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“ALTERNATIVE CLEANING OF WATER FOUND IN PUBLIC FOUNTAINS” ANDREA MICHAN ,JOSE ROMANO E, SANDRA KLIP 9ºC


CHAPTER 1

PREPARATION FOR THE EXPERIMENT


ABSTRACT: In this review we will discuss and test an alternative method to clean water found in public fountains and what the results are going to be when we finish.

KEYWORDS Filtration Dirty Water Solids Filter Fountain

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OBJECTIVE: To test 3 different methods containing earth material such as charcoal, pebbles, and sand as a cleaning process for public water found in fountains & puddles.


HYPOTHESIS: If by testing 3 proposed filters, then the one containing pebbles and sand will clean the dirty water better from solid particles because the properties of the different materials will allow the water to separate from solid particles.


INTRODUCTION: The problem is that there is a lot of water in fountains and in the streets. The goal in this investigation is to test filters and see if the materials have enough porosity and can retain solids from the different types of water on different public fountains. In the practice, there were three different filters tested with different materials to see which one could retain more solids and which one could purify the water more efficiently.


BACKGROUND: All mixtures can be separated because they are all physical mixtures. There are many methods for separating mixtures. The method depends on what you want to separate, you can separate liquid from solid or solid from liquid, liquids from liquids or solids from solids, this can vary on the types of mixture, here we will separate solids from liquids. Filtration is used for separating an insoluble solid from a liquid. For this you need a filtrate paper, a filtrate tunnel and a recipient for the liquid to fell in it. The solid that gets trapped in the filter paper is called residue. The liquid that passes through the funnel is called filtrate. An example can be sand with water, or dirt with water. Density is a physical property of matter and each substance its unique, is the relative measure of heaviness in the different compounds and elements that have unique densities. It is the measure of the mass in a substance. In chemistry the densities of substances are compared.All mixtures can be separated because they are all physical mixtures. There are many methods with H20, that means that the heaviest substance will be in the bottom because of its density. Sometimes the density is simple to notice and sometimes can be really hard. The way to measure the density of a specific substance is to measure its mass and its volume then divide. An example is water and oil, the water has a higher density than the oil so for separating them oil will be in the top and water in the bottom. Flocculant is the process where colloids come out in form of a flake, this can be either spontaneously or with the help of a clarifying agent. colloids are not dissolved in a solutions, they are just transparent. The tezontle rock is a volcanic rock and because of this it has porous properties that allows the water to go through, but gets the solid particles mixed in the water. This rock is used in a lot of different ways like in construction. The rock is very strong and resistant. Charcoal is a black porous carbon that can be made from an animal or a vegetable substance like wood. There are different types of charcoal like: briquettes and lump charcoal. Briquettes are made from leftover wood and paper, this materials are compressed to a uniform size and then they are roasted in oxygen-controlled retors, the result is mixed with other ingredients and is molded in a circular shaped, dried and packed. Lump charcoal is also known as natural carbon because it is made from wood that have been burned down in oxygencontrolled environments, the difference is that in the lump charcoal is not mixed with other ingredients. The filtration paper is the material were all solids stay it used for when the water pass the solids need to stay their because the particles are too big for passing it. Sand is made from rock and mineral particles. The composition of sand varies a lot from sand to sand, each type of sand it is formed in each own way, some can be darker, softer, other can be rough or soft, etc. The most common component in sand is the silica (Silicon dioxide) and it is usually in the form of quartz. The sand can be coarse or fine. Coarse sand can be confused with small rocks, this sand is much more rougher than the fine sand. Fine sand is really thin and soft. Solids are made up from atoms and molecules. A solid maintains a fixed volume and a fixed shape, there is almost no space between the particles and this makes it hard to break. The particles in the solid vibrate and do not move from place to place. Solids can vary in size and look, a solid can be a plastic box or a piece of dirt. All this materials work together in order to make the solids stop from going through the filter. When the water passes through this materials the little solid particles will have to get stuck on the pebbles, rocks, grass, charcoal, sand, or dirt. When the water passes from the top to the bottom of the filtrate it will be free from solid particles. If this happens, then you experiment will be a success.


CHAPTER 2

MATERIALS


MATERIALS: Reagents Equipment - 1 kg Tezontle rocks - Large Cloth - 1 kg Pebbles - Large Coffee filter - 1 Bag of “El Indito” Charcoal - 3 Bonafont 6 liter bottles - 3 Liters Dirty Water - 5 Rubber Bands - 1 bag of Grass - 1 Large Blotting paper - 1 kg Coarse Sand - 2 carboys (3 if your not using the - 2 kg Fine Sand glass container) - 2 Medium Size Rocks - 1 big glass container (optional)


CHAPTER 3

METHODS


FILTER 1 4. In one bottle, put a filter paper in the mouth of the bottle 5.Put rubber bands on the filter paper so it won’t fall. 6. Put 1kg of pebbles inside one bottle. 7. Put in 600 grams of fine sand on top of the pebbles in the bottle. 8. Put 1100 grams of coarse sand on top of the fine sand in the bottle. 9. Put the bottle on top of 1 carboy to let the clean water flow. 10. Pour 750 milliliters of water with soil to the bottle. 11. Pour 500 milliliters of water found in a fountain in the bottle.


FILTER 2 12. Grab the second bottle and put cloth inside the mouth of the bottle. 13. Put 1 kg of charcoal on top of the cloth. 14. Put cloth covering the charcoal. 15. On top of the second cloth, put 500 grams of fine sand. 16. Put some cloth on top of the sand. 17. On top of the cloth, use some plants. 18. Put the bottle on top of another carboy to let the clean water flow. 19. Pour 750 milliliters of water with soil to the bottle. 20. Pour 500 milliliters of water found in a fountain in the bottle.


FILTER 3 21. Use one coffee filter and wrapped it around the tap with 4 rubber bands. 22. When the coffee filter is already secure, pour the fine sand in the bottle. 23. Pour half of the gravel that you have. 24. Pour half of the coarse sand. 25. Pour the other half of the gravel 26. Pour the rest of the sand. 27. Put two medium size rocks on top. 28. When you finish put the bottle on the carboy and pour two litters of dirty water.


CHAPTER 4

RESULTS


RESULTS


ANALYSIS RESULT: Referring back to the hypothesis it was seen that by an alternative filtration separation technique it was able to take out solids from the dirty water found in public fountains , in the 3 different filters there were different materials that helped the solids separate from the dirty water have to stay in 6 liters carboy and do not pass to the big carboys. This is because the solid particles are too big for being able to pass the filter paper, the coffee filters and cloth and also because when two solids are together they bonded because they are attracted. The materials used in the different filters were used because by different investigations and theories it was discover that with sands, rocks, and plant mixed they can clean the water and take out the solids. This is not a filtration separation method because in the test the water when finishes filtrating and it has bacterias. The filtration method is only used to separate solid from liquids that are not dissolved and by their own they cannot be separated for example precipitate that is when you take a solid from a solution that why it was used this to take out all solids from the dirty water. A very important material for this method is that it is needed any type of filtration paper that has been used in the 3 different tests and it work because almost all solids stay their. The


CONCLUSION: This experiment was able to let the team see how the water can be clean and how the different materials can be able to separate solid particles from the liquid dominant. Some of the problems that were seen were that the time was too short to do the experiment and the lab report and the organization was good but more teamwork would’ve made it easier to finish. This helped the environment because more people can clean water, which can be useful to do a lot of things like cook, bathe, drink, etc. This can help the people who don’t have very little resources because the cost of these filters wasn’t expensive.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Thanks to the chemistry lab assistant, Berta, for giving the material that was needed. Thanks also to the Chemistry teacher Ximena, for helping the team on the procedure of the Science Fair. Thanks to the maintenance staff for cutting the top of the carboys to put the filters. REFERENCES James, Minshall. N.p.. Web. 26 Nov 2013. <http://jamesminshall.com/sustainability/water/>. (3)"Virtual chembook." ElmHurst. El mhurst College, n.d. Web. 26 Nov 2013. <http://www.elmhurst.edu/~chm/vchembook/120Adensity.html>. (1)ebs, . "EBS." EBS. EB INSTITUTE, n.d. Web. 26 Nov 2013. <http://www.ebsinstitute.com/Baseball/EBS.crp2df2.html>. ( 2 ) G l o v e r, P a u l . " M S c C o u r s e n o t e s . " G G L . P o r o s i t y. W e b . 2 6 N o v 2 0 1 3 . <http://www2.ggl.ulaval.ca/personnel/paglover/CD Contents/Formation Evaluation English/Chapter 5.PDF>. (1)"Density." Density. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2013. <http://www.nyu.edu/pages/mathmol/textbook/density.html>.

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