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Complete Grammar

For First Certificate in English

REPLACE WITH IMAGE

A Publication by Andrea V. @ Palaber

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TABLE OF CONTENTS: The Present Tenses…………………..…..…..….……..4 The Past Tenses…………………………..…….….……23 The Future Tenses……………………………………...37 The Conditional Sentences………………….…...... 49 The Passive Sentences……….………………..….....69 Gerund or Infinitive? ……….……….………..……….84 Modal Verbs ……….………………..…………….….....97

Reported Speech ……….…………….……………….113 Nouns, Adjectives and Adverbs ………….……….124

The Sentence Structure ……….…………………….156 Irregular Verbs ……….…………………………..…….179

Spelling ……….……………………………………….....184 Pronouns and Determiners ……….…….………….194 Prepositions ……….……………………………...…….214 3


The Present Tenses

Speaking about the present

Do you know how many present tenses exist in the English language?

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Complete Grammar for FCE

The Present Simple 1. Permanent Truths and facts We use the present simple to talk about permanent truths and facts.

For example:

Water boils at 100 degrees. Cats have four legs. The sun rises on the east 2. Situations in the present We use the present simple to talk about situations in the present. For example:

I work in a bank. Peter lives in London. She likes cats. 5


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3. Regular, repeated activity We use the present simple to talk about a regular, repeated activity. For example:

I get up at 7am. She works from 9am to 5pm. We use adverbs to say how often we do things: Adverbs of frequency

Adverbial phrases of frequency

always usually normally / generally often / frequently sometimes / occasionally seldom hardly ever/rarely never

on Mondays every day once a month twice a week every year in the afternoons at nights

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Complete Grammar for FCE

4. Referring to the future We use the present simple to refer to the future, especially to talk about timetables. For example:

The plane arrives at 10 am. The concert starts at 9pm. The bus leaves at 4.15pm. 5. Clauses of time and condition We use the present simple in clauses of time and conditions referring to a point in the future. It is used after: when, if, unless, before, after, until, as soon as, whenever, etc. For example:

I will give him the book when I see him. If it rains, we will say at home. As soon as we arrive home, I will make dinner.

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Complete Grammar for FCE

6. Observations and declarations We use the present simple to talk about observations and declarations. We use state verbs to express sentiments, states and thoughts (not activities). For example:

I hope he arrives on time. Jonathan likes chocolate. I agree with you. 7. Instructions We can use the present simple to give instructions.

For example:

You heat the oil and fry the meat. You turn left at the second street. You mix the flour with the sugar.

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8. Sports Commentaries, news headlines We use the present simple in sports commentaries and newspaper headlines. For example:

Ronaldo passes the ball to Beckham. And Smith takes the ball and hands it to Frank. Ford dismisses 500 workers.

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The Present Continuous 1. Actions in progress We use the present continuous to talk about actions which are happening at the moment of speaking. For example:

Peter is watching TV at the moment. We are cooking dinner in the kitchen. What is happening in the street 2. Temporary actions in the present We use the present continuous to talk about temporary actions or situations in the present period. We often use following adverbials: today, this week, this year, these days, etc to refer to a period around now.

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For example:

I am working from home these days. (but normally I work in the office)

These days Peter is living in London. (but his home is in York)

She is studying at university. (but she is not studying at this very moment)

3. Situations in the process of changing We use the present continuous to talk about situations which are changing.

We often use the following verbs:

get, become, change, rise, increase, grow, fall, improve, begin, start For example:

The prices are rising. Is your English improving? We are getting tired.

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Complete Grammar for FCE

4. Planned future actions We use the present continuous to refer to planned future actions, especially with verbs which express movement. For example:

She is flying to New York on Wednesday. We are driving to France next week. Peter is travelling to the UK next month. 5. Repeated actions We use the present continuous to talk about repeated actions, especially if we are irritated or want to criticise.

We often use: always, constantly, continually or never. For example:

You are always talking on the phone! He is constantly inviting his friends to the pub. He is always coming late to work. 12


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The Present Perfect 1. Relationship between past and present We use the present perfect when:

- there is a connection between the past and the present: I have read this book. (so I know it) we give new information: I have broken the vase. (so it is broken) to talk about things people have done or experienced and the exact time is not important and the action can be repeated: He has travelled to several countries. (not important when) 3. With adverbials We use the present perfect with adverbials which show a connection between the past and the present:

already, yet, still, just, so far, up to now, ever, never, recently 13


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For example:

I have already finished the project. Peter has lived in London and New York so far. She has just completed her degree. Have you ever been to New York? I have never eaten a frog. 3. With time reference We use the present perfect to talk about a period of time which started in the past and continuing into the present (and perhaps beyond). We often use: today, this + morning/afternoon/week/year

, etc.

For example:

I’ve travelled a lot. (in my life and can do it again) I have taken two exams this week. (the week is not finished)

She has written three emails this morning. (the morning is not finished)

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4. In clauses of time and condition We use the present perfect simple to refer to a future action which will be completed. For example:

I will send you an email after I have finished my homework. Can you give me a ring when you have arrived to the hotel? Once you have found your passport, you can travel again. 5. With since, for, how long We use the present perfect simple to describe how long an activity is if the activity started in the past and continues to the present or into the future. We use: since, for and how long

For example:

I have lived in Beijing for 6 months. He has worked for Microsoft since 1996. How long have you had this car? 15


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6. With superlatives We can use the present perfect simple with superlatives to say that something we experience is the best/worst, first, etc that has happened to us so far. For example:

It’s the best cake I have ever eaten. It’s the most expensive holiday I have ever had. It’s the first time I have been here. 7. For or since? We use for to say how long an activity is (period of time). We use since to say when an activity started.

For example: For = duration three months a day five years two hours a while some time

Since = point in time 1999 June last week Christmas I met you the first day 16


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The Present Perfect

Continuous 1. Use and meaning We use the present perfect continuous to talk about actions which started in the past and continue up to the present or beyond. The present perfect emphasizes the duration and continuity of the action. For example:

She has been studying for three hours. I have been working as a teacher for over ten years.

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2.For and since We can use the present perfect continuous with for and since. For example:

I have been learning English for two years. She has been wearing glasses since she was a child. Joe has been watching TV for hours. 3. Present perfect simple or continuous? Simple

Continuous

•To focus on the result of an activity:

•To focus on the activity:

I’ve read the book. (finished reading it)

I’ve been reading this book since the morning. (still reading it)

•To focus on how many times an activity has happened:

•To focus on how long an activity is:

She has worked for three companies.

She’s been working here for five years. 18


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State Verbs 1. General description Most verbs in English are dynamic. They can describe habits or actions in progress. Dynamic verbs have simple and continuous forms. For example: Habit: I often travel abroad. Action in progress: I am watching television at the

moment.

State has no beginning or end, they describe states, not actions. Some verbs are always stative: belong, want Some verbs can have state or dynamic uses:

weigh/weighing

2. Feelings and perceptions Feelings: Like, love, prefer, hate, dislike, care, hope,

admit

Perception: Feel, hear, notice, see, smell, sound, taste 19


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We normally use these verbs in the simple tenses:

Do you see that woman in the park? I love cats. We often use can with see, hear , smell and taste: I can smell something (at the moment) Can you hear the music? 3. Wants Wants and needs: want, need, wish, depend on, weigh,

come from, cost

I wish you good luck. The room needs cleaning. She wants to sleep. 4. Existence and possession Existence: be, exist Possession: belong to, own, owe, have, possess Appearance: appear, seem, resemble, look

She is tall. Who does this pen belong to? It appears to be difficult. 20


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5. Thinking and believing Knowledge: forget, realise, understand, know,

remember Opinion: believe, doubt, imagine, suppose, think, expect, agree, mean, deserve If we want to say “have an opinion”, we can use think:

I think he is a nice person. Other examples:

She doesn’t understand your words. I know Peter well. I doubt he would like your idea.

6. Compositions and connections Compositions: consist of, contain, have Connection: come from, concern, cost, fit, suit

The presentation consists of five parts. Maggie comes from Canada. My friend has a Ferrari.

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7. Change in meaning

Some verbs can have a dynamic or state form with a change in meaning. I think you are right. holiday. (opinion)

I am thinking about my (consider)

I can see you. manager tomorrow. (see with my eyes)

I am seeing the bank

This cake tastes good. cake. (has a good taste)

I was just tasting the

You look good. (seem)

(meeting)

(testing) What are you looking at? (look with eyes)

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The Past Tenses

Speaking about the past

VISUAL HERE

Do you know how many past tenses exist in the English language?

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Complete Grammar for FCE

The Past Simple 1. Completed past actions We use the past simple to talk about completed actions and events in the past which are not connected to the present. For example:

We travelled to London by bus. Peter finished his studies last year. Jane bought some bread and then walked home. 2. Past habits We use the past simple to talk about habits or repeated actions in the past. For example:

When I was young, I always spent the holidays with my grandparents. I went to work by bus when I worked in France. She went to lots of concerts. 24


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3. Past situations at a concrete past time We use the past simple to talk about actions or events at a concrete past time or period of time. For example:

I got up at 7am. She worked from 9am to 5pm. We met in 1995. 4. With for and ago We use the past simple to refer to completed action in the past with ago.

We use for to express the duration of a past action. For example:

The plane arrived 10 minutes ago. Joe lived in Peru 10 years ago. The journey lasted for two hours. I stayed in a hotel for five days. 25


Complete Grammar for FCE

5. With when We use the past simple to ask questions with when or what time. For example:

What time did you arrive home? When did you start working here? When did you meet your wife? 6. With adverbials We can use the past simple with adverbials which refer to the past. We use:

last week/month/year yesterday, earlier today, this week a year/three days/ a few months ago at two o’clock, in 2003

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Complete Grammar for FCE

The Past Continuous 1. Actions in progress in the past We use the past continuous to talk about an action which was in progress in the past at a specified time. We often use all to emphasize continuity: all night, all day,

al evening, etc.

For example:

We were watching movies all night. I was working all day. She was living in Paris in 1998. 2. Actions happening at the same time We use the past continuous to express that two or more actions were in progress at the same time.

We often use while.

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Complete Grammar for FCE

For example:

While Peter was playing on the computer, Julie was reading a book. Jack was jogging and Peter was weightlifting. I was writing emails while the cake was baking in the oven. 3. Actions interrupted by another action We use the past continuous to express that an action in progress was interrupted by another action. We use the past simple for the action which interrupts.

We often use the following words: when, as, just as, while. For example:

We were having dinner when the phone rang. While I was walking home, I met Fred. Just as she was leaving the office, the boss turned up.

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Complete Grammar for FCE

4. Repeated past actions We use the past continuous to talk about repeated past actions. We often use always, all the time, constantly and continually to express criticism. For example:

When she was young, she was always playing music at night. He was talking all the time. Jack was always wearing a scarf. 5. Unfulfilled plans We use the past continuous to talk about unfulfilled plans. We use: plan, hope, want, intend, to be going to, etc. For example:

I was hoping to meet my friends at the weekend but they were too busy. She was planning to go on holiday but she didn’t have money. Peter was wanting to phone his mum but he didn’t have time. 29


Complete Grammar for FCE

6. Polite questions We can use the past continuous for polite questions. For example:

I was wondering if you could help me. I was thinking that you might be able to help me. I was hoping you could do something for me. 7. Background information We can use the past continuous to give background information. For example:

It was getting dark and she was preparing dinner. We were walking in town when the sun was setting. Peter was going home and the sun was shining.

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Complete Grammar for FCE

The Past Perfect 1. Comparing past events We use the past perfect when we want to emphasize that one past event happened before another past event. The action which happened first uses the past perfect.

For example:

When I arrived at the station, the train had left. (the train left before I arrived) 2. With when If we want to emphasize that one action happened before another, we can use when + past simple. For example:

When she arrived at the party, everyone had left. (past simple) = everyone left before she arrived

(past perfect)

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Complete Grammar for FCE

3. With time expressions We can use the past perfect with time expressions to express that the action in the past perfect happened before the action in the past simple. We can use: when, before, after, as soon as, by the time,

the moment, immediately , till, until, etc.

For example:

When I had finished the project, I called my boss. As soon as they had arrived to the hotel, they went to bed. She didn’t know how funny he was, until she had met him. 4. With adverbs We can use the past perfect with the following adverbs: just, already, never and ever . For example:

Peter had already begun cooked dinner, when his wife arrived. She had just completed her first book, when the editor contacted her. 32


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5. As the equivalent of the present perfect We can use the past perfect as an equivalent of the present perfect when we are looking back from the past. For example:

It was 2003 and she had just arrived to New York. He had worked for T&T Co. for 5 years when he was promoted. 6. With reported speech We use the past perfect in reported speech when the original sentence was in the past simple or in the present perfect. From past simple to past perfect:

‘I went to the cinema three times last week.’, he said He said that he had gone to the cinema three times the week before. From present perfect to past perfect:

‘Have you ever been to New Zealand?’, she asked. She asked if I had ever been to New Zealand. 33


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7. With if, wish and if only We use the past perfect in subordinate clauses to express an unreal past situation. For example:

I wish you had told me about the problem. If you had told me about the problem, I could have helped you. If only she had sent me an email. I would rather we had gone home on time. 8.Past simple or past perfect? In most cases, we can use either the past simple or the past perfect. The past perfect is used to show which action happened first when it is important.

For example: After I finished work, I went home. = After I had finished work, I went home. However, we must always use the past perfect when we talk about unreal past situations (see previous slide).

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Complete Grammar for FCE

The Past Perfect

Continuous 1.Use and meaning We use the past perfect continuous to emphasize the duration of an activity in the past. For example:

When I arrived home, Jane had been cooking for an hour. He was tired because he had been playing computer games all night.

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2. With reported speech

We use the past perfect continuous in reported speech: the present perfect continuous and the past continuous become past perfect continuous. For example:

“I was walking in the park when I met her.” he said He said that he had been walking in the park when he had met her. “I have been living here since 1985.” he claimed. He claimed that he had been living there since 1985.

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The Future Tenses

Speaking about the future

Do you know how many future tenses exist in the English language? Well, yes, there are 4 future tenses, but we can talk about the future in more than 4 ways. Find out in the following unit. 37


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The Future Simple 1. Facts or predictions We use the future simple to express facts about the future which do not depend on the speaker. For example:

Peter will be 28 years old in December. The elections will take place next year. We can also make predictions about the future which are not definite or arranged. For example:

It will rain tomorrow. (weather forecast) Real Madrid will win the match again. (I think) 2. Intentions and promises We use the future simple to talk about intentions and promises or decisions made at the time of speaking.

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For example:

Ok, I will buy you an ice cream. (promise) I’ll have a cappuccino, please. (decision) I will travel to New York one day. (intention) 3. Threats We can use the future simple to express threats.

For example:

Leave me alone or I will call the police! You will regret this! 4. Requests The future simple can also express requests. For example:

Will you, please, open the door for me? Will you help me with the project, please?

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5. Hopes and expectations We can use the future simple to talk about hopes and expectations. It is used with verbs: expect, hope, think, assume, doubt, suppose, believe, I’m sure, I wonder, etc and with adverbs: probably, hopefully, perhaps, possibly, etc. For example:

I hope he will arrive on time. Hopefully the plane will not be delayed. Do you think he will phone? 6. Weather forecasts We use the future simple in weather forecasts to predict the weather. For example:

Tomorrow will be rainy. The snow will continue tomorrow. It will be sunny and dry over the next few days. 40


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7. Offers and suggestions We use ‘shall’ to express offers and suggestions. For example:

Shall we have a pizza? (suggestions) Shall I wash up the dishes for you? (offer) Where shall we go on holidays? (asking for suggestion) 8. Use of shall We don’t use shall very often in modern English. It is usually used to express offers and suggestions in the first person singular (I) and plural (we) in questions.

Shall I make you a cup of tea? The negative of shall is shan’t (= shall not). We can also use shall to express strong determination.

I shall tell him the truth! 41


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The Future Continuous 1. Actions in progress in the future We use the future continuous to describe an action in progress in the future. For example:

I will be having dinner at 6pm. (around 6pm) We will be watching football in the evening. (all night) 2. Planned future actions We use the future continuous to describe planned actions or arrangements in the future. For example:

I will be meeting my friends at the weekend. We will be staying in a hotel while we are in New York.

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3. Routine actions We can describe routine actions and repeated, regular events. For example:

I’ll be working Friday evening. (as normal) I’ll be seeing him tomorrow so I can tell him the news. 4. Polite questions We can use the future continuous in polite questions instead of the future simple (will). Questions with the future continuous are more polite or casual. For example:

Will you be meeting him tomorrow? Will you be helping out with the decorations?

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5. Assumptions about the present

We can use the future continuous to express assumptions about the present.

• •

For example:

• •

They will be landing in Tokyo now. It’s 7 o’clock, she will be going home now.

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Complete Grammar for FCE

The Future Perfect 1. Completed actions in the future We use the future perfect to describe an action which will be completed in the future. It is common to use by + a time reference: by January,

by 2035, by next month, by the time you arrive.

For example:

I will have cleaned the whole house by the time your parents arrive. We will have arrived by 4pm. They will have built the bridge by next year.

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2. With for We often use ‘for’ with the future continuous to talk about the duration of a future activity. For example:

By next month, I will have lived here for two years. They will have been married for 40 years by the end of this year. 3. Assumptions We can use the future perfect to express assumptions about the past or the present. For example:

As you will have heard, we will be changing office. (I am quite confident that you have heard it)

He will have woken up by now – it’s 10 o’clock.

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Complete Grammar for FCE

The Future Perfect

Continuous 1. Use and meaning We use the future perfect continuous to talk about the duration of an activity or event. It is usually necessary to mention a time reference.

For example:

She will have been working for this company for 6 years in August. I will have been studying Spanish for ten years.

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Complete Grammar for FCE

2. With for We usually use ‘for’ to express the duration of a future activity. For example:

She will have been living abroad for 3 years by the end of next months. They will have been seeing each other for 2 months. 3. An activity leading up to a future time We use the future perfect continuous to describe an activity which leads up to another future activity. For example:

When you arrive, I will have been cooking for hours. She will be tired when you see her because she will have been working hard.

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The Conditionals Hypothising

We are going to learn how to talk about present, past and future hypothesis.

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The Zero Conditional 1. Form The zero conditional is formed with:

main clause

if clause

present tense

present tense

Ice melts You get sick

if you heat it. if you eat too much.

if clause

main clause

present tense

present tense

If you heat ice, If you eat too much

if melts. you get sick.

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2. Meaning We use the zero conditional to talk about general truth and facts. For example:

I always take a taxi if it rains. If you freeze water, it becomes ice. 3. Other forms The zero conditional can also be formed with ‘when’ instead of ‘if’. For example:

When it rains, the weather turns cold. I always order a takeaway when I work late.

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The First Conditional 1. Form The main way of forming the first conditional is: Main clause

If Clause

Future simple “will”

Present simple

I will stay at home

If it rains tomorrow.

If clause

Main clause

Present simple

Future simple “will

If it rains tomorrow,

I will stay at home.

2. Meaning We use the first conditional to talk about events which we feel are possible. For example:

If the sun shines tomorrow, I will go to the park. She will be very happy if she hears the news. If you play games all night, you will be tired in the morning. 52


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3. With modal verbs We can use the first conditional with modal verbs to add an extra meaning. The extra meaning is always related to the meaning of the modal verb. The modal verb can be: may, might, can, could, should, ought to, must. For example:

If you eat your sandwich, you can play with your friends. If you want a pet, you should be more responsible. If you can talk to him today, will you give him my regards? 4. If clause with other tenses Depending on the meaning we want to express, we can use the following tenses in the if clause: present

continuous, present perfect simple and present perfect continuous.

For example:

If you are coming to the party, you will have to wear a suit. If she has received your letter, she will reply soon. If Jim has been cleaning the house, he will be very tired tonight. 53


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5. Main clause with other tenses It is also possible to use the following tenses in the main clause: ‘be going to’, future continuous and future

perfect.

For example:

If I finish work early, I am going to watch my favourite film. She will be sleeping all night if she gets very tired. If he goes to Botswana, he will have visited 52 countries in the world. We can use the imperative in conditional sentences. 6. With the imperative For example:

If you have a problem, please phone me. However, we can replace the if word with and or or. Affirmative sentences:

If you finish early, go home. Finish early and go home.


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Negative sentences:

If you don’t stop shouting, I’ll call the police. Stop shouting or I’ll call the police. 7. If + should We can use should in the if clause to make the meaning more polite or less likely to happen. For example:

If I should see him, I will tell him the news. If I should go to the concert, I’d better get ready now. If you should happen to find a mobile phone, it’s mine.

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The Second Conditional 1. Form We form the second conditional the following way: Main clause

If clause

Would + infinitive

Past simple

I would buy a sports car

If I won the lottery.

If clause

Main clause

Past simple

Would + infinitive

If I won the lottery,

I would buy a sports car.

2. Meaning We use the second conditional to talk about imaginary or improbable situations. For example:

If you had more time, would you stay longer? If I had a hot air balloon, I would fly around the world. If she didn’t like her job, she wouldn’t work here. 56


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3. If clause + modals / past continuous In the if clause, we can use the past continuous, could or was/were to. For example:

If I were to travel round the world, I would start in New York. If you could change your name, what would you choose? If we were driving too fast, the police would arrest us. 4. Main clause + modals In the main clause we can use the modals could and might. For example:

If we finished work early, we could go out in the evening. If we had time, we might meet up with out friends.

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The Third Conditional 1. Form We form the third conditional the following way: Main clause

If clause

Would have + participle

Past perfect (continuous)

I would have visited you You would have passed the test

If I had had the time. If you hadn’t been partying.

If clause

Main clause

Past perfect (continuous)

Would have + participle

If I had had the time, If you hadn’t been partying,

I would have visited you You would have passed the test.

2. Meaning We use the third conditional to talk about which did not happen. With the third conditional, we express how we would like to change the past. For example:

If I had won the lottery last week, I would have bought that sports car. (But I didn’t win the lottery so I didn’t buy that sports car.)

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3. Main clause + modals It is possible to use or instead of would in the main clause of the conditional sentence. For example:

He

to the party if he

He

lots of friends if he

party.

to the

4. If clause + could We can use in the if-clause of the conditional sentence.

For example:

If I

seen the carnival.

to New York yesterday, I would have

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The Mixed Conditional 1. Types We can create mixed conditional sentences by mixing the if-clause from one type of conditional sentence with the main clause of another type of conditional sentence. For example: 1st If I go to the party tonight, 2nd If I had more money,

3rd

If I had studied harder when I was young,

2nd I wouldn’t wear a suit. 3rd I would have ordered a pizza.

2nd I would speak Spanish now.

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2. Conjunctions We can use the following conjunctions instead of ‘if’: What if If only

Assuming (that) As/so long as

Provided/providing (that)

On (the) condition (that)

Imagine Even if

Unless

Suppose/supposing (that)

For example:

Even if it rains, I will go jogging. You can meet your friends, as long as you finish your homework before. Suppose you get the promotion, what will you do? Provided that you finish all the work, you can go home early.

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3. Inversions In conditional sentences, we can use an inverted structure instead of ‘if’. 1st conditionals

Should you have any questions…. = If you should have any …. 2nd conditionals

Were I to meet him…. = If I met him… 3rd conditionals

Had you studied more…. = If you had studied more…..

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Future Time Clauses Other ways Sometimes in spoken English we express conditions in other ways – usually with extra words – or the condition is implied in the context. For example:

I am sure you’d enjoy dancing. Why don’t you try it? = If you tried dancing, you would enjoy it. Don’t tell Mike the news. He’d be furious. = If you told Mike the news, he’d be furious. With a bit more time, he could have finished the project. = If he had had a bit more time, he could have finished the project.

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Future Time Clauses 1. What is it? The part of a sentence which talks about the future is a called future time clause or conjunction of time. They are introduced by the following conjunctions: when

after

until

before

as soon as

once

while

immediately

whenever

by the time

2. Use If time clauses refer to the future, we usually use the present simple or the present perfect after the conjunction.

For example: When I arrive home, I will phone you. As soon as I have arrived, I will phone you. I will phone you before I leave the office. 64


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3. Use with present simple We use the present simple in the future time clause, if the two actions in the sentence happen at the same time or the emphasis is on the action.

For example: When I see her, I will tell her the news. (at the same time) As soon as I hear something, I will let you know. (immediately I will inform you)

4. Use with present perfect We use the present perfect in future time clauses to show that an action is completed before another action. For example: I will phone you after I have arrived home. (First I arrive home, then I will phone you.) As soon as I have finished my studies, I will travel round the world. (First I will finish my studies, then I will travel.) 65


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Wish, if only 1. Meaning We use sentences starting with ‘wish’ or ‘if only’ if we want to express a wish. ‘If only’ is not so common and more emphatic than ‘wish’. We can wish something about:

the present: I wish you were here. (but you are here now) the future: I wish he would help me with my project tomorrow. the past: I wish I had travelled the world when I was younger

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2. Wishes about the present We use wish + past simple or wish + past continuous to talk about a wish in the present. For example:

I wish I had a small dog. (but I don’t have a dog) I wish I were/was taller. (but I am short) I wish you were here. (but you are not here) We can use were instead of was:

I wish I were younger. We can also use could:

I wish I could drive a car.

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3. Wishes about the future We use wish + would to express the following: to talk about a future wish, for something to happen:

I wish he would arrive sooner. I wish they would increase the speed limit. to complain about a bad habit:

I wish you wouldn’t smoke so much. I wish you would stop lying. 4. Wishes bout the past We use wish + past perfect to express a regret about the past. It refers to something that we cannot change. For example:

I wish I had studied more. (but I didn’t) I wish you had arrived on time. (but you didn’t) Peter wishes he had written down the girl’s number.

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The Passive sentences Emphasizing action

Why do we need the passive voice? Do we need it at all? The answer is a resounding yes. Find out why in this unit.

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The Passive Sentence 1. Forming the passive The passive sentence is formed: be + past participle.

We always keeps the tense of the original active sentence. Active: I write the letter. She brought the cake.

Passive: The letter is written. The cake was brought.

The object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence: Maria found a bird.

A bird was found by Maria.

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2. The simple tenses

How to form the passive in the present simple and in the past simple: In the present simple, the active verb becomes : is/are + past participle (of the same verb).

Active: Peters cleans the house every Friday. Passive: The house is cleaned every Friday. In the past simple, the active verb becomes : was/were + past participle (of the same verb).

Active: Peters cleaned the house last Friday. Passive: The house was cleaned last Friday.

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3. The continuous tenses How to form the passive in the present and past continuous: In the present continuous, the active verb becomes : is/are + being + past participle (of the same verb).

Active: Peters is cleaning the house. Passive: The house is being cleaned. In the past continuous, the active verb becomes : was/were + being + past participle (of the same verb).

Active: Peters was cleaning the house. Passive: The house was being cleaned.

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4. The perfect tenses How to form the passive in the present and past perfect: In the present perfect, the active verb becomes : have/has + been + past participle (of the same verb).

Active: Peters has cleaned the house. Passive: The house has been cleaned. In the past perfect, the active verb becomes : had + been + past participle (of the same verb).

Active: Peters had cleaned the house. Passive: The house had been cleaned.

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5. The passive with modals How to form the passive with modal verbs: modal verb + be + past participle

Active: Peters will clean the house. Passive: The house will be cleaned. Active: Joe can write the memo. Passive: The memo can be written. Active: Joe might bring the sandwiches. Passive: The sandwiches might be brought. 6. The agent Usually we omit the subject of the active sentence from the passive sentence. However, if it is important for the meaning of the sentence, we can include the agent at the end of the passive sentence: by+ who did the action with + the instrument used to do the action

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For example:

Dinner was served by the waiter. This house was built in 1885 by my grandfather. The cake was cut up with a knife. 7. The uses of the passive We use the passive if:

we don’t know who did the action: The motorway was

built last year. •

the action is more important than who did it: The

dinner has been prepared. •

it is obvious who did the action: The bank has been

robbed. •

in scientific texts: Water is heated to 90 degrees.

in reports and announcements: The new president has

been elected.

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8. Verbs with two objects Some verbs can have two objects: a direct and an indirect object. Both object can become the subject of the passive sentence. For example: Joe gave me a book. I was given a book by Joe. A book was given to me by Joe. Peter sent Sarah a letter. Sarah was sent a letter. A letter was sent to Sarah.

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Reporting Verbs The structure When we want to report what people say, believe, think, report, etc., we use an impersonal passive construction. 1) it + is/was reported/said + that + clause The television reported that a fire broke out in the centre. It is reported that a fire broke out in the centre. 2) passive subject + is/was reported + to infinitive

or

passive subject + is/was reported + to have participle The television reported that a fire broke out in the centre. A fire was reported to have broken out in the centre.

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2. Reporting verbs Examples of reporting verbs we can use:

assume, calculate, claim, consider, discover, estimate, expect, feel, hope, know, prove, report, say, show, think, understand, etc. For example: Dinosaurs are believed to have died out millions of years ago. Mr Smith is expected to arrive shortly. The costs were calculated to be over the budget. 3. Continuous events Look at the examples: The neighbours think that Mr. Jack is living in Paris.

Mr. Jack is thought to be living in Paris. The family believed that Frank was working for the CIA.

Frank was believed to be working for the CIA. In these sentences ‘is living’ and ‘was working’ are continuous tenses therefore their passive form is ‘to be doing’. 78


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4. Earlier events Study these examples:

The news reports that the president has been re-elected. The president is reported to have been re-elected.

The teacher reported that Kate had cheated in the exam. Kate was reported to have cheated in the exam. In these examples, ‘has been re-elected’ and ‘had cheated’ are actions which happened before ‘reports’ and ‘reported’ therefore their passive form is ‘to have done’ or ‘to have been done’

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Double passive Look at the example: His friends feared that Joe was kidnapped. Joe was feared to have been kidnapped. As you can see, this sentence contains two passive parts: ‘was feared’ (this is the reporting part) and ‘to have been kidnapped’ (this is the original passive part). This often happens when the original sentence contains a passive part.

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The Causative 1. Form When we ask or force somebody to do something for us, we can use the following structures: 1) to have something done 2) to get something done 3) to get somebody to do something For example:

Sue had her hair cut by the hairdresser. I got my car repaired yesterday. I will get my brother to fix the printer. 2. Use Sometimes, the structure suggests difficulty or bad luck. ‘Have’ is more common in these situations

I had my car stolen.

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Sometimes it is unclear from the meaning if we asked somebody to an action for us or if it was bad luck:

We had the hole garden dug up. (‘dug up’ can mean we asked somebody to dig up the garden, or perhaps that a dog dug in the garden and destroyed the plants)

3. Use ‘Get’ is more common in spoken English and ‘have’ is more common in formal English. For example:

I’ll get her to type up the document. I’ll have a meeting arranged for next Tuesday. 4. Needs doing We often use an idiomatic expression which means that we have to do an action: need doing or need done

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For example:

I need to clean my shoes. My shoes need cleaning. You need to water the plants. The plants need watering.

Note: We don’t mention the person who does the action. ‘Need done’ is a regional expression and is generally not considered correct. 5. Get + past participle We can often use ‘get’ with a past participle to mean ‘become’. Its meaning is similar to ‘be + past participle. We often use the following expressions:

To get married/divorced/dressed/hurt/done For example:

She got dresses quickly. His fingers got burned. They got divorced last year. I will get the letter typed up. 83


Gerund or Infinitive? Verb patterns

One of the scariest things for students of English is to remember when to use the gerund and when to use the infinitive. In this unit, we summarize it in a nononsense way. 84


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1. Gerund or infinitive? When we want to use two verbs one after the other, or a verb after an adjective, we can connect them in different ways: • • • • • • •

with a to infinitive with a gerund (-ing) with a bare infinitive (infinitive without ‘to’) with a that clause with a preposition + to infinitive with an object + to infinitive adjective + to infinitive A good dictionary will always tell you which category a verb belongs to.

2. Verb + to infinitive The following verbs are followed by a to infinitive: Afford / aim / appear / ask / attempt / choose / deserve / fail happen / help / learn / manage / neglect / offer / plan / prepare / refuse / seem / tend / wait / want / wish

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For example:

Peter can’t afford to buy a house. We decided to buy an ice-cream. Jack wanted to go for a walk. He tends to smoke a lot. 3. Verb + to infinitive / that Some verbs can be followed by a to infinitive or a that clause: agree desire learn seem

arrange expect plan threaten

decide hope pretend wish

demand intend promise

For example:

They agreed to travel by car. They agreed that travelling by car was a good idea. They hoped to arrive early. They hoped that the plane wouldn’t be late. 86


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4. Adjectives + to infinitive Adjectives are usually followed by a to infinitive verb. (For exceptions, look at part 2.) 1. It + is/was + adjectives (+ noun) + to + verb

It is difficult to answer this question. It is a difficult question to answer. It is nice to see you. 2. Subject + is/was + adjective + to + verb

She is easy to talk to. Frank was surprised to see us. This question is difficult to answer. 3. It + is/was + adjective + for you + to + verb

It is nice of you to help me. It was kind of him to organize the party.

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5. Verb + ing / noun Some verbs can be followed by either a noun or a gerund (verb+ing): avoid fancy give up miss can’t stand

delay feel like involve postpone

dislike finish keep practise

enjoy help mind risk

For example: I enjoy reading books. I enjoy this party.

He practiced dancing. He practiced his dance moves. I can’t stand smoking. I can’t stand cigarettes.

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6. Verb + ing / noun / that Some verbs can be followed by either a gerund, a noun, or a that – clause: admit confess mention suggest

appreciate deny recollect

consider imagine report

For example: He admitted stealing the jewellery. He admitted that he stole the jewellery. Jack mentioned meeting Fred in the street. Jack mentioned that he met Fred in the street.

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7. Verb + preposition + ing All verbs which have a preposition are always followed by a gerund: afraid of / apologise for / concentrate on / congratulate on / decide on / dream of / get rid of / forgive for / insist on / keen on / look forward to / prevent from / sorry for / succeed in / suspect of / stop from / thank for / warn against For example:

Jack apologised for breaking the vase. Phil succeeded in swimming across the channel. 8. Verb + ing = Verb + to infinitive A few verbs can be followed by either a gerund or an infinitive without any change in the meaning. These are: attempt / begin / continue / can’t bear / dread hate / intend / like / love / prefer / start For example:

I began to read the newspaper. I began reading the newspaper.

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9. Verb + ing ≠ Verb + to infinitive In these cases the meaning changes depending on the infinitive or gerund: Verb + ing / inf

meaning

I remember visiting my grandma when I was a child. Please, remember to post the letter.

-Have a memory of it - instruction to remember

I won’t forget meeting him the first time. Please, don’t forget to lock the doors.

-Have a memory of it - instruction to remember

I regret telling him my secret. I regret to inform you that

-I am sorry that I did this. -I am sorry that I will do this

Last winter, I tried skiing but I didn’t like it. I have tried to call him five times.

-Experiment -Attempt

He stopped reading and stood up. He stopped to have a cigarette.

-finish doing it -stop in order to so something

Changing your country means learning a new language. I meant to call you but I didn’t have time.

-Involve -Intend

Fred went on talking about his job for hours. After university, Jill went on to become a lawyer.

-Continue -The next thing to do

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10. Verb + bare infinitive A small number of verbs are followed by an infinitive without to: Modal verbs → this topic is discussed in a separate unit.

I should go. You must eat your food. Help, let, make

She helped me (to) bake the cake. Please, let me show you the new catalogue. She made the children clean up. But: The children were made to clean up. (passive!) Note: ‘Help’ can be followed by to infinitive or the bare infinite (without ‘to’).

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11. See / hear / feel, etc. The following verbs can be followed by an infinitive without to or a gerund with a small change in meaning. 1. see/hear/feel/etc. + object + verb = we focus on the completed action 2. see/hear/feel/etc + object + verb+ing = we focus on the continuing action feel / hear / see / listen to / notice / watch For example:

He saw the boy run across the road. (from beginning to end) He saw the boy running across the road. (part of the action) I heard him shout. (a short shout probably) I heard him shouting. (the shouting continued)

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12. Verb + object + to or Verb + ing Some verbs can be followed by a gerund or by an object plus to infinitive. 1. Verb + gerund 2. Verb + object + to infinitive

advise forbid

allow permit

encourage recommend

For example:

He recommended travelling to Asia. He recommended us to travel to Asia. She forbade leaving the room. She forbade the child to leave the room.

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13. Expressions There are some expressions which always use the gerund. 1. have difficulty doing something 2. it is a waste of time/money doing something (to is also possible) 3. spend time doing something 4. waste time doing something 5. It’s no use/good doing something For example:

I spent time talking to my neighbour. It’s no use learning Hungarian. Nobody speaks it. It’s a waste of time speaking to him. He never listens.

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14. Verb + (object) + to Some verbs can be followed by a to infinitive or by an object + to infinitive. ask expect *invite *persuade *tell would like would hate

beg *enable *get *remind *warn would love

help *force *order *teach want would prefer

For example:

I want to go home. I would like to leave.

I want you to go home. I would like you to leave.

The verbs with a star (*) always follow the verb + object + infinitive pattern.

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The Modal Verbs Adding extra ideas

VISUAL HERE

The modal verbs help us express extra ideas that other types of sentences cannot.

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Obligation and Necessity 1. Obligation We can use should, ought to, must, mustn’t, need (to), have to and have got to when we want to express obligation.

Obligation You should be careful. You ought to be careful. You must eat vegetables. You mustn’t drive fast. Present I need to phone Paul. I have to wear a uniform. I have got to see the doctor.

Past

I had to work last Sunday. You should have told me the price. You ought to have arrived earlier. You needed to call me.

No obligation You don’t have to get up early. He doesn’t have to pay rent. I don’t need to write to her. I needn’t write to her.

He didn’t have to write a report. You didn’t need to call me. You needn’t have called me.

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2. Must and have to must and have to/have got to We prefer must: to give orders and instructions to show the speaker feels strongly about something in public notices We prefer have to: to talk about rules and regulations to talk about habits

have got to is more informal than have to. For example:

I must go home now. (It’s my decision.) I have to work tomorrow. (It is outside my control.)

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3. Must and don’t have to mustn’t means it is forbidden/prohibited. We can also use can’t to express prohibition. don’t have to means it is not necessary.

Synonyms of don’t have to:

don’t need to needn’t haven’t go to For example:

You mustn’t play ballgames in the park. (It is not allowed.)

You can’t eat all the cakes! Leave some to the others, too. You don’t have to phone the client. (It is not necessary.)

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4. Should and ought to should and ought to are used to express advice, opinion or a polite instruction. In the negative we say shouldn’t and oughtn’t to.

For example:

You should eat more vegetables. (In my opinion is it good for you but you don’t have to do it.) You ought to see the doctor. (My advice is to see the doctor but you have a choice.)

You shouldn’t work so much. 5. Had better and to be to We can use had better or had better not to give strong advice. For example:

You had better leave now. He had better not be late!

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We can use to be to when we want to give a formal instruction. For example: You are to arrive in the office at 8am sharp. You are not to enter the premises. 6. Need (to) In the present, we can use need as a main verb or as a model verb. It means ‘necessary. For example:

I need to call mum. (main verb) - I need call mum. (model) I don’t need to call her. - I needn’t call her. Do you need to call? - Need you call? In the past tense we use the main verb form with ‘to’:

I needed to call. I didn’t need to call. But: needn’t have done has a different meaning: You needn’t have brought the umbrella. (You brought the umbrella although it was totally unnecessary.) 102


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Obligation in the past When we talk about obligation in the past, we use had to or needed to. In the negative we use didn’t have to or didn’t need to. For example:

I had to work last weekend. = I needed to work last weekend. (It was necessary and I did it.)

I didn’t have to work yesterday. (It was not necessary.) If something was necessary but the person didn’t do it, we use: should have done or ought to have done. For example:

I’m angry with Peter. He should have told me the truth! (Although it was important, he didn’t tell me the truth)

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Deductions 1. Certainty - present To express that we are very sure about something in the present, we can use must .

You’ve worked all day. You must be very tired! You must be the new boss. Nice to met you. To express that we are sure something is not possible in the present, we use can’t and couldn’t.

You can’t be tired! You’ve been sleeping all day. It couldn’t be true! He always lies. Note: mustn’t (obligation, uncertainty) is not the opposite of must (prohibition)!

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2. Certainty - past To express that we are very sure about something in the past, we can use must have .

Jo didn’t answer the phone. He must have fallen asleep. Well done fore passing the test. You must have studied a lot. To express that we are sure something is not possible in the past, we use can’t have/couldn’t have.

He can’t have lent you the money. He’s mean! He couldn’t have stolen the painting. He has an alibi. 3. Possibility - present To express uncertainty or possibility in the present, we can use may, might or could. ‘Where’s Jane?’ ‘I don’t know. She may be in kitchen. Or she could be in bathroom.’ (The speaker is not sure.)

‘Don’t buy him that tie. He may not/might not like it. Note: We don’t use couldn’t to express possibility. 105


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4. Possibility - past To express possibility in the past, we can use may have, might have or could have. For example:

‘Why is that child crying?’ ‘He may have lost his toy.’ ‘Where are the diamonds?’ ‘They could have been stolen!’ 5. Probability - present To express probability or expectation, we can use will, should (ought to) or to be bound to. For example:

She will arrive soon. (I expect her to arrive soon

because she usually arrives at this time.)

She should be in Paris now. (I expect that the plane

has landed.)

He’s bound to be promoted. He’s the best. (I expect that he will be promoted.) 106


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6. Probability - past To express probability in the past, we can use should have or shouldn’t have. For example:

He should have arrived to New York by now. (I expect that he has arrived.) He shouldn’t have sold his car. He loves it. (I expect that he didn’t sell his car. 7. Ability - present To talk about ability in the present, we use can and to be able to. For example: ‘Can Joe drive?’ ‘No, he can’t. He is too young.’ I cannot sing at all. I am not able to answer this question. It’s too difficult. Note: The negative of can is can’t and cannot.

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can is used for general situations. to be able to is used for more specific situations. to be able to is also used for all the tenses. I will be able to speak English next year.

8. Ability - past To talk about ability in the past, we can use could and was/were able to. For example:

When I was young, I could run very fast. I could always swim well, but that day I just wasn’t able to swim fast enough.

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Communication 1. Permission Asking for permission:

Giving permission:

Can I open the window,

Yes, of course, you can.

please?

No, you can’t use my

Could I use your phone,

phone.

please?

You may sit down.

May I sit down?

You may not enter.

Could is more formal and polite than can. May is the most formal way of asking or giving permission

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2. Requests We can make requests using the following modal verbs: Can I ask you something? Can you help me with this letter, please? Will you get me some milk, please? More formal ways of making requests:

Could I borrow you camera? Could you make me a coffee, please? Would you pass me the salt, please? 3. Offers We can make offers in different ways: Shall I open the door for you? Can I get a cup of tea for you? Would you like to have something to eat? Would you like me to help you? Why don’t I go and get a sandwich for you? I can write the report, if you’d like me to. I will take you to the airport. 110


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4. Suggestions Ways of making suggestions: Shall we order a pizza? Let’s go the cinema tonight. Why don’t we go out for a walk? How about watching a movie? What about watching a film? We can go to Paris or to Rome. We could go out tonight. 5. Orders and instructions We can give polite orders buy using one of the following expressions: You must fill in the form immediately. Can you, please, finish the report by tomorrow? Could you post this letter, please? Would you mind telling me the truth? Another way of giving an instruction is to use the imperative: Stand up. Sit down. Open the door. 111


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6. Advice We can ask for advice the following ways:

Shall I tell him the truth? Should I talk to him? Would you buy this car if you were me? We can give advice in many different ways:

You must go and see the doctor. You should/ought to eat more vegetables. You shouldn’t smoke. You had better drive carefully. You had better not arrive late. You could call him.

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Reported Speech Adding extra ideas

Reported speech is often called indirect speech.

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1. What is it? Reported speech is when we report or repeat somebody’s words or sentences. We can report directly by simply repeating the exact sentence we heard:

Joe: ‘It is very hot today.’ ‘It is very hot today’, Joe said. Or indirectly when report somebody’s sentence from our point of view:

Peter to Anne: ‘I like your new dress.’ Anne: ‘Peter says that he likes my new dress.’ 2. What can we report? We can report many different types of sentences: Statements, thoughts, questions, instructions, offers, advice, promises, suggestions

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For example:

Frank to Bill: ‘Stop using my bike!’

Frank told to Bill to stop using his bike. ‘You shouldn’t smoke so much’, said Fred.

Fred suggested that I shouldn’t smoke so much. ‘Do you like blue cheese?’ , asked Mary.

Mary asked Phil if he liked blue cheese. 3. Tense change or not? When we report somebody’s sentences which relate to the present, we do not have to change the tenses. Usually the reporting verb (eg. say, tell) is in the present. Chris to Liza: ‘I love you.’ Liza to her friend: ‘Chris says that he loves me.’ When we report somebody’s sentences which relate to the past, we have to change the tenses. Usually the reporting verb is in the past.

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‘I went on an excursion around the city’, said Bill. Bill said that he had gone on an excursion around the city. 4. Statements, thoughts, etc. When we report somebody’s words and thoughts, we have to pay attention to the following: Tense change Pronoun change Changing words of time and place

find details in part 2.

Study the examples carefully:

‘I can swim very fast’, said Frank. Frank said that he could swim very fast. ‘I am going to travel to Paris next year’, insisted Bill. Bill insisted that he was going to travel to Paris the following year.

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5. Wh-questions When we report somebody’s question, we have to pay attention to the following changes: • Tense change • Pronoun change • Changing words of time and place • Word order change from question to statement Look at the example sentences, and study how the word order changes: ‘Where are you going?’ asked mum. Mum asked where I was going. When does the plane arrive?’ asked the passenger.

The passenger asked when the train arrived.

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6. Yes/no questions When we report somebody’s question, we have to pay attention to the following changes: Tense change Pronoun change Changing words of time and place Word order change from question to statement Add if/whether in reported speech

Study how the word order changes in yes/no questions: ‘Do you have a car?’ She asked if/whether I had a car. ‘Have you ever been to New York?’

He asked if/whether I had ever been to New York.

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7. Reporting advice, promise, etc. When reporting advice, command/instruction, promise, request, warning, etc, we use: Advise/ask/tell/warn, etc (+ pronoun) + the toinfinitive

‘Open, the door, please.’ He told me to open the door. ‘Can you help me?’ He asked me to help him. ‘You shouldn’t smoke.’ He advised me not to smoke. ‘I’ll will visit you.’ She promised to visit me.

‘We could do it for you.’ They offered to do it for us. ‘Don’t tell him anything.’ She instructed me not to tell him anything.

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8. Suggestions When we report suggestions and recommendations with the word suggest, we can use four constructions: ‘Let’s order pizza.’

He suggested that we order pizza. He suggested that we should order pizza.

He suggested that we ordered pizza. He suggested ordering pizza. Note: We cannot use to-infinitive after suggest!

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9. Tense changes When we report somebody’s speech and the reporting verb is in the past, we have to move the tense one step back in time: present simple present continuous past simple present perfect (continuous) past perfect past continuous

am going to will can/could may/might must mustn’t shall/should

past simple past continuous past perfect past perfect (continuous) past perfect past perfect continuous was going to would could might had to couldn’t should

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10. Time, place word changes When the reporting verb is in the past tense, we usually have to change the following words: today tonight tomorrow yesterday two days ago next (week/day) last (week/month) now here come this/these ago before

that day that night the next day, the following day the previous day, the day before two days before, two days earlier the following (week/day) the (week/month) before then there go that/those/that before earlier


Complete Grammar for FCE

11. Other changes In reported speech, pronouns can change depending on the speaker’s viewpoint.

Peter to his son: ‘I will buy you a video game.’ Son to his friend: ‘Dad said that he would buy me a video game.’ This/that/these/those may change to the. This/that may change to it.

‘I love this ice-cream’, said Clara. Clara said that she loved the ice-cream. ‘Please, give me that book’, asked Fred. Fred asked me to give it to him. 12. Common reporting verbs: admit, advise, agree, answer, tell, suggest, think, demand, ask, report, remind, believe, imagine, insist, wonder, beg, announce, command, forbid, invite, tell, order, warn, teach, offer, want to know, enquire, request, command, wonder, recommend, refuse, threaten, swear, instruct, explain, remind 123


Nouns, Adjectives, Adverbs Spea

VISUAL HERE

Do you know how many words are there in the English language? Well, according to the Oxford dictionary, there are at least 250,000 distinct words in English.

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Countable and

Uncountable 1. Countable nouns: can be counted: 1 apple – 2 apples – 3 apples have both singular and plural forms: child – children car - cars use a/an with the singular form: a house, a cat, an elephant can use some / any / many / a few: some dogs, any banana a few books, many people

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2. Uncountable nouns Uncountable nouns are usually abstract ideas, liquid or mass forms. cannot be counted: 3 rices but: some rice/a bowl of rice

have only a singular form and followed by a singular verb water, rice, sand, air, wine, cheese The water is clear. cannot use a/an: a music, a blood, a furniture, an advice can use some / any / much / a little: some music, any advice a little water, much damage

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3. Nouns ending in -s Plural nouns are nouns which only have plural forms. They are followed by a plural verb. Examples:

trousers, clothes, glasses, goods, feelings, jeans, premises, surroundings, thanks, stairs, socks, pyjamas, scales, pants ‘Where are your trouser?’ ‘They are on the shelf.’ Some uncountable nouns end in –s but are uncountable and use a singular verb: Examples: mathematics, physics, aerobics, genetics, measles, linguistics, economics, classics, mumps

Mathematics is an interesting subject.

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4. Group nouns Group nouns or collective nouns are nouns which refer to a group of people or things together. They can take either a singular or a plural verb. Examples: government, army, company, crew, crowd, data family, group, media, press, public, staff, team, committee, gang, the BBC, the EU

My family is/are from Minnesota. The team is/are very successful. Some collective nouns only take the plural verb:

Cattle are microchipped. The people are celebrating. The police always arrive quickly.

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5. Irregular plurals

Some countable nouns have irregular plural forms: change in form:

no change in form:

calf – calves child – children man – men woman – women knife – knives half – halves shelf – shelves scarf – scarves leaf – leaves loaf – loaves tooth – teeth wife – wives mouse - mice

fish – fish aircraft – aircraft cod – cod deer – deer fruit – fruit sheep – sheep series – series species - species

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6. Change of meaning

Some words change their meaning depending on the countable or the uncountable form. Countable:

Uncountable:

a paper = newspaper a wood = a forest an experience = a particular situation a coffee = a cup of coffee a help = a helping person a hair = one piece a work = a work of art an exercise = a task

paper = the material wood = the material experience = in general coffee = liquid help = help in general hair = all the hair on the had work = in general exercise = physical exercise in general

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7. Counting the uncountable

We can count uncountable things by using the following expressions:

• • • • • • • • • • • •

a a a a a a a a a a a a

bit of bread bunch of flowers cup of tea spoonful of medicine loaf of bread piece of news pool of water glass of coca cola portion of meat slice of cake tub of butter bottle of wine

a bag of flour items of clothing pieces of furniture a bar of chocolate a box of cereal a can of beer a drop of blood a roll of toilet paper a tube of toothpaste a jar of jam a block of ice a kilo of fruit

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8. Common uncountable nouns

Here’s a list of common uncountable nouns. Study the list carefully. advice baggage behaviour damage electricity experience fun hair information love music paper travel

age bread company duty equipment faith furniture health knowledge luck machinery rubbish weather

anger beauty concern education evidence food growth homework justice luggage money traffic work

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Adjectives 1. What are adjectives? Adjectives are words that describe nouns (objects, people). For example: nice, good, beautiful, worried, insulting, continuous Adjectives can go before nouns:

Adjectives can go after some verbs:

adjective + noun

verbs

a nice a good a beautiful an insulting

seem is looks feel

person day cat remark

+

adjective

nice good beautiful happy

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2. Order of adjectives Sometimes we need to use more than one adjectives. An opinion normally goes before the fact: Opinion

+

fact

An interesting Spanish A beautiful black An interesting new

+ noun

movie cat idea

If we have several factual adjectives, we use the following order: size + age + shape + colour + origin + material + purpose + noun a huge ancient round blue Japanese wooden a small new ---------German silver an ---- old square black -----plastic

---tea radio

table spoon button

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3. Adding suffixes Adjectives can be individual, unique words (nice, small) or can be formed from other words by using suffixes or prefixes. - able: manageable, readable - ible: flexible, edible - ant: hesitant, distant - ing: sleeping - ic: energetic, apologetic - ish: foolish, blueish - ous: dangerous, famous - ly: friendly, weekly - al: political, musical - ful: harmful, tactful - les: harmless, careless - ive: attractive, passive

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4. Adding prefixes We can form new adjectives by adding prefixes to words. These prefixes create a negative meaning. im-: impossible, impatient il-: illogical, illegal un-: undesirable, unattractive in-: indispensible, indirect dis-: dishonest, disabled ir-: irreplaceable, irrational pre-: pre-negotiated, preheated Note: adding pre- to an adjective, does not create a negative meaning.

5. Compound adjectives Compound adjectives are created by using two words. They are usually written with a hyphen.

bullet-proof, duty-free, long-distance, sugar-free, hand-made

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The second part is often a present or past participle. These are often used to describe a person:

long-legged, curly-haired, self-centred, absentminded, ill-fitting, expensive-looking We can also use prepositions to create a compound adjective:

off-putting, built-up, cut-off, run-down, thrown-out 6. Adjectives of measurement We can combine numbers with nouns to make compound adjectives. They are used to measure different things, ie. age, distance, etc. For example:

a five-minute song (time) a two year-old girl (age) a ten-euro ticket (price) a one-litre bottle (volume) a three-kilo parcel (weight) a fifty square metre house (area) an hour-long meeting (duration) 137


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7. Adjectives as nouns Some adjectives can be used with ‘the’ to refer to a group of people. They function like a noun. For example:

the blind the accused the bizarre

the homeless the old the deceased

the young the famous the poor

Some words are used as both nouns and adjectives without changing their form. For example:

English, Italian, German, Chinese, American, etc. chemical, musical, right, dear, elder, fun, indoor 8. Adjectives after nouns We can use adjectives after linking verbs. Here is a list of the most common linking verb:

appear, be, become, come, feel, get, go, grow, turn, keep, look, remain, seem, smell, sound, stay 138


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Examples with adjectives:

The project is difficult. She felt happy all day. It turned dark quickly. You look upset. The witness remained silent 9. Adjectives after nouns Some adjectives are used only after nouns. For example, fixed phrases:

Secretary general, heir apparent, lieutenant major, force major, court martial, etc. After anything, something, anywhere, somewhere, etc:

anything interesting, somewhere quiet, something nice, etc For example:

Have you met anybody interesting lately? I’d like to go somewhere quiet this summer. ‘What would you like to have?’ ‘Something nice and sweet.’ 139


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Some adjectives which end in –able/-ible can go before or after the noun without change in their meaning. They usually go after the noun when combined with the words only, first and last.

suitable, available, possible, imaginable , etc. For example:

I will employ the first candidate suitable for the position. (=first suitable candidate)

The only solution possible is to find a new manager. (=the only possible solution)

10. Change in meaning Some adjectives change their meaning depending on their position.

elect, proper, present, concerned, responsible For example:

a proper city = a real city the city proper = the main part of the city the concerned parents = the parents who are concerned the parents concerned = the parents involved 140


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11. -ed and –ing adjectives We can make adjectives from verbs by adding –ing or –ed or by using the past participle form if the verb is irregular. -ing adjectives tell us how something makes us feel.

This movie is boring. (= It makes me feel bored.) We had an exciting trip to the zoo. (= The trip made us feel excited.) ‘We saw a real ghost! It was so frightening.’ (= We felt frightened.)

-ed adjectives tell us how somebody feels.

I’m tired. He was interested in the idea. She has always been terrified of spiders.

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Some –ed and –ing adjectives are not connected to feelings. For example:

a sunken boat a closed deal a broken glass a finished project a written complaint

a sliding door a moving part a sinking feeling a floating boat a ringing phone

Other common –ed / -ing adjectives: disappointed / disappointed amused / amusing confused / confusing

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12. Adjectives + prepositions • Here is a list of some common adjectives with prepositions.

adjective

preposit ion

nice, kind, cruel, intelligent, sensible, scared, afraid, frightened, proud, ashamed, fond, full, short

of

nice, kind, good, polite, friendly, cruel, accustomed, used, married, similar, possible,

to

angry, furious, annoyed, happy, pleased, about upset, nervous, certain, excited, worried, sorry surprised, shocked, amazed,

at/by

pleased, disappointed, satisfied, angry, annoyed, busy, content, delighted, friendly, occupied, bored, fed up, crowded

with

famous, late, ready sorry, responsible, suitable for good, angry, bad, hopeless, useless,

at

keen, reliant

on

interested, involved

in

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Adverbs 1. Use of adverbs • Adverbs give us extra information about actions:

category

examples

manner (how)

quickly, slowly, fast, rapidly, easily, suddenly, badly

frequency (how often)

always, frequently, often, sometimes, never

degree (how much)

very, a bit, rather, fairly, extremely, quite, slightly

place (where)

in London, here, there, far away

time (when)

tomorrow, at 5 o’clock, on Monday, in July, daily, late

linking adverbs

as well, whereas, although, next

comment

honestly, frankly, sadly

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2. Forming adverbs On the one hand, adverbs can be single, independent words or combination of words. On the other hand, we can form adverbs from other words. -from adjectives:

-from nouns:

slow – slowly quick – quickly easy – easily loud – loudly

day – daily week – weekly hour – hourly friend - friendly

3. Spelling Spelling of adjectives can change the following ways:

adjective

adverb

ending in a vowel or –l

calm

changes to -ly

calmly

ending in -le

probabl e

changes to -ly

probably

ending in –y

easy

changes to -ily easily

ending in -ic

periodic

changes to ally

periodically

ending in -ly

friendly

add extra word

friendly way 145


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4. Confusing adjectives Adjectives and adverb which are often confused. adjectives:

adverbs:

fast = a fast train still = still water good = a good book early = an early train daily = the daily news

fast = run fast still = stand still well = cook well early = arrive early daily = shop daily

Similar looking adverbs:

hard/hardly He worked hard. (a lot) He hardly worked. (almost nothing)

Late/lately The taxi arrived late. (not in time) I met Jim lately. (recently)

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5. Position of adverbs Adverbs can go into different positions in the sentence. Study the following table carefully. position

adverbs

example

front

time adverbs

Yesterday I visited my friend.

middle

frequency adverbs

He often cooks dinner.

end

manner adverbs place adverbs time adverbs

She walks slowly. They lived in Madrid. He got up at 6 o’clock.

manner adverbs

Slowly, I approached the lion. I slowly approached the lion. I approached the lion slowly.

all positions

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6. Comparatives Usually adverbs form their comparative and superlative forms the same way as adjectives. Short adverbs (1 or 2 syllables): They add an –er to the comparative form and an –est to the superlative form.

fast – faster, fastest near – nearer, nearest Long adverbs (2 or more syllables): They add more to the comparative form and most to the superlative form.

quickly – more quickly, most quickly carefully – more carefully, most carefully

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Comparatives and

Superlatives 1. Forming the comparatives and superlatives As a general rule, the comparative adjective is created by adding –er at the end of the adjective. The superlative adjective is created by adding –est at the end. In the case of two or more syllables, we use the words more and most to form the comparative and superlative forms. adjective

comparative

superlative

rich strong cool dark

richer stronger cooler darker

richest strongest coolest darkest

beautiful interesting

more beautiful more interesting

most beautiful most interesting

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1) One or two syllable words ending in –e: – safe – safer – safest – nice – nicer - nicest 2) One syllable words ending in a short vowel plus consonant double the consonant at the end of the adjective – big – bigger - biggest – sad – sadder – saddest 3) two syllable adjectives ending in –y: the –y changes into an –i: – busy – busier – busiest – happy – happier – happiest 4) Two syllable adjectives can have two forms: – clever – cleverer / more clever – cleverest / most

clever

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2. Irregular forms Some comparative and superlative adjectives are irregular. Note: ‘elder’ cannot be used in comparative sentences. We cannot say ‘He is elder than Kate.’

adjective

comparative

Superlative

good / well bad few / little little (size) much/many/lot far (distance) far (extra) old (people) old (things)

better worse less smaller more farther / further further elder older

best worst lest smallest most farthest / furthest furthest eldest Oldest

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3. Comparative sentence When we compare two or more things, we can say: X is bigger/better/safer/etc than Y

London is bigger than Leeds. Henry is more/less intelligent than Rick. The neighbour’s children are older than mine. When two things are the same, we say: X is as (so) big/good/interesting as Y

Your cat is as old as my cat. Jack is so strong as Fred. His car is not as expensive as your car.

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4. The superlative sentence If something is the best/biggest/most expensive, we say: X is the best/nicest/most interesting in the world/classroom/family

For examples:

James is the tallest in the class. The McLaren F1 is the most expensive car in the world. Note: In a superlative sentences, we usually use ‘in’ and not ‘of’ 5. As...as + adjective / adverb as…as + adjective or adverb For example: I would like to have as many apples as possible. Phone me as soon as necessary.

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as.. as + clause

For example: Please, write me as soon as you can. As far as I know, they have moved house. 6. The ... the We can compare things by using the ‘the…the’ structure: The + older/better/etc + clause

For example:

The older I get, the more I know. The richer he gets, the more unhappy he becomes. The more relaxed he is, the more he talks.

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7. Emphasis We can add emphasis to comparative adjectives the following ways:

much / far / a lot happier many / far / a lot more / less / fewer a bit/a little/ a little bit/ quite a lot bigger We can emphasize the superlative forms the following ways:

quite / nearly / easily / much / by far the most expensive car We can emphasize the as ‌. as structure the following ways:

Nearly / twice / three times as good as For example:

My brother is quite a lot taller than you. His house is by far the best in this street. 155


The Sentence Structure Word order

VISUAL HERE

Word order is extremely important in English.

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Questions 1. Yes/no questions Yes/no questions are those which can be answered with a ‘yes’ or a ���no’. We put the auxiliary verb before the subject. Here is a table which shows how to form yes/no questions: Auxiliary Subject

Verb/adject ive

Compliment

Is

he

coming

to the cinema?

Are

you

happy

today?

Did

Peter

eat

the cake?

Will

Mary

buy

something?

Can

you

swim

in the ocean?

Doesn’t

she

like

reading?

Haven’t

you

seen

my keys?

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2. Short answers We can give short answers to yes/no questions in two ways: Using the same auxiliary verb as in the original question:

Does he like cats? Aren't they here? Can you swim?

Yes, he does. / No, he doesn’t. Yes, they are. / No, they aren’t. Yes, I can. / No, I can’t.

With afraid/think/suppose/imagine, etc + so/not: Does he like cats?

I don’t think so. I think so. I hope so. I suppose not. I hope not.

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3. Wh- (open) questions Wh- or Open questions start with a question word and the answer can vary according to the question word. When we ask a question about the object or any of the compliment, we put the question word first, then we use the same question word order as in yes/no questions:

Question word

Auxiliary

Subject

Verb/adjec tive

Where

did

he

go?

Why

was

the meeting

cancelled?

When

will

you

arrive?

What

is

your name?

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When we ask a question about the subject, we keep the original word order (affirmative order) but we replace the subject with ‘who’: For example:

Subject / Who

Rest of sentence

John Who

is in London. is in London?

Sarah Who

went home by bus. went home by bus?

He Who

can swim. can swim?

I Who

have bought a house. has bought a house?

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4. Prepositions It is important to keep the preposition of the verb when we ask a question. Prepositions can go to two places: At the front of the questions, before the question word:

At whom are you looking? About which book did you talk? At the end of the question:

Who are you looking at? Which book did you talk about? The two solutions are equal. Some people prefer the first option, whereas some people prefer the second option. Note: preposition + who becomes: preposition +

whom

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5. What or which?

We use what when there is an unlimited choice:

What car would you like to buy? (out of all the existing types)

What would you like to eat? (you can choose whatever you want)

We use which when there is a limited choice:

Which car would you like? (out of those you can see here) Which would you like to eat? (out of those you can see here)

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Question tags We can turn a statement into a question by adding a question tag at the end of the sentence. Reasons for question tags:

a polite question

You couldn’t post this letter for me, could you? to check agreement

You are British, aren’t you? to give instructions

Open the door, will you? to make a suggestion or offer

Let’s get a pizza, shall we?

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Forming question tags The form of the question tag always depends on the tense of the sentence: we use the corresponding auxiliary verb. If the sentence is negative, the question tag is positive. If the sentence is positive, the question tag is negative. Statement

Question tag

He loves travelling,

doesn’t he?

You will do the shopping,

won’t you?

You didn’t ask him,

did you?

They haven’t arrived yet,

have they?

You can swim,

can’t you?

She shouldn’t talk like that,

should she?

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Special cases of the question tag 1. question tags for the imperative: will you? or won’t you?

Answer the phone, will you? 2. the first person singular (I): aren’t I?

I am too early, aren’t I? 3. the question tag for Let’s: shall we?

Let’s go to the cinema, shall we? 4. for everybody, somebody, someone, no one, etc, they is used

Everyone is here, aren’t they? 5. for nothing, everything, anything, it is used

Nothing happened, did it?

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Short agreements To agree with positive statement, we use so + auxiliary of the original statement.

‘I love ice-cream.’ ‘ So do I.’ ‘She is from the USA.’ So am I.’ ‘Peter failed his exams.’ ‘So did Alex.’ To agree with a negative statement, we use neither/nor + auxiliary of the original statement.

‘I don’t drink milk.’ ‘Neither do I.’ ‘Anne hasn’t arrived yet.’ ‘Nor has Bill.’ ‘Phil can’t dance very well. ‘Neither can Jack.’

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Echo questions Echo questions are short questions we use after we have heard a statement. We use echo questions to confirm what we have just heard and they do not need an answer.

We form echo questions using the corresponding auxiliary from the original sentence – similarly to tag questions. However, a positive sentence requires a positive echo question and a negative statement requires a negative echo question.

‘I have never been to Australia.’ ‘Haven’t you?’ ‘I can sing and dance very well.’ ‘Can you?’ ‘Everybody has arrived.’ ‘Have they?’ Note: The same special cases apply as with tag questions.

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Linking Words 1. What are they? Linking words are words that join two or more words, sentences or clauses. Linking words are also called conjunctions. Linking words can express different ideas, for example, - contrast: however, although, but addition: and, more, besides purpose: in order to, so that reason: since, because result: as a result, consequently time: when, after, before, since, by the time, as soon as condition: if, provided, as long as, unless reason: because, since, as purpose: to, in order to, so that contrast: but, although, however, whereas addition: and, besides, as well, too, also result: so ‌ that, such a ‌ that, because of, consequently manner: as if, as though comparison: as ‌ as, than place: where, somewhere, wherever 168


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c) We use however and nevertheless to connect to clauses or sentences. Nevertheless is more formal. However can go at the beginning, middle or end of the sentence. For example:

I trust you. However, I won’t tell you my secret. I love animals. I don’t like insect, however. We prefer to cook at home. Sometimes, however, we eat out. He robbed a bank. Nevertheless, the police never caught him. d) Whereas and while mean ‘on the contrary’. They are usually used in formal speech. For example:

I like tea whereas Frank prefers coffee. While I understand your point, I totally disagree with your decision.

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2. Linking words of contrast a) Although, though and even though are synonyms and are used to show contrast. Though can be used at the end of the sentence: For example:

Although it was raining, we went out for a walk. Even though he left the house late, he could catch the train. He went to the party although he was tired. I like cats. (But) I also like dogs, though. b) In spite of and despite are used to express contrast. We use them the following way: in spite of despite

+ noun + -ing + the fact that + clause + comma

For example:

Despite his success, he remained a shy person. In spite of his success, he lives a quiet life. Despite the fact that he succeeded in life, he is a shy person. 170


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3. The infinitive of purpose a) We can use the to infinitive to express purpose (why?). For example:

I went to the shop to buy some fruits. (Why? To buy some fruits.) Peter studies hard to pass his exam. She switched off the light not to waste electricity. Note: The subject of the two verbs is the same: I went and I bought. Note: In the negative, we use not to. b) If we want to express purpose, we can also use in order (not) to and so as (not) to. They are the formal version of to. For example: in order to He turned the radio on so as to to

listen to the news.

She closed the window in order not to hear the noise. We wrote down the address so as not to forget it. 171


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c) If the grammatical subjects of the two parts of the sentence are different, we use so, in order that and so that. For example:

I emailed the photos to Jane so that she could look at them. Frank cleaned the house in order that he could make Jane happy. We bought the tickets online so we could save money. Note: We often use could in the second clause of the sentence. d) We use for to describe how something is used. We have to use for+noun or for+gerund. For example:

This switch is for the electricity. This course is for learning about grammar. I went to the office for a meeting. We went out for a meal. 172


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4. Linking words of reason A) because, as , since When we want to express the reason for something, we can use because, as or since. They have the same meaning but usually because is stronger than as and since. They can start the sentence, or they can go in the middle of the sentence. However, only because can start an answer to a questions. For example:

I made a sandwich because/as/since I was hungry. Because/since/as I was hungry, I made a sandwich. Note: ‘Why did you make a sandwich?’

‘Because/as/since I was hungry.’

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b) so, therefore So and therefore mean ‘for this reason’. Other expressions we can use: consequently, as a result, because of that, hence.

For example:

I wanted to talk to my friend so I phoned her. I wanted to talk to my friend. Therefore/Consequently, I phoned her. Compare:

I phoned my friend because I wanted to talk to her.

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c) Due to, as a result, etc. When we want to talk about the reason for something, we can use the following expressions: due to, as a result of, owing to, because of, on account of , thanks to We have to use a noun or a gerund after these expressions. For example:

He bought a Ferrari

due to as a result of owing to because of on account of thanks to

his lottery win. winning the lottery.

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5. Linking words of result a) so To express the result of an action, we can use so. It shows cause and effect. • •

so + adjective / adverb + that so + many/much/few/little + noun + that

For example:

He was walking so slowly that he missed the bus. She was so clever that she passed all her exams easily. There were so many people on the train that we couldn’t sit down. b) Such Such is used in the same meaning as so but in the following construction: • • •

such + (adjective) + uncount noun + that such + a(n) + (adjective) + singular count noun + that such + (adjective) + plural count noun + that 176


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For example:

It was such nice weather that we just wanted to sit in the park. He was such a nice person that he helped everyone. They were such lovely people that we really enjoyed talking to them. c) too Too means ‘more than needed’. We can use it to express cause and effect. • • •

too + adjective/adverb (+ to infinitive / for someone) too + many/much too + many/much + noun (+ to infinitive / for someone)

For example:

This house is too big for our family. He is too shy to ask questions. ‘How many cars does Frank have?’ ‘Too many.’

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d) Enough Enough means ‘sufficient’. We can use it to express cause and effect. •

• •

adjective + enough + (+ to infinitive / for someone) adverb + enough + (+ to infinitive / for someone) enough + noun + (+ to infinitive / for someone)

For example:

We had enough money to buy a huge pizza. He run fast enough to cross the line first. Peter had enough cups and plates for the party.

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Irregular Verbs

Actions in the making

Irregular verbs are becoming regular! Yes, it’s true. It’s happening. Slowly but surely.

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1. Regular verbs Regular verbs form their past and past participle forms by adding –ed to the end of the verbs. For example:

Base form

Past form

Past participle

walk love hate finish

walked loved hated finished

walked loved hated finished

2. Irregular verbs Irregular verbs form their past and past participle forms differently from regular verbs. They usually do not use the –ed ending. For example: Base form

Past form

Past participle

think Eat

thought ate

thought eaten

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Some verbs can have both regular and irregular forms. For example: Base form

Past form

Past participle

dream learn

dreamt/dreamed learnt/learned

dreamt/dreamed learnt/learned

3. All forms the same In some cases, all the three forms (present, past and participle) are the same: Base form

Past form

Past participle

cut put read hit bet burst set shut

cut put read hit bet burst set shut

cut put read hit bet burst set shut

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4. Two forms are the same Base form and past participle are the same: Base form

Past form

Past participle

come become run

came became ran

come become run

Base form and past participle are the same: Base form

Past form

Past participle

keep mean pay feel

kept meant paid felt

kept meant paid felt

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5. Ending in –en Sometimes the past participle can end in –en. The -en can attach to the base form or to the past form: Base form

Past form

Past participle

choose fall speak give write speak shake eat

chose fell spoke gave wrote spoke shook ate

chosen fallen spoken given written spoken shaken eaten

6. All forms are different Sometimes all the three forms of the irregular verb are different: Base form

Past form

Past participle

go see grow blow shrink sing swim

went saw grew blew shrank sang swam

gone seen grown blown shrunk sung swum 183


Spelling

How to write correctly

VISUAL HERE

English spelling is very peculiar because the language has taken words from many other languages.

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1. Adding –s to nouns Most nouns simply add an –s to form the plural book → books, computer → computers, cat → cats, edge → edges The exceptions are: Add –es to nouns ending in: –s or –ss: bus → buses, business → businesses –x: tax → taxes, fox → foxes, box → boxes –ch: church → churches, match → matches except: stomach → stomachs –sh: leash → leashes, dish → dishes Nouns ending in –o can add either –s or –es zero → zeros, studio → studios, potato → potatoes, tomato → tomatoes

But: ghetto → ghettos/ghettoes, flamingo → flamingos/flamingoes

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Nouns that end in a consonant + -y change the –y to – ies baby → babies, story → stories, country → countries Nouns that end in a vowel + -y (-ay/-ey/ -oy/ -uy) only add –s monkey → monkeys, tray → trays, toy → toys, day →

days

Nouns that end in –f or –fe change to –ves knife → knives, half → halves 2. Adding –s to verbs Most verbs simply add an –s to form the third person eat → eats, treat → treats, sleep → sleeps, work → works

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The exceptions are: Add –es to verbs ending in –ss: miss → misses, pass → passes –zz: buzz → buzzes –x: mix – mixes, tax → taxes –ch: catch – catches, watch → watches, touch →

touches –sh: push – pushes, wash → washes –o: do → does, go → goes, echo → echoes

Verbs that end in a consonant + -y change the –y to – ies carry → carries, try → tries, study → studies Verbs that end in a vowel + -y only add –s pay → pays, say → says, play → plays

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3. Adding –ing to verbs Most verbs simply add an –ing to the verb eat → eating, treat → treating, sleep → sleeping, work → working The exceptions are: Verbs that end in an –e, lose the –e use → using, smoke → smoking, write → writing

Verbs that end in –ee, keep the –ee agree → agreeing, see → seeing Verbs that end in –ic change to –ick picnic → picnicking, traffic → trafficking Verbs that end in –ie, change to –y lie→ lying, tie → tying

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We double the last consonant if: The verb has one syllable and ends in a vowel+consonant sit → sitting, stop → stopping, →plan → planning except: play → playing, show → showing

The verb has two syllables and the second syllable is stressed begin → beginning, admit → admitting but differ →

differing

The verbs ends in a vowel+l travel → travelling, equal → equalling

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4. Adjectives and Adverbs ending in -e The adjective ends in -e + r/st (comparative and superlative forms)

Fine → finer, finest late → later, latest The adjective ends in -e + ly (making an adverb) nice → nicely, close → closely The adjective ends in -le + ply / bly, etc. (making an adverb) simple → simply, possible → possibly

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5. Doubling the final consonant. We saw in a previous point above that if a verb has two syllables and the second syllable is stressed, as well as if verbs ends in a vowel+l, we double the final consonant. However there are other situations when we have to double the final consonant: Word ends in vowel + consonant + -ing/-ed/-er/-est:

For example: Stop → stopped, stopping, stopper put → putting big → bigger, biggest run → runner, running set → setter, setting 6. Adding –ed to verbs Most verbs simply add an –ed to the verb

help → helped, treat → treated, work → worked

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The exceptions are: Verbs that end in an –e, add –d use → used, smoke → smoked, like → liked Verbs that end in –ee, keep the –ee agree → agreed, free → freed Verbs that end in –ic change to –ick picnic → picnicked, traffic → trafficked Verbs that end in a consonant+y, change to –ie try → tried, fry → fried, reply → replied We double the last consonant if: The verb has one syllable and ends in a vowel+consonant slam → slammed, stop → stopped, →plan →

planned

except: play → played, show → showed

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The verb has two syllables and the second syllable is stressed regret → regretted, admit → admitted but happen → happened The verbs ends in a vowel+l travel → travelled, equal → equalled

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Pronouns, Determiners Replacing the noun

VISUAL HERE

Did you know? The longest English word without a true vowel (a, e, i, o or u) is "rhythm"

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Pronouns 1. Pronouns There are different pronouns in English depending on their position in the sentence: Subject pronouns

Object pronouns

Possessive determiners

singular

plural

singular

plural

singular

plural

I you he she it

we you they

me you him her it

us you them

my your his her its

our your their

Subject pronouns replace the subject of the sentence and object pronouns replace the object. Possessive determiners show us possession and go in front of the noun.

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Study carefully this table of the English reflexive and possessive pronouns. Reflexive pronouns

Possessive pronouns

singular

plural

singular

plural

myself yourself himself herself Itself

ourselves yourselves themselves

mine yours his hers Its

ours yours theirs

We use reflexive pronouns to refer back to the subject of the sentence. Possessive pronouns replace a noun and show possession at the same time. 2. Subject and object Subject pronouns stand in subject position in the sentence, and object pronouns stand in object position. Study the following examples: Subject Verb Object He saw her. We met them I heard you. 196


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3. Possessives The possessive determiners always stand before the noun. The possessive determiner + noun combination can be either the subject or object of the sentence.

Possessive pronouns replace the noun they refer to. They stand alone and can be the subject or the object of the sentence. Study the following examples:

This is my book. This is mine. / This book is mine. ‘Whose car is it?’ ‘It is his car.’ or ‘It is his.’ /‘The car is his.’ ‘Their garden is huge! What about yours?’ ‘Mine is small.’ 4. Reflexive pronouns Reflexive pronouns always refer back to the subject and they usually stand in object position. Study the following examples:

I cut myself with a knife. He quickly washed himself . 197


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We can also use reflexive pronouns to emphasise that the subject did an action. Look at the following examples:

Peter repaired the car himself.

We baked the cakes ourselves.

5. Each other, etc. Look at the following examples:

Peter and Tom looked at themselves in the mirror. Peter looked at himself (Peter) and Tom looked at himself (Tom)

Peter and Tom measured each other / one another. Peter measured Tom and Tom measured Peter.

Peter and Sarah looked at someone else. Peter and Sarah looked at a third person. 198


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6. There or it? Both there and it can be used in several different ways. 1. We use it to refer to specific things:

It is an expensive blue car. 2. We use it to talk about time, whether and distance:

It is 5 o’clock. How far is it from the bank? 3. We use there to talk about the existence of a thing:

There are two people talking at the corner. 4. We can also use there in the meaning of ‘ a far place’:

Yesterday I went there but I couldn’t find anyone at home.

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Determiners/pronouns Some words can be used both as pronouns and determines. We are going to look at these words.

1. Some/any + body/thing The following indefinite pronoun combinations are possible: some any every

+

body / one thing where

Somebody/one, something, somewhere are used in positive sentences or in questions when we expect a ‘yes’ answer. Anybody/one, anything, anywhere are used in questions and negative sentences. Everybody/one, everything, everywhere are always followed by a singular verb.

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2. One, ones We use one and ones when we do not want to repeat a countable noun. ‘The one’ is used instead of a countable singular noun:

‘Which car would you like?’ ‘The one with 5 seats.’ ‘a + adjective + one’ is used to replace a countable singular noun:

‘I’d like a coffee, please. A strong one.’ ‘Ones’ is used instead of a countable plural noun:

‘I like your cakes, especially the ones with cream.’ 3. All, most, some If we talk about general things, we use all/most/some + plural nouns:

All dogs have two legs. Most flowers are nice. Some people are rude.

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To talk about a concrete group of things or people, we can say all/most/some of + the + noun: All (of) the dogs in this town are dangerous. (note: ‘of’ is optional with ‘all’)

Some of the students in this school want to go to university. If we don’t want to repeat the noun, we can use all/most/some + of + it/the/us/you: ‘Where’s the cake?’ ‘Sorry. I ate all of it.’ 4. Both, (n)either, none Both/either/neither + noun refer to two things. Both is followed by a plural noun + plural verb and either/neither are followed by a singular noun + singular verb.

Both girls are very pretty. Either car is good for me. (= it doesn’t matter which one) Neither house is big enough. (= none of the two)

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We can also say:

Both of the girls or both the girls Either of the cars Neither of the houses Both/either/neither can also stand alone to refer to a noun:

‘Which one do you like?’ ‘Both.’ 5. Each and every Each and every have a similar meaning. But: each looks at things individually and every looks at things collectively. Each + singular noun (+ singular verb)

Each book is useful. I like each book. Each + of + plural noun/determiner (+ singular verb)

Each of these books is good. I love each of you. Every + singular noun (+ singular verb)

Every day is hot. They visited every museum.

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Every one + of + the+ plural nouns/determiner (+ singular verb) Every one of the flats has been sold. I want to talk to every one of you. 6. Much, many, few, etc. Study carefully the following table: countable uncountable positive plural nouns nouns sentence ✓

much many

few

lots, a lot, plenty

✓ ✓ (possible)

little

negatives and questions ✓

✓ ✓

Note the difference in the following constructions:

I have few friends/little time. (= not a lot, negative meaning)

I have a few friends/a little time. (= some, positive meaning)

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7. All, whole Whole means the ‘entire’. All can also mean ‘entire’ or ‘the total available’. Note the difference in the constructions.

the whole day / all day the whole cake / all the cake her whole life / all her life his whole house / all his house For example:

The whole day was a disaster. (=from beginning to end) We were shopping all day. He worked hard all his life. His whole life was dedicated to his children.

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The Articles 1. The definite article The definite article is: the. It has only one form, the, which is used for both singular and plural nouns: For example:

the book, the house, the table the sofas, the families, the children The is also used for uncountable nouns:

the cheese, the air, the furniture 2. Use of the definite article  when something has been mentioned before:

‘Has he got a car?’ ‘Yes. The car he has is expensive.’  with of:

the colour of my skirt

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 when only one of something exists:

the President, the Pope, the moon, the sky  when referring to groups of people or nationalities:

the rich, the sick, the English, the Russian  when talking about species (in the context of biology):

The lion is a carnivorous animal.  when talking about musical instruments:

I play the guitar. He plays the piano.  with the media:

the press, the news, the radio, the papers, the tv But: I watch television.  with superlatives and ordinal numbers:

the first, the second, the best, the only, the last  when talking about parts of the body:

He was hurt on the head.

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 when talking about geographical features • oceans, rivers, mountains: • the Themes, the Alps, the Pacific •

regions: • the Middle East, the Sahara, the Amazon

groups of islands: • the Solomon Islands, the Caribbean

some countries: • the USA, the Ukraine, The UK, the United Arab

Emirates, the Netherlands

other: • the sea, the coast, the hills, the mountains,

the countryside

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 with the dates(only in speech):

the twentieth of July, October the fifth  talking about entertainment:

the cinema, the theatre, the opera, the museum  when referring to hotels and restaurants:

the Hilton, the Grand Hotel, the Oriental  with expressions:

the traffic, in the morning, in the afternoon the metro, the doctor, the dentist, the hospital the supermarket, the bank

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3. The indefinite article The indefinite articles are: a and an. We use a in front of a consonant sound

a book, a table, a hotel, a moment a tall father, a blue car, a nice pie, a fire We use an in front of a vowel sound

an apple, an hour, an architect, an animal an important decision, an efficient worker The plural of a/an is zero or some/any

a cat – cats, some cats a cinema – cinemas, some cinemas 4. The use of the indefinite article  when we mention something for the first time:

‘He’s just bought a house.’ ‘ Wow. That’s fantastic.’  when we talk about one item of a group:

I’d like to buy a car.

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 with adjective + noun:

We saw a huge, black panther.  when talking about somebody’s job: She is a high school teacher.  when talking about a kind/example of something:

We bottle a fine wine. (= a type of fine wine)  when talking about amounts:

a kilo of potatoes, a thousand litre of water  difference between a and one:

‘I’d like a slice of cake please. ‘ But: ‘I wanted only one slice, not two!’  when talking about frequency, price, distance (meaning per)

5 miles an hour, two pound a kilo, twice a week

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 When talking about illnesses:

I have a cold. I have a headache. I have a pain in my arm. Except: flue, blood pressure and plural diseases (measles, mumps)  With what and such when using singular, countable nouns:

What a nice day! Such a lovely dog. 5. The zero article The zero article means no article.

For example:

I like Ø travelling. He eats Ø meat every day. We bought Ø bananas. 212


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6. The use of the zero article  with plural nouns when talking in general:

Katie likes exotic animals.  with uncountable nouns when talking in general:

Cheese is made from milk.  with names of people, places, companies, countries, etc.:

Jack lives in London. I am friends with both Mary and Peter.  with names of meals: have dinner, have lunch  with the names of some illnesses:

He has high blood pressure.  when talking about travelling: go by car/train

 when talking about certain places where the function of the place is the most important:

in hospital / at work / in prison / in bed at school / at university 213


Prepositions

Do we really need them?

Do you know that there are more than 100 prepositions in English?

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Prepositions of Time 1. Use of ‘in’ We use in with: Months

in September in may

Years

in 1996, in 1976 in 2004, in 2054

Seasons

in summer, in winter in spring, in autumn

Centuries

in the 17th century in the 21st century in the Bronze Age

Main parts of the day

in the morning in the afternoon in the evening

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2. Use of ‘on’ We use on with:

Days (especially with the word ‘day’)

on Monday, on Friday on weekdays on Thursday morning on a good day on Christmas Day,

Dates

on 16th September on 30th October on the fourth of May

3. Use of ‘at’ We use at with: Times

at 9am at half past eleven at 3 o’clock

A point of time

at at at at at

Special days (without the word ‘day’)

at Christmas at Easter at the weekend

Expressions

at first, at last, at once, ect.

the start the beginning/end midnight noon, at night lunch time

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4. In, during, while In and during often mean the same:

in summer = during summer in the night = during the night During emphasizes the duration:

It rained every day during the holidays. Both while and during refer to duration but compare: During + noun

While + subject + verb + object

during the film during the break

while we were watching the film while I was having a break

5. Use of ‘by’ By means ‘no later than’.

Applications to be received by Friday the 20th June. (= on or before Friday, not later than Friday the 20th June.) by the end of the year / by 2pm on Tuesday / by Sunday morning / by now / by the time you arrive home 217


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6. Use of ‘until’ Until (or till) refers to the duration of an activity and show how long something will continue. It means that something continues until a moment in the future. For example:

I will be in a meeting until four o’clock this afternoon.

(=the meeting will continue until four, it will stop at four o’clock)

Examples:

until everyone arrives until we get home until the morning 7. Use of ‘for, in’ In shows how quickly something happens (how long it takes to do something).

Dad will come home in four days. The train journey finished in an hour.

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For shows the duration of an action (how long in lasts):

For example:

We stayed in Birmingham for 2 days. He went to Tibet for August. 8. Expressions

at at midnight at noon at lunch time at dusk/dawn at the same time at present at the time at last at the end at night

In in the morning in the afternoon in the evening in half an hour in a few minutes in a moment in a second in time in the present in the past

on on Wednesday afternoon on Sunday evening on a fine day on my birthday on the day of the wedding on the day of something on time On New Year’s Day on his anniversary

on time = punctual, exact time in time = ok time, not late but almost late in the end = finally at the end (of something) = when something finishes 219


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Prepositions of Place and

Movement 1. Use of ‘in, at, on’ in

at

on

refers to an area or volume

refers to a point, refers to a place or event surface

in the building in Europe / Asia in London in new York in the garden in the park in the street in the room in bed in hospital in prison in church

at at at at at at at at at at at at

the airport the bus stop the bank the library home church school a concert a dinner a meeting a party (address)

on the wall on the screen on the window on the floor on the door on a page on a sheet of paper on the bed on the ceiling on the ground on the grass on the beach

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in in a queue in a row in a line in the sky in the world in the country in the photograph in a book in a magazine in a newspaper in the world in the corner

at at at at at at at at at at at at at

the top the bottom the end the back the front the corner sea work college university a dance a wedding

on on the right on the left on the left-hand side on the right-hand side on a menu on a list on the ground floor on the first floor on a river on the river Thames on the way on a bus/plane on the train/ship

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2. The use of ‘beside, besides, by’

beside s

‘in addition, as well as, except’ Jack was at the party besides Frank and Sally.

‘except’ He invited everyone to his birthday party besides me!

beside

‘next to’ Our house is beside /by the post office

‘beyond, past an area or object’ My friend went right by me yesterday without saying hello. by ‘using a vehicle’ Jack commutes to work by car.

‘right next to, close’ The hotel is right by the airport. 222


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3. The use of ‘between/among’ and ‘like/as’

between among

between two people among more than two people

like as

means ‘similar to’ ‘in the role of, function’

Examples:

My room is between the kitchen and the living room. The teacher divided the sweets among the students. Phil works like a machine! (=he similarly to a machine, perhaps fast, precise, etc)

My sister works as an accountant. (=she is an accountant

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4. The use of ‘near/on’ and ‘above/over’

near on

‘not far’ I live near the airport. ‘right next to, along a line’ My uncle lives right on the motorway. ‘at a higher place (not touching)’ The lamp is above the table.

above ‘at a higher level (general)’ The sky above/over us is bright at night. over

‘at a higher place (touching)’ The blanket is over the bed.

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Verbs with Preposition 1. The use of prepositions with verbs In the English language, verbs are very often followed by a preposition. For example:

We are talking about the exam results. Did you listen to radio this afternoon? Scientists experiment with different chemicals. Note: When a verb + preposition is followed by another verb, this verb will use the gerund form. For example:

We are talking about buying a new car. She insisted on paying for the meal.

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2. Verb patterns Verb

Preposition

Object

We talked They listened

about to

the holiday the radio

Verb

Preposition

-ing

She dreamed Frank apologized

about for

travelling. being late

Verb

Prep

Object

Prep

Obj / -ing

He argued We talked

with to

his wife the manager

about about

the cleaning. the finances.

Verb

Object

Prep

Object / -ing

They blamed We congratulated

the student them

for on

breaking the window. on their wedding.

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3. Verbs with different prepositions Some verbs can be followed by different prepositions. Usually this involves a change in meaning. Here are a few examples:

We talked to the boss. We talked about the weather. I am thinking about taking some time off. (considering) What do you think of the new teacher? (What’s your opinion?)

I’ve just thought of a cool present for Jane. (the idea came to my mind)

4. About and of Think about = consider, concentrate on something Think of = have an idea or opinion

What are you thinking about? (=what’s on your mind?) What do you think of the new boss? (=opinion)

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Hear about= hear something new, news, new information Hear of = to know about the existence of something Hear from = receive information from someone

Have you heard about the accident last night? ‘Do you know Tom Cruise?’ ‘I’ve never heard of him.’ I haven’t heard from Fred for months. 5. The use of ‘for’ Pay for something = when we buy something, we pay for it. Ask for something = if you want to have something, you have to ask for it. Apologise for something and say sorry for something = if you do something bad or wrong, you have to apologise/say sorry for it Thank somebody for something = if somebody helps you, you have to thank them for it.

Thank you for helping me yesterday. I would like to pay for the drinks. How much are they? I am really sorry for being late. I apologise for the delay.

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6. The use of ‘on’ Here are some examples of common verbs which always use the preposition on. depend on rely on spend on congratulate on concentrate on insist on

I can always rely on my best friend for advice. What do you spend your free time on? We congratulated him on graduating from high school. I can’t concentrate on my work in this noise.

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Nouns, Adjectives with

Prepositions 1. Nouns and adjectives with prepositions Nouns and adjectives are often followed by a preposition. Nouns take the same preposition as the adjective or verb they are related to. noun

adjective/verb

kindness of success in

kind of succeed in successful in decide on object to

decision on objection to

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2. Examples of nouns with prepositions

relationship with connection with thanks to debate about insistence on attack on responsibility for decrease in

contract with damage to discussion about admiration for decision on excuse for increase in fall from

agreement with reply to information about punishment for advice on respect for delay in call from

3. Examples of adjectives with prepositions good at married to impressed with famous for scared of capable of bored of embarrassed about interested in

bad at engaged to angry with responsible for frightened of sick of fond of successful in

excellent at pleased with keen on suitable for aware of tired of different from/to influential in

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