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scales of climate ( a tool kit): designing urban landscape for human comfort Pre-Term Workshop | Abdessemed + Benedito | Spring 2017

Prepared by: Emily Hicks + AndrĂŠs David Quinche GSD 1112 Landscape Architecture Core II | Abdessemed + Benedito


Introduction Urban landscapes are distinct and memorable for what they afford to the subject. While this may entail the register achieved through the visual domain, landscapes are largely registered through the various sensory inputs other than the visual. In this context, the skin and the haptic sense is a major threshold with the environment. Being in the out-of-doorness, as suggested by Tim Ingold, is a spatial condition that immerses the subject in the “Weather-World.� Weather and climate, as matter and condition, were design components in the investigation conducted during the Pre-semester workshop. To test the various implications of these components in the design of urban landscapes, the workshop; (1) manipulated the surface ground through physical and virtual models; and (2) tested the effects of the various elements of weather (wind, light and humidity) as interacting forces and generators of comfortable micro-climates for human occupation. Concepts of affect, comfort and delight have been overlooked in design. Rarely integrated or considered in the design process, weather plays a crucial role in the ways that humans dwell in outdoor space. This is true not only in support of human comfort, but also to promote integrative strategies for resource and energy usage. Space, rather than solely resulting from its form or material appearance, is the sum of the various conditions formed by the meteorological processes. Inductive rather than deductive, the workshop triggered a spatial sensibility focused on a holistic undertaking of landscape as space and condition. Therefore, driven by the challenge of integrating the dynamics of weather in the design of landscapes, the workshop asks a fundamental question: How can the climatic dynamics of sites become integral to the design of landscapes whilst encouraging well-being and human comfort? Central concepts that were investigated and tested during the workshop included: 1- 2- 3- 4- 5- 6- 7- 8-

Human Comfort: Indexes and parameters Climatic identity / Microclimates Accumulative solar exposure / Collected energy Sun path and View from Sun Accumulated / temporary shade Wind dynamics Surface materials and radiation of heat Air and Water

GSD 1112 Landscape Architecture Core II


Scales of Climate (A Toolkit): Designing Urban Landscapes for Human Comfort

Workshop Sequence: Day 1 - Climate Analysis with Climate Consultant Day 2 - Micro-climates : Wind Day 3 - Micro-climates : Heat and Light Day 4 : Micro-climates: Humidity + Composites Day 5 : Final Conclusions

Pre-Semester Workshop: Scales of Climate | Abdessemed-Benedito

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GSD 1112 Landscape Architecture Core II


Day 1

day 1 c limatic analysis: Santiago de Chile

Santiago is the capital, and largest city in Chile. It is located in 33.3 South, and 70.7 North, sitting at an altitude of 1,560 ft. We were primarily interested in Santiago due to its pronounced seasonality, but were also interested in its urban fabric, continued economic growth, and leadership on issues of urbanism and landscape. The bulk of our weekly research was focused on the exploration of the varied climatic conditions of Santiago, Chile. Santiago’s weather is defined by seasonality - much like Boston. Therefore we aimed to explore ways to embrace or ameliorate those conditions. Namely, ways to control and utilize wind patterns, the need for protection or exposure to solar radiation, and a study of material extremes - vegetal vs. hardscaped / man made. All of these concepts were tested and applied through the making of models, both physical and digital, and the simulation of the climatic performance as related to human comfort. The week long research resulted in a final design that combined all previous spatial studies. Even though this final study was designed and tested based on Boston’s climactic conditions, the intentions remained the same: creating a space that could be utilized year-round despite harsh seasonality.

Pre-Semester Workshop: Scales of Climate | Abdessemed-Benedito

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climatic analysis: Santiago de Chile SKY COVERAGE + TEMPERATURE RANGE SKY COVER RANGE

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Day one of the workshop comprised of getting a broad understanding of the climatic conditions of Santiago, Chile. Our first set of analysis utilized Climate Consultant, a weather toolkit, with it we accessed sky coverage and annual temperature ranges.

TEMPERATURE RANGE ASHRAE Standard 55-2004 using PM

LEGEND RECORDED HIGH DESIGN HIGH -

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Given the city’s location far from the equator in the Southern Hemisphere, Santiago experiences a pronounced seasonality. Where temperatures are cold during the winter months of June-August, and warm between November-January.

(At 50% Relative Humidity)

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Cloud coverage is also varied depending the season. Summer months receive significantly less coverage than the winter months. These facts would later inform our spatial designs for the second day of the workshop. GSD 1112 Landscape Architecture Core II

.5% of Hours Above

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.5% of Hours Below 0% of Hours Below TEMPERATURE RANGE: 10 to 110 °F Fit to Data

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LOCATION:

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Pre-Semester Workshop: Scales of Climate | Abdessemed-Benedito

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climatic analysis: Santiago de Chile wind + radiation RANGE WIND WHEEL

LEGEND TEMPERATURE (Deg. F) < 32 32 - 69 69 - 81 81 - 100 > 100 RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) <30 30-70 >70

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Additional analysis conducted examined annual wind speeds and sun radiation ranges. Wind in Chile, again, like its temperature varies annually. Westerly winds are prominent during the winter months, while eastward winds come during the summer. In terms of surface radiation, the findings align with common knowledge. During the summer months, when the sun is out a greater amount of time, and cloud coverage is minimal, surfaces receive high radiation. In contrast, during the winter months, the sun is low and the cloud coverage is high leading to lower radiation to the city’s surfaces.

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RADIATION RANGE

LEGEND HOURLY AVERAGES DAYLIT HOURS ONLY RECORDED HIGH AVERAGE HIGH MEAN AVERAGE LOW RECORDED LOW RECORDED: DIRECT NORMAL GLOBAL HORIZONTAL TOTAL SURFACE (Btu/sq.ft per hour) THEORETICAL:

Tilted Surface Radiation Input:

45.0 Tilt degrees from ... (Vertical = 90°) 0.0 Bearing degrees fr... (North = 0°,East =... 60.0 % Ground Reflecta... (20% = grass) PLOT: Hourly Avg

GSD 1112 Landscape Architecture Core II

Daily Total


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Latitude/Longitude: Data Source:

SANTIAGO, -, CHL

33.38째 South, 70.78째 West, Time Zone from Greenwich -4 IWEC Data 855740 WMO Station Number, Elevation 1561 ft

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10% Start "Animation" to see monthly plots or select the "One Month" option and cycle through months by clicking "Next Month".

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SANTIAGO, -, CHL

33.38째 South, 70.78째 West, Time Zone from Greenwich -4 IWEC Data 855740 WMO Station Number, Elevation 1561 ft

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Pre-Semester Workshop: Scales of Climate | Abdessemed-Benedito

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climatic analysis: Santiago de Chile psychrometric chart

PSYCHROMETRIC CHART ASHRAE Standard 55-2004 using PMV

LEGEND

The psychrometric chart is used to analyze air conditions within a given amount of time. A comfort zone is typically defined as the range within which occupants are satisfied with the surrounding thermal conditions. This annual chart demonstrates that average temperatures in Santiago tend to range between the 30˚F to 60˚F and relative humidity is fairly low. Again, this broad analysis helps with macro-level design ideas and proposals.

COMFORT INDOORS COMFORTABLE

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Display Design Strategies Show Best set of Design Strategies

GSD 1112 Landscape Architecture Core II


Day 1

LOCATION:

Latitude/Longitude: Data Source:

SANTIAGO, -, CHL

33.38° South, 70.78° West, Time Zone from Greenwich -4 IWEC Data 855740 WMO Station Number, Elevation 1561 ft

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Pre-Semester Workshop: Scales of Climate | Abdessemed-Benedito

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day 2 Designing with wind

From our first day of analysis on the broad climactic conditions in Santiago, Chile, we deduced the pronounced seasonality, and change in temperatures depending different seasons. Therefore, we begun to design with the notion that wind drastically changes the experiences we perceive in a landscape. We are familiar with the way a gust of wind can change the feeling on a chilly winter day - and we can also appreciate the comfort from a cool sea-breeze on a hot summer afternoon. We knew these were experiences we wanted to capture, and in order to test these phenomena we designed two models with built structures that either speed up or slow down wind velocity. With the above in mind our two design proposals sought to test ways to either ameliorate or amplify the wind conditions in Santiago depending on the season. The overall intention was to better accommodate human comfort. We set-up two design conditions: - One to amplify the westerly wind in summer - designing a funnel to direct and intensify the cooling breeze - The other creating a shelter to block or protect from winds in winter

GSD 1112 Landscape Architecture Core II


Model 2 | Perspective

Model 1 | Perspective

Day 2

Model 2 | Detail Pre-Semester Workshop: Scales of Climate | Abdessemed-Benedito

Model 3 | Detail 13


designing with wind modEl i - Plan

The first model worked to amplify westward breezes by creating a wind tunnel. To do so, topographical mounds that harness the wind were formed, moving west to east across the site. By channeling the current the design aimed to cool the space in warm summer months in Santiago.

VELOCITY (m/s) 13.197 11.429 9.332 6.599 0

WIND DIR.

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GSD 1112 Landscape Architecture Core II

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Day 2

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designing with wind modEl i section

While the model worked to intensify the westerly wind, it did not do so where expected. The wind speeds do increase after moving through the funnel, but not until beyond the site boundary. The wind current also appears to lift and create a vortex at ground level. Moving forward it would be essential to test the precise location and shape of the wind tunnel in relation to the amplification of wind in order for the design to take advantage of potential cooling benefits.

GSD 1112 Landscape Architecture Core II

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VELOCITY (m/s) 13.197 11.429 9.332 6.599 0

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3.575 1.485

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Length: 97.973 (m) Width: 38.613 (m)

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Voxel Size: 0.288 (m)

GSD 1112 Landscape Architecture Core II


Day 2

designing with wind modEl ii - Plan

The second model employed a number of structural barriers, with varied heights. These barriers were imagined to be a type of vegetated mound structure, that would protect a dedicated path in an possible open space. The primary purpose of the design was to tame cooler winds prominent in the winter months of Santiago. The results of the analysis are discussed on the next page.

N Scale 1â&#x20AC;?=8â&#x20AC;&#x2122; Pre-Semester Workshop: Scales of Climate | Abdessemed-Benedito

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designing with wind modEl ii section

7.54 6.54 5.34 3.77 0

Like predicted, the proposed space did a good job of diverting the incoming winds from the west side of the imagined location. Interestingly, a vortex was created along the walking path, allowing for the flow of wind, but at a much slower speed than the incoming westerly one. Following test changed elevations to better divert the strong wind.

GSD 1112 Landscape Architecture Core II


Day 2

Wind Speed: 5.00(m/s) Length: 0.320 (m) Width: 0.119 (m) Height: 0.051 (m) Voxel Size: 0.001 (m)

N Scale 1”=8’

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day 3 Designing with solar light

The sun is of mythical proportions. It has held its importance throughout our history and the history of many cultures worldwide. In our contemporary energy climate, the sun is becoming an import source of electricity, and its potential to influence the design profession is immense. As a way to test the varied climatic and experiential impacts of materials and their interactions with the sun, we tested two conditions - one with vertical metal panels, the other with vegetation. We arranged them in similar typological conditions; one uniform, the other irregular. Panels were arranged along a rotating grid, or as one long wall, while the hedge row vs. bosque came on a linear grid. We were excited to see how the irregular panels interacted with each other. When close together they create a protected space radiating vary little. And presenting opportunities for very localized warming or cooling conditions When looking at the vegetated conditions - hedges did very little to alter or protect from a radiation, while a dense bosque, not surprisingly, worked very well. While the bosque provides a lot shade, it is not always where expected -- shadows are cast not only directly under trees but across a site - depending on location and angle of sun - this is a potential design opportunity - how can we use the movement of shadows to our advantage?

GSD 1112 Landscape Architecture Core II


Model 2 | Perspective

Model 1 | Perspective

Day 3

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designing with solar light Combined annual sun path MODEL I

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Plan

GSD 1112 Landscape Architecture Core II


Day 3

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designing with solar light monthly SUN PATH - JUNE 21ST MODEL I

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designing with solar light monthly SUN PATH - December 21ST MODEL I

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designing with solar light monthly SUN PATH - JUNE 21ST MODEL II

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designing with solar light monthly SUN PATH - DECEMBER 21ST MODEL II

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designing with solar light monthly SHadow study - june 21ST MODEL I

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designing with solar light monthly SHadow study - December 21ST MODEL I

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designing with solar light monthly SHadow study - june 21ST MODEL II

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designing with solar light monthly SHadow study - December 21ST MODEL II

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designing with solar light monthly irradiation studies MODEL I

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GSD 1112 Landscape Architecture Core II


Day 4

day 4 perceived temperature + composite spatial scenarios

The fourth day of the workshop comprised of the combination of all of the learned tools into two different spatial conditions that aimed to utilize all of the weather factors; wind, solar radiation, light, shadows, and climate into two separate sites. In this final study, we used climate data from Boston to inform our design. The proposals focused on the play of shadow and light - in our previous shadow studies we observed the beautiful way trees and panels cast shadows and we wanted to test that experience in two extremes - one exposed and elevated, the other sunken and protected. We wanted the site to be experiential - to make people hyper aware of the conditions. Materiality also became an important factor that informed the design, the two conditions, tested different materials for the panels, in order to deduct different conditions. The findings are discussed in the following pages.

Pre-Semester Workshop: Scales of Climate | Abdessemed-Benedito

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designing with solar light composite s patial scenarios MODEL I

GSD 1112 Landscape Architecture Core II


Day 4

MODEL II

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designing with solar light monthly irradiation studies MODEL I

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designing with solar light monthly irradiation studies MODEL I - SECTION

VELOCITY 3O.022 26.000 21.229 15.011 0

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GSD 1112 Landscape Architecture Core II


Day 4

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designing with solar light monthly irradiation studies MODEL II

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k Whm - 2 7.2 3.6

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designing with solar light monthly irradiation studies MODEL II - SECTION

Cornus florida

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GSD 1112 Landscape Architecture Core II


Floors

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White Stone

Site: Boston Date: June, 21st 2-4pm Air Temperature: 28˚C/82˚F rel. Humidity: 40% Wind Speed: 20ft/second Wind Direction: East to West Perceived Temperature: 70˚F

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day 5 final conclusion + analysis The workshop raised a number of exciting areas of exploration for us to consider moving forward. These questions ideally work as the foundation for potential design principles. Continued exploration of materiality -- The relationship between materials and climatic conditions radiation, wind, and shadows. - And materials and the human experience - the provocation that materials elicit. Namely discovering ways to explore other sensorial experiences with material e.g. touch, smell, sound. Movement -- How the site changes as you move through it. Both experiential (heightened sensorial experience) and as a means to create distinct spaces for different uses (e.g. on hot or cold days.) - Hyper-localized vs. site-wide conditions - We observed how a tree or material change can create a varied climactic conditions for the individual moving through a site, but also how more macro conditions on a site can affect each other (wind tunnels, shadow movement). There is a need to explore climatic conditions on both the micro and macro level. Experimentation / Iteration -- We can imagine using tools as means to continually test conditions and experiment, rather than validate and finalize. We were just as excited when our hypothesizes didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t work, but we discovered something new, as when they did. Place based -- How can we design for the local climatic conditions, but also cultural conditions. What memories are attached to the place, what are cultural behaviors and norms that might relate to climate?

GSD 1112 Landscape Architecture Core II


Day 5

Pre-Semester Workshop: Scales of Climate | Abdessemed-Benedito

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LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE CORE II SPRING 2017

GSD 1112 Landscape Architecture Core II | Abdessemed + Benedito

Profile for Andres David Quinche

Scales of Climate - Designing Urban Landscape for Human Comfort  

Scales of Climate - Designing Urban Landscape for Human Comfort  

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