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SEMESTER 1, 2014 JOURNAL

Studio AIR ANDREEA

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CONTENTS PART

A:

CONCEPTUALISATION

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P A R T 26 32 40 44 56 68 74

PART 78 89 93 96 102 104 1 0 5

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De s i gn Fut ur ing Des i g n Comp ut a tion Co m po s i t i o n / Ge n e r a t i on C o n cl u s i on Lea r ning Outcome s

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C R I T E R I A

L earni ng

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D E S I G N

Re s e a r c h F i el d C a s e S t u dy 1 .0 C a s e Study 2. 0 T e c h n i q u e : D e v e l o p m e n t T e c h n i que : Pr ototyp es T e c h n i que : Pr op os a l O bje c ti ve s a n d O ut c ome s

DETAILED

DESIGN

D es i g n C o n c e p t Te c t on i c E le me n t s Fi na l Model LA GI B r i ef Requi r ement s Learni ng O bje c t i ve s a n d O ut c ome s R e f e re n c e s Ph otog r a p h Sour c e s


ANDREEA Personally I find CAD programs daunting. However I do hope that my work this semester changes how I perceive these programs. I’m sure they do help a lot once you become familiar with them. It’s just a very daunting process to reach that familiarity. I very much appreciate the parametric designs that have been produced in the last 5 years. They showcase a great development of architecture and really show the sophistication we have reached in design. I hope to one day be able to achieve the same standards as the digitally capable architects of the modern age. Throughout my course so far I’ve managed to experiment with a few computer programs, and once I have gotten the hang of them I’ve learnt to appreciate their uses. Rhino has by far been the hardest I have dealt with. But nonetheless fascinating. I worked with Rhino in my second year in the subject; Virtual Environments. Throughout the course I had great difficulty with the program but managed to pull together a design I would say I was pleased with. Even through the problematic occurrences with Rhino I found it to be my favourite work throughout that particular semester. There is something enjoyable about working with computer programs, an enjoyment you cannot gain with anything else. I suppose it must be the ease of it all, but somehow it also makes you feel more powerful. Almost like Iron Man, controlling the intelligence of a machine to get it to do what you want. I mean, that’s the same right?


L AG I

BRIEF

The purposes of this journal will be to create a response for the Land Art Generator Initiative, or LAGI, design competition running this year. The competition focuses primarily on implementing a renewable energy system with an architectural motif.1 This requires the design to be an architecturally creative formulation that includes a thoroughly sustainable design. However, for the purposes of this course, the use of parametric modelling is also part of the brief. A development of a design will be induced parametrically by modelling through Rhino and Grasshopper. All concepts of the brief will be thoroughly discussed in this journal in an effort to present a sustainable, parametric, architecturally intriguing design as an answer to the LAGI competition brief. The brief can be viewed here: h t t p : / / l a n d a r t g e n e r a t o r. o r g / c o m p e t i t i o n 2 0 1 4 . h t m l

1. Robert Ferry & Elizabeth Monoian, â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Competitionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, Land Art Generator Initiative, <http://landartgenerator.org/competition. html> [accessed 12 March 2014]

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PART A

A.1 Design Futuring

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PLAN BEE

Liz Black

Fig 1. Plan Bee Nectar Pod Fig 2. Plan Bee night-time demonstration

“Renewable energy can bee beautiful”1 – The 2012 LAGI design competition entry ‘Plan Bee’ introduces the innovation of Airborne Wind Energy and explores it in the concept of a beehive. AWE functions through new turbine technology that allows the turbine blade to separate itself from a fixed structure and fly into open air, capturing more of the winds energy. As well as this new technology it uses solar panels, gas extraction wells, production planting and recycled materials to create the hive, the nectar pods and the bees. Plan Bee is capable of generation enough electricity to power 170,000 homes.2


Adopting nature as a concept, especially for ecologicaldesign, is a familiar idea I’ve run into in the past. I believe when drawing ideas for sustainability nature is the wisest reference, for what is more sustainable than the systems of nature? But in order to innovate for the future the projects that take nature past its literal interpretation are the impressive ones. In this case, Plan Bee falls short of impressive because although it begins with a wise conceptin no way does it take it further to reach innovative ideals. The ideas of the project are what attracted me rather than the final product. Not only the idea of using nature as a concept but also the thoroughness with which many aspects of the design is considered. For example, the scales of view and time are contemplated and suited for in order to provide the best experience for the viewer. In terms of scale, the idea of being able to view the site and have it entice you even when you are not on the site engages with the audience further than typical designs. Time is also no object through the consideration of lighting, and not just lighting but light fuelled by renewable energy. Thoroughness is furthermore presented in variations between constructions on the site, and even between multiples of the same form.3

Although the project uses a range of renewable energy technologies which are adapted effectively to suit the design concept, for the purposes of the competition innovation is far too absent. It is easy enough to apply a technology that performs like a bee, but literality is mundane in design. The designer would have been better off to be influenced by the flying capabilities of the AWE technology and see where they may lead the design rather than to rely on representation through the technology. I would have liked to see the design look at the systematic performances of the bee hive rather than build their components without establishing a relationship between them. The AWE technology provides such a dynamic basis for a design through its movement capabilities yet the designers fail to express these further than what the technology does on its own. The potential of the concept as well as the eco-technology are ultimately the downfall in the design as the potential is far bigger than what the designers managed to achieve. For my personal project I will take inspiration from the ideas presented by Plan Bee but hope to refrain from the lack of development of these to an innovative extent.

1. Liz Black, ‘Plan Bee’, Land Art Generator Initiative, <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/lagi2012/> [accessed 12 March 2014] 2. Black, L. ‘Plan Bee’. 3. Black, L. ‘Plan Bee’.


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FLUENT-FIELDS

Phillip Jenkin, Monika Szawiola, Erik Thorson ‘Fluent-Fields’ is a pavilion-esqueidea which moulds into the environment. The focus of the design is not on the structure and its uses but rather the experiential quality of the way in which the sustainable technologies are used. The curvilinear structure is shaped to create extra mounds on the landscape, and consists of two different types of solar panels. The first is a thin-film non-silicon photovoltaic, and secondly a thin-film dye sensitive photovoltaic. The first is used as shade structures, while the transparency of the latter allows them to be placed to frame scenic views. The panels are mounted on Energy Hinges making use of the energy in the draughts through the building, which spin the solar panels creating a dynamic performance of the structure.1

Fig 3. Fluent-Fields Facade view Fig 4. Fluent-Fields Interior view

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This project is significantly different to ‘Plan Bee’ as it provides a different approach to the brief. Plan Bee’s project revolved around the concept, and attributed sustainability technologies to suit the concept, whereas in the case of Fluent-Fields the concept is provided by the use of such technologies. I think in terms of the design brief, because the focus is on ecoefficiency the approach of this project makes more sense. Perhaps, in contrast to many of the designs, because of the brief the generation of an independent concept draws attention away from the crucial themes of the brief.

This design influences me to make sure that I thoroughly engage with the sustainable technologies of my choice and not overlook them as a last occurrence. The application of the derivation of a concept from the technology could be a useful tactic when designing, as it results in a comprehensive application of the design to the brief focusing on the fundamental properties.

The consideration of the ways in which the photovoltaics are used differentiates this project from others. The team of architects thoroughly engaged with the PV panels, and its materials, and contribution to the design rather than simply placing them on a structure because of efficiency like many of the other projects. This relationship between the panels and shade, views and movement ultimately expresses multiple abilities of the PV panels and engages them within the project. This again emphasizes the notion of adapting the technology to the design rather than the concept to the technologies.

1. Phillip Jenkin & others, ‘Fluent-Fields’, Land Art Generator Initiative, <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/E5M8P031/> [accessed 28 March 2014]


R E N E W A B L E

E N E R G Y

T E C H N O L O G Y

HYDROELECTRICITY

Vortex Power

Fig 5. VIVACE Diagram Fig 6. Water Vortex Power Plant Diagram

Vortex Power describes the innate ability of water to create vortices when passing around obstacles in the way of a current. In the special case of this type of technology minimal flow is needed to generate this energy, and minimal damage is caused to wildlife as the installations proposed could be reflected by any natural obstacle on the water floor.1

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V My interest in hydro technology over other renewable energy sources spurs from the access to water on the design site. Furthermore the dynamic visual capabilities of generated vortices can provide a strong basis for artistic potential. The way in which the technology can be used is also flexible as many different applications are present already.

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Persons from The University of Michigan have harnessed vortex energy through the implementation of devices whereby water currents move cylinders up and down, which in turn move a magnet up and down a metal coil generating a DC current.2

W A T E R V O R T E X P O W E R P L A N T The most current innovation, designed by an Austrian engineer who was in search of a way to aerate water sustainably,acts like a mini-power plant powered by water. The power plant works by having a turbine being rotated by an incoming water source that needs to be at least 0.7m high. As the turbine spins it powers a generator that transfers the energy to a power grid.3

1. Robert Ferry & Elizabeth Monoian, ‘Hydroelectricity, Vortex Power’, Land Art Generator Initiative, <http://landartgenerator.org/readwater3. html> [accessed 12 March 2014] 2. Michael M. Bernitsas & James C. MacBain, ‘Technology’, Vortex Hydro Energy, <http://www.vortexhydroenergy.com/technology/> [accessed 12 March 2014] 3. Federal Department of Foreign Affairs Switzerland, ‘Water Vortices: a new source of alternative energy’, Swiss World, <http://www.swissworld. org/en/switzerland/swiss_specials/green_technology/water_vortices_a_new_source_of_alternative_energy/> [accessed 12 March 2014]


A.2 Design Computation

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COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN

Benefits of the Computer in the Design Proccess

“If we could find a way to take advantage of the abilities of computers where ours fall short, and use our own abilities where computers’ fall short, we would create a very powerful symbiotic design system: computers will contribute their superb rational and search abilities, and we humans will contribute all the creativity and intuition needed to solve design problems”1 The ability to design is not a problem we face in the modern world. However throughout the past the design role has been contemplated and questioned before design professions were asserted. Now that we have reached a point of assertion of what design is, what an architect does and the importance of architecture how do we move on into the future? As humans we all have design capabilities. We all have creative and analytical thinking processes which allow us to design, and to YehudaKalay design is defined as the use of these two brain functions.2 So if we are capable of design, and we are certain of what design is, how can we improve our design strategies for the future? In the modern age we rely so heavily on technology everyday to make our lives easier it only seems natural to rely on technology to make design easier also.

“Parametric design thinking focuses upon a logic of associative and dependency relationships between objects and their parts-and-whole relationships”4 On the other hand because we have acquired new analytical abilities in the form of computers new possibilities arise which we would not have bothered with before because of complexity. As mentioned before, because computers work on certain rules or formally called parameters, they generate parameters for the inputted designs. The fact that designs can now have an almost-equation allows the ability to manipulate certain parts of the design and create different variables using the same equation.5 The variable ability of the modern age design allows us to experiment with designs changing the design process. This experimentation with design variables is offered so easy to us that we’d be fools not to make use of it.

Furthermore, since designs now have parameters and so do materials, conditions and energy we can test the performance of our design.6 Again, reducing our work load and allowing us to quickly experiment with the structure of our design in order to lead us to maximum performance. Not only this, but we can take our parameters and put them into 3D printing software and print designs, reducing imperfections manual construction may result in Efficiency is the answer to moving design into the future. because computers stick to their rules without variations. If we already understand how to design the only step we can take towards the future is improving the efficiency with All the efficiencies with which technology functions which we design. If we consider Kalay’s definition of dereduces time away from the tedious work and alsign whereby we require creative and analytical processes, lows the designer to focus on the conceptual eleit is these processes that need to be made more efficient. ments of the design making our designs more creative. The creative process however cannot be assisted as only us as humans have the ability to create. However, analytical abilities, which rely on certain rules that never change, can be programmed into technology which will perform the tasks quicker than any human. Primarily this analytical help is the largest benefit of computational design.3

1. Yehuda E. Kalay, Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design, (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2004), p. 3. 2. Kalay, Y. p. 2. 3. Kalay, Y. p. 3. 4. Rivka Oxman & Robert Oxman, Theories of the Digital in Architecture, (London: Routledge, 2014), p. 3. 5. Oxman, R. & Oxman, R. p. 3. 6. Oxman, R. & Oxman, R. p. 4.

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[ATTR] - ACTION

A.V.A.E This project for a flower store shows the way natural concepts can be adapted to design in a non-literal way as I wrote about in ‘Plan Bee’. In order to further engage with natural concepts I chose this project toiterate about computational design.

Fig 7. [ATTR]Action lower midway section Fig 8. [ATTR]Action Plan view

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The project studies flowering plants, imparticularCyclamen Graecum, and their properties. Entomophilous flowering plants, unlike anemophilous plants, have to attract insects in order for them to pollenate and reproduce. Because of this need to capture insects attention the flower attains certain characteristics. Personally, this concept alone engages with architecture because designs are done in order to attract an audience – ‘beauty is a function’. 1 The characteristic that this type of plant possesses is that it bends downwards at the head where insects enter, and upwards with the petals to indicate its position. The idea A.V.A.E grasps is the continuous flow from inner to outer space. This spatial connection is represented in mathematics by involutionary functions.2 As the concept is capable of being represented in mathematics it is simple to be understood by computational design programs. The program with which the architects were working was TopMod® - ‘a topological mesh modeler’. By manipulating their general concept, the involution function, the program allowed the design to be manipulated into

different variables until a final design was decided upon.3 This process is a perfect example of the design capabilities of computational programming I reflected upon. As a result, the design is an environment of three spaces; an exterior pavilion and two internal spaces. These spaces are all continuously supported by a curvilinear structure reflecting continuity, such as a circle is infinite (Fig 7).4 Furthermore a study of the translucent pattern of the plants leads to a façade whose mesh depicts varied translucent patterns using material and puncturing. The meshing abilities of the program allows for manipulation of the scatter of the punctures originating from a consistent puncture pattern to a inconsistent scatter (Fig 8).5 Again, highlighting the ease with which manipulation of parameters can be done.

1. Alessio Erioli & Antonio Vacca, ‘[ATTR]-Action’, Computational design Italy, <http://www.co-de-it.com/wordpress/attr-action.html> [accessed 18 March 2014] 2. Erioli, A. & Vacca, A. ‘[ATTR]-Action’. 3. Erioli, A. & Vacca, A. ‘[ATTR]-Action’. 4. Erioli, A. & Vacca, A. ‘[ATTR]-Action’. 5. Erioli, A. & Vacca, A. ‘[ATTR]-Action’.

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GREEN NEGLIGEE

Epiphyte Lab The second project is highly relevant as it exemplifies the use of Rhino and Grasshopper for a sustainable project.

Fig 9. Green Negligee Facade Fig 10. Green Negligee Grasshopper model

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The sustainability concept lies within an effort to overcome the current restoration processes to multi-storey buildings in Easter Europe. Through a study of the environmental conditions surrounding the site, data sets were created which developed parameters for the design process for effective ‘form finding and performance testing’ (Fig 10).2 The modeling parameter created was the bio-climatic niche; A four-dimensional data map that constrains component distributions to a certain algorithm as a guide for the form of the design appropriated for the site. Information such as public land use, radiation, wind speed etc. was mapped into the bio-climatic niche and aggregated in Grasshopper and Rhino (Fig 10).3 The ability of such data to create a parameter for the site design enhances the ability of the designs performance through the ability to map out where form can function at maximum performance. Qualities which we lack manually and require for analytical design performance.

The final result of the design is a secondaryfaçade designed on a pre-existing housing block that ‘blurs the hard boundary between the buildings and the landscape’ (Fig 9). The effect depicts a gradual growth from natural to built environment. Through research the architects have found the effectiveness of a ‘loose fit distribution of energy harvesting system’ which lies among the façade. This consists of the generation of microclimates in the façade which reduce energy consumption for the buildings.4 Computational analytical ability wins again performance-wise in design. The ability to input analysis into computational systems which map out maximum levels of performance again exemplifies abilities which we cannot live up to without computational systems.

1. Michael Esposito & others, ‘Green Negligee’, Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, <http://acadia.org/projects/ VQA3YH> [accessed 19 March 2014] 2. Michael Esposito & others, ‘Green Negligee/Adaptive Modularity’, Epiphyte Lab, <http://www.epiphyte-lab.com/research/greennegligee/> [accessed 19 March 2014] 3. Esposito, M. & others, ‘Green Negligee/Adaptive Modularity’. 4. Esposito, M. & others, ‘Green Negligee’.

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A.3 Composition/Generation

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THE GENERATIVE APPROACH

Shift from Composition to Generation

“Complexity is no longer an impediment to design and fabrication. Rather, it is an opportunity that is waiting to be explored. For years, information technology constrained architects. Arguably, this relationship has been reversed: it is now architects who are constraining the possibilities of information technology.”1 Generation as an design process has risen a new culture of architectural design as explained in chapter A.2. But how does this new form of design compare to a traditional design process? The simplest answer lies within the efficiency with which we can now design, but even if we look past all that there are bigger benefits. Generational design allows us to design with more complexity because of our extended analytical abilities in the form of computers.2 Within the computational world lies a million possibilities which we could not have fathomed by our brains alone.

Working within algorithms allows us to generate design variables that are concurrent with each other and have the same base characteristics but different outputs, much like us as humans.Whereas traditionally our variable designs would lack the relationship between each other because they do not have a base structure which answers the concept, because the variables would be the attempts at finding this structure. And so, we skip a step in the designprocess because computation creates a structure for our design, and we can tweak the variables to increase performance in relation to the brief. It has been explained that the generational process metaphorically takes us from being the design student to the design instructor. This relationship lies in being able to critique a design and input changes that the computer, as the student, changes in the design for you.3 This allows us to engage deeper with the design because we are no longer caught up with how to make things work as we are able to determine the effects beforehand, so that we can focus on reaching the best possible performance. The only way the generational process disadvantages us at all is through making the design process too easy for us that our analytical processes become subliminal.

1. Michael Hansmeyer, ‘Introduction’, Michael Hansmeyer, <http://www.michael-hansmeyer.com/profile/about.html> [accessed 21 March 2014] 2. Yehuda E. Kalay, Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design, (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2004), p. 3. 3. Jeffrey Krause, ‘Reflections: The Creative Process of Generative Design in Architecture’, Jeffrey Krause, <http://arch.blacksquare.com/docs/ krause_gen2003_press.pdf> [accessed 21 March 2014]

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G E N E R A T I V E

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P R E C E D E N T

SUBDIVIDED PAVILIONS

Michael Hansmeyer Michael Hansmeyer is prominent for his work with computational design, and so as we reach this stage of exploration we can discuss how his highly developed computational derivatives can set an example for computational designers everywhere.

Fig 11. Subdivided Pavilion 1 Fig 12. Subdivided Pavilion 2

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What I admire about Hansmeyers work does not lie within the impressive nature of his work, but through his visionary ideas. These ideas express exactly how generational design can be used to its full abilities. What differentiates Hansmeyer to normal architects is that his work does not rely on a brief, but is merely experimental. Because his work is experimental, and he has no guidelines, virtually this opens up doors to trial many possibilities. His concept however is always the way in which we can manipulate computation and what possibilities lie within computation. With this in mind, Hansmeyer’s experimentation with computational possibilities allows him to discover new computational techniques that in a restricted circumstances could not be discovered. These new techniques can then be analysed and applied to an assortment of briefs, changing the design process all together by having a design before a brief rather than the ulterior.

but differences in parameter manipulation. The modification of weights in the algorithm results in completely different pavilions,2 demonstrating the way in which an algorithm can be taken and attributed to different design briefs. Theoretically just because this new technique presents a comprehensive use of computational abilities it does not mean it should be applied to any design brief, and it cannot necessarily be manipulated to suit any design brief. But Hansmeyers work can be an example of a generation of a multiplicity of new techniques which are analysed so that each technique is an efficient algorithm for a specific type of design brief but not for all. In this way we can make optimal use of CAD and generate ways that make it easier to design, at the same time creating the most efficient design result.

In his work on pavilions Hansmeyer takes the simple process of 3-dimensional subdivision to generate a complex output. The use of a simple process is important to Hansmeyer as it allows for easier predictability of results, so that his experimentation is easier to analyse and apply because of ease of analytical understanding.1 Generational design is perfectly exemplified through the use of a consistent algorithm of interlinked cubic frames for each variable,

1. Michael Hansmeyer, ‘Initial Studies: Subdivided Pavilions’, Michael Hansmeyer, <http://www.michael-hansmeyer.com/projects/initial_subdivision_studies_info.html?screenSize=1&color=1> [accessed 24 March 2014] 2. Hansmeyer, M. ‘Initial Studies: Subdivided Pavilions’.

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FLOATING WIND

Matthijs la Roi & Xing Wang Although Hansmeyers work envisions a change in the design process, the generational design technique can also be used more traditionally yet still envisioning the future.

Fig 13. Floating Wind Facade Fig 14. Floating Wind Office Interior

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Floating Wind is the proposal for a hybrid building that functions as a high-class yacht factory, office and hotel located in a recreational marina where the HISWA boat exhibition takes place every year in the Netherlands. The algorithm for this design was generated through a study of 40 years worth of wind data for the site. The data gathered created parameters based on the speed and direction of the wind data found so that it can be expressed by form. Through the manipulation of the set parameters, computational technique tested out to find the optimal result for the site.1

I also want to reference that this design again uses the natural theme in order to generate a design. Although, the result is of a literal interpretation of the natural theme the design is still an example of the increasing capability of technology to imitate nature through data input which I believe is integral to sustainable design in the future as mentioned in the analysis of ‘Plan Bee’.

The process of this design is integral to the benefits of generative design techniques. The superior ability of computational techniques has been discussed previously, but they dictate the generational design process. As seen with ‘Green Negligee’ we are now capable of expressing data into design parameters which in the case of Negligee results in optimal function, but within this design results in optimized conceptual results. Again, the benefits lie within the superior analytical ability of computers to achieve results that we alone cannot.

1. Matthijs la Roi, ‘Floating Wind - IJbunker competition’, Matthijs la Roi, <http://www.matthijslaroi.nl/cnc-manufacturing/floatingwind-ijbunker-competition/> [accessed 24 March 2014]

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A.4 Conclusion

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“Natural design is more than imitating the appearance of the organic. It is learning from natural principles of design how to produce form in response to the conditions of the environmental context. This is an age in which digitally informed design can actually produce a second nature” I just wanted to place importance on this quote as nature is a recurring theme in the decision of my choice of precedents. In almost all of my analyses I critique the adaptation of nature to the design because I believe that within nature lies the best possible systems for sustainable design which is an inherent part of designing for the future. When computers become able to imitate the most complex natural systems I think then architects will generate some of the best design work. In my personal design approach I will attempt to interact with ideas derived from nature, even if I do so minimally, at the same time trying to refrain from literal representation or any other negative approaches studied through the precedents.

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A.5 Learning Outcomes

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The benefits of studying the computational design process and ways in which it has been applied has exposed me to ways of using CAD programs I was not aware of before. My views towards CAD programs have changed from ideas of design computerization to design computation, which require completely different design processes. The ability to generate a principle algorithm and generate variations using this is an exciting proposal for myself because of the multiplicity of design outcomes. In my past studios I felt an incessant concentration of modifying one outcome from the concept, but I think I will enjoy the variable nature of my design through computation. By seeing how architectural design is moving into the future my thoughts have evolved through the exposure of these new ways of thinking and have allowed me to broaden my ideas of the design process. Although the precedents worked with a higher skill of computational ability, Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m excited to begin my journey in computational design. I believe that my design this semester will be not only entirely different but also improved from my past experiences with studios and I am looking forward to the final result.

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PART B

B.1 Research Field

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MATERIAL SYSTEMS Strips & Folding Computational design allows for a multiplicity of techniques to treat the form of a design. In order to commence understanding of the computational design process, perhaps a study in these techniques for form will be helpful. In this case, the computation of strips and folds to produce a design structure will be studied. The way in which I have studied this technique is through a look at precedent designs to uncover the meaning and its purpose in design. The computational technique of strips is described when a form is separated into a variation of parts that we call strips. The idea is that through the connection of a multiplicity of pieces, which may be different or the same, structure is created. This generates a consistent form built by inconsistent parts. Folding on the other hand is almost the opposite idea. Folding in the generation of form is the ability to create a consistent form through the use of consistent pieces that appear inconsistent. Folding can be done in a strip formation by developing multiple consistent strips that are folded to look inconsistent and having these as the strips that are connected to create an overall form. The advantages behind these formation techniques can be described through a look at precedents which use folding and/or strips in the computational process of design and manufacture.

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DOUBLE AGENT WHITE

Marc Fornes & Theverymany Double Agent White expresses the strips technique and benefits from doing so through demonstrating the benefits of compounding. Because the structure is a compound of various strips it is capable of being decomposed in a multiplicity of ways. The larger the amount of strips in a compound structure, the larger the amount of variations of decomposing the structure. The way that this particular design benefits from decomposing its parts is that the curvature of the form as it is decomposed from a sphere results in a ‘nesting storage’ of forms. Furthermore because the strips which make up the pavilion are so small they can easily all be fit onto lesser sheets of the aluminium rather than having large components which all need their own sheets of aluminium (Fig 16).1

Fig 15. Double Agent White Composed Fig 16. Double Agent White Decomposed

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1. Jessica Escobedo, ‘Double Agent White in Series of Prototypical Architectures / Theverymany’, eVolo, <http://www.evolo.us/architecture/double-agentwhite-in-series-of-prototypical-architectures-theverymany/> [accessed 31 March 2014]


ARCHIPELAGO PAVILION

Chalmers University of Technology & Rohsska Museum of Design The Archipelago Pavilion also uses strips, but demonstrates different advantages. What this pavilion demonstrates is the ease of manufacture of this structure. The separate strips that model the pavilion are readily organized on a computational system for laser cutting.2 Once the strips are cut from the material, manual assembly should have no issue because of the precise nature of laser cutting (Fig 18). As opposed to manual cutting that can result in errors, so that when pieces are being assembled together they wont fit with one another.

2. Lidija Grozdanic, ‘Archipelago Paramterically Designed Pavilion’, eVolo, <http://www.evolo.us/architecture/archipelago-parametrically-designed-pavilion/> [accessed 31 March 2014]

Fig 17. Archipelago Pavilion Fig 18. Archipelago Pavilion Joints

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Amanda Levete Architects Steering away from structural benefits, the uses of strips have visual benefits also. When designing multi-storey buildings façades tend to be repetitive or similar from one storey to another. In terms of strips, they can easily be repeated up a façade, but the strip formation is even more helpful when strips vary up the façade (Fig 20). Through computational modeling you can start with one strip and easily alter the original design to create multiple strip formations that can be adjoined to create a façade.

Fig 19. 10 Hills Place Facade Fig 20. 10 Hills Place Model

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MOMA FABRICATIONS 1998

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Moving onto folding, the benefits lie within a composition of a ‘seamless tectonic system’.3 What this means, is the ability to create a structural form that is rigid and geometric with the minimal amount of material pieces possible. Instead of conjoining pieces at corners, material is folded creating a corner, which can be folded multiple times to create many corner resulting in a ‘seamless’ geometry because of the use of one singular material piece to create multiple sides (Fig 22). NADAA takes this further in their MoMa Fabrication through the concept of eliminating the difference between structure and skin, and instead creating a combination form that acts as both. By folding, the resulting triangulated form keeps the structure rigid as the vertical sides brace the structure laterally like columns.4 This brings about benefits that can only be achieved through this method.

3. NADAA, ‘MoMa Fabrications 1998’, NADAA, <http:// www.nadaaa.com/#/projects/fabrications/> [accessed 31 March 2014] 4. NADAA, ‘MoMa Fabrications 1998’.

Fig 21. MOMA Fabrications 1998 Fig 22. MOMA Fabrications Strips Model

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B.2 Case Study 1.0

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STRIPS AND FOLDING COMPUTED PRECEDENT

SEROUSSI PAVILION

Biothing

In order to further the study of strips and folding within computational geometriesexperimentation with these ideas promote understanding. Through manipulation of a precedent, in this case the Seroussi Pavilion, we can look at a way in which strip geometry can be formulated and by using computational generation techniques a multiplicity of contrasting results can be created. The Seroussi Pavilion is a computationally derived algorithm that creates forms using electro-magnetic fields. The way this works is through central magnetic field points placed on a curve that attract vector patterns.1 These vector patterns can result in a multiplicity of forms depending on how the algorithm is manipulated. Primarily, the initial starting algorithm generates arcs from the centres of the EMF’s to the ground, resulting in an organic spread of vectors from centres to outskirts. The primary components of the algorithm are the EMF, the arc formation that is based on a sine function, and finally sliders that allow variation in sizes of components.2

1. Alisa Andrasek, ‘Seroussi Pavilion/Paris/2007’, biothing, <http://www.biothing.org/?cat=5> [accessed 2 April 2014] 2. Alisa Andrasek, ‘Seroussi Pavilion/Paris/2007’.

Fig 23. Seroussi Pavilion Computed Model Fig 24. Seroussi Pavilion Vector Diagram

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STRIPS AND FOLDING COMPUTED PRECEDENT

GRASSHOPPER EXPLORATIONS Basic Definition Adjustments

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Original Settings

Increase in Division of Curves

Increase in Radius around Points

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Collaborative Iteration Matrix Using the given algorithm for the Seroussi Pavilion a number of iterations were performed generating various results. The basic components of the algorithm, the number sliders (Seen on left), were consistently modified throughout the process to exaggerate the functions of the more significant changes in the algorithm. During the course of the creation of the Iteration Matrix four major focuses were explored. The first focus was the development of the design using the Interpolated Curve component with the Boolean set to true. Through this exploration bulbous, closed forms were generated contrasting with the organic linearity of the original design. The second was the substitution of the Magnetic Force component from being Point Charged to Spin Charged. This morphed the entire design ultimately resulting in a mass model rather than a model of parts. Thirdly, the mathematical expression in the algorithm, a

multiplication expression was replaced with various other expressions to see the results. As the results were fairly mediocre a spin charge was also added along with this to generate a more interesting assortment of results. Finally, because of the success of the first two focuses in generating interesting results these two were combined to produce a hybrid set of results. Through the development of these iterations the capabilities of computational design studied in Part A were further reinforced. As mentioned in Part A, the possibility of developing an algorithm and then manipulating it to suit different design briefs is clearly visible. The drastic differentiation between the original design to that of the resulting iterations marks the flexibility of computed formulas to be manipulated and result in something so different to what the designer originally started with.

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STRIPS AND FOLDING COMPUTED PRECEDENT

Collaborative Iteration Matrix

Boolean of Interpolated Curve

Point Charge Replaced with Spin Charge

Changing the Mathematical Expression

Boolean with Spin Charge

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Spin Charge with Expressions

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S E R I E S From the Iteration Matrix four ‘Series’ were chosen as possibilities for the LAGI design competition. These Series are the most appropriate design outcomes that could be applied to the brief. Not only are they the most appropriate, but arguably the most interesting results.

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Selection

criteria;

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The first of the chosen successful iterations is selected because of the Curved Formation; To al- continuity of the generated closed lows for maximal performance capsule-like forms, which will be reof Water Vortex generation. ferred to as ‘bulbs’. The bulbs function through a generation of a form Ability for Interaction; Between using conjoined circular shapes so the site, design and audience. that they are a continuous structure. The continuity results in an orInteresting Characteristic; The ganic shape that highlights the apoptimal use of Computation- plication of computational design to al Design techniques that re- create such forms. As the bulbs are sults in a complexity of form all different in appearance it keeps thatis aesthetically intriguing. the design interesting throughout the circulation of the plan. Expression of Water; This acts as the concept of the overall design to con- This design can be appropriated for join the relationship between the the LAGI brief since it is flexible for electricity system and the design. the incorporation of the chosen hydroelectric energy system that makes use of water vortices. The circularity of the form would allow water to travel smoothly across the surface of the bulbs or even possibly inside the bulb itself. If the water did flow inside the bulb to generate the vortices, the surface of the bulb could be used as an interaction space between the audience and the site. The inner enclosed areas of the bulb could easily function as a seating space and encapsulate the person inside the vortices. Furthermore if the bulbs are transparent the person could physically see the water vortex function inside the bulb,


2/

The second series is a more repetitive design but still includes some interesting aspects. Just like the first series the second is circular, which provides prime performance aspects for the use of water vortices to generate electricity. What makes this design successful is the highlighting of an organic movement across the form. Not like the previous series where the form is organic in itself, the curvilinear line formations along the form of this iteration expresses the organic movement of water currents around the obstacle of the form. Showing how water would bend up and around the structure. This expression layered with the water moving across the surface would provide an interesting spectacle. Furthermore the water could again either flow around the parameter of the form or inside the form. If the site were to be built as a massive viewing platform where water flows around the complete site except for inside the tubular forms, it would allow for an audience to stand inside the areas. The vortices would flow around them presenting a complete interaction with the site.

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The third successful iteration explores a more frantic form while still sticking with the theme of organic curvilinearity. This iteration generated a conjoined singular structure rather than a distribution of separate components. This allows for maximum use of the site. The formation influences the circulation of the audience on its own. The entrance point would occur on the outskirts of the site and therefore the audience would be influenced to travel to the central focal point of the formation that occurs where the form is most dense. Since the audience is forced to travel across the site a journey is experienced, so that the interaction between the design and the audience is an experiential one. This would benefit the proposal by extending the brief and making the result more conceptual.

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The last of the chosen series is somewhat similar to the second yet completely different. The forms used are similar tubular components yet in this formation they are layered to create a coherent whole. However, this formation presents some difficulties.The enclosed nature of the spaces brings upon questions of how the public can access each space and circulate through the site as well as how the water vortices would function in the design. But what is successful about the iteration is how it increases the space to go beyond the base linear components, an aspect the other iterations lack. Furthermore, it also includes the focal point experienced in the third series as the layering becomes noticeably dense in the centre of the iteration. This design could be used similarly to the third series with the water vortex at the focal point, once The focus on the focal point of the the question of how the design can design could be used to the concepts accessed by the public is answered. advantage. At this point, as the form becomes a circle rather than a myriad of curvilinear forms the hydroelectricity system could be placed. This would result in the audienceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s journey to end at the most important aspect of the design. The overall form of the iteration also expresses the organic forms of water currents, not as they did in the second series, but how the currents would flow from a central point. The expressions of the flow of the currents are then mirrored by the flow of the people through the site.

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B.3 Case Study 2.0

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ModelArt Studio

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1 0 0 0 c m

There are plenty of different ways to generate strip formations - EMF being one of them as presented by the Seroussi Pavilion. But what are some of the other techniques? Using the Klupa 1000cm bench as a precedent, without having a pre-generated algorithm a trial development of a strip geometry can be reverse engineered. The Klupa 1000cm is an art installation that functions as a bench. The ModelArt Studio team explored the concept of reviving socialization through the intervention of public space using architecture as installation (Fig 26). This idea was developed into the 1000cm bench intending to contrast itself when placed in any urban space resulting in an attractive atmosphere that promotes social interaction.1 Apart from visual characteristics, practicality was a design intent. As the design is intended to be placed in any public domain it is designed with the ability to alter its length easily. The strip formation is flexible with addition and subtraction of length by addition or removal of strips, resulting in flexibility for allotted sites.2 Since the formation is diverse along its length (Fig 25 & 26), yet expresses a coherence, it leads to me to believe that its algorithm works based on a mathematical function. The design intent expresses the ability to add or subtract strips from its length but in terms of addition there must be an explicit technique to keep the coherence of the total form. The design intent was achieved at a basic level but the atmospheric conclusion could have been further developed. Because the structure is a linear bench it limits social interaction to the people who sit directly next to each other (Fig 26). Perhaps, a curved structure, a crescent shaped form, would allow for a more social environment as it promotes visual interaction.

However, for the next portion of the journal the Klupa bench presents a few design opportunities. Since the design is fairly simple the algorithm that generates it through computation would be fairly simple also. The benefits of working with a simple algorithm allows for comprehensive understanding and control of the design, as well as the ability to add a multiplicity of components as simplicity results in an open-ended answer to a design. Furthermore, a simple form can be complicated into a myriad of different results whereas a complex form has a limited amount of resulting prospects. Klupa is an ideal precedent to manipulate into a design that is significantly different to its original.

1. Architizer Team, ‘Bench 1000cm’, architizer, <http://architizer.com/projects/bench-1000cm/> [accessed 6 April 2014] 2. Architizer Team, ‘Bench 1000cm’.

Fig 25. Klupa Detail Fig 26. Klupa in Use


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Reverse Engineering

The Klupa bench was reverse engineered abstractly. The approach to engineer the bench was to create a geometric, twisted ‘tower’ formation. This resulted in the creation of surface components spread out vertically that show the transition from a polygon to a triangle so that as the tower travels up all its surface components are geometrically different. The Klpua bench does this in its design as its form is composed of sections or strips that join to create layers of geometrically different shapes along its length. However, the reverse engineered product is continuous whereas the Klupa bench has irregularities along its whole.

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The process begins with the creation of a central proximity that dictates the orientation of the tower, also constructing a core for the tower. This is done through conjoining two points. Shapes are then constructed at these points, which dictates the shapes that will be at either end of the tower. The twisting component is then added to grasshopper so that eventually when the overall form is generated corners will be present spiralling up the tower rather than linearly. The point of adding this component is so that when the tower is manipulated later on thereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a curvilinear basis to work with, which is integral to the performance of the Water Vortex system. The shapes are then lofted together and the overall form is sectioned to generate the layers of surfaces. These surfaces are then extruded to create what acts as the strip formations.

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B.4 Technique Development

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Developing the Reverse Engineered Model Grasshopper Explorations Similarly to the first Iteration Matrix for the Seroussi Pavilion, iterations were generated through manipulation of the algorithm, in this case the engineered tower, whilst maintaining certain focuses in the manipulation process. Rather than four major focuses, the tower was manipulated in six different ways that do not overlap unlike the Seroussi matrix. Because the tower is generated through a more simplified algorithm then the Seroussi, there were more aspects that could be investigated. All the different ways that the tower was manipulated was through an addition of components as opposed to manipulation of its existing parts. Firstly and the most basic iteration was the manipulation of the way in which the towers surfaces could be extruded. The use of the Vector Extrusion command generated a more fascinating set of results rather than using a normal X, Y or X Plane extrusion. Because of the nature of the extrusions overlapping components were created, and these were then removed in the case of the last extrusion resulting in a stacking formation. The second focus was influenced by the work done in the sketchbook with Gridshells. Arc formations replaced the lined edge of the surfaces. These were then manipulated with in terms of number. For the third, instead of arcs the Pipe Surface component was added generating a form that most similarly resembled the Klupa bench. Lastly the remaining three focuses are consequences of each other. The idea focuses on experimenting with the Edge Points of the surfaces. Firstly lines were fit in-between these points, secondly the points between a Superimposed tower with a shifted Edge Points List were connected and thirdly lines were fit between the Superimposed Towers Edge Points list and the normal Edge Points List. These were all lofted to view the types of solid structures they could form. The results were intriguing because of the overlapping of separate components in the form, and what these looked like once they were removed from the form, which is shown in the exploration of the successful Iterations after the Iteration Matrix.

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Personal Iteration Matrix

Extrusions

PolyArc between Edge points

Pipe Surface

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Lines Fit between Edge Points, Loft Options

Edge Points List shifted between Superimposed Towers

Lines Fit between Shifted List

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Collaborative Iteration Matrix

Coordinate Change

Spin Charge

Field Line

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Nurbs Curve

Split List

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Delauney Mesh

Metaball

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Orientation Change

Pipe Surface

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CHOSEN ITERATIONS Resp ond ing t o t he Brief Using the Selection Criteria developed in the first Iteration Matrix the following designs were chosen to be developed. Selection Criteria; Curved Formation; mal performance of

To allows for maxiWater Vortex generation.

Ability for Interaction; Between the site, design and audience. Interesting Characteristic; The optimal use of Computational Design techniques that results in a complexity of form thatis aesthetically intriguing. Expression of Water; This acts as the concept of the overall design to conjoin the relationship between the electricity system and the design.

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1/ The first iteration to be developed was chosen because it was capable of being split into separate parts. What is fascinating about these parts is the fluidity of their form representing the organic nature that is being sought out by the selection criteria. Furthermore, the infinite form exemplified the notion of Water Vortices and water wholly. These parts also reflected the influence of the material system of strips and folding. The present material system in the design brings upon ideas of how the structure could be assembled. This provides an interesting prospect to consider. However the final criterion, ‘Ability for Interaction’, proved difficult to combat. The form could easily structure something resembling a pavilion but there is no character in such a function. The audience is limited to how they could interact with such a form, and how the form could become anything to interact with. Furthermore when considering the application of the Water Vortex system again the design is problematic. After delving deeper into the design possibilities a functional conclusion is realized. The shape, and constituent parts of the form could function as the rotating form of the Vortex system. All the parts present streamlined shapes that water would function paramount with. However if these parts are used as part of the energy system no structure is present to withhold the audience. This is combated in the development of the second iteration.

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Redevloping the Criteria After analysing the results of the matrix it was felt that the outcomes needed to be pushed further into achieving successful results. Although the iterations were intriguing and met the selection criteria the standardized cylindrical shape of the results were not ideal prospects. The main issue with the shape was that it would not make thorough use of the site and therefore the energy systems could not be abundant in order to generate maximal energy. So the selection criteria was developed to include: Curved Formation; mal performance of

To allows for maxiWater Vortex generation.

Ability for Interaction; Between the site, design and audience. Interesting Characteristic; The optimal use of Computational Design techniques that results in a complexity of form thatis aesthetically intriguing. Expression of Water; This acts as the concept of the overall design to conjoin the relationship between the electricity system and the design.

Use of Space; Maximal use of the site allowing for more energy generation systems to be placed creating more energy.

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2/ The application of the new criterion for Space is delved into by a development that steers much away from the iteration matrix. By considering previous influences as inspiration towards a concept the Seroussi Pavilion is looked at. Similarities are present between the reverse engineered Klupa bench and Seroussi. These are the pressures of turning and twisting on the form. However Seroussi is a more spacious design and could therefore be an inspiration to consider. The reverse engineered bench functions of bases of polygons. These polygons were translated into the new iteration but rather than using the Twist component the Spin Force from the Seroussi is substituted. This keeps the nature of the twisted tower form inherent but results in a design that combats the problem of Use of Space. The form results in an expression of form that is curvilinear with dense focal points throughout the form. Because there are dense spaces there are also sparse spaces. This generates interesting spaces for public use that can be modified to be functional also. The development of this iteration already combats four of the five selection criteria. The final criterion to be interpreted is Expression of Water. However this is simply an intrinsic nature of any curvilinear form, this one in particular exhibits the Expression of Water through a resemblance with ripple caused upon a waters surface. This iteration therefore is the most successful of the Klupa developments and should be what is considered for the development of the design to suit the brief of the LAGI competition.

Fig 27. LAGI Site

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ALGORITHMIC DEVELOPMENT Developed Concept In order to begin developing the iteration into a design that specifically targets the brief a concept needs to be generated. The concept is almost half created already by consideration of the selection criteria. What the prospect of the concept by now reflects is; A curved formation that allows for maximal performance of Water Vortex Generation; Present in the use of the first developed iteration through the creation of the rotation devices for the Water Vortex System. This curvature is also present in the Seroussi hybrid and should start to be considered in terms of how water will flow throughout the structure. Ability for Interaction; The function of the design is a result of the form of the design. Since the form constitutes many intrinsic walls the circulation throughout it is maze-like and so it becomes easy to say that the form follows function by default. However the prospect of such a function is not taken light-heartedly, it has the potential to be innovative in its nature and become a contemporary interpretation of a maze. Interesting Characteristic; The use of the Spin Electro-magnetic Force single-handedly generates a fascinating the design that exemplifies the use of computational tools. The design as a result is the effect of computation and does not resemble anything that could be manually drafted. Expression of Water; Again, a defaulting characteristic of the design. The curvilinear structure as expressed before exhibits the organic, random motion of water. The effect is a resemblance to water rippled on a body of water’s surface. Use of Space; The design itself is a product to fulfil this criterion. The spacious nature of the design allows for maximal use of the site. In turn allowing the placement of a maximal number of energy generation systems within the design generating maximal energy.

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The development of the Klupa, Seroussi hybrid began by recreating the algorithm from scratch rather than developing the iteration that was present. This was because the base of the design could form important conceptual characteristics that were necessary. Base curves were primarily creatednot only to control the spread of the from but to dictate the circulation paths of the public through the site. These curves dictate the way in which the force lines form around the site. The lines were then separated into three parts so as to control the focal points across the site. The aim in

controlling these points is to generate a journey for the public as they travel across the site. Having the points increase in power towards the conclusion of their travel across the site creates this journey. The lines dictating the form of the force are reduced in order to allow room between walls to travel. If there are too many walls it overcrowds the space. This results in the extruded form that creates the walls of the maze. These walls however have to be further developed so that they do not remain uneffective parts.

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B.5 Prototypes

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PERFORMANCE TESTING Prototyping In order to test the performance of aspects of the design Prototypes were made. These prototypes firstly tested the way that water flows. The importance of this is the essentiality of water to the design. Its main function is to generate energy through a hydro-electronic system and this system requires much water. By understanding water movements an idea was created about how to think about bringing water upon the site and into the energy system. Furthermore the structural characteristics of the design were contemplated. Plain, blank, concrete walls are not ideal. In the case of the design the walls will have water travelling through them and so are an intrinsic character to the design and its function. However the water will not travel randomly but will be used effectively to add to the design. The direction of the water will guide the public through the maze, and the public will follow the water to the conclusion. This specifies the relationship between the audience and the design further. However, how the structure of the walls will allow the water to travel through the design needs to be contemplated. These ideas are tested out through the prototypes also.

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2 degrees/5 seconds

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8 degrees/5 seconds Two ways that water can travel across the site were tested. These were gravitational flow, and a pressurized flow that pushed the water throughout the site. The gravitational flow presented obvious conclusions. As the degree of the angle of the surface that is guiding the water increases relative to the ground the water travels faster. The benefits of using gravitation are that no energy is needed to assist the waters flow, as compared to a pressurized system. However in order to make use of gravity the design needs to be angled relative to the ground. This presents difficult upon itself as the water somehow needs to be at the highest point of the design in order to fall into the design. Excavation might need to be necessary for this idea.

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A pressurized system sees no need to change the form of the design. The only consideration that needs to take place is what will pressure the water to travel through the design. The easiest option is a pump, however as stated before that uses energy. But because pressurization allows the design to stay as it is, being the easier option, it should be the considered option. A resolution to the pump problem is that it could be powered by a hydro electronic system present in the river next to the site. The currents of the river flow naturally and therefore could easily generate energy to power the pump.

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A study of how water flows against surfaces and into catchments was also conducted. These produced results showing the form of water and how it travels. What was seen was the benefit of curvilinear shapes to conduct water more smoothly. Whereas geometric shapes result in water flying into separate directions, rather than curving around an object. The catchment prototypes also exhibit gravitational studies. How the water travels to the lowermost point of the catchment. How then the pressure of it at this point as it is flowing causes it to rise out of the catchment and flow out the sides. The idea of this could be applied to the design to use that pressure notion into increasing the flow of the water through the vortices making them function better.

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These also produced results showing the form of water and how it travels. What was seen was the benefit of curvilinear shapes to conduct water more smoothly. Whereas geometric shapes result in water flying into seperate directions, rather than curving around an object.

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Again, two options were contemplated for the structure of the walls of the design. They were based on a piped or a layered system. Both would require a pump to initially bring water into the structure however once the water was flowing the angles at which the pipes, or the layers sat could be changed making use of gravitation. The benefits of the layered system however lies in its ability to harvest rainwater rather than simply use the river water. By having an opened roof to the structure rainwater could flow into it naturally without the use of pumps or structural angles.

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‘A guide to a new future – an interactive maze that generates energy through the hydro-electric system of Vortex Power.Water is celebrated throughout the design in terms of form and function. Whilst interacting with the design, the audience will primarily interact with water in multiple ways. The transparent structure that displays the function of the site fully will also participate in assisting the audience through the maze. As the public journeys through their maze the forces of energy generation increase up until the conclusion. This journey metaphorically represents the prospects of a sustainably powered future.’ 


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2/ The water is pumped through

a set of pipes that run from the river into the structure of the design. This water flows throughout all the walls of the structure. The members of the structure will be angled differently at different points in order to make use of a gravitational force to increase the waters flow in order to maximise the generated energy. (Although the diagram shows a layered wall structure contemplation still rests on whether the structure should be constructed like this or with pipes.)

3/ Where the focal points of the

form of the structure lay Water Vortex systems will be placed. These systems will have a turbine that lies vertically in the wall structure. Again, as these turbines spin their energy is harvested. The further the turbines are placed from the river the slower the force of the water on the system so that as the public travels from the entrance towards the river the turbine spin increases.

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After the design critique a few design faults became evident. The formal qualities were deemed ‘seductive’ yet the form lacked development. How the Spin Force members are used needed to be more than vertically extruded members. This means that varying wall heights could be considered as well as possibly changing the structure from walls to something else. The walls however seem the best option as I feel the function of a maze could be pushed further in a contemporary manner. What I like about this function is that it causes the public to move around the site, whereas a mere pavilion is nothing but a shelter. Looking forward I think that the maze function should be kept. However in order to meet design critiques the structural attributes need to still be further developed. The most crucial critique to the design is the viability of the technology. The system was deemed as unable to function. This means that for the prospect of the design this needs to be reconsidered. Because water has been such a heavy influence the development of this system is ideal to try and reach a point where the system would work. The main problem is to find a way to get water into the system in an economical manner. Consideration could be taken to recycle the water once it is in the system so that the same water travels around the system over a certain period before it is changed. This allows the water to make up for the energy losses in getting the water into the design. Apart from this, the design could be focused on the portion of the river that is allowed for construction. So that the water does not have to be moved but can be used in its rightful place. However this leaves the rest of the design site blank. Excavation is also an option that should be considered. Both the energy technology and the structure need to be reconsidered for the future. This involves research into technology in order to gain inspiration on a feasible way for the technology to function. The structure can be developed digitally so that experience between the design and the audience is more profound.

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River Positioning By placing the design on the river it deducts energy use to move the water onto the site and into the design. This also concentrates the design and leaves space to develop on the rest of the site. The form could then be completely reconsidered as the purpose of it was to cover the whole site but if it is transferred to function on the river the scale and density of it is impractical. The spin force forms will definitely be kept but they could be arranged in a new manner to engage the audience and the site.

Excavation Although it was not a consideration before excavation is definitely more practical to the technology. The use of gravitational forces on the water combats the problem of pumping the water onto the site. However the site would need to be excavated at least 0.7m for the technology to function.1 Excavation also brings upon further formal possibilities for the design and the design could change along with the technology.

1. Federal Department of Foreign Affairs Switzerland, ‘Water Vortices: a new source of alternative energy’, swissworld, <http://www.swissworld.org/ en/switzerland/swiss_specials/green_technology/water_vortices_a_new_source_of_alternative_energy/> [accessed 12 March 2014]

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Wall Heights Developing the wall heights could result in differing experiential qualities. As the walls increase in height they feel more empowering, whereas the shorter portions are less stunning. This could be used to the designs advantage to differentiate between portions of strength and weakness. These portions could mirror the strengths of the Water Vortices, if they are still present in the final design.

Structure Replacement If the design is changed to include a roof structure, the enclosed effect could be made to the designs advantage. By ridding the design of some walls and adding roof portions accessibility to the design increases as it allows the public to come in contact even during bad weather. The effect of a sheltered model also introduces an option to develop the enclosed spaces further to function differently.

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PART C

C.1 Design Concept

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Prominent Wind Direction: South-West

ANSWERING THE CRIT Deliberating over the function of the hydroelectric system resulted in unsuccessful conclusions. Therefore a new direction was considered for the purposes of the design concept. A site analysis led to the conclusion of the optimal performance of wind on the site. This conclusion proved beneficial as wind exhibits similar characteristics to water so that general ideas could be maintained throughout the design.

Fig 28. Wind Data showing prominent Wind Speed & Direction

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ENERGY SYSTEM Wind Power The site in Copenhagen demonstrates prominent wind conditions1 that could be useful for the design as a substitute for the hydroelectric system initially considered. The implementation of piezo disks provides an opportunity for flexible design conditions. The piezo disks can be easily applied to make use of the wind conditions, as they only require a system of compression or tension. This can be achieved by wind through a construction of an edifice, which will do the compressing or expanding of the piezo disks. Providing interesting design opportunities through movement.

Fig 29. Piezo Disk Diagram Fig 30. Piezo disk technology implemented in Wind Stalk

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1. Danish Meteorological Institute, ‘Observed Wind Speed and Direction in Denmark - with Climatological Standard Normals’, Technical Report, <http://landartgenerator.org/designcomp/> [accessed 22 May 2014]


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Atelier DNA As a previous precedent to the piezo disk technology in combination with wind the ‘Wind Stalk’ idea presents an interesting conclusion. The benefit of analysing this idea lies within the similar design ideas we would like to develop. These consider; wind, energy, movement and the piezo technology. By taking the idea of the response of wheat fields in the wind, large rid-like members were distributed across the site in the same fashion. These sway with the wind similarly to the effect of a wheat field. These rod-like structures also include LED lights at their tips which light up during the night, creating a different atmospheric effect. These LEDs light up depending on the intensity of the wind pushing the poles. So that when the wind is weak the lights are dim, and they go completely off when there is no wind.1 I think that this experiential effect provides for an interesting design as it makes use of the wind technology as well as the design opportunities. When working with wind I feel like it would be a shame to waste the movement that is opportune as a design characteristic.

1. Atelier DNA, ‘WINDTSALK’, ADNA: Collaborative Design Laboratory, <http://atelierdna.com/masdarwindstalk/> [accessed 22 May 2014]

Fig 31. Wind Stalk Aerial Fig 32. Wind Stalk Experiential Diagram

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FORMING A NEW CONCEPT Form In order to adapt to a new energy technology, we looked back on our previous Grasshopper iterations for inspiration. In a different combination between our reverse engineered model and the selection criteria a different design was formed. The reverse engineered had a heavier influence, whilst the Seroussi Pavilion iterations were abandoned. A focus on the repetition of members like those in the Klupa Bench was primarily used in the form of a tunnel-like sculpture. This evolved from being singular arch members to a more in depth considered form later on in the design process.

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Function Considering the idea of movement using wind a new concept was formed. Since there are a multiplicity of arch members along the site alongside one another a unison movement of these would create an interesting experiential effect. The concept of having these members form tunnels induces the idea of an audience which walks among giant arch members that sway in a dominolike effect above themselves. This allows the movement to also contribute to the use of the wind piezo disk technology. As the members move the system can compress and extend the piezo disk technology in order to generate energy.

Piezo-electrcity Diagram

Arch Movement

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For optimal function the distribution of the tunnels across the site was a big consideration, as well as the site itself. The control of the contours optimized wind conditions at certain areas of the site. The contours were changed to include two steep points at either end of the site and a valley in the middle. The effect of this results in better wind performance because of higher altitudes. This also allows a central area that is sheltered from the wind to contrast with the rest of the windy conditions on the site, where the audience can relax rather than be in the full force of the climate.

The site is also split in half to contrast between onshore and offshore wind conditions. There are two tunnels placed on site one at either end to make use of either of the two wind conditions. However, because the wind is unpredictable the facing of the tunnels needed to be reviewed. This resulted in a curvilinear spread of the tunnels in their respective areas similar to the forms considered in the first proposal. So that at any given time there is a member that is facing against the wind to make use of the wind coming from that direction. Furthermore, the sizes of the members vary across the site. Larger members are placed in the direction from which the wind is analysed to come from the most, which is South-West.1 Whilst the smaller members are placed in the other directions so that they can make use of smaller winds and small gusts.

Curved Bottom

The Arch itself is optimized to catch the wind for technological performance. The face is flattened, which will be placed in the direction of the oncoming wind in order to obstruct the wind so that it forces movement. The depth however is thin so that the form streamlines against the wind and the member isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t pushed sideways. The weight distribution is controlled by hollowing out some of the depth and having the predominant weight of the structure at its feet for stability. Finally, the feet are curved in order to allow for ease and smoothness of movement against the ground.

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Rhino & Grasshopper Modelling The final models were created using a mixture of Grasshopper as well as Rhino methods. Rhino was used to generate the form of the arch whist Grasshopper was used for distribution methods across the site, as well as scaling. Furthermore grasshopper assisted with manipulating the contours of the site allowing the form to be modelled correctly at their respective heights. Finally, through the online tutorials the surroundings of the site were capable of being modelled in Grasshopper to provide the context of the site.

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Fabrication For the two separate scale models two different approaches will be taken. A tectonic prototype will be constructed by Nesting the Surfaces of the arch in Rhino. This will be a detailed representation of the arch element testing its movement. As the Arch is a Rhino model constructed by polysurfaces these are easily nested for fabrication. In real life terms, the material predictable for use would be aluminium. Due to its light weight it would be most efficient. Constructability would also be at ease with aluminium as the material is easily cut into faces and can be welded together, much like how the prototype would be glued together.

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For the large scale model a simplified version of the design will be laser cut. This model is only to indicate the attractiveness of the form along with the contours. The form of the members will be simplified to one face consisting of a single strip of card. This will show the general shape of each arch at its respective size in proportion with the rest of the design and laid across the site in their respective places. For ease of manufacture a colour-coded Rhino model with the respective sizes is generated to exemplify the positioning of each arch.

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C.2 Tectonic Elements

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PROTOTYPING Tectonic Arch Through the creation of the arch at a 1:20 scale a few observations were made. The arch was capable of movement with wind/air being blown towards it. However a realization was made about the necessity of an extra member. Since the arch stays in place after it is blown over, and would require a gust from the opposing side to lift it back up it does not make for an efficient design prospect. Since for those arches that function off the predominant wind direction of South-West it is anticipated to be the strongest force and therefore a gust from the opposite direction is highly unlikely to lift the arch back up. However the arch needs to be lifted back up in order to compress and expand the piezo disks. This resulted in the addition of a springlike member that can use its force to lift the arch back up in order to allow it to expand and then be pushed over again by the wind compressing the disk again. Furthermore, the stability of the arch itself was questioned in the critique. The attachment of the arch to the ground needs to be more succinct in order for it not to topple over in different directions, and to stop it toppling over all the way even in the direction in which it’s supposed to move.

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Arch Movement

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Piezo Disk Technology

Piezo Disk under Tension and Compression

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A prototype of the actual energy technology is also modelled in order to depict the way in which the rods that contain the piezo disks will function. These are attached to the arches themselves. They contain an interior tube, which hold the piezo disks as well as an exterior tube with a surface which does the actual compressing of the disks.


C.3 Final Model

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Site Model

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For the construction of the final model the colour-coded Rhino model of the site was used to dictate where each sized arch would be placed. The shape of the tunnel itself was dictated along the contour model using blutack and the arches glued following these dictations.

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C.4 LAGI Requirements

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WIND TUNNEL

By Andreea, Neha & Emily The context of the LAGI site for the 2014 competition at Refshaleøen prompts key natural characteristics that contribute to its identity. Primarily the climate conditions consist of large amounts of wind, as the site is on an island adjacent to the Sydhavnen River. These windy conditions dictate the character of the site, and induce a dynamic experience for those who visit. The dynamic nature of the site provides a catalyst for design intentions. Since the wind on the site generates movement across the site this movement can be harnessed to create an active center for public use. This is exactly the inherent quality of the ‘Wind Tunnel’. Wind Tunnel presents to its audience the ability to immerse themselves into a wholesome relationship between wind, man and energy.

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First Tunnel As the audience enters the site they enter the first tunnel – the offshore wind tunnel. This makes use of the wind that comes from inland. As the tunnel is followed, its members in the form of arches sway with the power of the wind. This swaying motion does not occur in unison, and therefore the combination of directions with which that arches sway will almost always be different with every visit. Because of the offshore wind that is being harnessed this tunnel is anticipated to sway in a rather slow and relaxing manner, easing the audience into the rest of the site, and the rest of the wind conditions.

The Valley Once the first tunnel is travelled through the audience is presented with a valley. A valley that allows the audience to rest in a relaxing environment. This space contrasts itself from the rest of the site, as it lies sheltered by the hills that surround it. The input of a relaxation space on site changes the character of the site to something new. Since the character is present in the two tunnels on the site, the brisk nature perhaps requires the need for a break from the excitement. The audience is given the opportunity to relax and admire the space from a sanctuary centred in the site.

Second Tunnel The second tunnel – the onshore wind tunnel – constitutes the heaviest movement on site. The nature of the onshore wind is of a higher force of the offshore wind, and this is expressed through the separation of the first and second wind tunnel. This separation also contributes to different design needs for performance. The second tunnel also curves around a small hill, which is the highest point on site. The higher the arches are the more powerful they are, therefore at this point the altitude in combination with the power of the wind creates a third distinctive experience to the first tunnel and the valley.

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Energy However amongst all this movement lies a deeper function. By harnessing the force of the wind on the arches of the tunnels energy is generated. It makes most sense to harness the most powerful natural condition on site to generate energy. The power of this condition contributes to the performance of the design. The technology used is a piezo-electric member in the form of the disk. These disks lie in members joined to the arch that compress and extend with the movement on the wind. The forces of compression and extension act on the disk in this manner and generate energy. Using this technology the estimated annual kWh for the biggest arches, with an average estimate for compressions and extensions is 951kW. C

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If we assume there is and average of 5 compressions per hour, in order to calculate for the biggest arches we would do the following: C = 5 compressions/hour In one 16m arch all together there are 1,500 disks. D = number of disks added up in all the big arches = 1,500 disks x 23 arches = 34,500 Therefore: W = 5 [(630 x 10^-6) x 34,500] = 108 Watts/Hour In a full day = 2,608 Watts In a year = 951 Kilowatts 1. Piezo Systems, Inc, ‘Standard Double Quick-Mount Extension Sensors’, Piezo Systems, Inc, <http://www.piezo.com/prodexg8dqm.html> [accessed 28 May 2014]

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WIND TUNNELS By Andreea, Neha & Emily

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C.5 Learning Objectives & Outcomes

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After the final presentation this semester I felt quite confident in our design outcome. As compared to the interim presentation, where feedback was quite negative, this time around it was pleasing to hear that the design was on a good track. Contrasting between the proposal from mid-semester and the final outcome I can see the benefits of the changes that were made to the design concept. The final outcome has a more elegant simplicity, whilst still remaining dynamic, which I feel represents the style of parametric design. The first proposal had the effect of being manually thought up with too many constituents that did not all come together as coherently. But the final proposal came together in a manner that consistently revolves around the requirements of the brief, and the focus on parametric and renewable energy. On the other hand, I would have enjoyed to experiment with grasshopper a bit further for the final design. The definition used was quite basic, and throughout the semester, through seeing what grasshopper can do, I would have liked to push it to the extremes in our design. This is perhaps a notion to seek of future designs. The parametric models that result out of generational design using the computational tools still interest me to explore, especially more after this semester of practicing design with them. The outcomes of this studio as compared with my previous studios is very different. I feel that my design capabilities are maturing from learning about the parametric design tools. As we are in a technological age, it seems very beneficial to begin to experiment with such tools. In the future I anticipate architecture to develop towards a generational mode of design using parametric tools, therefore by learning these tools now it develops my mode of design towards a new era. Although most of us students had a vague idea of parametric architecture I don’t think any of us could have anticipated the complexity of it. The concept of generation I think was a concept none of us heard of. Through the parametric work it was very evident how deep architecture has evolved. By deep I mean almost philosophically, as it goes beyond logistics and practicality and focuses on a deeper meaning and influence. Overall my conclusions lie within a deeper appreciation for parametric modelling and I would like to further my use of these in the future. Because of the almost unpredictable nature of computational tools, as computers are more knowledgeable than us, I like developing designs that are unexpected. It’s quite enjoyable to design in this way as compared to manually. A computer is like having a design partner who lets you choose the outcome but gives you thousands of options to choose from using your ideas. Perhaps a computer is the best design partner you can have of all.

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REFERENCES Alessio Erioli & Antonio Vacca, ‘[ATTR]-Action’, Computational design Italy, <http://www.co-de-it.com/wordpress/attr-action.html> [accessed 18 March 2014] Alisa Andrasek, ‘Seroussi Pavilion/Paris/2007’, biothing, <http://www.biothing.org/?cat=5> [accessed 2 April 2014] Architizer Team, ‘Bench 1000cm’, architizer, <http://architizer.com/projects/bench-1000cm/> [accessed 6 April 2014] Atelier DNA, ‘WINDTSALK’, ADNA: Collaborative Design Laboratory, <http://atelierdna.com/masdarwindstalk/> [accessed 22 May 2014] Danish Meteorological Institute, ‘Observed Wind Speed and Direction in Denmark - with Climatological Standard Normals’, Technical Report, <http://landartgenerator.org/designcomp/> [accessed 22 May 2014] Federal Department of Foreign Affairs Switzerland, ‘Water Vortices: a new source of alternative energy’, Swiss World, <http://www.swissworld.org/ en/switzerland/swiss_specials/green_technology/water_vortices_a_new_source_of_alternative_energy/> [accessed 12 March 2014] Jeffrey Krause, ‘Reflections: The Creative Process of Generative Design in Architecture’, Jeffrey Krause, <http://arch.blacksquare.com/docs/krause_ gen2003_press.pdf> [accessed 21 March 2014 Jessica Escobedo, ‘Double Agent White in Series of Prototypical Architectures / Theverymany’, eVolo, <http://www.evolo.us/architecture/doubleagent-white-in-series-of-prototypical-architectures-theverymany/> [accessed 31 March 2014] Lidija Grozdanic, ‘Archipelago Paramterically Designed Pavilion’, eVolo, <http://www.evolo.us/architecture/archipelago-parametrically-designedpavilion/> [accessed 31 March 2014] Liz Black, ‘Plan Bee’, Land Art Generator Initiative, <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/lagi2012/> [accessed 12 March 2014] Matthijs la Roi, ‘Floating Wind - IJbunker competition’, Matthijs la Roi, <http://www.matthijslaroi.nl/cnc-manufacturing/floating-wind-ijbunkercompetition/> [accessed 24 March 2014] Michael Esposito & others, ‘Green Negligee’, Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, <http://acadia.org/projects/VQA3YH> [accessed 19 March 2014] Michael Esposito & others, ‘Green Negligee/Adaptive Modularity’, Epiphyte Lab, <http://www.epiphyte-lab.com/research/green-negligee/> [accessed 19 March 2014] Michael Hansmeyer, ‘Initial Studies: Subdivided Pavilions’, Michael Hansmeyer, <http://www.michael-hansmeyer.com/projects/initial_subdivision_ studies_info.html?screenSize=1&color=1> [accessed 24 March 2014] Michael Hansmeyer, ‘Introduction’, Michael Hansmeyer, <http://www.michael-hansmeyer.com/profile/about.html> [accessed 21 March 2014] Michael M. Bernitsas & James C. MacBain, ‘Technology’, Vortex Hydro Energy, <http://www.vortexhydroenergy.com/technology/> [accessed 12 March 2014] NADAA, ‘MoMa Fabrications 1998’, NADAA, <http://www.nadaaa.com/#/projects/fabrications/> [accessed 31 March 2014] Piezo Systems, Inc, ‘Standard Double Quick-Mount Extension Sensors’, Piezo Systems, Inc, <http://www.piezo.com/prodexg8dqm.html> [accessed 28 May 2014] Phillip Jenkin & others, ‘Fluent-Fields’, Land Art Generator Initiative, <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/E5M8P031/> [accessed 28 March 2014] Rivka Oxman & Robert Oxman, Theories of the Digital in Architecture, (London: Routledge, 2014) Robert Ferry & Elizabeth Monoian, ‘Competition’, Land Art Generator Initiative, <http://landartgenerator.org/competition.html> [accessed 12 March 2014] Robert Ferry & Elizabeth Monoian, ‘Hydroelectricity, Vortex Power’, Land Art Generator Initiative, <http://landartgenerator.org/readwater3.html> [accessed 12 March 2014]

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PHOTOGRAPH SOURCES 1 & 2. Liz Black, ‘Plan Bee’, Land Art Generator Initiative, <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/lagi2012/> [accessed 12 March 2014] 3 & 4. Phillip Jenkin & others, ‘Fluent-Fields’, Land Art Generator Initiative, <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/E5M8P031/> [accessed 28 March 2014] 5. James C. MacBain & Michael M. Bernitsas, ‘Technology’, vortexhydroenergy, <http://www.vortexhydroenergy.com/> [accessed 28 March 2014] 6. Federal Department of Foreign Affairs Switzerland, ‘Water Vortices: a new source of alternative energy’, Swiss World, <http://www.swissworld. org/en/switzerland/swiss_specials/green_technology/water_vortices_a_new_source_of_alternative_energy/> [accessed 12 March 2014] 7 & 8. Alessio Erioli & Antonio Vacca, ‘[ATTR]-Action’, Computational design Italy, <http://www.co-de-it.com/wordpress/attr-action.html> [accessed 18 March 2014] 9 & 10. Michael Esposito & others, ‘Green Negligee/Adaptive Modularity’, Epiphyte Lab, <http://www.epiphyte-lab.com/research/green-negligee/> [accessed 19 March 2014] 11 & 12. Michael Hansmeyer, ‘Initial Studies: Subdivided Pavilions’, Michael Hansmeyer, <http://www.michael-hansmeyer.com/projects/initial_subdivision_studies_info.html?screenSize=1&color=1> [accessed 24 March 2014] 13 & 14. Matthijs la Roi, ‘1st prize Entry: Floating Wind’, Make a Hybrid, <http://www.makeahybrid.org/2010/11/1st-prize-entry-floating-wind/> [accessed 24 March 2014] 15 & 16. Jessica Escobedo, ‘Double Agent White in Series of Prototypical Architectures / Theverymany’, eVolo, <http://www.evolo.us/architecture/ double-agent-white-in-series-of-prototypical-architectures-theverymany/> [accessed 31 March 2014] 17 & 18. Lidija Grozdanic, ‘Archipelago Paramterically Designed Pavilion’, eVolo, <http://www.evolo.us/architecture/archipelago-parametricallydesigned-pavilion/> [accessed 31 March 2014] 19 & 20. Rose Ethertington, ‘10 Hills Place by Amanda Levete Architects’, dezeen magazine, <http://www.dezeen.com/2009/09/10/10-hills-placeby-amanda-levete-architects/> [accessed 31 March 2014] 21 & 22. NADAA, ‘MoMa Fabrications 1998’, NADAA, <http://www.nadaaa.com/#/projects/fabrications/> [accessed 31 March 2014] 23. Ezio Blasetti, ‘Seroussi Pavilion’, Ezio Blasetti, <http://portfolio.ezioblasetti.net/Seroussi-Pavillion> [accessed 2 April 2014] 24. Alisa Andrasek, ‘Seroussi Pavilion/Paris/2007’, biothing, <http://www.biothing.org/?cat=5> [accessed 2 April 2014] 25 & 26. Architizer Team, ‘Bench 1000cm’, architizer, <http://architizer.com/projects/bench-1000cm/> [accessed 6 April 2014] 27 & 28. Robert Ferry & Elizabeth Monoian, ‘The Design Guidelines’, Land Art Generator Initiative, <http://landartgenerator.org/designcomp/> [accessed 4 June 2014] 29. Dick Hodges, ‘How it Works’, Windulum, <http://windulum.com/page0/page0.html> [accessed 28 May 2014] 30 & 31 & 32. Atelier DNA, ‘WINDTSALK’, ADNA: Collaborative Design Laboratory, <http://atelierdna.com/masdarwindstalk/> [accessed 22 May 2014]

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HAS & PHIL THURSDAY 4;15 - 7:15 ABPL 30048 

Andreea Onofreiasa 588039  
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