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May 25, 2016 VOL. 67 NO. 6 ISSN 1250-1425

Joules Magazine

ElectriCITY Geothermal Energy issue

NEW discoveries: energy from our core A look inside: WHERe in the world is geothermal energy? Pg 9 How can we use geothermal energy? Pg 5 By: Maddie Pieropan, Carlos Sanchez, and Andrea perez ternet


TABLE OF CONTENTS Page 1: What is Geothermal Energy? Page 2: What is Geothermal Energy? Page 3: Solar Power Advertisement Page 4: Geothermal Energy: Fun Facts Page 5: Geothermal Energy and How is it Used? Page 6: Geothermal Energy and How is it Used? Page 7: Solar Power Pizza Box Advertisement Page 8: Energy Conservation Explained Page 9: Where in the World is Geothermal Energy? Page 10: Where in the World is Geothermal Energy?

Page 11: Numbers in the News Page 12: Nonrenewable or Renewable Page 13: Wind Turbine Sale Advertisement Page 14: Graphs Page 15: Coloring Page Page 16: Maze Game Page 17: Bibliography


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What is Geothermal Energy? Geothermal energy is the heat from earth. The word Geo ultimately means earth, and then thermo means heat creating the word geothermal. There is heat all over Earth, which can be turned into energy in various ways. There is heat in a numerous amount of places on Earth, as it is known fro just simply being thermal energy generated and stored on Earth. Earth’s ability to transfer and store energy is used as a source for heating and cooling our homes which is where geothermal energy takes place. There are many ways of describing how geothermal energy happens. A big motif to have in mind is the Law of Conservation of Energy which is that energy is neither created nor destroyed it can only change its form. How does Geothermal energy happen? First of all Earth absorbs all the sun’s radiation, some gets reflected by the clouds and sent to the atmosphere. 40- 45 % of the sun’s radiation is stored in the Earth.

This picture shows the geothermal energy inside Earth as it is heat generated from Earth’s core. 3

By: Carlos Sanchez


With heat being stored and regenerated inside of Earth, scientists can use this renewable energy to give heat and power. Currently the most common way of capturing this renewable energy from geothermal sources is to according to (ucsusa.org, retrieved 2016) tap into naturally occurring "hydrothermal convection" systems. This was where cooler water apparently flowed into Earth's crust when it’s heated up, and then rises to the surface. Then they capture the steam and afterwards use it to drive electric generators.

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Geothermal energy is not popular at the moment, but steadily it is increasing with popularity. One great advantage that Geothermal Energy has is that it does a somewhat damage to Earth compared to other energies. As time has passed scientists have found more hotspots to collect this heat from the Earth in order to collect energy to power communities. More work has been going on, to spot better Geothermal locations and to even find the way of creating new technology that will make Geothermal energy more efficient.

This is an image of a power plant. This shows the damage geothermal energy has on climate change.

This map shows the locations in the U.S. where Hydrothermal Sites are popular. 4

By: Carlos Sanchez


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By: Andrea Perez Ternent


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Geothermal Energy: Fun Facts

There are so many interesting facts about geothermal energy! It’s cool and fun to learn about energy and geothermal is one of the many types of energy. Out of all of the types of energy geothermal energy is one of the types of energies that is made inside of the Earth. The word geothermal comes from two Greek words Oldest form of geothermal energy, Lishan Mountain in China. Built in the 3rd century meaning ‘Earth’ (geo) and ‘heat’ BC. (thermos). Believe it or not, geothermal This picture shows where the heat of geothermal energy is found. energy has been around for hundreds of millions of years. In different forms, hot springs, space heating, and heat pumps. The oldest known spa fed from a hot spring is believed to be a stone pool found on Lishan Mountain in China, built in the 3rd century BC. https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=DFQrE91kZwk 6 By: Andrea Perez Ternent


Geothermal Energy: How is it used? 5 You would have never thought that geothermal energy, of all things, is used in everyday life! This steamy, energy-filled substance can be used for things like farming, cooling houses, This picture shows how geothermal energy is used to heat houses in industrial work, etc! both winter and summer One way that Geothermal Energy is used in the household in everyday life is to cool down a hot house in the summer! Energy technologies developped allow the geothermal energy to suck in the hot air into the ground, where it naturally cools, then sends the air back into the house, thus, cooling it. The opposite is also possible to occur in cold winters as well. It goes through the same process except with cold to warm air. Also, Geothermal energy can be used to farm as well as heat houses. For thousands of years in Tuscany, Italy, many farmers have been using the technique of heating water for their crops to grow in winter months. Fish farms also use geothermal energy to heat water for tropical animals that thrive in warm water.

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By: Maddie Pieropan


6 Industry also uses geothermal energy in many ways. For example, certain manufacturers use geothermal energy to dry fruits, vegetables, wood, wool etc. Recently, the Netherlands has also been using geothermal energy in order to pave the way for bikers in biker paths.

This picture above shows deutch workers heating frost off of the pavement to clear the path for bikers.

There has also been a huge estimated economic benefit to using geothermal energy. It has been said to have saved over $280 million dollars in potential energy costs. Since there are so many undiscovered geysers that hold this energy, there is a large amount of this energy that could potentially be used .

This picture shows an example of a geyser in which geothermal energy is found

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By: Maddie Pieropan


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By: Maddie Pieropan


Energy Conservation Explained.

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Geothermal Energy is the energy generated or extracted from inside the Earth. It is produced from the heat generated inside and below the Earth. The heat happens because minerals and water in the bottom of earth is heated by the magma (rocks on fire) from the center of Earth. That heated water becomes trapped below the surface in rocks, and can erupt as steam or water to the surface. Geysers, hot springs and volcanoes are natural formations with geothermal energy.

The picture above shows the cold water being pumped down causing te hot water to go up. This picture shows

There could be a lot of geothermal energy in the world, since Earth has magma in its center than heats lots of rocks below the floor. The geothermal energy can be used to generate electricity. If it could be extracted in a economic way, it could replace coal and 10 fossils used to generate electricity, using clean sources of energy.


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Where in the World is Geothermal Energy? This picture shows geothermal use around the world Geothermal energy is beginning to spread all around the world. Now over 20 countries are generating power for geothermal energy. These countries include Iceland, United States, Italy, France, New Zealand, Mexico, Nicaragua, Kenya, Costa Rica, Russia, Philippines, Indonesia, People's Republic of China and Japan. In all of these countries geothermal energy is used to heat pools, showers, houses and more. Geothermal energy is currently being generated, or made in Australia. The location at which it is being generated at Birdsville in Queensland. This 120 Kilowatt demonstration plant has been using the groundwater found in the town bore since 1999. The temperature of the groundwater is 98ยบc or 208.4ยบF.

Who Run the There are many World? different forms of the source which geothermal energy Geothermal incomes from. These sources can be found or are Energy abundant countries such as Iceland, United States, Italy, France, New Zealand, Mexico, Nicaragua, Kenya, Costa Rica, Russia, Philippines, Indonesia, People's Republic of China and Japan. The sources in which geothermal energy is found are volcanic activity, eg hot springs, geysers and magma,hot dry rock, now referred to as Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), hydrothermal and geopressured brines. 11

This picture shows the potential of electricity from geothermal energy in the USA

By: Andrea Perez Ternent


10 Iceland, United States, Italy, France, New Zealand, Mexico, Nicaragua, Kenya, Costa Rica, Russia, Philippines, Indonesia, People's Republic of China and Japan. All of these regions have two major things that are in common. First off they all produce and generate geothermal energy. The reason all of these countries can produce geothermal energy is because of the fact that they have high crustal temperature at depths over 3 km form the main exploration targets for EGS. The high temperatures of these countries are caused by increased amounts of granites. Granites are also known as radioactive ore bodies. They are buried by sedimentary cover which insulates the heat source and traps the produced heat over geologic time.

This picture shows the geothermal energy plants all around the world.

This picture shows some of the countries that have

The geothermal energy market has grown tremendously since 2012, worldwide. Right now the United States of America is the largest producer of geothermal energy in the world. As the population increases in some places such as East Africa, Central America and Asia, the need and production of geothermal energy increases as well. These are the top ten countries, in order, with the most electricity from geothermal energy. US – 3,093 MW, Philippines – 1,904 MW, Indonesia – 1,197 MW, Mexico – 958 MW, Italy – 843 MW, New Zealand – 628 MW, Iceland – 575 MW, Japan – 536 MW, El Salvador – 204 MW, Kenya – 167 MW. 12

By: Andrea Perez Ternent


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NUMBERS IN THE NEWS 41,804,400 Is the average distance to the center of the Earth, measured in feet. Some of the geothermal energy is found underneath the earth’s surface. ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

6,650

Degrees fahrenheit is the temperature 1,000 feet under Earth’s Surface ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

1,500

Volcanoes are potentially active around the world. This number is not counting the volcanoes found on the ocean floor.

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90

Percent of geothermal energy in the USA is produced in the 30 geothermal power plants in California. ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

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More than 20 countries around the world produce geothermal energy. The U.S. is the world’s largest producer thanks to California. ////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////

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Geothermal energy supplies less than 10 % of the world's energy. 13 //////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// By: Andrea Perez Ternent


Nonrenewable or renewable? A renewable energy source is a source that is not depleted when used, while a nonrenewable energy source is any natural resource from the Earth that exists in limited supply and cannot be replaced if it is used up; also, any natural resource that cannot be replenished by natural means at the same rates that it is consumed. Some examples of renewable energy include wind power, hydroelectric power, and geothermal energy, while nonrenewable energy sources would include things like fossil fuels. Geothermal energy is a renewable energy source since it is accumulated under the crust of the earth, and therefore never runs out because of constant renewal.

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By: Maddie Pieropan


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This is an example of the wind turbines on a regular home!

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Advertisement By: 15 Carlos Sanchez


Graph

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https://www.google.com/search?q=geothermal+energy+printable+games &espv=2&biw=1027&bih=577 &source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwipgLuIoPTMAhVXNFIKHY_ZCr4Q_AUIBi gB&dpr=1#tbm=isch&q=geothermal+energy+used+around+the+world 16

By: Carlos Sanchez


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By: Andrea Perez Ternent


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References

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(n.d.). Retrieved May 24, 2016, from http://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/energy/geothermal-energy2.htm Bryner, J. (2007, March 30). Earth's Temperature 1,000 Miles Under the Surface Hits 6,650 Degrees Fahrenheit | Fox News. Retrieved May 24, 2016, from http://www.foxnews.com/story/2007/03/30/earth-temperature-1000-miles-under-surface-hits-6650-degreesfahrenheit.html Emoticon showing thumbs up. (n.d.). Retrieved May 24, 2016, from https://www.mogicons.com/en/stickers/emoticons/thumbs-up-192/ Geothermal. (n.d.). Retrieved May 24, 2016, from https://www.studentenergy.org/topics/geothermal? gclid=CPWh_LKV5MwCFUEfhgodyMwEjQ Geothermal Energy - Saving Money on Your Home and Mortgage. (n.d.). Retrieved May 24, 2016, from http://www.mortgagecalculator. org/helpful-advice/geothermal-energy.php Geothermal Energy Facts - Power from the Ground. (n.d.). Retrieved May 24, 2016, from http://www.sciencekids.co. nz/sciencefacts/energy/geothermalenergy.html Geothermal Energy Information, Geothermal Power Facts - National Geographic. (n.d.). Retrieved May 24, 2016, from http://environment. nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/geothermal-profile/ Geothermal Energy Pros and Cons - Energy Informative. (n.d.). Retrieved May 24, 2016, from http://energyinformative.org/geothermalenergy-pros-and-cons/ Google Images. (n.d.). Retrieved May 24, 2016, from https://images.google.com/ Home Wind Power: Yes, in My Backyard! (n.d.). Retrieved May 24, 2016, from http://www.motherearthnews.com/renewable-energy/windpower/home-wind-power-zm0z13amzrob.aspx Interesting energy facts. (n.d.). Retrieved May 24, 2016, from http://interestingenergyfacts.blogspot.com/2008/03/geothermal-energy-facts. html Solarpro. (n.d.). Retrieved May 24, 2016, from http://blog.solarpro.bg/category/ветрогенератори/ USGS FAQs - Volcanoes General - How many active volcanoes are there on earth? (n.d.). Retrieved May 24, 2016, from https://www2. usgs.gov/faq/categories/9819/2689 The Uses of Geothermal Energy. (2007, October 21). Retrieved May 24, 2016, from http://greenlivingideas.com/2007/10/22/the-uses-ofgeothermal-energy/ World Geothermal Energy. (n.d.). Retrieved May 24, 2016, from http://www.greenfacts.org/en/geothermal-energy/index.htm World Geothermal Energy. (n.d.). Retrieved May 24, 2016, from http://www.greenfacts.org/en/geothermal-energy/index.htm Pizza box png - Google Search. (n.d.). Retrieved May 24, 2016, from https://www.google.com/search? q=pizza+box+png&espv=2&rlz=1C1CHWA_enUS607US607&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjdperk_vLMAhXGGR4 KHQTDCvsQ_AUIBygB&biw=1920&bih=921#imgrc=RB2ImqtiN0JRpM: The definition of nonrenewable resource. (n.d.). Retrieved May 24, 2016, from http://www.dictionary.com/browse/nonrenewable-resource The definition of renewable energy. (n.d.). Retrieved May 24, 2016, from http://www.dictionary.com/browse/renewable-energy

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By: Andrea Perez Ternent


Geothermal Energy Magazine