypotheses are based on the idea that it was built by moving huge stones from a quarry and dragging and lifting them into place. firstly its height was 146.5 meters and now, its height is 138.8 meters moreover the base of the pyramid is 230 meters.

There are three known chambers inside the Great Pyramid. The lowest chamber is cut into the bedrock upon which the pyramid was built and was unfinished. The so-called Queen's Chamber and King's Chamber are higher up within the pyramid structure. The Great Pyramid of Giza is the only pyramid in Egypt known to contain both ascending and descending passages. The main part of the Giza complex is a setting of buildings that included two mortuary temples in honour of Khufu (one close to the pyramid and one near the Nile), three smaller pyramids for Khufu's wives, an even smaller "satellite" pyramid, a raised causeway connecting the two temples, and small mastaba tombs surrounding the pyramid for nobles.

It is believed the pyramid was built as a tomb for fourth dynasty Egyptian pharaoh Khufu and was constructed over a 20 year period. Khufu's vizier, Hermon, or Hemiunu, is believed by some to be the architect of the Great Pyramid. It is thought that, at construction, the Great Pyramid was originally 280 Egyptian cubits tall, 146.5 meters (480.6 ft) but with erosion and absence of its pyramidion, its present height is 138.8 meters (455.4 ft). Each base side was 440 cubits, 230.4 meters (755.9 ft) long. The mass of the pyramid is estimated at 5.9 million tonnes. The volume, including an internal hillock, is roughly 2,500,000 cubic meters (88,000,000 cu ft). Based on these estimates, building this in 20 years would involve installing approximately 800 tonnes of stone every day. Similarly, since it consists of an estimated 2.3 million blocks, completing the building in 20 years would involve moving an average of more than 12 of the blocks into place each hour, day and night. Many of the casing stones and inner chamber blocks of the Great Pyramid were fit together with extremely high precision. Based on measurements taken on the north eastern casing stones, the mean opening of the joints is only 0.5 millimeter’s wide (1/50th of an inch). The pyramid remained the tallest man-made structure in the world for over 3,800 years, unsurpassed until the 160-metre-tall (520 ft) spire of Lincoln Cathedral was completed c. 1300. The accuracy of the pyramid's workmanship is such that the four sides of the base have an average error of only 58 millimeters in length. The base is horizontal and flat to within ±15 mm (0.6 in).The sides of the square base are closely aligned to the four cardinal compass points (within 4 minutes of arc) based on true north, not magnetic north, and the finished base was squared to a mean corner error of only 12 seconds of arc. The completed design dimensions, as suggested by Petrie's survey and subsequent studies, are estimated to have originally been 280 cubits high by 440 cubits long at each of the four sides of its base. The ratio of the perimeter to height of 1760/280 cubits equates to 2π to an accuracy of better than 0.05%.

MATERIALS


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The Great Pyramid consists of an estimated 2.3 million limestone blocks with most believed to have been transported from nearby quarries. The Tura limestone used for the casing was quarried across the river. The largest granite stones in the pyramid, found in the "King's" chamber, weigh 25 to 80 tonnes and were transported from Aswan, more than 800 km (497 mi) away. Traditionally, ancient Egyptians cut stone blocks by hammering wooden wedges into the stone which were then soaked with water. As the water was absorbed, the wedges expanded, causing the rock to crack. Once they were cut, they were carried by boat either up or down the Nile River to the pyramid. It is estimated that 5.5 million tonnes of limestone, 8,000 tonnes of granite (imported from Aswan), and 500,000 tonnes of mortar were used in the construction of the Great Pyramid. INTERIOR Diagram of the interior structures of the Great Pyramid. The inner line indicates the pyramid's present profile; the outer line indicates the original profile. The original entrance to the Great Pyramid is 17 meters (56 ft.) vertically above ground level and 7.29 meters (23.9 ft.) east of the center line of the pyramid. From this original entrance there is a Descending Passage 0.96 meters (3.1 ft.) high and 1.04 meters (3.4 ft.) wide which goes down at an angle of 26째 31'23" through the masonry of the pyramid and then into the bedrock beneath it. After 105.23 meters (345.2 ft.), the passage becomes level and continues for an additional 8.84 meters (29.0 ft.) to the lower Chamber, which appears not to have been finished. There is a continuation of the horizontal passage in the south wall of the lower chamber; there is also a pit dug in the floor of the chamber. Some Egyptologists suggest this Lower Chamber was intended to be the original burial chamber, but Pharaoh Khufu later changed his mind and wanted it to be higher up in the pyramid.

At 28.2 meters (93 ft) from the entrance is a square hole in the roof of the Descending Passage. Originally concealed with a slab of stone, this is the beginning of the Ascending Passage. The Ascending Passage is 39.3 meters (129 ft) long, as wide and high as the Descending Passage and


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slopes up at almost precisely the same angle. The lower end of the Ascending Passage is closed by three huge blocks of granite, each about 1.5 meters (4.9 ft) long. At the start of the Grand Gallery on the right-hand side there is a hole cut in the wall, (and now blocked by chicken wire). This is the start of a vertical shaft which follows an irregular path through the masonry of the pyramid to join the Descending Passage. Also at the start of the Grand Gallery there is a Horizontal Passage leading to the "Queen's Chamber". The passage is 1.1m (3'8") high for most of its length, but near the chamber there is a step in the floor, after which the passage is 1.73 meters (5.7 ft.) high.

SOME CURIOSITIES • Old name: Skyline Khnum-Jufuy • Modern Name: Great Pyramid of Giza • Pharaoh Khnum-Jufuy (Khufu, Cheops, Khufu - IV Dynasty) • Architect: Hemiunu (cousin of Pharaoh) • Dimensions: Base, 230 m, original height, 146.6 meters, current height, approximately 137 meters, and angle: 51 º 50 '35'' • Volume: 2,592,968 cubic meters • Location: Egypt, on the Giza Plateau, 12 kilometers from the city of Cairo. • Area: The large platform on which is built the monument measures 1,500 meters. from north to south, 2,000 mts. from east to west. • Altitude: 40 m above the Valley of Giza. • Location: The three pyramids are arranged in order of size and age along an axis that runs from northeast to southeast. • Architectural Evolution: Its form followed a clear evolution, where the starting point is in the mastaba and, through the intermediate stages represented by the Step Pyramid of Djoser, Saqqara, the Sneferu in Meidum and the Bent Pyramid Dahshur, leads to perfect pyramids of Giza. • Number of workers involved: It is estimated that the total labor force that intervened in the pyramid was approximately 4,000 men among quarry workers, porters and builders. • Number of years in which it was built: Between 23 and 30 years • Number of blocks: 2 million stones, of about 200 and 250 kilos, although there were larger blocks. DID YOU KNOW...? • The Great Pyramid of Giza is the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World that reached our days.


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• The original height of the Great Pyramid, measuring 146 meters, dropped by 9 meters due to erosion and over time. • It was the tallest building in the world until the construction of the Eiffel Tower in 1889. • Hollywood movies, fed the myth that they were slaves who built the pyramids. Actually did peasants and farmers, with a salary by the pharaoh. • From the time of the Greeks, this building is known as the Pyramid of Cheops. • Near the pyramid of Cheops, the grave of his mother was found, Heteferes Queen, one of the few funerary temples that reached our days without being looted. • When Tut became Pharaoh, the Great Pyramid already had 250 years old. • The Great Pyramid consists of 2,300,000 individual stone blocks, each weighing about 2.5 tons. • His Grand Gallery is 47 meters long and 8.48 meters high. • At its completion, the pyramid weighed approximately six million tons. • The Great Pyramid is aligned with the four cardinal points. • In 1798 before the Battle of the Pyramids of Giza against the Mamelukes, Napoleon Bonaparte addressed his troops saying: "Soldiers, from the height of these pyramids, forty centuries of history we contemplate". • According to the Turin Papyrus, the entire structure was built in about 23 years. Other sources indicate that the construction took place over 30 years. • In the area occupied by the Great Pyramid would fit eight football fields. To surround have to walk half a mile, height corresponds to a forty-story building.

UNITED STATES STATUE OF LIBERTY

The Statue of Liberty is a colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in the middle of New York Harbor, in Manhattan, New York City. The statue, designed by Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi and dedicated on October 28, 1886, was a gift to the United States from the people of France. The statue is of a robed female figure representing Libertas, the Roman goddess of freedom, who bears a torch and a tabula ansata (a tablet evoking the law) upon which is inscribed the date of the American Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776. A broken chain lies at her feet. The statue is an icon of freedom and of the United States: a welcoming signal to immigrants arriving from abroad.


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CONSTRUCTION The statues head on exhibit at the Paris World's Fair, 1878 On his return to Paris in 1877, Bartholdi concentrated on completing the head, which was exhibited at the 1878 Paris World's Fair. Fundraising continued, with models of the statue put on sale. Tickets to view the construction activity at the Gaget, Gauthier & Co. workshop were also offered. The French government authorized a lottery; among the prizes were valuable silver plate and a terracotta model of the statue. By the end of 1879, about 250,000 francs had been raised.

The head and arm had been built with assistance from Viollet-le-Duc, who fell ill in 1879. He soon died, leaving no indication of how he intended to transition from the copper skin to his proposed masonry pier. The following year, Bartholdi was able to obtain the services of the innovative designer and builder Gustave Eiffel. Eiffel and his structural engineer, Maurice Koechlin, decided to abandon the pier and instead build an iron truss tower. Eiffel opted not to use a completely rigid structure, which would force stresses to accumulate in the skin and lead eventually to cracking. To enable the statue to move slightly in the winds of New York Harbor and as the metal expanded on hot summer days, he loosely connected the support structure to the skin using what was dubbed an armature—a metal framework that ends in a mesh of metal straps, known as "saddles", that are riveted to the skin, providing firm support. In a labor-intensive process, each saddle had to be crafted individually. To prevent galvanic corrosion between the copper skin and the iron support structure, Eiffel insulated the skin with asbestos impregnated with shellac. The change in structural material from masonry to iron allowed Bartholdi to change his plans for the statue's assembly. He had originally expected to assemble the skin on-site as the masonry pier was built; instead he decided to build the statue in France and have it disassembled and transported to the United States for reassembly in place on Bedloe's Island.


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Eiffel's design made the statue one of the earliest examples of curtain wall construction, in which the exterior of the structure is not load bearing, but is instead supported by an interior framework. He included two interior spiral staircases, to make it easier for visitors to reach the observation point in the crown. Access to an observation platform surrounding the torch was also provided, but the narrowness of the arm allowed for only a single ladder, 40 feet (12 m) long.[55] As the pylon tower arose, Eiffel and Bartholdi coordinated their work carefully so that completed segments of skin would fit exactly on the support structure. The components of the pylon tower were built in the Eiffel factory in the nearby Parisian suburb of Levallois-Perret.

In a symbolic act, the first rivet placed into the skin, fixing a copper plate onto the statue's big toe, was driven by United States Ambassador to France Levi P. Morton. The skin was not, however, crafted in exact sequence from low to high; work proceeded on a number of segments simultaneously in a manner often confusing to visitors. Some work was performed by contractors—one of the fingers was made to Bartholdi's exacting specifications by a coppersmith in the southern French town of Montauban. By 1882, the statue was complete up to the waist, an event Barthodi celebrated by inviting reporters to lunch on a platform built within the statue. Laboulaye died in 1883. He was succeeded as chairman of the French committee by Ferdinand de Lesseps, builder of the Suez Canal. The completed statue was formally presented to Ambassador Morton at a ceremony in Paris on July 4, 1884, and de Lesseps announced that the French government had agreed to pay for its transport to New York. The statue remained intact in Paris pending sufficient progress on the pedestal; by January 1885, this had occurred and the statue was disassembled and crated for its ocean voyage.

LAS VEGAS Las Vegas is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Nevada and the county seat of Clark County. Las Vegas is an internationally renowned major resort city known primarily for gambling, shopping, fine dining, and nightlife and is the leading financial and cultural center for Southern Nevada. The city bills itself as The Entertainment Capital of the World, and is famous for its consolidated casino– hotels and associated entertainment. A growing retirement and family city, Las Vegas is the 31st-most populous city in the United States, with a population at the 2010 census of 583,756. The 2010 population of the Las Vegas metropolitan area was 1,951,269. The city is one of the top three leading destinations in the United States for conventions, business, and meetings. Today, Las Vegas is one of the top tourist destinations in the world.


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In the Vegas lot of beautiful constructions is, in most hotels and casinos that house day and night hundreds of tourists from around the world. then we will see the best casino hotels:

BELLAGIO Bellagio is a luxury hotel and casino 5 diamond rated by AAA located on the Las Vegas Strip in Paradise , Nevada , USA . The owners are for the MGM Resorts International and was built on the site of the demolished hotel and casino Dunes . Restort Inspired by the Lake Como to Bellagio in Italy , Bellagio is famed for its elegance. One of the most notable attractions of the hotel is an artificial lake in the strip of Las Vegas 8 acres (32,375 m²), which contains the famous Bellagio fountains , a huge source for synchronized dancing music, also has 3,933 rooms. The Bellagio employs approximately 10,000 people over. In the fall of 2006, the casino floor was remodeled and uniformed, changing the original color to a more contemporary blue. Inside Bellagio, Dale Chihuly 's Fiori di Como, designed more than 2,000 glass flowers created by hand, covering 2000 sq. ft. (185.80608 m²) of the lobby ceiling. Bellagio is home to the acoustic production " O "from Cirque du Soleil , the second permanent production show the great world famous.


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CAESARS PALACE Caesars Palace is a hotel and casino located on the Las Vegas Strip, Nevada, United States. Was inaugurated on August 5, 1966. It has been remodeled five times: in 1974, 1979, 1992, 2001 and 2007. It has 3,349 rooms in five towers: "Augusto", "Centurion", "Roman", "Palace" and "Forum". The main theme of the hotel is the Roman Empire.

WYNN LAS VEGAS Wynn Las Vegas Resort and Country Club is a 5 Diamond / 4 stars by AAA 5 Diamond / 5 stars (for The Tower Suites at Wynn Las Vegas) casino resort located on the Las Vegas Strip in Paradise, Nevada, a southern suburb of Las Vegas. The resort of U.S. $ 2.7 billion is named after developer Steve Wynn and is the flagship property of Wynn Resorts and Limited. It is located on Las Vegas Boulevard South Sands Avenue (on the NE corner), directly across from the Fashion Show Mall The 2,716 rooms have an average of 640 square feet (58 m²) and the villas are other rooms with 7,000 square feet (650 m²) with a casino of 111,000 ft ² (10,200 m²) convention center of 223,000 ft ² (20,700 m²) of space, 76,000 square feet (7,000 m²) of retail space.


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ITALY THE CATHEDRAL OF SANTA MARIA DEL FIORE The Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence, which has the biggest brick dome in the world.1 2 and is considered one of praise masterpieces of Italian architecture The cathedral has a Latin cross plan with three naves. As is typical Italian Gothic tends to the horizontal and polychrome, by inserting rows of stone and marble.It took 25 years to complete the dome when the cathedral took 130 years under construction. After finishing the work, proved to be the largest cathedral in Europe, with a capacity for 30,000 people. Currently only surpassed in size by the St. Peter's Basilica at the Vatican, St. Paul's Cathedral in London, the Seville Cathedral and the Cathedral of Milan. It is one of the masterpieces of Gothic and early Renaissance Italian. Symbol of wealth and power of the Tuscan capital during the thirteenth and fourteenth century Florentine cathedral is one of the largest buildings in Christendom Santa Maria del Fiore this in the Piazza del Duomo, in the historic center of Florence. Faced with the Baptistery of San Giovanni and guarded by the Campanile in this square converge numerous shopping streets of the center.


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TOWER OF PISA Is the bell tower of the Cathedral of Pisa. It was built to stand vertically but began leaning as soon as construction began in August 1173. The height of the tower is 55.7 to 55.8 meters from the base, its weight is estimated at 14,700 tons and the inclination of about 4 掳 , extending 3.9 m from vertical. The tower has 8 levels arches base with 15 columns, six levels with external colonnade topped by a belfry . The internal spiral staircase has 294 steps. The tower is located in Pisa, a city of the Italian region of Tuscany and is the capital of the homonymous province. The Italian government asked for help on February 27, 1964 to prevent its collapse, and January 7, 1990 was closed to the public as a security measure. In May 2008 , after the removal of another 70 metric tons ( 70,000 kg) of earth , engineers announced that the Tower had been stabilized such that had stopped moving for the first time in its history . He stated it would be stable for at least 200 years. He turned to allow entry to the public on June 16, 2001 , after the completion of 10 years of work . (Speaker Icon.svg Listen to the sound of bells. ) . The construction of the tower of Pisa was developed in three stages over a period of 177 years. The construction of the first floor of marble began August 8, 1173, in a period of military success and prosperity. The first floor is surrounded by pillars with classical capitals and arches.

CHINA GREAT WALL OF CHINA Is an ancient Chinese fortification built and rebuilt between the V century a. C. and the sixteenth century ( early modern ) to protect the northern borders of the Chinese Empire during the successive imperial dynasties attacks Xiongnu nomads of Mongolia and Manchuria. Counting its branches and secondary buildings , is estimated to be 8851 kilometers long, from the Korean border to the edge of the Yalu River to the Gobi Desert along an arc that roughly delineates the southern edge of Inner Mongolia, although today only retained 30% of it.1 on average , measures 6-7 feet tall and 4-5 feet wide . In its heyday Ming, was guarded by more than one million guerreros.2 The wall was named a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1987 . Much of the Great Wall is reputed to be the largest cemetery in the world. Approximately 10 million people died during the construcci贸n.3 were not buried in the wall itself, but nearby. On July 7, 2007 it was announced that the Chinese wall was chosen as a winner in the list of New Seven Wonders of the Modern World. It is twinned with the Roman walls of Lugo , Galicia , Spain , also a world heritage site . Traditionally, it divides the history of the construction of the Great Wall in five parts: One before the unification of the Qin Dynasty (221 a.) During the spring and autumn and Warring States. The second from the unification of the Qin Dynasty, where the Emperor Qin Shi Huang began building a fence along the northern border.


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NATIONAL STADIUM IN BEIJING

It is commonly known as bird's nest, because the network of steel outside. It is covered by a transparent membrane. The stadium is 330 meters long, 220 m wide and 69 m high. It is equipped with a system of solar and rainwater collection for irrigation and cleaning. Hosted the opening and closing ceremonies, athletics events and the football final at the Olympic. OO. PekĂ­n Beijing Olympic Stadium is to the architects, " a brilliant structural aesthetic challenge " whose artistic and technical audacity necessarily had to impress a panel of professionals who were part impressive as Koolhaas , Nouvel or Perrault , thus giving the Swiss architects commissioned largest and perhaps most crucial time in their careers and in April 2003 the project was accepted . The December 24, 2003 will begin the work of building the stadium with about 17,000 workers, all 110,000 tons of steel were used in construction of the stadium was manufactured in China making it the largest steel structure in the world, the 24th May began the final stage of construction of the stadium which was the placement of lawn that was done in just one day . The stadium has a collection system that purifies water and is used in everything related to water in the stadium, also has some pipes on the roof of the stadium to collect the hot air and use it to heat the stage winter and cool air is collected to cool the stadium in summer.


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DUBAI

Dubai is famous for his spectacular airport and for the hotel Burj Al-Arab, an exclusive resort that possesses one of the highest skyscrapers of the world. In little more than 15 years, the capital of the United Arab Emirates has suffered a deep transformation, and today it is called to turning into the whole modal concerning big constructions.

HOTEL BURJ AL ARAB El Burj Al Arabí es un hotel de lujo con una altura de 321 metros (el tercer hotel más alto de todo el mundo, superado por el Rose Rotana Hotel y el Ryugyong Hotel) y uno de los edificios más representativos de Dubái. Con forma de vela, está situado en el mar, sobre una isla artificial localizada a 270 metros de la playa en el Golfo Pérsico, la cual está conectada a tierra firme mediante una carretera. Posee nueve restaurantes, entre los que destacan el Al Mahara -ubicado bajo el mar, ofreciendo una vista subacuática a través de un vitral en forma de acuario- y el Al Muntaha, localizado a 200 metros de altura, permitiendo una vista panorámica de la ciudad.


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TORRE BURJ KHALIFA

The Burj Khalifa known during his construction as Burj Dubai, is a skyscraper that there is placed in the district Downtown Burj Khalifa of the city of Dubai, in United Arab Emirates, and is the highest structure constructed by the man, with 828 meters of height.

HOTEL DUSIT THANI DUBAI

This hotel of luxury of 40 plants emphasizes for the aspect of his tower, divided in two bases that they join in the highest part. The tower of the left side, it contains apartments, whereas in that of the right you find the most luxurious suites of the hotel. Above, the zone of enjoyment, with a gymnasium and a spectacular swimming pool outdoors.


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NATIONAL BANK This building placed in Deira, in the part this one of Dubai, is the headquarters of the national banking of the emirate. It forms a part of the old man downtown of Dubai, together with the Dubai Creek. With his 125 meters, the National Bank of Dubai is the Deidra’s highest building, and it was the highest fifth building of Dubai in the epoch of his construction in 1998. His form inspires by the candles of the crafts apostates by the nearby wharves. The concept Al Arab inspired then the definition of the Burj.

WORLD ISLANDS


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Inside the big projects of urbanization and of tourism of luxury that are foreseen for the pr贸xios years, there are the World Islands, a few artificial islands that make alike to the map and that will receive mansions and other housings. They possess three different environments: Jumeirah, which is the first one of the projects; Jebel Ali, which is the second one (50 bigger %) and Deira, which will be three times major that the first one.

ROTATING BUILDINGS

It is a question of the highest building of 420 meters of height, but with another special characteristic: his 80 floors will be capable of turning 360 degrees; in 24 hours, each of them rotates in a staggered way, so that, without neither the tenant nor the observer realizes scarcely, the line of the building is changing of steadily. Each of the plants of these buildings in movement will turn to the speed that the tenants choose and will rotate of independent form with regard to other floors, for what the building will change form constant.

DUBAI SPORTS CITY


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Dubai Sports City is a city dedicated to the sports nowadays in construction, which will consist of a set of sports infrastructures. The major one of them will be a stadium multiuses for 60.000 spectators, that football and rugby will be able to be used for athletics, cricket. Likewise, it will include a stadium

of cricket for 25.000 spectators, another cutlery for 10.000 spectators, one more stadium for hockey with a capacity for 5.000 spectators and a golf course of 18 holes designed by Ernie Els. Submarine hotel Hydro polis, Dubai. Hydropolis is the first submarine hotel of luxury of the world, and is nowadays in construction in Dubai This one is one of the bigger contemporary projects of construction in the world, covering an area of 260 hectares, the size of the Hyde Park of London. To enter this surrealistic space, the visitors will begin on the station of land. This semicircular cylinder woven of 120m, it will retch on a building of several floors. Hydropolis is on the verge of taking the form 20m under the surface of the Arabian Gulf, just person of the Beach Jumeirah.


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DEVELOPED BY: Luisa Aguirre Vanessa Berrio Tania García Felipe Ramírez November 28 the 2013


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