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Structuralism Wilhelm Wundt He was interested in the basic elements of the human experience. He used a method called introspection, to collect information of the mind. He tried to map out the basic structure of the mind processes Functionalism It studies how mental processes help animals and people adapt to their environment. William James. He was the father of psychology in the U.S He taught the first class of psychology at Harvard University. He focused on the functions or purposes of conscious mind, and the goals or functions or purposed of behavior.


Max Werthermer studied all that we see. He said that everything is together, like a big circle, everything is connected. Theories of visual perception: •

Law of similarity: Items that are similar tend to be grouped together. Law of Pragnanz: Reality is organized or reduced to the simplest form possible. Law of proximity: Objects near each other tend to be grouped together. Law of continuity: Lines are seen as following the smoothest path.

Law of Closure: Objects grouped together are seen as a whole.


Sir. Francis Galton was an English mathematician and scientist. He studied eminent families and found out that greatness runs in families. But, in his theory was a big mistake; he only studied rich people. Transation. It’s the study of relationship between stimuli and behavior. The method of psychology is to manipulate, stimuli, and observe the effect upon behavior. Psychopathology: Is the study of mental disorders. It studies Psychopathology, or abnormal behavior. It’s a method with clinical observation of the unconscious. Sigmund Freud. He organized information that already existed in the areas of medicine and philosophy. In 1895 he went to Paris to study with a French psychiatrist named Charcot who was trying to cure hysteria by the use of hypnosis. Organization of the mind: The conscious mind: All that we see right now and all the things we are aware of.

Preconscious: A few deep memories that we can remember. Not quickly, but we can remember them. The unconscious Mind: It is a reservoir of feelings and thoughts that are deep inside us, and we don’t even know. It affects in a certain way our behavior. Dream/Interpretation: It consists in the idea that dreams are a rich source of emotional meaning that is a key to find the causes or symptoms presented by the patient. Free association: Psychoanalytic patients are invited to relate whatever comes into their mind during the analytic session. Lapus/slips: Is an involuntary mistake made while writing or speaking. Psychosexual Development: Sexual energy moves us. Biological Psychology: Branch of the psychology that emphasizes in the impact of biology on our behavior. Psycho-biologists study how the brain, the nervous system and hormones and genetics influence our behavior. Cognitive Psychology: Focus on how we process, store and use information and how this information influences our thinking, language, problem solving, and creativity,

influence by mental processes, including perceptions memories and expectations. Humanistic Psychology: Humanistic psychology was developed as a reaction to behavioral psychology. Socio-cultural Psychology: Considers how our knowledge and ways of thinking, feeling, and behaving depend on the culture that we belong to.



Structuralism and functionalismmmmmmm  

homework 2

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