Page 1

Andrea Dal Negro

BIO ARCHITECTURE CENTER Restoring the ecosystem of Lake Burley Griffin


BIO ARCHITECTURE CENTER Restoring the ecosystem of Lake Burley Griffin Andrea Dal Negro MASTERARBEIT
 eingereicht an der

LEOPOLD-FRANZENS-UNIVERSITÄT INNSBRUCK
 FAKULTÄT FÜR ARCHITEKTUR 
 zur Erlangung des akademischen Grades


DIPLOM-INGENIEUR

Univ.-Prof. Dipl.Ing. MArch. Dott.Arch. PhD Marjan Colletti Institut für experimentelle Architektur, Hochbau Innsbruck, Februar 2015


INDEX Introduction

3

Microalgae

9

15

Experiment

Location

21

Project

47

Photos

130

1


INTRODUCTION The basic idea of the project is to give a new interpretation to architecture, dynamic, long-lasting, developed and integrated with nature by reducing its environmental impact and becoming a living and organic body. An architecture with the ability to act directly on environmental issues, which are usually solved with help of biology and biotechnology. The project wants no longer to be an end in itself and accommodate only the needs of humans, but those of nature and space in which it is inserted. It is therefore crucial to find a location that requires some type of intervention and act directly on that area. For this project I chose the problem of an artificial lake’s pollution: namely Lake Burley Griffin, in Canberra, the Australian Capital Territory. The last decade has witnessed a tremendous intoxication caused by the overgrowth of algae on the surface of the lake, a process called eutrophication. This phenomenon is the ecosystem response to the addition of artificial or natural substances, mainly phosphates, through detergents, fertilizers, or sewage. Negative environmental effects include hypoxia, the depletion of oxygen in the water, which may cause death to aquatic animals. This problem affects many areas, like the lake Chahou in China, or lake Erie in North America. The use of non-suitable fertilizer discharged large quantities of phosphates into the water. These, with nitrates, are the main nutrient for plants and, together with the sun, have stimulated an uncontrolled

3


growth of blue-toxic algae. The blue algae, called also cyanobacteria, smother plants and fish and produce dangerous, sometimes lethal, toxins for humans. The ecosystem is heavily compromised, creating serious damage to the lake. In recent years the government has launched a policy of environmental improvement, designed to reduce phosphate pollution and avoid large accumulations of algae on the surface. The project aims to strengthen the policy in architectural scale, alongside the measures taken by the government. The intention of this project is to clean the water of the lake through the controlled cultivation of microalgae. Under the motto “Algae destroy Algae”, microalgae grow in the lake’s water, where nutrients are assimilated and reduced by them, which allows a rapid growth. The lake water is then collected, used for the cultivation of microalgae and released into the lake at the end of the process containing a lower level of phosphates, since the majority has been “eaten” by the microalgae. This continuous filtration process lowers the overall level of phosphates, with

4


the aim of bringing it back to normal in few years. In addition to acting on the problem, it is possible to obtain various biological products from the algal biomass, including bio-fertilizers, which would replace the old fertilizers, thus affecting also the root of the problem. The result is a dynamic architecture, which changes its appearance thanks to the color variation of microalgae and which acts continuously on a environmental disequilibrium.

Architecture and biotechnology merge, creating a large and fascinating treatment system with a biological production, reducing the carbon footprint and contextualize itself in the environment in which it is built.

5


The following pages are going to explain what microalgae are and what is their future potential, showing an experiment made by myself proving that microalgae cultivation is easy, fast and intriguing. Then there will be space for a 360째 analysis of Lake Burley Griffin and its surroundings, choosing the right location for the project, taking into account different environmental aspects. After that, with help of diagrams, plans and images, the pages will try to explain the project, its strict relation with the microalgae, its function, its contextualization and how it is related to the surroundings, from masterplan to details.

6


MICROALGAE Microalgae are microscopic algae, tipically found in freshwater and marine system. Their sizes can range from a few micrometers (Âľm) to a few hundreds of micrometers. Microalgae, capable of performing photosynthesis, are important for life on earth; they produce approximately half of the atmospheric oxygen and, at the same time, use greenhouse gas carbon dioxide to grow photoautotrophically.

9


Microalgae need: LIGHT, CO2, NUTRIENTS and WATER. They can be cultivated in rain-, in sea- and also in sewage-water, absorbing the nutrients and cleaning the water. The microalgae, depending on the species, have different colors.

The cultivation of microalgae takes place in open systems [basin, open pond] and closed systems [photobioreactor]. The last solution is more suitable because easier to control, there is no water loss and vertical spaces can be used for the cultivations, not competing with the production of goods which are destined for human consumption, usually grown on large horizontal plains. The photobioreactors are mainly used in laboratories, hence closed spaces, however, in the last years, many different systems

10


have been tested. The results were generally promising, but only a few approaches were able to perform at an industrial scale. A range of microalgae species are produced in hatcheries and are used in a variety of ways for commercial purposes. In 2013, for the first time on architectural scale, the architecture office Splitterwerk, together wit Arup and Ssc presents in Hamburg the “BIQ HOUSEâ€?, a building with façade panels full of microalgae. In this system, the water remains the same and nutrients are added constantly, creating a closed loop system. Algal biomass is then collected and used to provide energy for the building, as electricity, heating and warm water. This residence building becames totally energetic-independent.

11


CULTIVATION PROCESS Growth parameters in water - Light - CO2 - Nutrients [Phosphates, Nitrates] - Adapt temperature, salinity and pH - O2 Where? In Photobioreactor Controlled -Closed System

Oil

12

Bio fuel

Clean water

Water released in the lake

Biomass

Bio products

How? Sunlight on the facade Combustion chamber produce CO2 burning the biomass From the water Laboratory regulation From the water

Growth parameters can be easily controlled in photobioreactors. These can be used as faรงade element, with an high exposition to the sunbeams, creating a natural shading system and giving a dynamic aesthetic to the buildings with its change of colors.

MICROALGAL BIOMASS Biofuel Example Yields: liters/ha-yr Soybeans 400 Sunflower 800 Canola 1600 Jathropa 2000 Palm Oil 6000 MICROALGAE 60000


MICROALGAE PRODUCTS From algal biomass is it possibile to obtain different products: bio-fertilizer for agriculture; animal feed for fish and farm animals; food supplies, medicines and cosmetics for humans; bio-fuel for the current engines; bio-gas to produce electricity and heating. Also, microalgae can convert a much higher fraction of their biomass to oil than conventional crops [60% versus 2-3% for soybeans]. CO2 produced from the fuel cells is directly brought to the photobioreactor, avoiding pollution and facilitating the microalgal reproduction.

AGRICULTURE

FERTILIZER

LAKE BURLEY GRIFFIN

FILTERED WATER

FISH WATER ANIMAL FOOD FOOD SUPPLIES

Phosphorus Nitrogen

FARM ANIMALS

NUTRIENTS

MEDICINES

GLYCERINE

PEOPLE

OIL ALGAE CULTIVATION

BIOMASS SEPARATION

BIO DIESEL

BIOMASS

COSMETICS

SUNLIGHT

BIO OIL BIOHYDROGEN

BIO

BIOETHANOL

CARBON DIOXIDE

BIO FUEL

BIO

BIO GAS

FUEL CELL

JET

FACTORY

ELECTRICITY

CARS

HEATING

13


EXPERIMENT

To test the process and the productivity of microalgae, I created a small photobioreactor, EXPERIMENT EXPERIMENT EXPERIMENT INFORMATIONS INFORMATIONS INFORMATIONS constantly monitoring their conditions. To start, I bought a normal fish tank kit and a microalgae starter. EXPERIMENT INFORMATIONS

Microalgae cost:

Microalga 4.90 €

Kit cost:

Kit 8.00 cost: €

The kit consists of a 3-Watt power air pump connected to a bottle full of lake water with aAlga Type: 6mm air tubing, providing oxygen [O2] and carbon dyoxide [CO2] to the algae. The air stoneWater: Algae Quantity [ml]: produces the bubbles, the check valve avoids the return of water into the air pump. Water Quantity [ml]:

Alga Nannochl Type:

Water: Lake Wate

Algae 400 Qua

Water 600 Qua

PH Value:

6mm Air Tubing

PH 8,0Value:

6mm Air Tubing 6mm Air Tubing 6mm Oculata Air Tubing Nannochloropsis NannochloropsisNannochloropsis Oculata Oculata Nannochloropsis Oculata

Air Stone Lake Water

Lake Water Lake Water Air Pump Lake Water

Air Pump

Check AirValve Stone Air Pump

Check Valve Air Stone Air Stone

Check Valve Check Valve

Air Pump

15


STARTER Microalgae cost:

4.90 €

Kit cost:

8.00 €

Alga Type:

Nannochloropsis Oculata

Water:

Lake Water

Algae Quantity [ml]:

400

Water Quantity [ml]:

600

PH Value:

8,0

The water bottle was placed outdoors, under indirect sun, with a PH value of 8,0 for the entire process. The first 5 days the temperature was around 12-14° and after, it increased to 28-30°. The first week the microalgae adapted themselves to the condition of the bottle and the environment without relevant changes. From the day 8 the reproduction started to rapidly increase, causing a change of color from light-green to dark-green. It took 18 days for the entire process. After these days, is possible to split the culture and continue the process producing more and more microalgae and their derivated bio-products. DAY 1

16

PHASE I


culata

MICROALGAE REPRODUCTION

DAY 1

DAY 4

DAY 8

DAY 10

DAY 14

DAY 18

The images below are daily taken photographs of the above-stated experiment in the period of July 2014

17

PHASE II


SPLITTING After 18 days, the culture is split, increasing the prodcution in a bigger homemade photobioreactor. The 1 liter of microalgae is poured into a 5-liter fresh lake water tank. The microalgae dilute in the water, reducing their color intensity. After few days of cultivation, the microalgae became darker again, exponentially increasing their initial productivity. To separate biomass from water I tried natural sedimentation. Due gravity, biomass reaches the bottom of the bottle, while oil floats on the top. However, this process is really slow and the clean water remains a bit turbid.

INCREASE OF PRODUCTION

Oil 1 Liter

5 Liter

The culture is split

Day 1

Day 4

The reproduction of microalgae continues faster Water

Biomass O2 and CO2 are constantly pumped into the bottle

18

Biomass is separated through natural sedimentation. The process is slow, it takes weeks


EXTRACTION With the help of an water-treatment expert, I found a 100% biological flocculant, which separates water and biomass in few seconds. This product is used in modern purification systems, without any environmental impact. The liquid, mixed up with the microalgae, hooks up the biomass separating the solid from the liquid. Doing that, no traces thereof remain in the water, allowing for its release in the lake. After this operation, the level of phosporus contained in water decreases of 16%*. *source: Lake sediments: algal availabaility of lake Burley Griffin sediment phosphorus

SEPARATION OF BIOMASS

BIOMASS CLEAN WATER

The flocculant is added to the culture

Stirring the liquid helps the separation

Biomass is completely separated from the clean water

19


LOCATION As said in the introduction, the chosen location for the project is Lake Burley Griffin, in Canberra, located on the south-west coast of Australia. Its development was completed in 1963 after the Molonglo River was dammed. It is named after Walter Burley Griffin, the American architect who won the competition to design the city of Canberra. Griffin designed the lake with many geometric motifs, so that the axes of his design lined up with natural geographical landmarks in the area. The lake is located in the approximate geographic centre of the city, and is the centrepiece of the capital in accordance with Griffin’s original designs. Numerous important institutions, such as the National Gallery, National Museum, National Library, Australian National University and the High Court were built on its shores, and Parliament House is a short distance away. Its surroundings, consisting mainly of parklands, are popular with recreational users, particularly in the warmer months. Though swimming in the lake is uncommon, it is used for a wide variety of other activities, such as rowing, fishing, and sailing. The lake is an ornamental body with a

21


length of 11 kilometres; at its widest, it measures 1.2 kilometres. It has an average depth of 4 metres and a maximum depth of about 18 metres near the Scrivener Dam, on the west part. Through an accurate analysis of the lake and its surrounding, the most suitable area for the project has been researched.

22


LAKE BURLEY GRIFFIN LAKEDEPTH BURLEY GRIFFIN DEPTH The depth of the lake decreases gradually 1 METRE 10 METRES from the Scrivener GRIFFIN Dam, on the west part, LAKE BURLEY 11 METRES where it is2 METRES deeper, to the east basin. The DEPTH water flows following this direction. 3 METRES 12 METRES 5 METRES

10 METRES 14 METRES

2 METRES 6 METRES

11 METRES 15 METRES

3 METRES 7 METRES

16 METRES 12 METRES

4 METRES 8 METRES

17 METRES 13 METRES

17 METRES

9 METRES

18 METRES

ST O

8 METRES

CANBERRA BLACK

WE

16 METRES

IVE

7 METRES

YARRAMUNDI REACH

EN

15 METRES

ROWING CLUB

KURRAJONG POIN

18 METRES

14 METRES

6 METRES

ROWING JETTY

ACACIA INLET

DR

9 METRES

PA R K E S W AY

N

5 METRES

CANBERRA NATU BLACK MOU

MA

1 METRE

RD

13 METRES

N P AR K

4 METRES

LA

DY D

PA R K E S W AY

B A R R E N J O E Y D R I VE

ROWING JETTY

ACACIA INLET

PAR K

WA Y

RO

ST O

WE

N

DR

IVE

TUG

RD

YARRAMUNDI REACH

LINDSAY PRYOR ARBORETUM

N P AR K

GER

AN O

NG

TARCOOLAKURR RE

LA

DY D

EN MA

NURSERY BAY

B A R R E N J O E Y D R I VE

WARRINA INLET

GER AN

ON GP ARK

GOVERNMENT HOUSE

TARCO ROYAL CANBERRA GOLF COURSE

TUG

LINDSAY PRYOR ARBORETUM

YARRALUMLA NURSERY BAY

DU

GOVERNMENT HOUSE LOOKOUT

BANKS ST

WA Y

SCRIVENER DAM

ORANA BAY

ORA BA

NR

OS SIL

DR

IVE

IVE

DR

GOVERNMENT HOUSE

24

ROYAL CANBERRA GOLF COURSE

WARRINA INLET

COT T E

R R OAD

ROYAL CANBERRA GOLF COURSE

DUDLE

Y STRE

ET

YARRALUMLA

BANKS ST

AN

M EN

D DY

LA

SCRIVENER DAM


E NORTHBOUR NE AVENU

ET CL UN

IES

RO

UE

N AVE

TR E

NE STO

SS S

E LIM

CIVIC

URE PARK UNTAIN

AUSTRALIAN WAR MEMORIAL

IVE

CITY HILL AN

AN Z

WEST LAKE FERRY TERMINAL

L AW S O N C R E S C E N T

OW E

GAR R Y

SPRINGBANK ISLAND

R B A R I N E D R IVE

NT

AVENUE

AC PA RA DE

AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL UNIVERSITY

N

B

FAIRBAIRN

REID

DR

D R I VE

L ADY DE N M

WEST BASIN

PAR

COMMONWEALTH PARK

KE

SW

AY

CO

NS

TIT

NERANG POOL

UT

ION

CAMPBELL

AV E

NU

E

COMMONWE

W ND

CENTRAL BASIN

AY

WE OU

LAKE BURLEY GRIFFIN

ES

DRI

AC

LOTUS BAY

AN

EX

KI

NG

ED

WA

ALEXANDRI

NA DR

KI

NG

GE

OR

AC

AC

E

UE

N AVE

DR

GS

EE

E

ND

RR

RR

NI

TE

TE

KINGS PARK

ME

GE

ASPEN ISLAND RD

I VE

KIN

EAST BASIN

MOLONGLO REACH

B OW

EN D R IV E

YARRALUMLA BARTON

PARLIAMENT HOUSE

BRISBANE

BOWEN PARK

AVENUE

JERRABOMBERRA WETLANDS

UE

AVEN

VE

EA

AA

NU

LO P

BERR

TE

E NU EA VE RN

FORREST

E

OU

AN

C

DEAKIN

PA R

K

AIDE

ADEL

LB

AL

PA

NA

RK

DR

ES

PL

ATTUNGA POINT

YARRALUMLA BAY

RUSSELL

E

F LY

NN

DR

D R IVE

IVE

REE

BLUE GUM POINT

HOSPITAL POINT

RK

EACH

ACTON PENINSULA

PA

SPINNAKER ISLAND

ALTH AVENUE

REGATTA POINT

BLACK MOUNTAIN PENINSULA

KINGSTON


THE CENTRAL NATIONAL AREA LAKE BURLEY GRIFFIN AND FORESHORES

THE CENTRAL NATIONAL AREA Lake Burley Griffin and foreshores LAKE BURLEY GRIFFIN

Here,NATIONAL the central CAPITAL USEareas and facilites are shown, including the principal buildings THEADJOINING CENTRAL NATIONAL AREA CENTRAL AND FORESHORES LAKEarchitecture BURLEY GRIFFIN and offices. NATIONAL MAP AREAS ADMINISTRATIVE AND UTILITY SERVICES

CANBERRA NATUR BLACK MOUN

LAKE BURLEY GRIFFIN

COMMUNITY FACILITIES PA R K E S W AY

NATIONAL CAPITAL USE

NATURE CONSERVATION

ROWING JETTY

ACACIA INLET

ADJOINING CENTRAL OPEN SPACE NATIONAL MAP AREAS

ROWING CLUB

KURRAJONG POINT

N P AR

ADMINISTRATIVE RESTRICTEDAND ACCESS SPACE UTILITY OPEN SERVICES

K RD

YARRAMUNDI REACH

DY D

EN

MA

N

WE

DR

IVE

ST O

CANB

LA

DEVELOPMENT NODE COMMUNITY FACILITIES

B A R R E N J O E Y D R I VE

CLUBS

GP ARK ON

TARCOOLA RE

AN GER

LINDSAY PRYOR ARBORETUM K RD

YARRAMUNDI REACH

RESTRICTED ACCESS OPEN SPACE

N P AR

NURSERY BAY YARRALUMLA NURSERY DR

IVE

ST O

ORANA BAY

DEVELOPMENT NODE

DY D

EN

MA

N

WE

OPEN SPACE

ROWING JETTY

ACACIA INLET

TUG

ARCHITECTURE OFFICES

PAR K

WA Y

NATURE CONSERVATION

LA

SCRIVENER DAM

WA Y NG PAR K AN O

ROYAL CANBERRA GOLF COURSE

TUG GER

ARCHITECTURE OFFICES

YARRALUMLA

BANKS ST

E GOVERNMENT HOUSE B A R R E N J O E Y D R I VWARRINA INLET

CLUBS

LINDSAY PRYOR ARBORETUM D UN

GOVERNMENT HOUSE LOOKOUT

RO

SS IL

DR

IVE

NURSERY BAY YARRALUMLA NURSERY

EN

D DY LA N

MA IVE

DR

ROYAL CANBERRA GOLF COURSE

SCRIVENER DAM

GOVERNMENT HOUSE

WARRINA INLET

COT T E

R R OAD

DUDLE

Y STRE

ET

YARRALUMLA

BANKS ST

26


E NE AVENU NORTHBOUR

EE T TR CL UN IES R

NUE AVE

OS SS

ONE EST

LIM

CIVIC

CITY HILL

IVE

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF AUSTRALIA DR

ZA CP AR AD L AW S O N C R E S C E N T

WEST LAKE

OW E

GAR R Y

AVENUE

E

AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL UNIVERSITY

SPRINGBANK ISLAND

CANBERRA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

R B A R I N E D R IVE

T

FAIRBAIRN

REID

AN

N

D R I VE

L ADY DE N M

WEST BASIN

AN

RE PARK NTAIN

AUSTRALIAN WAR MEMORIAL

PAR

COMMONWEALTH PARK

KE

SW

AY

CO

NS

TIT

NERANG POOL

UT

ION

CAMPBELL

AV E

NU

E

COMMONWE

W WE ND

OU

NN

DR

D R IVE

IVE

REE

AC PL ES RK

DR

PA

NA

KI

DRI AN

EX

NG

ED

ASPEN ISLAND

WA

D NATIONAL SCIENCE ANDRTECHNOLOGY CENTRE TE

ALEXANDRI

RR

NA DR KI

NG

GE

OR

AC

UE

N NATIONAL GALLERY OF AUSTRALIA AVE GS

EE

E

ND

RR

NI

TE

E

ME

GE

AC

KINGS PARK

DR

KIN

I VE

MOLONGLO REACH

B OW

EN D R IV

E

YARRALUMLA BARTON

PARLIAMENT HOUSE

AUSTRALIAN INSTITUTE OF ARCHITECTS BRISBANE

BOWEN PARK

AVENUE

JERRABOMBERRA WETLANDS

UE

AVEN

VE

EA

AA

NU

LO P

BERR

TE

E NU EA VE RN

FORREST

E

OU

AN

C

DEAKIN

PA R

K

AIDE

ADEL

LB

AL

RUSSELL

E

F LY

NATIONAL LIBRARY OF AUSTRALIA

ATTUNGA POINT

YARRALUMLA BAY

AY

LAKE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF AUSTRALIA BURLEY GRIFFIN

ES

BLUE GUM POINT

HOSPITAL POINT

RK

EACH

ACTON PENINSULA

PA

SPINNAKER ISLAND

ALTH AVENUE

REGATTA POINT

BLACK MOUNTAIN PENINSULA

KINGSTON


LAKE BURLEY GRIFFIN ALGAE CONCENTRATIONS LAKE BURLEY GRIFFIN Period: 8 October 2013 - 7 April 2014 ALGAE CONCENTRATIONS *TOAL BLUE-GREEN ALGAE

CONCENTRATION According to the Lake Burley Griffin(CELLS/ML) water qualityWESTON monitoring, PARK WEST different 21974 areas of the lake are analyzed and the algal bloom YARRALUMLA present on theBEACH surface 3440 is quantified. As the diagram shows, Weston park WESTON PARK EAST 2811 has the most polluted water on the west LAKE BURLEY GRIFFIN EAST BASIN 2760 LAKE BURLEY GRIFFIN coast where the algal concentrations are ALGAE CONCENTRATIONS very abundant. LOTUS BAY 2577

CANBERRA NATUR BLACK MOUN PA R K E S W AY

ALGAE CONCENTRATIONS

DR EN M

IVE

LA DY D

EN MA N

DR

B A R R E N J O E Y D R I VE

DU

GOVERNMENT HOUSE LOOKOUT

WA Y

NR

WA Y

PAR K

PAR K

NG AN O

DR IVE

TUG GER

DR

IVE

ROYAL CANBERRA GOLFPRYOR COURSE LINDSAY

WESTO

GER

ARBORETUM

TUG

LINDSAY PRYOR ARBORETUM

WE

NURSERY BAY R R OAD COT T E

DUDLE

NURSERY BAY SCRIVENER DAM

RD

WESTON PARK WEST

TAR

N MA

AN ON G

OS SIL

EN

28

B A R R E N J O E Y D R I VE D DY LA

*source: Australian Government - National Capital Authority: Lake Burley Griffin water quality monitoring - algae and bacteria sample results *source: Australian Government - National Capital Authority: Lake Burley Griffin water quality monitoring - algae and bacteria sample results

N P AR K

YARRALUMLA WESTON PARK WEST

LA DY D

1442

Y K RD

IVE

YARRAMUNDI REACH

ROYAL CANBERRA GOLF COURSE

AN

BLACK MOUNTAIN BEACH 1640 FERRY TERMINAL 1442

K

YARRAMUNDI REACH

WARRINA INLET

GOVERNMENT HOUSE

PAR K

ROWING JETTY

ACACIA INLET

SCRIVENER DAM

CENTRAL BASIN 2076 BLACK MOUNTAIN BEACH 1640

FERRY TERMINAL

K RD

N P AR ST O

WE

DR IVE N MA EN DY D

ACACIA INLET

ST O

2577 2076

ORANA ROWING JETTY BAY

WE

LOTUS BAY CENTRAL BASIN

PAR K E S W NURSERY BAY

N P AR

2760 2577

WESTON PARK EAST

LINDSAY PRYOR ARBORETUM

ST O

EAST BASIN LOTUS BAY

CANBER BLA CANB

TARCOOLA RE

WE

Lake Burley Griffin water quality WESTON PARK EAST 2811monitoring - algae and bacteria sample results EAST BASIN 2760

WESTON PARK WEST

B A R R E N J O E Y D R I VE

BANKS ST

YARRALUMLA BEACH 3440 WESTON*source: PARK EAST 2811 - National Capital Authority: Australian Government

LA

21974 3440 WA Y

WESTON PARK WEST YARRALUMLA BEACH

KURRAJONG POIN

AN ON GP ARK

CONCENTRATION (CELLS/ML) 219741442

ROWING CLUB

YARRAMUNDI REACH

TUG GER

WESTONFERRY PARKTERMINAL WEST

ROWING JETTY

ACACIA INLET

Period: 8 October 2013 - 7 April 2014 CENTRAL BASIN 2076 Period: 8 October 2013 - 7 April 2014 *TOAL BLUE-GREEN ALGAE CONCENTRATION (CELLS/ML) BLACK MOUNTAIN BEACH 1640 *TOAL BLUE-GREEN ALGAE

Y STRE

ET


E NORTHBOUR NE AVENU

T EE TR CL UN IES

NUE AVE

RO SS S

ONE EST

LIM

CIVIC

RE PARK NTAIN

AUSTRALIAN WAR MEMORIAL

IVE

CITY HILL DR

L AW S O N C R E S C E N T

WEST LAKE

OW E GAR R Y

SPRINGBANK ISLAND

R B A R I N E D R IVE

NT

AVENUE

AN ZA CP AR AD E

AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL UNIVERSITY

N

D R I VE

L ADY DE N

FAIRBAIRN

REID

N MA

WEST BASIN

PAR

COMMONWEALTH PARK

KE

SW

AY

CO

NS

TIT

NERANG POOL

UT

ION

CAMPBELL

AV E

NU

E

COMMONWE

W ND

AY

WE OU

REE

AC

PA

NA

RK

DR

ES

PL

ATTUNGA POINT

KI

DRI

NG

EX

ED

WA

ALEXANDRI

NA DR KI

NG

GE

OR

GE

AC

TE

RR

AC

E

UE

N AVE

DR

GS

I VE

KIN

EE

E

ND

RR

CENTRAL BASIN RD

KINGS PARK

NI

TE

ASPEN ISLAND

ME

LOTUS BAY

YARRALUMLA BEACH

MOLONGLO REACH

B OW

EN D R IV

E

YARRALUMLA BARTON

PARLIAMENT HOUSE

BRISBANE

BOWEN PARK

AVENUE

EAST BASIN

UE

VE

EA

AA

NU

LO P

BERR

TE

E NU AV E NE UR

FORREST

E

BO

AN

C

DEAKIN

PA RK

E AVEN

AID ADEL

EL

AL

AN

YARRALUMLA BAY

RUSSELL

E

F LY

NN

DR

D R IVE

IV E

FERRY TERMINAL

ES

BLUE GUM POINT

HOSPITAL POINT

RK

LAKE BURLEY GRIFFIN

EACH

ST

ACTON PENINSULA

SPINNAKER BLACK MOUNTAIN BEACH ISLAND

PA

BLACK MOUNTAIN PENINSULA

ALTH AVENUE

REGATTA POINT

KINGSTON

JERRABOMBERRA WETLANDS


Actual situation

LAKE BURLEY GRIFFIN GOVERNMENT POLICY Actual situation

In the last years, with the introduction of a government policy about the lake pollution, OLD FERTILIZER the phosphates entering the lake have decreased, but still not enough. One of the Actual situation majorPHOSPHATES causes for its pollution are the old fertilizers, which released a high quantity of phosphates into the water stimulating the eutrophication.

CANBERRA NATUR BLACK MOUN PA R K E S W AY ROWING JETTY

ACACIA INLET

ROWING CLUB

DIRTY WATER

KURRAJONG POIN

N P AR K

ST O

DY D

EN

MA

N

WE

DR

IVE

OLD FERTILIZER

RD

YARRAMUNDI REACH

LA

CANBERRA NATURE PARK BLACK MOUNTAIN

B A R R E N J O E Y D R I VE

WA Y

LINDSAY PRYOR ARBORETUM

TUG

DIRTY WATER

TARCOOLA RE

ROWING JETTY

ACACIA INLET

D R I VE

GER

AN ON

GP ARK

PA R K E S W AY

ROWING CLUB

N

PHOSPHATES

GAR R Y

OW E

KURRAJONG POINT

NURSERY BAY

ORANA BAY

EN

MA N

WE

DR

IVE

ST O

N P AR K

RD

YARRAMUNDI REACH

LA DY D

SCRIVENER DAM

BLACK MOUNTAIN PENINSULA

WA Y

BANKS ST

WARRINA INLET

GOVERNMENT HOUSE

B A R R E N J O E Y D R I VE

ON

GP ARK

ROYAL CANBERRA GOLF COURSE

TARCOOLA REACH

GER

AN

YARRALUMLA

TUG

LINDSAY PRYOR ARBORETUM DU

GOVERNMENT HOUSE LOOKOUT

NR

OS SIL NURSERY BAY DR IVE

ORANA BAY

D DY

LA

YARRALUMLA BAY

ROYAL CANBERRA GOLF COURSE

WARRINA INLET BANKS ST

30

IVE DR

GOVERNMENT HOUSE

N MA

EN

SCRIVENER DAM

ROYAL CANBERRA OAD OT T E R R CGOLF COURSE

DUDLE

YARRALUMLA

Y STRE

ET


NORTHBOUR NE AVENU E

EE T CL UN IES R

NUE AVE

TR

ONE EST

OS SS

LIM

CIVIC

RE PARK NTAIN

AUSTRALIAN WAR MEMORIAL

IVE

CITY HILL FAIRBAIRN

REID

DR

AN

E

AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL UNIVERSITY

AVENUE

ZA CP AR AN

WEST LAKE

GAR R Y

OW E

NT

SPRINGBANK ISLAND

R B A R I N E D R IVE

N

B

L AW S O N C R E S C E N T

D R I VE

AD

L ADY DE N M

WEST BASIN

PAR

COMMONWEALTH PARK

KE

SW

AY

CO

NS

TIT

NERANG POOL

UT

ION

CAMPBELL

AV E

NU

E

COMMONWE

W WE ND

AY

LAKE BURLEY GRIFFIN

ES OU

AC PA

NA

RK

DR

ES

PL

ATTUNGA POINT

KI

DRI

NG

EX

ED

WA

ALEXANDRI

NA DR KI

NG

GE

OR

AC

AC

E

UE

N AVE

DR

GS

EE

E

ND

RR

RR

NI

TE

TE

KINGS PARK

ME

GE

ASPEN ISLAND RD

I VE

KIN

MOLONGLO REACH

B OW

EN D R IV

E

YARRALUMLA BARTON

PARLIAMENT HOUSE

BRISBANE

BOWEN PARK

AVENUE

JERRABOMBERRA WETLANDS

UE

AVEN

VE

EA

AA

NU

LO P

BERR

TE

E EA VE NU RN

FORREST

E

OU

AN

C

DEAKIN

PA R

K

AIDE

ADEL

LB

AL

AN

YARRALUMLA BAY

RUSSELL

E

F LY

NN

DR

D R IVE

IV E

REE

BLUE GUM POINT

HOSPITAL POINT

RK

EACH

ACTON PENINSULA

PA

SPINNAKER ISLAND

ALTH AVENUE

REGATTA POINT

BLACK MOUNTAIN PENINSULA

KINGSTON


WARRINA INLET

GOVERNMENT HOUSE

WATER FILTRATION USE OF BIOFERTILIZER

BANKS ST

Future situation

ROYAL CANBERRA GOLF COURSE

LAKE BURLEY GRIFFIN GOVERNMENT POLICY

YARRALUMLA DU

GOVERNMENT HOUSE LOOKOUT

Future situation

NR

OS SIL

DR

IVE

LA D DY

WESTON PARK WEST

EN MA

Due the depth of the lake, the surroundings and the algae concentrations, the choice for theDIRTY designated WATER area for the project falls undoubtedly onto Weston Park. The intention is to use this water full of phosphates for CLEAN WATERcultivation of microalgae, the controlled releasing clean water and replacing the old fertilizers the new biological one. Futurewith situation

N IVE DR

ROYAL CANBERRA GOLF COURSE

COT T E

R R OAD

DUDLE

CANBERRA NATUR BLACK MOUN

Y STRE

ET

PA R K E S W AY ROWING JETTY

ACACIA INLET

ROWING CLUB

NEW FERTILIZER

KURRAJONG POIN

LA

DY D

EN

MA

N

WE

DR

IVE

ST O

N P AR K

RD

YARRAMUNDI REACH

WATER FILTRATION USE OF BIOFERTILIZER

WA Y

B A R R E N J O E Y D R I VE

GP ARK

WESTON PARK WEST GER

AN ON

TARCOOLA RE

TUG

LINDSAY PRYOR ARBORETUM

CANBERRA NATURE PARK ORANA BLACK MOUNTAINBAY

NURSERY BAY

PA R K E S W AY

SCRIVENER DAM

ROWING CLUB

ROYAL CANBERRA GOLF COURSE

IVE

RD

N P AR K

YARRALUMLA WE

DR MA N EN

DU

NR

LA DY D

GOVERNMENT HOUSE LOOKOUT

KURRAJONG POINT

ST O

YARRAMUNDI REACH

OS SIL

DR

IVE

BLACK MOUNTAIN PENINSULA

D DY

LA

B A R R E N J O E Y D R I VE

ROYAL CANBERRA GOLF COURSE

TARCOOLA REACH

32

TUG

GER

AN

ON G

IVE DR

WA Y

N MA

EN

PAR K

N

NEW FERTILIZER

D R I VE

ROWING JETTY

ACACIA INLET

BANKS ST

WARRINA INLET

GOVERNMENT HOUSE

OW E

CLEAN WATER

GAR R Y

DIRTY WATER

LINDSAY PRYOR ARBORETUM COT T E

R R OAD

NURSERY BAY

DUDLE

Y STRE

ET

ORANA BAY YARRALUMLA


NORTHBOUR NE AVENU E

EE T CL UN IES R

NUE AVE

TR

ONE EST

OS SS

LIM

CIVIC

RE PARK NTAIN

AUSTRALIAN WAR MEMORIAL

IVE

CITY HILL FAIRBAIRN

REID

DR

AN

E

AUSTRALIAN NATIONAL UNIVERSITY

AVENUE

ZA CP AR AN

WEST LAKE

GAR R Y

OW E

NT

SPRINGBANK ISLAND

R B A R I N E D R IVE

N

B

L AW S O N C R E S C E N T

D R I VE

AD

L ADY DE N M

WEST BASIN

PAR

COMMONWEALTH PARK

KE

SW

AY

CO

NS

TIT

NERANG POOL

UT

ION

CAMPBELL

AV E

NU

E

COMMONWE

WE ND

AY

LAKE BURLEY GRIFFIN

W OU

AC PA

NA

RK

DR

ES

PL

ATTUNGA POINT

KI

DRI

NG

EX

ED

WA

ALEXANDRI

NA DR KI

NG

GE

OR

AC

AC

E

UE

N AVE

DR

GS

EE

E

ND

RR

RR

NI

TE

TE

KINGS PARK

ME

GE

ASPEN ISLAND RD

I VE

KIN

MOLONGLO REACH

B OW

EN D R IV

E

YARRALUMLA BARTON

PARLIAMENT HOUSE

BRISBANE

BOWEN PARK

AVENUE

JERRABOMBERRA WETLANDS

UE

VE

EA

AA

NU

LO P

BERR

TE

E AV EN U NE

FORREST

E

UR

AN

C

DEAKIN

PA R

K

AVEN

BO

AD

E ELAID

EL

AL

AN

YARRALUMLA BAY

RUSSELL

E

F LY

NN

DR

D R IVE

IV E

REE

BLUE GUM POINT

HOSPITAL POINT

ES

EACH

ACTON PENINSULA

RK

SPINNAKER ISLAND

PA

BLACK MOUNTAIN PENINSULA

ALTH AVENUE

REGATTA POINT

KINGSTON


WESTON PARK Masterplan

Weston Park PARK retains a high historic value, as it is the site of some of the earliest plantations in Canberra’s development, WESTON as well as the site for the experimentation of suitable species for Canberra’s climate and soils. MASTERPLAN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 F

34

Entry gatehouse Lakeside loop path Existing cycle path New round-a-bout, road re-aligned Lake edge weed species removal to enhance views New interpretive, educative centre+car parking Public access productive gardens Hobday’s Cottage + functions pavilion within English Garden Nursery Bay picnic area Improved interface and connection to existing shared-use path with additional parking New lake loop path connection to existing shared-use path through wetland ExistingACT Government Nursery New loop road with car parking Open field event space for community and larger scale events. Covered arbor walkway Wetlands Foreshore events space Foreshore concession Outdoor recreation rooms + gardens, miniature train facility Car parking Upgraded play space with picnic + barbeque facilities, toilets, shelter Children’s play pond + amphitheatre steps with barbeque, shelter + picnic tables Play field / activity field with picnic + barbeque facilities Beach upgraded with amphitheatre steps, picnic + barbeque facilities, toilets, shelter Trails through dryland grass meadows +tree planting Beach and look out with improved car parking, new barbeque, picnic facilities + sitting terrace ExistingSIEV X memorial. Upgraded beach Nursery maintenance access road Ferry


25 5

2 26

24

22

2

2

24

21 20 17

19

23 F

18 23

16 13

13

14

15 24

24

27

5

12 2

7 8

9 F 3

11

10

4

6

3

5

2 1


STRUCTURE Existing Infrastructure EXISTING INFRASTRUCTURE

Pedestrian Circulation PEDESTRIAN CIRCULATION

Vehicular Circulation VEHICULAR CIRCULATION

5 B

1

T

B

B 2 4

3

F

F

T

F

F

6

1 2 3 4 5 6 B T

36

Existing Sealed Road Existing Unsealed Road Pathway Sealed Pathway Unsealed Car Parking Playground Mini Railway and Maze Nursery Beach SIEV X Memorial Entry Gate BBQ Picnic Facilities Toilets

F

Entries Existing Shared-Use Pathway New Primary Pathways New Secundary Pathways Boardwalks Ferry/Kayak Dock F

Entries Public Roads Nursery Maintenance Access Car Parking Overflow Parking Bus Drop Off Round About Ferry/ Watercraft Dock


Short Term Proposals GOVERNMENT SHORT TERM PROPOSALS 1 Water Feature - Pond This facility is currently being upgraded. Consider extending these works to include the broader setting of the facility 2 Water Playground Continue to upgrade the water play spaces to maintain safety and improve play opportunities 3 Toilet Block/Shelter A new toilet block was constructed in 2011 to replace the previous log structure 4 Miniature Railway (existing commercial lease) Retain the miniature railway facility. Work with the lessee to integrate the facility more within its landscape setting including reorganising and sealing the adjacent car park 5 Toilet Block The CMP recommends retention of the toilet block because of its heritage character. An upgrade or replacement would improve access and internal amenities. If removal of the toilet is intended, this would be subject to consultation with asset managers and the Act Heritage Council in the context of the Conservation Management Plan

1 10

2

4

5

6

7 8

6 ‘The Canberra Maze’ Consider the feasibility of reinstating the Maze either as a government capital works project or in partnership with a commercial operator on a lease 7 EXISTING ACT GOVERNMENT NURSERY Retain and upgrade the nursery facilities. In planning the future proposed new interpretive centre, consider joint use of buildings, car parks, toilet facilities and gardens 8 English Garden Retain and upgrade. Retain commercial lease (cafe and functions) at Hobdays Cottage 9 Elm Avenue Manage the mature elm avenue including watering during periods of stress. Prepare a management plan that includes planting of new elms as part of a succession (replacement) 10 Weston Park Avenue: cedar avenue Manage the cedar avenue along Weston Park Road including watering during periods of stress. Replace vertical log barriers with a combination of vehicle control methods including swales, additional planting and signs

37


Solar Insolation and Monthly Mean Temperatures

CANBERRA WEATHER Solar Insolation and MonthlyANALYSIS Mean Temperatures IWEC 2.0 Canberra-Ap [Analysis from page 38 to 45 made by Transsolar - Klimaengineering]

IWEC 2.0 Canberra-Ap

SOLAR250INSOLATION AND MONTHLY MEAN TEMPERATURES 211

200

175 157

150 157

150

20

197

20

159

154

175

15

159

154

121

15

107 97

100 107

80

100 80

50

71

10

121

97

62

10

71

5

62

5

50

Solar 0 Insolation and Monthly Mean Temperatures jan

feb

mar

apr

may

jun

Solar0 Insolation and Monthly Mean Temperatures jan

feb

mar

apr

jul

aug

mayIWEC 2.0 jun Canberra-Ap jul aug

Horizontal Insolation: 1591 kWh/m²/a Yearly Mean Outside Temperature 13.2 °C IWEC Nr. Of Hour With Outside Temperature Over 25 °C 550 h Horizontal Insolation: kWh/m²/a Nr. Of Hour With Outside1591 Humidity Over 11.5 g/Kg 391 h 40 Yearly Mean Outside Temperature 13.2 °C 45 Nr. Of Hour With Outside Temperature Over 25 °C 550 h 35 Nr. Of Hour With Outside Humidity Over 11.5 g/Kg 391 h 40 45

sep sep

oct

nov

oct

nov

dec dec

250

Mean Outside Air Temperature [°C]

2

200

Temperature [°C] Temperature [°C]

200 150

20 25

150

15 20

100

10 15

100

5 10

2

50

0 5 -5 0

38

0

250

Mean Outside Air Temperature [°C] Insolation [kWh/m²]

25 30

-10

0

Insolation [kWh/m²]

2.0 Canberra-Ap

30 35

-10 -5

Mean Outside Air Temperature [°C] Mean Outside Air Temperature [°C]

197

200

Insolation [kWh/m²] Insolation [kWh/m²]

25

211

Insolation Insolation [kWh/m²] [kWh/m²]

250

25

50 jan

feb

mar

apr

may

jun

jul

aug

sep

oct

nov

dec

jan

feb

mar

apr

may

jun

jul

aug

sep

oct

nov

dec

0 0

Insolation [kWh/m²]

Mean Outside Air Temperature [°C]

Minimum Outside Temperature [°C]

Maximum Outside Temperature [°C]

Insolation [kWh/m²]

Mean Outside Air Temperature [°C]

Minimum Outside Temperature [°C]

Maximum Outside Temperature [°C]

3 3


Solar insolation Solar insolation IWEC 2.0 Canberra-Ap IWEC 2.0 Canberra-Ap Horizontal Horizontal

SOLAR INSOLATION

Insolation Insolation [kWh/m²] [kWh/m²]

200 200

150 150

200 200

125 125

80 80 79 79

100 100

85 85

85 85

78 78

68 68

Yield of Photovoltaics 0 0

54 54

42 42 85 85

jan jan

feb feb

mar mar

48 48 0

0 apr apr

38 38

may may

37 37

30 30

32 32

34 34

jun jun

jul jul

60 60

43 43

aug aug

sep sep

PV Yield Canberra-Ap Diffuse Radiation 755 kWh/m²/a

2.0 Ground Reflection IWEC 0 kWh/m²/a Ground Reflection 0 kWh/m²/a

total 1591 kWh/m²/a total 1591 kWh/m²/a

100 100

60 60

59 59

50 50

150 150

98 98

Diffuse Radiation 755 kWh/m²/a

74 74

oct oct

96 96

98 98

nov nov

dec dec

50 50

0 0

Beam Radiation 836 kWh/m²/a Beam Radiation 836 kWh/m²/a

Slope Of Surface: 90 °; Azimuth: 0 ° Solar Radiation In PV Plane: 943 kWh/m²/a Specific System Production: 137 kWh/m²/a Specific System Production: 848 kWh/kWp/a

YIELD OF PHOTOVOLTAICS

4 4

18

124

Yield [kWh/m²/a]

14 12

93

10 8

17 13

6

14

13 10

4 Yield of Photovoltaics

10 8

6

14

15

62

11 31

7

Yield Per Peak kW [kWh/kWp/a]

16

2 0

jan

feb

mar

IWEC apr

PV Yield 2.0 Canberra-Ap may jun

jul

System Yield

aug

sep

oct

nov

0

dec

Slope Of Surface: 90 °; Azimuth: 0 ° Solar Radiation In PV Plane: 943 kWh/m²/a Specific System Production: 137 kWh/m²/a Specific System Production: 848 kWh/kWp/a

18

5

14

124

p/a]

16

39


Outside Air Temperature

OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE

IWEC 2.0 Canberra-Ap

45 40 35

Outdoor Air Temperature [째C]

30 25 20 15 10 5 0 -5

Soiltemperature -10

Jan

Feb

Mrz

Apr

Mai

Jun

Jul

Aug

Soil Temperature IWEC 2.0 Canberra-Ap

Sep

Okt

Nov

Dez

SOIL TEMPERATURE 0.00 0m

2m

5.00

10.00

15.00

20.00

7

25.00

01.jan 01.feb 01.mar

Soil Depth

4m

01.apr 01.may 01.jun

6m

01.jul 01.aug 01.sep 01.oct

8m

01.nov 01.dec T_Mean

10 m Sand dry 12 m

40

17


Statistics of Outside Air Temperature

STATISTICS OF OUTSIDE AIR TEMPERATURE Outdoor Temperature Statistics IWEC 2.0 Canberra-Ap

100%

1200

956

931

80%

934 876 823

Frequency [h]

800

70%

764

60% 619

600

50% 518 470

400

40% 349

344

30% 258

232

200

20%

171

163

124

82

Statistics18of Outside Air Temperature 0

-4

-2

0

2

Cumulative Frequency [% ]

90% 1000

4

6

X-Value Is Upper Limit

8

10

67

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

26

Outdoor Temperature Statistics Outdoor Air Temperature [째C] IWEC 2.0 Canberra-Ap

28

30

32

10% 34

20

6

1

0

34

36

38

40

42

0%

> 40

8

Outdoor Air Temperature [째C]

> 38

1

> 36

7

> 34

27

> 32

61

> 30

128

> 28

252 0

50

100

150

200

250

300

Frequency [h]

9

41


Statistics of Dewpoint Temperature

STATISTICS OF DEWPOINT TEMPERATURE Dew Point Temperature Statistics IWEC 2.0 Canberra-Ap

1400

100% 1273

1123

80%

Frequency [h]

1000

70% 847

811

800

60%

758

50%

616

600

40%

515

30%

400

20%

207

200

162

10%

55 Statistics der Dewpoint Temperature

0

-4

-2

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

16

18

14

0

20

22

0%

Dew Point Statistics DewTemperature Point Temperature [째C] IWEC 2.0 Canberra-Ap

X-Value Is Upper Limit

> 20

10

> 18

Dew Point Temperature [째C]

Cumulative Frequency [% ]

90%

1192

1187

1200

14

> 16

176

> 14

792

> 12

1550

> 10

2397

>8

3589

0

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

4000

Frequency [h]

42

11


Statistics of Absolute Humidity

STATISTICS OF ABSOLUTE HUMIDITY Humidity Ratio Statistics IWEC 2.0 Canberra-Ap

100%

1507 1439

1394

1400

90% 80%

1200

1155

70%

Frequency [h]

1000

60% 808

800

50%

651

40%

582

600

Cumulative Frequency [% ]

1600

514

30%

400

400

20% 200

154

10%

90

Statistics of Absolute Humidity 0

3

4

5

6

56

7

X-Value Is Upper Limit

8

9

10

11

Humidity Ratio Humidity RatioStatistics [g/kg] IWEC 2.0 Canberra-Ap

12

13

14

8

2

0

15

16

17

0%

> 16

12

Humidity Ratio [g/kg]

> 15

2

> 14

10

> 13

66

> 12

220

> 11

620

> 10

1202

0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

Frequency [h]

13

43


Statistics of Wind Velocity

STATISTICS OF WIND VELOCITY

Wind Frequency IWEC 2.0 Canberra-Ap

1600

100% height: 10 m; wind velocity profile exponent: 0.32 90%

1393 1275

80%

1200 70%

Frequency [h]

1000

60%

921

50%

800 693

40%

600 461

481

Cumulative Frequency [% ]

1394

1400

30%

400 20% 200

0

Windrose Windrose

151

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

10% 51

45

9

10

8

9

6

0

1

2

0

11

12

13

14

15

16

Wind Speed [m/s]

X-Value Is Upper Limit

North

WINDROSE

North 338 338

15

0

900 h

0

800 hh 900

23 23

700 hh 800

315

>0.5 m/s 45

600 hh 700

315

>0.5 m/s >3.5 m/s

45

500 hh 600

>3.5 m/s >6.5 m/s

400 hh 500

293

68

300 hh 400

293

>6.5 m/s >9.5 m/s

68

200 hh 300

>9.5 m/s >12.5 m/s

100 hh 200

West West

270

90

0h h 100

270

90

0h

248

113

248

113

225

Available Wind Data: 8760 [h] Available Wind Data: 8760profile [h] exponent: 0.32 height: 10 m; wind velocity height:Value 10 m;Marks wind velocity profile Degree The Middle Ofexponent: The Angle0.32 Interval

44

0%

Degree Value Marks The Middle Of The Angle Interval

135

225

135 203 203

158 180 180

South South

158

East East

>12.5 m/s


Weather Analysis Canberra, Australia

SUN PATH DIAGRAMM Sun Path Diagram

3 February 2015

XT-Diagram IWEC 2.0 Canberra-Ap

XT DIAGRAMM 20

100%

90%

80%

70%

60%

50%

Humidity Ratio [g/kg]

Pressure: 945.5 hPa

40%

15

ASHRAE summer

30%

10 20%

5 10%

ASHRAE winter

0

-5

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Outdoor Air Temperature [째C] 24H/D

Operation Time 0h - 24h

14

45


PROJECT The project deals with the problem of algal blooms in Lake Burley Griffin, an architectural structure acting as big filter for the lake and restoring a balanced ecosystem. It consists in a BIO ARCHITECTURE CENTER, or BAC, composed of several spaces having microalgae as common point. The structure of the algae pervades every element and characterizes the architecture, from the micro to the macro, enhancing shapes, colors and movement. A 8.000 square meter center with open and closed spaces, public and private areas. Located on the west part of Weston Park - on the most polluted coast of the lake, near the Yarralumla Nursery. Bio Architecture Center Bio Architecture Center

Old Area

Old Area Yarralumla Nursery Nursery Administration + Staff Accomodation Hobday's Cottage and English Garden

Yarralumla Nursery New Area Nursery Administration + Staff Accomodation Access street Park English Garden Hobday's CottageCar and Bio Architecture Center

New Area Access street Car Park Bio Architecture Center

47


The Nursery was established in 1914 on the Yarralumla Peninsula, with the purpose of preserving plant and tree species and making them accessible for the citizens. The Nursery is operated by the ACT Government and includes a wholesale section, the largest area, and a retail section, separate from the wholesale section, selling plants to the public. A section of the retail nursery is operated by the ACT Government and its sales include endangered local plants bred by the Nursery.

48


The BAC is located on the end of a straight road, which works as main access for the Yarralumla Nursery. Placed half on the ground and half on the water, it is reachable both via water, with kayak and small boats, and by cars. A car park fills an empty space in front of the Nursery and can be used by guests of the BAC and of the Nursery as well, respecting point number 7 of the short therm proposals for Weston Park [page 37]. This building complex has the goal to show how the microalgae work, how they could translate into architecture and what their benefits are, with the intention to raise awareness on an important environmental aspect. Information, marketing, culinary art, science and amusement are merged in a compact space. The BAC consists of 5 buildings, connected by a horizontal platform. The buildings are organized and placed with regard to their accessibility: with both private areas, aimed to develop the microalgae subject, and public areas, accessibile for the citizens.

49


BUILDING FUNCTIONS Biological Market

An access connects the Market with the Nursery creating a strict relation, so that the government can sell the plants directly in the BAC. Biological products produced from the microalgae are sold as well, creating a full bio-green market.

Biological Restaurant

In this particular restaurant microalgae products are served together with biological food of the surroundings. Located on the water and reachable with kayak, it offers the guests a likable view onto the magnificient Government House and the lake.

50


Expo-Event Area

A flexible location for public events, art expositions and architecture exhibitions. Here, everything about microalgae processes is explained for the guests, with help of installations, art pieces and movies.

Laboratory

All the microalgae of the BAC are collected in the Laboratory, under the supervision of biologists. Stored in tanks, water and biomass are then separated with biological flocculants, and bio-products are produced. Clean water is released into the lake from this research center, where scientists improve their knowledge about application of microalgae in architecture.

Architecture Studio

Connected with the Laboratory, the architects develop projects dealing with microalgae and biotechnological processes. Architecture hence improves the cooperation between architects and biologists, working in a common space and experimenting new types of architectural systems.

51


Algal Art

Dangerous cyanobacteria of the lake are collected here and used as a dynamic piece of art. With remote-controlled boats everybody can make his own artwork, creating dynamic flows on the water. The movement of the boat, the waterflow and the dynamic lines move the algae on the surface, creating harmonious pictures. A glas façade allows the architects to look at this basin, so that, during their work, they can get inspired by the shapes of the “Algal Art”.

Panoramic Platform

This 7 meter high platform, located above Algal Art and connected with a ramp, allows the guests to look at the dynamic art pieces, with panoramic views on the Black Mountain and on the lake area.

52


PROJECT DEVELOPMENT After choosing the areas and defining their functions, I started to give shape to the BAC following a layer structure. These bidimensional layers take their form from different structures of the microalgae, characterizing the project with the natural microscopic shape of microalgae. Every layer comes from a different kind of microalgae, and by overlapping, create a unique body. Different areas and functions merge, creating a floating structure with a very small impact on the nature in which it is located. Reachable by car, a parking area surrounded by nature offers car parks for both Bio-Architecture Center and Yarrallumla Nursery. In addition, a private park for the employees of Laboratory and Architecture Studio allows the direct access to the private buildings. From here trucks can load and distribute bioproducts. The BAC is connected to the lake through small docks allowing the direct access from water for kayaks and small boats.

54


BUILDING RELATIONS ORGANIZATION

private park

LABORATORY

park

Phylum Chlorophyta

ARCHITECTURE STUDIO

EVENT - EXPO

ALGAL ART PLATFORM BIO RESTAURANT

main entry

BIO MARKET

Public

yarralumla nursery

Semi-Public Private

Organization

BUILDING RELATIONS

55


BUILDING LOCATIONS CENTRAL POINTS

LABORATORY

Haematococcus Pluvialis

ARCHITECTURE STUDIO EVENT - EXPO

ALGAL ART PLATFORM

BIO RESTAURANT

BIO MARKET

Central points

56

BUILDING’S LOCATION


INTERCONNECTIONS STREAM LINES

Stigeoclonium

Stream lines

INTERCONNECTIONS

57


BUILDING AREA BORDER LINES

Nannochloropsis Oculata

Border lines

58

BUILDING’S AREA


WALKING PLATFORM HEXAGONAL ELEMENTS

Prochlorococcus

Hexagonal elements

WALK PLATFORM

59


COVERING PANELS BUILDING ROOFS

Uva Lactuca

Building panels

60

COVERING PANELS


CANOPY

OPEN SPACE COVERING STRUCTURE

Neochloris Oleabundans

Covering structure

CANOPY

61


ALGAE PALMS OPEN SPACE ELEMENTS

Chlorella

Open space elements

62

ALGAE PALMS


BIO ARCHITECTURE CENTER MASTERPLAN

Botyrococcus Braunii

Masterplan

BIO ARCH. CENTER

63


EXPLOSION After defining the bidimensional form, gentle and smooth curves are introduced in three dimensions, giving the entire structure a sinuos movement, like the floating of algae on water. These buildings are held together by a canopy, an alluminium framed structure which covers the outdoor spaces inbetween the buildings. A) Canopy B) Algae palms C) Buildings

D) Walking platform

64

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Bio Market Bio Restaurant Expo-Event Area Bio Architecture Studio Laboratory Panoramic Platform Algal Art


A)

B)

5

4

C)

6

3 7

1

2

D)

65


EXPLOSION BUILDING Bracing system Panels main structure

Bracing system

Panels main str

Microalgae

Etfe Panels

Walls

Walls

Glass faรงade

Glas faรงade

Support beams

Support beams

Furniture Pavement

Objects

Pavement

Support colum

Support columns

66


COVERING PANELS Microalgae are contained in ETFE panels, on the roof of the buildings.

With sunny weather the microalgae grow faster due photosinthesis, creating a darker surface and protecting the inside from heavy sunbeams. This creates a natural shading system.

With cloudy weather the microalgae grow slower, allowing more light to pass through the panels, so that the indoor illumination remains balanced in every situation.

SHADING SYSTEM SHADING SYSTEM

With sunny weather the microalgaecreating grow faster With grow cloudyslower, weathea With sunny weather the microalgae grow faster due photosinthesis, a due photosinthesis, creating Withacloudy weather the microalgae and protecting from a the panels, so that the indoor throughillumination the panels, darker surface and protecting thedarker insidesurface from heavy sunbeams.the Thisinside creates a heavy sunbeams. This creates through natural shading system. situation. natural shading system. situation. Biomass production increases Biomass production increases Biom

SHADING SHADING SYSTEM SYSTEM With sunny weather Withthe sunny microalgae weathergrow the microalgae faster due photosinthesis, grow faster duecreating photosinthesis, a creating a darker surface and darker protecting surfacethe andinside protecting from heavy the inside sunbeams. from heavy This creates sunbeams. a This creates a natural shading system. natural shading system. Biomass production Biomass increases production increases

Biomass production increases

With cloudy weather With the cloudy microalgae weather grow the microalgae slower, allowding grow slower, more allowding light pass more light pass

through the panels, through so that the the panels, indoor so illumination that the indoor remain illumination balancedremain in every balanced in every Biomass production decreases situation. situation. Biomass production Biomass decreases production decreases

67


ALGAE PALMS A reinterpretations of Canberra’s vegetation, recreating artificial dynamic palms full of microalgae. These algae palms protect the outdoor spaces from the heavy sunbeams, offering a natural shadow system.

Etfe panels containing microalgae

Support structure Pipes carrying water and microalgae

Laboratory

68


71


MICROALGAE SPECIES Every microalgae species has its own properties and colors. There are microalgae which contain more proteins and vitamins and can be used as food supplement; others with an high oil percentage, which is extracted and used as biofuel. Based on the microalgae which have characterized the shape of each layer of the BAC, the choice of microalgae in the panels of every building will be different: For example the microalgae used in the experiment showed at page 16, Nannochloropsis Oculata, contain proteins and oil. Through their extraction, is it possible to obtain food supplements, energetic food for fish and bio diesel. As a consequence, this kind of microalgae will be cultivated in the restaurants panels, where products such as food supplements are needed. Red microalgae, as Dunalelia Salina, are instead used in the Expo-Event area, in which cosmetics and natural coloring can be used for installations. A list with microalgae types, contents and products show the possible application on the buildings.

72


Microalgae Type Microalgae Type

Contents Contents

Products Products

Building Building

Nannochloropsis Nannochloropsis Oculata Oculata

Proteins Proteins Oil Oil

Energetic food for fish Energetic food for fish Food supplement FoodBiosupplement diesel Bio diesel

Restaurant Restaurant

Neochloris Oleabundans Neochloris Oleabundans

Lipid Lipid

Biofuel Biofuel

Palms Palms

Prochlorococcus Prochlorococcus (cyanobacteria) (cyanobacteria)

Oil Oil

Bio diesel Bio diesel Ethanol Ethanol Gasoline Gasoline Natural food coloring Natural food coloring

Laboratory Laboratory Algaenerator Algaenerator

Chlorella Chlorella (spirulina) (spirulina)

Proteins Vitamins Proteins Vitamins

Food supplement Food supplement

Bio Market Bio Market

Uva Lactuca Uva Lactuca

Proteins Proteins

Food supplement FoodFertilizer supplement Fertilizer

Bio Market Bio Market

Botyrococcus Braunii Botyrococcus Braunii

Oil Oil

Bio diesel Bio diesel Biofuel Biofuel Kerosene Kerosene

Architecture Architecture Studio Studio

Haematococcus Pluvialis Haematococcus Pluvialis

Astaxanthin Astaxanthin

Cosmetics Cosmetics Food supplement Food supplement

Event -Expo Event -Expo

Dunaliella Salina Dunaliella Salina

Astaxanthin Carotene Astaxanthin Carotene

Food supplement Food supplement Natural food coloring Natural food coloring

Event -Expo Event -Expo

Structure Structure

73


ECOSYSTEM LIFE CYCLE Nutrients [Phosphorus] released from fertilizers and energy from the sun trigger algal blooms . The Algae consume all the resources and begin to die . Bacteria begin to decompose the dead algae, a 0 0 process that consumes oxygen and releases carbon dyoxide .0 0 Oxygen decreases until hypoxic and anoxic conditions occur 0 . Thus, the waters are not re-oxygenated and cause fish 0and plants to die producing dangerous toxins also for humans.

02

02

2

2

2

2

2

2

02 C02

02

Filtered Water

Water with excess of phosphates

02 C02

74

02 C02

02 C0 022

02

02

No CO2 Emi

Filtered Water Filtered Water

No CO2 Emis

00 C0 2 2 02C0

Water with excess of phosphates 2 2 Filtered Wate2 Water with excess of phosphates

02 C02

02 C002 2

02 C02 02

0

Wate

Balanced eco


02 02 02

Dirty water is used from the buidings to feed their microalgae. They eat the phosphorus and release clean water , acting as a filter for the lake, reducing the nutrients brought by bad fertilizers. From the biomass, plenty of biological products are produced, like bio-fertilizer, which replaces the old fertilizer avoiding the release of too much phosporus into the lake and restoring a balanced ecosytem.

Fertilizer Animal feed Glycerine Food supplies Medicines Cosmetics Bio-oil Biodiesel Biohydrogen Bioethanol Bio fuel Biogas Electricity

No CO2 Emission

Filtered Water Water with excess of phosphates

No CO2 Emis Filtered Water Filtered Water

0 C02

Water with excess of phosphates 2 Water with excess of phosphates

02 C02

02 02 C0 2 02 Balanced ecosystem restored

0

Balanced eco 75


FILTERING PROCESS

1) Lake water fills the panels on the buildings

2) Microalgae grow and change their colors

3) Microalgae are brought to the laboratory

76


4) Biomass and clean water are separated and bio - products are produced

5) Clean water is released in the lake

6) Algaenerator reproduce the same process in different points of the lake

77


POTENTIAL EXTRACTION

BIOBIO OILOIL BIO OIL

BIOMASS BIOMASS BIOMASS

Assumption • Algae biomass concentration = 0.25 kg/m3 (g/L) Assumption Assumption • Lipid content = 30% • Algae biomass = 0.25 kg/m3 (g/L) • Algae biomass=concentration concentration • Lipid Lipid content density 920 kg/m3 = 0.25 kg/m3 (g/L) • = 30% • Lipid content = 30% • • Lipid Lipid density density = = 920 920 kg/m3 kg/m3

4 m³ of water produces 1 kg of biomass kg of biomass produces 1 of liters of biooil 434 m³ m³ of of water water produces produces 11 kg kg of biomass biomass 33 kg kg of of biomass biomass produces produces 11 liters liters of of biooil biooil

Building

Area m²

Liters water

Liters per year

Biomass kg per year

Building Building Agaenerator (16 m²x 7) Bio shop (16 m²x 7) Agaenerator Agaenerator Bio shop restaurant(16 m²x 7) Bio Bio shop Expo-Event Bio restaurant Bio restaurant Laboratory Expo-Event Expo-Event Architecture office Laboratory Laboratory Palms Architecture Architecture office office Palms Palms

Area m² Area m² 112 m² 1.350 m² 112 112 m² m² 660 m² 1.350 m² 1.350 m² 1.020 m² 660 m² 660 m² 1.230 m² 1.020 1.020m²m² m² 745 1.230 m² 1.230 m² 450 m² 745 745 m² m² 450 450 m² m²

Liters water Liters 16.800water liters 202.500 liters 16.800 16.800 liters liters 99.000 liters 202.500 liters 202.500 liters 153.000liters liters 99.000 99.000 liters 184.500 liters 153.000 153.000 liters liters 111.750 liters 184.500 liters 184.500liters liters 45.000 111.750 111.750 liters liters 45.000 45.000 liters liters

Liters per Liters per year year 817.600 lt x yr 14.782.500 lt x yr 817.600 817.600 ltltlt xxx yr yr 2.574.000 yr 14.782.500 ltlt xx yr 14.782.500 yr 3.978.000 ltlt xx yr yr 2.574.000 2.574.000 ltlt xx yr 4.797.000 yr 3.978.000 3.978.000 ltltlt xxx yr yr 2.905.000 yr 4.797.000 lt x yr 4.797.000 ltlt xx yr yr 1.642.500 2.905.000 2.905.000 ltlt xx yr yr 1.642.500 1.642.500 ltltlt xxx yr yr 57.264.850 yr

Biomass kg per year Biomass 109,2 kg kg per year 1.310,25 kg 109,2 kg 109,2 kg 643,5 kg 1.310,25 kg 1.310,25 994,5 kg kg kg 643,5 643,5 kg kg 1.199,25 994,5 994,5 kg kg 726,5 kg 1.199,25 kg 1.199,25 kg 410,6 kg 726,5 kg 726,5 kg 410,6 410,6 kg kgkg x year 14.316

57.264.850 57.264.850 ltlt xx yr yr

14.316 14.316 kg kg xx year year

Biomass kg per year

Liters of biofuel per year

Biomass kg kg per per year year Agaenerator (16 m²x 7) Biomass 204,4 kg Bio market (16 m²x 7) 204,4 3.695,6 kg kg Agaenerator Agaenerator (16 m²x 7) 1.806,8 204,4 kg Bio restaurant kg Bio market 3.695,6 Bio market 3.695,6 kg kg Expo-Event 2.792,3 kg Bio restaurant 1.806,8 kg Bio restaurant 1.806,8 kg Laboratory 3.367,1 kg kg Expo-Event 2.792,3 Expo-Event 2.792,3 kg Architecture office 2.039,4 kg Laboratory 3.367,1 Laboratory 3.367,1 kg kg Palms 410,6 kg Architecture office 2.039,4 Architecture office 2.039,4 kg kg Palms 410,6 Palms 410,6 kg kg

Liters of biofuel Liters biofuel per per year year 68,1 of liters 1.231,9 liters liters 68,1 68,1 liters liters 602,3 1.231,9 1.231,9 liters liters 930,8 liters 602,3 liters 602,3 liters 1.122,4 liters liters 930,8 930,8 liters 679,8 liters 1.122,4 1.122,4 liters liters 136,9 liters 679,8 679,8 liters liters 136,9 136,9 lt liters liters 4.772 x year 4.772 4.772 ltlt xx year year

78

BIOMASS BIOMASS BIOMASS 39 kg x day 39 39 kg kg xx day day

BIO OIL BIO BIO OIL OIL 13 lt x day 13 13 ltlt xx day day


EXTRACTION PROCESS Biomass is stored and dried in tanks Microalgae arrive from the panels

Water and biomass are separated through a spin cycle with biological flocculants

Spin cycle

Clean water flows into the lake

79


LAKE WATER COOLING SYSTEM Cool, deep lakewater is pumped through a pipeline to a cooling station. The cooling station transfer the water’s coldness to water circulatng in a closed pipeline system that provides ait conditioning service to the buildings. Warmed water is returned to the lake through a diffuser at a much shallower depth where the temperature equals the return water temperature. Benefits: Uses 90% less electricity Reduces air pollution Reduces CO2 emissions

Bio Architecture Center Cooling station

Warmed water return Deep cold water intake

80

Cloosed loop chilled water distribution


EVAPORATIVE COOLING SYSTEM In addition to the cooling station, evaporative cooling systems are introduced to improve the cool air during the hottest sommer days. The hot and dry air passes through an evaporative pad where is cooled by the evaporation of water and brought into the indoor areas by a blower.

Evaporative pad

Hot outdoor air

Cool fresh air

Blower

Water supply

Recirculation pump

81


THERMAL REGULATION Cool air arriving from the cooling station is released from the middle of the rooms and keeps a comfortable temperature in the buildings. The microalgae on the roof absorb the sunbeams, reducing the long wave radiation and their impact on the indoor areas. Cold air remains in the lower area, while hot air rises to the top. This creates a balance between hot and cold air and guarantees a fresh environment for the people and a convenient climate for the microalgae.

Microalgae absorb sunlight 30째

30째

Reduced long wave radiation 20째

20째

Cool air

82


ELECTRICAL/HEATING SYSTEM Waste biomass is burned in a combustion chamber. The hot combustion gases heat the feedwater and this produced high-pressure steam, which activates a condensation steam turbine conncected to a generator, producing electricity. The residual heat is used as heating for the buildings.* The CO2 produced by the combustion chamber is directly brought to the panels, feeding the microalgae and avoiding pollution. *the same process is used in the Eco Center in Bolzano [sewage treatment system]: burning the waste biomass provides for the whole building complex 60% of electrical energy and 100% of heating during the winter season.

CO2

Residual heat Heating High-pressure steam Combustion chamber

Condensation steam turbine/ Generator

Electricity

83


SPRINKLER SYSTEM A sprinkler system located on the roof prevents the microalgae’s temperature from reaching ecxessively high levels. The system is activated when the temperature is too hot, refreshing the panels using water from the lake.

Lake water

Sprinkler system

Lake water

84


SHADING SYSTEM Thin sheets located on the canopy create a sun shading, allowing also for adequate ventilation. To reduce the impact of the hot sunbeams on the buildings, the Etfe panels are reinforced in the lower part with a “low-e� laminate, which reflects the solar heat. In addition, it is possible to close the empty panels through a curtain system on the hottest days.

Solar reflection Curtain Low-e laminate

Canopy sun shading

Open curtain

Open curtain

Closed curtain

85


ALGAENERATOR Floating objects which clean the lake and can be moved in different areas. Metallic structures placed on the lake by the government are in constant movement on the lake surface, avoiding algal blooms. Algaenerator will substitute the old structure and creating a constant movement, they will produce biomass and clean the water.

ALGAENERATOR

A metallic structure supports the panels Fotovoltaic panels produce energy for the algaenerator

Microalgae grow and produce biomass in ETFE panels At night, a lamp illuminates the algaenerator from the inside, helping the photosynthesis

Water is carried to the panels through small pipes

A spin cycle separates biomass from water Biomass is stored in tank (850 liters - 42 days autonomy)

Air tube allows the structure to float on water Dirty water taken from the lake feeds the microalgae

86

Clean Water is released The algaenerator is remote controlled and can move in different places, returning to the lab when the tank is full


ACTUAL SYSTEM

FUTURE SYSTEM

ALGAENERATOR LOCATIONS

87


CLEANING SIMULATION Bio Architecture Center Algaenerator

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

88


Year 4

Year 5

Year 6

89


SECTION EXPLICATIVE SECTION 4-layer transparent ETFE panels contain air

4-layer transparent ETFE panels contain microalgae

Ma sup

Wall contains structural and technical parts

Steel beams support the structure

Twaron fiber - faรงade panels Outdoor platform

Pipes carry lake water to the panels

Columns support


ain structure with bracing system pports the panels

Microalgae grow in the panels absorbing sunbeams, regulating naturally the light intensity into the building Alu sheet sun shading system Canopy structure is fixed on steel support

Biomass is collected and carried through pipe to the laboratory the building

91


ROOFING SYSTEM Lake water is pumped on the external panels, where, thanks to gravity, it flows to the center of the building, reaching underground pipes which bring the microalgae to the laboratory.

WATER SYSTEM Lake water is pumped on the top of the building

Panels are connected in a row to facilitate the substitution of broken parts

Water flows through pipes in the panels bringing fresh nutrients for the microalgae

Gravity makes the water full of biomass flow to the lowest point of the structure, where it is carried to the laboratory for the separation

92

24h

process


CONSTRUCTION DETAIL Microalgae are cultivated in 4-layer ETFE cushions, internal laminated with a low-e coating. These are interconnected by pipes, where air and water flow constantly.

DETAIL STRUCTURE 0.20

0.30 0.08 0.20

Steel beams support the panels

0.02

Structure is stabilized by tension cables

Air is pumped through pipes in the panels

Fixing system with aluminium cover strip 4-layer ETFE cushions contain the microalgae

Pipes carry lake water and microalgae continuosly from panel to panel

Heat reflecting low-e coating

93


Bio Market 1 Bio Restaurant 2 Expo - Event Area 3 Laboratory 4 Architecture Studio 5 Algal Art 6 Panoramic Platform 7 Palms 8 Canopy 9 Photovoltaics 10 Docks 11 Parking 12 Private parking 13 Algaenerator 14 Yarralumla Nursery 15

13

4

14 11 10 3

5 7

6

9 8

2

1

N

TOP VIEW 0

5

12,5

25

50


12

15

95


Cl ea nW ate r

A

Technical

Tank Biomass

Storage

WC

Laboratory Area: 1.100 m² +0,30m

WC

Architecture Studio Area: 677 m² +0,30m

+/- 0,00m


97

N

0 1 2,5

5

10

GROUND FLOOR PLAN

-0,30 m

Kitchen

WC

Bio Restaurant Area: 661 m² +0,30 m

Storage

Expo/Event Area Area: 976 m² +0,30 m

+/- 0,00m

+1,50m

-0,60 m

Bio Market Area: 1.167 m² +0,30 m

A

+0,30m


A

Laboratory Area: 650 m² +3,50m Architecture Studio Area: 910 m² +3,50m

+/- 0,00m


N

0 1 2,5

5

1st FLOOR PLAN

-0,30 m

10

+0,30 m

+0,30 m

+/- 0,00m

-0,60 m

+0,30 m

+4,50m

A

+0,30m


+7,30 +6,50

+1,20 +0,30

+/-0,00

-0,60

SECTION A-A 0 1

2,5

5

10


+8,30

+3,80

+1,10 +0,30 -0,60


SECTIONS

4 3

4

2

3

1

2 1

1-1

2-2

3-3

4-4 102


7

6

5

5

6

7

5-5

6-6

7-7

103


CONSIDERATIONS Architecture includes many different aspects: spatial, temporal, conceptual, perceptual, imaginative, acoustic, visual, tactile and olfactory. This project, as earlier mentioned, is not limited to exist by itself, but as a support for the environment and inspiration to repair all damage caused by man. A building that does not fulfil the mere purpose of being inhabited and trampled on, but that has, as main target, the “living� like a biological creature, like an entity in constant motion. The architectural experience acquires new meanings, becomes changeable, dynamic, characterized by a fluidity of colors that change and intensify, giving vitality to an inanimate body. This feature makes sure that man can enjoy different perceptions and experiences that surround him completely, because the body in which it lives continuously changes, breathes, lives. At the same time, this architecture adapts to the environment and to the different climatic conditions through a continuous process of regeneration of the elements that compose it, creating healthy products for nature and for man. The layers which compose the bio architecture center merge into one single body, creating waving pavements, dancing roofing, floating spaces... In a present in which pollution has become a crucial issue and resources are slowly but relentlessly being depleted, this architectural interpretation wants to open new scenarios, offering a new sensitivity to the concept of

104


architecture in itself, considering solutions to global problems, which are normally not even taken into account in the design. To experiment new solutions and revolutionize the present scheme, it has been decided to merge several bodies, materials and concepts, creating hybrids capable of giving new keys of interpretation to everything. These solutions do not always turn out to be useful and effective, but they can teach us something unexplored, can offer new perspectives and inspiration for future projects.

105


107


109


111


113


115


117


119


121


123


125


127


129


131


133


135


137


139


141


SOURCES MICROALGAE: A place in the sun - Algae is the crop of the future, according to researchers in Geel - Starckx, Senne ALGAE TO BIOFUEL: http://www.vsjf.org/assets/files/VBI/PEACEUSA_Algae%20and%20Energy_Presentation.pdf ALGAL BIOMASS: http://sim.confex.com/sim/36th/webprogram/Paper27034.html ALGAL BLOOM, REDUCTION OF NUTRIENTS: http://www.glerl.noaa.gov/res/Centers/HumanHealth/docs/wisconsin_workshop/ harrahy_hab_wis.pdf LAKE BURLEY GRIFFIN WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT: http://www.nationalcapital.gov.au/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=2187&Itemid=852&limitstart=6 http://www.nationalcapital.gov.au/WaterQuality/index.php/en/ LAKE BURLEY GRIFFIN SEDIMENT PHOSPHORUS: http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-642-48739-2_12#page-1 LAKE BURLEY GRIFFIN CLEANING SYSTEM: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jMGbX80IzxA LAKE BURLEY GRIFFIN CLOSED BEACHES: http://www.mattapoisett.net/Pages/MattapoisettMA_CommNews/BeachclosingsFAQ.pdf CANBERRA WATER PROJECTS: http://www.canberratimes.com.au/act-news/green-light-given-for-canberra-water-projects20140225-33g3n.html WESTON PARK: http://www.tams.act.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/573533/Weston-Park-Master-Plan-Canberra.pdf YARRALUMLA NURSERY: http://web.archive.org/web/20041029074652/http://www.act.nationaltrust.org.au/places/yarra-nurs. html COOLING SYSTEM: http://archives.starbulletin.com/2004/12/02/business/story2.html http://coolingzone.com/blog/2014/02/18/pull-35-megawatts-grid-toronto-shuts-ac-switches-deep-lake-water-cooling-city/ ELECTRICAL/HEATING SYSTEM: http://www.biomassinnovation.ca/CombinedHeatAndPower.html FAÇADE PANELS: http://www.dexigner.com/news/23488

142


IMAGES FRONT PAGE: http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-DLHNdSLzUuw/UsKrM2ODfcI/AAAAAAAAAYE/_brfFCy7K5A/s1600/0467dfaef99495961c8e9401409b1617.jpg PAGE 2: http://media.search.lt/GetFile.php?OID=192779&filetype=4 PAGE 4: http://static.businessinsider.com/image/5154adb7eab8ea230900000a/image.jpg PAGE 5: http://metrouk2.files.wordpress.com/2013/07/ay114520221a-fisherman-wade.jpg PAGE 6: http://ecospiritlife.com.au/wp-content/uploads/Algal-Bloom-in-Lake-Burley-Griffin-600x320.jpg PAGE 7: http://blog.midwestlakes.org/algae%20006.jpg PAGE 8: http://www.greenunivers.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/IMG_2896.jpg PAGE 9: http://www.dailyalternative.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/microalgae.jpg PAGE 10: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microphyte#mediaviewer/File:CSIRO_ScienceImage_2970_Collection_of_microalgae_cultures.jpg PAGE 11: http://www.bioplantec.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/bioreattori11.jpg; http://blog.is-arquitectura.es/blog/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/pantallas-microalgas-BIQ_House.jpg PAGE 20: http://evansnews.files.wordpress.com/2010/11/earth-australia.jpg PAGE 21,22: google earth images PAGE 23: http://kayakcameraman.files.wordpress.com/2013/03/img_56492.jpg PAGE 46: http://janinemikell.com/2.0/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/2014-07-30-09.34.10.jpg PAGE 48: http://www.abc.net.au/news/image/4830138-3x2-940x627.jpg PAGE 50: http://www.blackfootnativeplants.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/plants-ready-for-market-5.5.11-021.jpg; http://www.ericshealthfood.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/organic_food_brooklyn.jpg PAGE 51: http://ulfablabla.free.fr/images/2011/02%20-%20version%20blog/la%20vie/27/01.jpg PAGE 52: http://images-2.domain.com.au/2012/05/31/3339206/JD-algae-gallery-20120531173631891348-600x400.jpg PAGE 53: http://static.panoramio.com/photos/large/20481474.jpg PAGE 69: http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-wp5rk4p2IU0/TeRVYmT4jQI/AAAAAAAACAc/0P83XpY3USU/s1600/margaret-timpson-parl-palms.jpg PAGE 79: http://2ndgreenrevolution.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/09/OriginOil-algae.jpg PAGE 105: http://architexture.ie/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/image-1.jpg All the other images are property of Andrea Dal Negro

143


144


AKNOWLEDGMENTS First of all, i want to thank my family, Alberto und Fabiola, who always supported me patiently during this year. Thanks to Michela, who gave me really helpful suggestions and the strength to go further with her creativity and artistry. A big thanks goes to Dr. Meri Polis of Eco Center of Bolzano, a very kind and helpful person. She showed me the water purification processes and provided me with several biologic products for biomass extraction. Thanks to Arch. Volker Flamm and to Stefan Holst of Transsolar Klimaengineering for helping me in the improving of the energetical systems with exhaustive and efficient analysis. A big thank-you goes to Luca Graiff of Book and Arts for helping me in the layouting with professional and accurate advices and for the whole rebinding process. Special thanks also to: Claudio Bassot Sergio Bassot Emanuele Colombi Thomas Ratschiller Central Pharmacy Bolzano

145


EIDESSTATTLICHE ERKLÄRUNG Ich erkläre hiermit an Eides statt durch meine eigenhändige Unterschrift, dass ich die vorliegende Arbeit selbständig verfasst und keine anderen als die angegebenen Quellen und Hilfsmittel verwendet habe. Alle Stellen, die wörtlich oder inhaltlich den angegebenen Quellen entnommen wurden, sind als solche kenntlich gemacht. Die vorliegende Arbeit wurde bisher in gleicher oder ähnlicher Form noch nicht als Magister-/Master-/Diplomarbeit/Dissertation eingereicht.

Datum

Unterschrift


Profile for Andrea Dal Negro

Bio Architecture Center  

Graduation Thesis 2015

Bio Architecture Center  

Graduation Thesis 2015

Advertisement