ANDREAS LUKITA HALIMAN
E N CL O S E D O R D E R
PRIMER ... 01 DESIGN PROJECT ... 19 INTERGRATED TECHNOLOGY ... 69
Exploration of monastic atmosphere
§ ATMOSPHERIC EXPERIENCE.
n the primer stage of our studio - “Enclosed Order”, we were to explore and experiment on ways to achieve monastic atmospheres. Looking at precedents that have monastic qualities, we were to analyse the elements that contributes to the atmospheric experience of the space - materials, light, shadow, textures etc. Based on these analysis, I started to model instances through atmospheric models to test penetrating light - how it affects the atmosphere of the space and then making atmospheric collages out of them to test the atmosphere based on the scale of the models. The following images test 3 elements that I was interested to look into: “presence” - how light might contribute to the presence of God in the space, “hierarchy” - how massive structures might suggest hierarchy to the user, and “silence” - how openings and penetrating light might create an atmospheric silence in the space (ideal for monastic rituals).
+ Presence +
+ SILENCE +
+ HIERARCHY +
+ Presence +
+ SILENCE +
+ HIERARCHY +
§ THE PROTAGONIST. MANIFESTO
After the atmospheric experience experiments, our studio’s brief demands to
create a protagonist that is going to inhabit our design project. He is something like a “client” in our studio. My design project will look into the daily ritual of the protagonist and the design process will revolve around this ritual. The protagonist of my project is a novice trappist monk from the Order of Cistercian of the Strict Observance. He is always wearing the order’s white and black robe except when he works in field/the brewery. He is devoted to the order’s way of life of worshipping Jesus Christ and has vowed to live the rest of his life in the monastery. He is a vegetarian, who will not eat four legged animals, but occasionally eats fish (this is according to the order’s rule). He always live in silence since it is believed in the order that silence creates space to feel the presence of God. He stays in his tiny cell where he sleeps on the single bed. There is a table with bookshelves where he can conduct his private bible study. He tries to get rid of his worldly desires by disciplining himself through the daily repetition of rituals in the monastery. Two things he loves most as he entered the monastery: God and the cidre he brews.
The Ritual +
At 3:15 a.m. he wakes up to get ready for the first ser-
vice of the day at 3:30 a.m. After the service he will have his private prayer, which he can do either in the hall or his private cell. After the private prayer he will clean the monastery together with his brothers in the monastery and have breakfast. At 6:15 a.m., there will be a short meeting before the holy mass at 6:45 a.m. After the holy mass, at 8:30 a.m. he will conduct a private bible study session. There will be a divine service at 9:15 a.m., which is open to the public. The main meal of the day (lunch) will be prepared at 12:15 p.m. After lunch he will work in the brewery (as he is in charge of the brewery) for 4 - 5 hours. Evening prayer will then be held at 5:30 p.m. followed by the closing prayer at 7:30 p.m., which is the end of the day.
ยง ARTEFACT STUDY. MVSEO ROMANO DE MERIDA With: Matthew Hearn, Ryoga Adityo Dipowikoro
n a group of 3, we crafted a tectonic model of Museo Romano de Merida, focusing on the main hall area where there is a repetition of huge arches that directs the movement of the inhabitant and frames the exhibits in the museum. I was particularly interested in this concept of repetition and how it contributes to the atmosphere of the space. The repetition of arches also creates a rhythmical repetition of light and shadow. This also creates a feeling of timelessness and infinity in the space, playing with the sense of time of the inhabitant.
TECTONIC MODEL â€¦
§ THE PROTAGONIST’S CELL. ATTEMPT ON IMPLEMENTATION
The protagonist’s cell is the realm of the uncon-
scious for the protagonist, it is where he sleeps, conduct private bible study and prayer. In the design of the cells, I tried to implement the concept of repetition to the corridor connecting the cells. Unlike Museo de Romano that uses big arches which creates a sense a superiority to the space, a repetition of smaller arches are used here because a monk’s cell must convey a feeling of “modesty” reflecting the monastic life of a monk that is simple and repetitive.
+ conceptual model +
§ THE TRAPPIST BREWERY. T he Trappist Brewery project is an attempt to implement what I have re-
searched throughout the Primer stage. Taking into account the understanding of creating monastic atmospheres through “presence”, “hierarchy” and “silence”, I took the form that I experimented on in Atmospheric Experience and develop it to accomodate a brewery for the protagonist. The concept of “repetition” that I was looking into in my Artefact Study will also be experimented on and reinterpreted into the brewery design in an attempt to recreate the atmosphere from the study. The form of the brewery took a horizontal dynamic shape that I experimented on, which allows light to slice through into the space. The journey through the horizontal brewery consists of a series of arches arranged to frame this penetrating light from the opening, directing the movement of the inhabitant towards the light. The series of arches also creates slots, where the brewing equipments - fermentation tanks, milling machine etc., are placed and arranged, in an ascending manner in respect to the brewing process. Plans, section and an atmospheric of the brewery can be seen in the next page to better communicate the concept of the brewery.
+ FLOOR PLANS +
+ SECTION AA +
+ ATMOSPHERIC +
02 DESIGN PROJECT.
STAGING - REALISATION - REFINEMENT
§ THE CONTEXT. OUSEBURN VALLEY, NE6 1LB
The site of my design project is at Ouseburn valley,
specifically at Ward Bro’s Metal. Initially, 3 choices of site were given. I chose this site because it offers the least noise level amongst the 3, which is essential for my silence because ‘silence’ is an important aspect for my protagonist. There are significant level changes at the site, 6m elevation from SouthWest to NorthEast, and 4m elevation from NorthWest to SouthEast. Ouseburn Valley is a developing and industrial area so it is a perfect site for the Trappist Brewery. My proposal invloves an apple orchard where the monks will pick their own apples for brewing Cider, which will be explained in more detail later in the portfolio.
+ SITE PICTURES +
S I T E P L A N
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§ SILENCE OF THE MONKS. I LIGHT
ilence is essentially an important requirement for Cistercian monks since they took a vow of silence in order to appreciate the gift that God has provided around them. Silence can be categorised into two different types; atmospheric and human silence. Atmospheric silence does not mean the absence of sound, it is the silence acquired from the unintentional noise from the surroundings, the noise of nature; such as the sound of birds chirping, trees rustling, water dripping etc. On the other hand, human silence is something acquired from the absence of speech, the absence of intentional noise that humans make. The quote to the right by Louis I. Kahn inspired me in the process of my design. What I interpreted from the quote is that Light and Silence are always connected to each other, that Light and Silence together can allow the ‘desire to be, to express’ to become possible, or in order words it allows the presence of ‘something is there’ is present just through the utilisation of light. This means that Light can be used to represent God, which is a very important aspect in the monastic life.
LIGHT GIVES BIRTH TO ALL PRESENCES, WHEN THERE IS LIGHT, A THRESHOLD CAN BE SENSED; LIGHT INTO SILENCE, SILENCE INTO LIGHT, CREATING AN AMBIANCE WHERE THE DESIRE TO BE, TO EXPRESS, OVERLAPS WITH THE POSSIBLE.
- LOUIS I. KAHN, 2013
§ SILENCE OF THE MONKS. II CONCRETE
Previously, the incorporation of using Light as a material in order to repre-
sent the presence of God through atmospheric silence were discussed. Now, in order to achieve ‘human silence’, concrete will be used as the main material in my building. This is because concrete is a good insulator of airborne sound, thus it will fend off the external urban noise from outside of the monastery. Concrete walls will surround the monastery which will allow the monks to experience ‘human silence’ in an urabn context. The series of models and moulds to the right shows experiments on concrete texture, which will be used in the walls of the monastery. Textures also allows for Light and Shadow to play on the walls enhancing the ‘atmsopheric silence’ for the monks.
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Â§ REPETITION AND PROPORTION LOOKING INTO A STUDY BY HANS VAN DER LAAN
Looking into the research of Hans van der Laan on his design of the Abbey at Vaals, where he incorporated the use of repetition and proportions of openings in order to get the best aesthetics, I studied how he measured his proportions.
He was inspired by Vitruviusâ€™ five column spacing looking at the plastic number and distinct proportions. The diagram to the left shows how this five column spacing works.
+ OPENINGS REPETITION DIAGRAM +
In order to rid themselves of their worldly desires,
LIVING ON REPETITION.
the Cistercian monks have to go through the endelss repetition of their daily rituals to be discipline and give themselves wholly to God. I wanted to reflect this through the architecture of the monastery by combining the traditional cistercian arches at a repetition. Having studied Hans Van der Laanâ€™s research on repetition and proportions, Concept models and an initial model of the monastery was made in anattempt to test the repetition and how the proportion of the arches work together.
REPETITION FOR DISCIPLINE
+ INITIAL MODEL OF MONASTERY +
+ CONCEPTUAL MODEL +
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GROUND FLOOR PLAN. 35
1. Brewery 2. Public Orchard 3. Narthex 4. Holy water 5. Church 6. Altar
7. Chapel 8. Apple Orchard 9. Graveyard 10. Toilet 11. Toilet 12. Laundry room
13. Kitchen 14. Refectory 15. Cloak room 16. Library 17. Plant room 18. Mass equipment storage room
FIRST FLOOR PLAN. 37
1. Bell tower 2. Chapter room 3. Maryâ€™s garden 4. Shower room 5. Washing area 6. Toilets
7. Individual cell 8. Toilets 9. Washing area 10. Shower room
ยง THE BREWERY AND LIVING SPACES.
ORCHARD FOR THE PEOPLE. THE PUBLIC APPLE ORCHARD
The diagram to the right shows a popular trek
path for walkers in Newcastle Upon Tyne which goes all the way from South Gosforth to the City Centre, passing through a series of parks that are connected with each other, allowing them to get away from the busy city. The path goes through the site of the monastery thus I am proposing to provide a public apple orchard for the walkers to go into and enjoy the orchard while having cider that is brewed by the monks or apple juice that are freshly pressed from the orchard.
+ axonometric diagram of entrance arches +
The entrance arches to the public apple orchard are
designed to be 3 times wider and it is shorter than the ones in the cloisters so that it is more welcoming and less intimidating, attracting people to enter the public orchard.
NORTH WEST ELEVATION 1:500
+ EXPLODED AXONOMETRIC +
THE OUSEBURN CIDER BREWERY.
The brewery uses the same concept as the concep-
tual brewery designed during the primer stage - using the arches as barriers between processes. This can be seen at the diagram to the left.
The diagram also shows the dark and bright spaces in the brewery where the dark spaces get only diffused light through the openings of the bright spaces as shown in the section below. This is because these processes at the dark spaces cannot allow direct sunlight in order for it to be successful.
pasteuring aging experiment packaging
THE PUBLIC ORCHARD
The public orchard is for the people, a contribution
from the monks for the public. Visitors can enjoy the orchard while watching the monks washing, milling and pressing the apples for brewing cider. They can also buy cider from the small stall (hole) from the brewery.
+ EXPLODED AXONOMETRIC +
THE LIVING SPACES. THE MONK’S ACCOMODATION
The living spaces of the monk are seperated from the church which is the most ‘holy’ space in the monastery. It consists of: 1. 2 toilets in the ground floor 2. A laundry room 3. A kitchen 4. A refectory 5. A cloak room 6. A library 7. Plant room 8. Apple orchard 9. A graveyard 10. 20 monastic cells 11. 2 communal bathrooms and toilets area The outer wall of the living spaces has a facade skin of repeated timber strips to provide privacy from the outside while still allowing light to penetrate through into the living spaces. This is shown in the axonometric to the left and the elevation below.
SOUTH WEST ELEVATION 1:500
THE STITCH. The stitch is an additional corridor that connects the living
spaces and the church, sividing the cloister into two. The idea was introduced by Hans Van der Laan in his Abbey at Vaals, ignoring the traditional cloister of most monasteries. The stitch makes a more efficient circulation since the monks will access the church multiple times a day as part of their repetitive daily rituals. In the case of my proposal, it also acts as a brrier between the graveyard and the apple orchard.
THE REFECTORY. E
ating is an important part of the monkâ€™s daily ritual, it is a time when they have to prepare food and give thanks to God for the food they are given. This makes the refectory, the place where they eat, an important space for the monks. The refectory has a small altar where a monk will lead the prayer before eating. The tables are specially designed to reflect the arches in the monastery.
THE APPLE ORCHARD
ยง THE CHURCH AND CHAPEL.
+ EXPLODED AXONOMETRIC +
THE CHURCH AND CHAPEL. SPACES FOR HOLY RITUALS
The journey to the church starts from the narthex where there is
a statue of Jesus Christ. The horizontal repetition of the arches that leads to the church creates a sense of timelessness and it acts as multiple thershold giving a feeling of stepping into another realm - the church. At the back of the church there is a chapel, which is a private praying space only accessible by the monks. The form of the church is a developed from the brewery that was designed during the primer stage which is adapted into a church. The church is located at the most elevated part of the site, which indicates that it is at the top of hte hierarchy. The monks have to climb stairs everytime they want to access the church making it a subconscious journey that whenever they climb up, they are going to a space of a higher position in the hierarchy.
CHURCH STRUCTURE. The structure of the church is
simple. The repetition of the arches other than contributes to the atmosphere of the space, it also acts as the maon structure of the church, supporting the whole structure.
THE FRAME. This is an experimental atmo-
spheric 1:10 model of the frame in the chapel of the monastery. The frame will have a statue of Mother Mary in it with Light from the top of it to give more â€˜presenceâ€™ to the statue.
THE NARTHEX. The narthex is the entrance of the church. There is a statue of
Jesus Christ at the Narthex where the monks have to touch and greet every morning before the first prayer of the day. From the narthex, the series of repetition of arches that leads to the church can be seen with the light and cross at the end of the journey.
THE CHURCH. The church is the space where all the holy rituals take place. The monks go to the church at least 3 times a day in order to conduct their prayers and masses. It is open to the public at certain times of the day, when the main holy mass takes place. The church has the biggest arch which suggests hierarchy to the inhabitant, stressing that it is the most holy space, at the top of the hierarchy in the complex.
03 INTERGRATED TECHNOLOGY.
Images from ARC 3013 69
The building structure of the main church still uses the same strategy as proposed before in the brewery design in the primer stage â€“ using the repetition of arches used to convey the atmosphere of the space as the main structure of the building. The existing wall and church onsite are however, needs to be demolished because they does not fit with the final scheme because they are made of bricks and in my final scheme, I decided to use concrete as a main material in the monastery. This is because the monks in the monastery need silence and concrete offers a good insulation from airborne sound, thus fending off the external urban noise from the surroundings. I proposed before of making use of recycled metal from the metal scrap yard as a material in the building. Initially, I designed the faĂ§ade of the monastery to be coated with perforated metal in order to provide privacy, but also at the same time allowing light to penetrate through to the living spaces. Unfortunately the idea did not work as the light that penetrates through are not enough in intensity and the circle patterns from the corregated steel does not go well with the envisioned atmosphere of the space. Instead, I decided to use vertical timber strips at a repetitive manner for the faĂ§ade as this allows for more light to penetrate through and moreover supports the concept of repetition that I applied in the design of the monastery. Experiments on different textures of concrete are made in order to test how light and shadow interacts with them. The incorporation of the site that I have proposed before is executed in the final design proposal of my scheme. Following the elevations on site, I decided on where to place the spaces according to their position in the hierarchy. For example, the brewery is located at the lowest point of the site while the church at the highest. Finally, I have proposed on using technology in order to enhance the spiritual atmosphere of the spaces in the monastery. In fact, the monastery relies on the structural arches to create the spiritual atmosphere in the spaces. The brewery in the monastery uses a systematic order by its processes. The structural arches in the brewery acts as barriers between processes and screens for the processes that needs protection from direct sunlight.