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BUSINESS SKILLS FOR ARTISTS


Intro Over the years I have met many artists throughout all stages of their careers. It seemed to me that they had all been well trained in their profession, they mastered techniques and experimented with different materials. Meanwhile they lacked practical information about how to navigate the art world properly and how to professionally manage themselves. Have you had this situation before? When you had to write an artist statement or exhibition proposal? When someone asked you for your CV? Or when you had to write an invoice for one of your artworks? The idea to this eBook came up, because I wanted to change this situation. With this I hope to empower artists by providing practical information. In order to make you aware of possibilities you have not noticed before and to explain tools that might be new to you. As you know ‘many roads lead to Rome’ and thus there is not an easy 10-point plan on how to become the most successful artist. But there are things to consider along the way and I am happy to be able to share my thoughts and experiences with you.


Overview Part 1 - Your Essentials!!

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 1. CV"" " " 2. Artist Statement" 3. Portfolio"" " 4. Website" " "

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5. Social Media" "

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1. Networking" " " " 2. Residencies and Open Calls" 3. Exhibition Spaces" " " 4. Exhibition Organization " " 5. Proposals" " " "

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Part 3 - Your Structure! !

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Part 2 - Your Career ! 



 1. Archive" " 2. Prices" " 3. Commissions" 4. Invoices""

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
 Credits - Cover Page: Canva, eBook Layout: iBooks Author


Part

1

Your Essentials 1. CV 2. Artist Statement 3. Portfolio 4. Website 5. Social Media


Part 1

1. CV Your CV is fundamental regardless of where you currently are in your career as an artist. It will be essential if you apply to a residency program, if you send your portfolio to a gallery or if a collector asks you for more information about you and your work. A professional CV or resume can be achieved by following a few steps that are explained in the following chapter.

Personal Details Highlight your personal details by adding these to the top of your CV. Make sure to include a link to your website as well as your phone number, your email address and even your studio address if you are currently working at one. If you decide to showcase your work digitally use a web link, make sure it links to your work as an artist and not your private photos such as your last vacation. In a similar way you should only use a professional email address such as artistname[at]emailprovider.com or info[at]artiststudio.com. Additionally, make sure to add where you were born and currently live and work.

e.g. 1 ! NAME, born YEAR in CITY, COUNTRY
 ! ! Claude Monet, born 1840, Paris, FR
 


* CV Tips:


e.g. 2 ! Name (b. YEAR, COUNTRY)
 Text hier eingeben ! ! Claude Monet (b. 1840, FR)


- Keep it simple
 - Keep it organized
 - Highlight your professional achievements 
 - Don’t try to oversell your work
 - Don’t lie or make anything up
 - Don’t panic - you have enough information to show


 e.g. 3 ! Claude Monet
 ! ! studio[at]monet.com
 ! ! +33 123 45 67 ! !

! !

Born 1840 in Paris, France. 
 Currently lives in Berlin, Germany

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Education

Exhibitions and Art Fairs

The next part of your CV should focus on your education. Keep in mind that this does not include information on where you went to high school or that you have studied Geography for two years before making a shift towards the arts. 
 Instead include all relevant institutional information that relates to your career as an artist. This can be the university you 
 studied at, but also mentorships, art classes and the names of artists you have assisted. Basically anything that had an impact on your work and led you to where you are at the moment. Make sure to add this information to your CV chronologically.

At the very start of your career, you might worry that you don’t yet have enough to showcase in this section. Let me assure you that no one expects you to have partaken in a ton of exhibitions in this circumstance. Avoid making the mistake of adding incorrect or unconfirmed exhibition information. Instead focus on highlighting what you have already achieved in your career so far.

To expand on this information, you can elaborate on your expertise by adding the title of the art class you have attended and the name of the tutor or professor who led the course. If you are a self-taught artist, make sure to highlight this attribute as well. Otherwise it is totally fine to keep this section brief.

e.g. 1! ! ! ! !

YEAR (Degree), INSTITUTION, CITY, COUNTRY! 2018 MFA, School of Design, New York, US! 2015 BFA, College of Fine Arts, London, UK



 e.g. 2 ! Since 2015 teaching at the Art School, Gent, BE
 ! ! 2012 Art Course, Prof. Smith, Lissabon, PRT

Start by splitting your exhibition information into two columns Solo and Group Exhibitions. A third header called Upcoming 
 Exhibitions can be added as well to highlight what you are working on and will be presenting in the near future. Something you additionally want to highlight is if your work is being shown at an art fair. This information can be treated as 
 exhibition history, or if preferred you can add a separate art fair section.

* Exhibition History Tip:
 If you feel that your exhibitions history is too short or maybe 
 even the other way around, that it’s too much information to fit onto one or two pages, name the columns ,Selected Solo Exhibitions‘ or ,Selected Group Exhibitions‘.

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Awards and Grants 
 By adding the information in this format the viewer will understand that the listed information only highlights the most important steps in your career.

e.g.1 ! ! ! ! !

Art Awards and Grants are additional achievements you want to mention on your CV. Add this information by following the same structure and sectioning in the exhibitions section above.

Upcoming Exhibitions
 YEAR SHOW TITLE, LOCATION, CITY, COUNTRY 2018 The Most Amazing Show, Cologne, DE


e.g. 1! ! ! ! !

YEAR GRANT, CITY, COUNTRY
 2018 Shortlisted for Art Prize, New York, US
 2016 Project Grant, Art Council, Norwich, UK



 ! ! ! !

! ! ! !

(Selected) Solo Exhibitions
 YEAR SHOW TITLE, LOCATION, CITY, COUNTRY 2017 Great Show, Art Museum, London UK! 2015 My Solo Show, Gallery, Aarhus, DK


! ! ! !

(Selected) Group Exhibitions
 YEAR SHOW TITLE, LOCATION, CITY, COUNTRY 2016 Group show, Gallery Space X, Athens, GR
 2014 We did it!, University of Arts, Brussels, BE


! ! !

Art Fairs
 YEAR, ART FAIR, GALLERY, COUNTRY
 2016 Art Rotterdam, The Art Gallery, LA

e.g. 2! ! ! ! !

YEAR RESIDENCY, CITY, COUNTRY
 2017 Residency Program, New York, US
 2015 Art Collective, Buenos Aires, ARG


 ! ! ! ! 
 ! ! !

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Collections

Bibliography

This section gives potential buyers a sense of who has previously bought a work of yours and the potential level of interest in your pieces. The good thing about this is that there is no difference between a family member acquiring a work or an international art collector snapping up your best piece. Both will be mentioned as part of a client’s Private Collection.

Having your work featured in press articles, blogs or other online and print mediums is amazing. It helps gather attention, engage new audiences and might even lead to new sales. You should not hesitate to mention this on your CV as well. Mention articles individually and add details including the writer’s name, title and page number of the article, if available. Especially if you made a cover story, it is worth being noted. You can also just list the names of magazines that have featured your work.

Alternatively, works being sold to corporate clients or public collections will most likely be on display to a larger audience and will be mentioned by their name in this section.

e.g. 1!

Private Collections



 e.g. 2 ! Private Collection, US
 ! ! Private Collection, AT


* Bibliography Tip:
 Always keep a digital and printed copy of the articles you have been featured in for your archive and to send along with your portfolio if needed. A hyperlink can be added to your CV as well.


 e.g. 3! ! ! ! ! 
 e.g. 4 ! ! ! ! ! ! !

e.g. 1! ! ! ! ! ! !

ARTIST NAME work is in the Contemporary Art 
 Museum, IT; Centre national des Arts, FR and 
 Private Collections. 
 Contemporary Art Museum, IT
 Centre national des Arts, FR
 Corporate Collection, Financial Group, DE
 Private Collections

MAGAZINE, EDITION / NO. WRITER’S NAME: 
 TITLE, PAGE, YEAR
 Art Newspaper, no. 12, Anne so and so: Story of an Artist,, page: 25, 2017



 e.g 2! ! !

ARTIST NAME has been featured in Art 
 Magazine 1, Art Magazine 2 and Art Newspaper

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2. ARTIST STATEMENT An Artist Statement supports your portfolio and can also be an essential part to your applications to galleries or residencies. The upside to this is that you don’t have to be a writer to get this done professionally, but it still might be strange to write
 about what you do whilst wanting to give the viewer a chance to come up with their own interpretation of the artwork.

* Artist Statement Tip:
 If this still feels hard to get together and you feel like giving up any second - don’t do it. Instead get feedback or ask someone to help you with it, ideally someone you trust and that is experienced in writing.

The statement should be a short introduction to your work and shouldn’t be longer than one page. Be honest to yourself and to your audience when writing. An example of creating an honest feeling with the reader is to start sentences with ‘I’ instead of referring to yourself in the 3rd person as ‘the artist’. Do not namedrop or make comparisons between your work and that of other well-known artists. Make sure you try to avoid writing in clichés or putting people off reading your statement with never ending sentences. Another point is to not use too many ‘smart words’ you would usually not use - All of this is not necessary. To start off, just write down anything that comes to mind about your artwork. Then generate a list with a few bullet points that will help you navigate through the statement. It is important to get an overview and a few ideas first to not get lost while writing. 


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3. PORTFOLIO Are you applying for a residency program? To an open call for an exhibition program? Or do you want to send information 
 about your work to an art gallery? This is the point where you will need to have a portfolio. Send this to galleries after being asked to do so, or use this for an application to a course or exhibition program you want to par-
 take at.

* Portfolio Tip:
 Make sure to email your portfolio in one file only and also be 
 aware of the size of the attachement when sending it out. Don‘t send an email attachment that is larger than 10 MB. 
 Directors and curators deal with a lot of applications and re-
 ceiving disorganized or too many attachments from one person might lead to a rejection for a project or residency.


Here is a list of what your portfolio usually should include and how it should structured:

- Cover Page
 - Short Artist Statement (optional)
 - CV
 - Artwork Images including the following information: 
 ! ! Name
 ! ! Work Title (or Untitled)
 ! ! Medium
 ! ! Size
 ! ! Year
 - Press Articles

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4. WEBSITE Having an online presence, such as your own website, can be helpful to you in many ways. For example, you can refer to your website when asked for further information about your work, interested people can have an online peek at your pieces and it can allow you to reach new audiences. Your website can assist you in not only displaying but also selling artworks. Unlike the use of social media, where followers can comment or like your work and a social interaction is a must, your website is a digital presence and communication tool that will allow you to stay in charge. A good website is the interaction of a well done layout with professional content. It is suggested to avoid any third party advertising or free hosting services. This will take away the attention from your artworks and will not look professional. Instead, the website should be easy to navigate and show straightforward content that is regularly updated. It is important that it becomes clear to the visitor who you are, what your work’s focus is and what your art looks like.

e.g. 1!

ARTWORK LABELS



 ARTIST NAME! WORK TITLE! YEAR! ! ! MEDIUM! ! SIZE! ! !

! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! !

! ! ! ! !

René Magritte
 L’Empire des lumières
 1953–54
 Oil on Canvas
 195,4 x 131,2 cm


Visitors should also find your CV online for further information as well as your contact details and links to your social media 
 pages to get in touch with you. Ideally, your website is mobilefriendly and works in different browsers.

* Website Tips:
 - Keep it organized
 - Update the content regularly
 - Keep the navigation easy
 - Use high resolution images

Highlight your artworks by adding high resolution images to your website. You can also include detail shots of art works as well as installation images of exhibitions. Make sure to properly file and label them with the art work‘s information. 10


Instagram


5. SOCIAL MEDIA 
 Everyone is constantly on Instagram, Facebook and Twitter and you might think you have to do that too. But no - You actually don’t. At least you don’t have to do it all. Social Media depends on your personality and whom you want to reach. Before starting to set up several accounts you should make yourself familiar with the pros and cons of the different social media channels. This includes finding out more about potential audiences, the level of interaction that it requires and the outcome you envision from it. Figuring this out first will help you narrowing down what will work best for you and not to end up using all of these mediums half-heartedly without any benefit.

Instagram became a game changer for the art world. It is a visually oriented plattform that works very well for artists. It is also seen as a medium that is associated with positive imagery that is used by a lot of art professionals as well as art collectors. 
 Instagram allows you to add a link to your website to your account and using hashtags will help attract the right audience to your works. However, you should be comfortable using the Instagram app on your smartphone. You can access your account from your computer as well, but it does not allow you to use all functions from there.

Most importantly, you should ask yourself how much time you want to invest into it. Be aware that it can be time intense to engage with your audience. In addition, in some ways Social Media works slightly different for artists than using it for private or company purposes. It was recently noted that Social Media currently changes the art market and the way art works are being seen and sold. Social Media can offer a lot to artists these days.

Art World! ! ! Audience! ! ! Level of Interaction! Cost! ! ! !

+++++
 +++++
 +++
 /

Works through:! !

Mobile 


The following pages will give you an overview on the main 
 Social Media channels and how to use them to your advantage. 11


Facebook


Twitter



 Facebook is probably the most well known Social Media channel and has proven to work well for artists in the past. If you decide to set up your artist account it will allow you to add information such as an artist statement, press articles, links and 
 images. 
 Facebook also gives you a good overview on your audience and enables you to join like-minded groups to reach a wider 
 audience. You can also connect your Facebook profile with 
 other channels and make posts simultaneously. 
 Social interaction is a must with your Facebook audience. Note that there might be additonal costs for ads and event posts.

Twitter is used by many artists to specifically interact and connect with art professionals, such as curators and gallerists. The interaction level is higher, which makes it more time consuming than other mediums. Active users make a few posts throughout the day. 
 Twitter allows you to schedule tweets ahead of time. It enables you to share links and Hashtags can help others to find your posts easier. 


Art World! ! ! Audience! ! ! Level of Interaction! Cost! ! ! !

+ + + +

+ + + +

++
 +++
 +++
 !! (optional)

Works through:! !

Mobile, Computer, Tablet


Art World! ! ! Audience! ! ! Level of Interaction! Cost! ! ! !

+++
 +++
 +++++
 /

Works through:! !

Mobile, Computer, Tablet


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Pinterest
 
 Pinterest is not commonly used in the art world. Its audience‘s reach is limited and users tend to look for inspiration rather then products of any kind to buy. However, Pinterest has led to sales for some artists, even if they are not any well known collectors. Pinterest is not as time consuming as other mediums.

Art World! ! ! Audience! ! ! Level of Interaction! Cost! ! ! !

+
 ++
 ++
 /

Works through:! !

Mobile, Computer, Tablet


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Part

2

Your Career
 
 1. Networking 2. Residencies and Open Calls 3. Exhibition Spaces 4. Exhibition Organization 5. Proposals


Part 2

Networking takes time, effort and also depends on your personality. There are some of us who are communicative and find it easy to start a conversation and there are others who might be more introvert. There is no guaranteed strategy, but there a few things to consider before you approach galleries, journalists and others.


1. NETWORKING Do your homework It might not come as a surprise if I tell you that it is not the easiest task to be featured in an exhibition, to get gallery representation or to generally find long-term partners in the business. But with hard work and a bit of luck there is no need to give up. You will come across several players in the art world, all of whom have varied ways of communicating with others, different time tables and needs. Gallerists want to discover their next big artist, journalists are receiving hundreds of press-release 
 emails per day and curators are often self-employed and need to find their next gig as well. The good thing is, they all need artists like you to accomplish their work. But how can you engage someone into a conversation about your work, to come visit your studio or feature your pieces in an article?

Start by doing research about the galleries around you or that you are interested in. Make yourself familiar with the artists and the work they represent as well as their calendar of exhibitions and art fairs. You will get a better understanding of their program and the artists they are looking for. It will also give you a good overview on their schedule, which can benefit your next conversation with the gallery staff.


There is always a right time and place Gallery openings are a good way of becoming a familiar face to the staff and to see how the gallery operates. It might also be the worst timing to start a conversation about your work with the gallery staff. The staff’s goal for the evening is to keep the exhi-

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bited artist happy, make visitors feel comfortable and most importantly to engage with potential buyers. 
 If you visit the same exhibition a few days later once more, you might find the space empty and the staff being able to focus on you. However, openings can be an opportunity to grow your network and to engage into conversations with others than the gallery staff itself. If you keep an open mind you might find yourself meeting journalists, collectors, other artists or simply interesting people. 


Starting the conversation If you are chatting with journalists, curators or gallery staff, or in fact any person in the business, keep in mind to be yourself, 
 honest, respectful and interested in what others have to say. If the communicative part does not come easily to you, try this out at i.e. galleries that maybe do not currently make it into your 'Top 10’ to get practice. Have a few bullet points in mind to talk about the gallery and the artists they represent but avoid going in with the only goal being to get representation right away. 
 Rather see it as a chance to grow your network, learning and

finding out more information. It might open doors for you that you cannot imagine yet. Sending emails There are a few things to keep in mind if you are thinking of 
 reaching out to galleries, journalists or others via email. Personalize your email instead of sending impersonal email blasts. They will quickly be moved to the trash folder. Make sure the gallery you want to reach out to accepts applications and portfolios. Usually they mention this on their website or you have already asked about this during a gallery visit. Follow up with journalists and curators who get a ton of emails and invitations to exhibitions every day. Don’t expect them to 
 reply back to you right away or to just show to your exhibition after you send them one email. Make a personal effort to build a relationship with them. Additionaly, keep in mind that newspapers have limited space to print and publish their articles. They also depend on the art topics other papers feature. A good way to start is to research freelance writers or to get in touch with journalism students - it might turn out to be a win-win situation.

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2. RESIDENCIES AND OPEN CALLS 
 Artist in Residence Programs give artists the opportunity to work abroad, enjoy a different culture and be able to network in a different environment. Especially if you are a young, emerging artist this is your chance to present your work, spend time developing new ideas and be surrounded by like-minded peers. The application process at each residency, in addition to possible costs and what is offered during your stay will vary widely. Therefore, careful research is necessary to ensure the quality of the program and the experience fits your expectations. Usually you will find all the necessary details required for your application online on the program‘s website. It is recommended to follow the application guidelines as expected by the host. This means to not send a four-page artist statement if you are asked to send only one page, or send a 10 MB document if you are asked to send information including only 5MB.

have your work featured and made visible to the public, but also to present your work to a jury and with this to again grow your network. The application process is similar to the one of Residency programs.

General Application Requirements:
 - Artwork Images:!jpeg format
 ! ! ! ! High-resolution images ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Proper filing: 
 ! ! ! ! ARTIST_WORK TITLE_YEAR.jpeg
 ! ! ! ! Pablo Picasso_Le Rêve_1932.jpeg
 - CV
 - Press Articles
 - Artist Statement 
 - Additional information as required 


You can start out by researching Artists in Residency Programs to get an overview on current offers. Another option is to look online for Open Calls for Artists. These programs and their application process work similar to the one of Residencies. The difference is that Open Calls usually have a given topic and are reaching out to artists to apply and participate in an exhibition or project. This is not only a chance to 17


3. EXHIBITION SPACES 
 After completing a body of work, you will want to exhibit your pieces, present them to the public and at best also sell them.

The experience of organizing an exhibition on your own can provide the wanted exposure, interesting conversations around your artwork and track new exhibition information for your CV.

Instead of waiting to be discovered by a gallery you might want to consider finding an exhibition space on your own. This can be almost any public space from a coffee shop to a warehouse space, or from a little space that is up to rent to a public office that regularly does art exhibitions. Pop-up stores are a new trend in cities and can also provide alternative exhibition 
 spaces. Keep your eyes open and talk to as many people as possible to find suitable options for your work. These spaces cannot only be an option to show your work, but also to exhibit it in a different set up than the conventional white cube space in an art gallery and therefore attract different audiences. It will take a bit of time to track down the right space in terms of size, location and optional costs. Keep in mind that if you decide to exhibit your works the succes of the exhibition will be up to you.You should be aware of what you are looking for in an exhibition space and consider further details such as the lighting situation at the space and available wall space if you need to hang any works.

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4. EXHIBITION ORGANIZATION 
 Once you receive the relevant paper work for the space you can start making arrangements for the exhibition or the opening event. You should ask the venue beforehand if you have to do any repairs i.e. filling holes after the deinstallation of the show. In addition, you should find out about any neighbors that could become annoyed by potential noise. Knowing and asking similar questions regarding the space will help you avoid any unwanted surprises during the opening event.

as well as a copy of your CV to give visitors a bit of an overview of your work. Additionally, you can write or have someone write a press release for you that covers your ideas about the show. Ask or hire someone who can take pictures during the opening. You should keep high-resolution images from the exhibition and from the opening for your archive. Generate a checklist of what you need to do in preparation for the show to make sure you do not forget anything.

To strengthen your connections to potential buyers, gallerists and journalists you need to make sure the promotion of your 
 exhibition is on point. Promotion can include producing flyers, newsletters, posting and inviting people via social media. Practically anything that makes people aware of your exhibition. You should also research possible online and print art events and exhibition calendars. Some of them are for free and might 
 spread the message even further. Send out personalized email invitations to potential journalists, bloggers and other people involved in the arts that you would like to see at your show. Make sure to follow up with them before the show as well. As for the presentation of the work you should consider hanging paintings and photographs at eye level. You can add a tag that includes the work’s title, medium and year. In any case you should have a list of works printed that includes this information 19


5. PROPOSALS 
 Some art spaces and cultural institutions accept exhibition proposals all year round. In this case you will not have to find an exhibition space on your own, but will have to pitch your idea and the concept for an exhibition to whoever is running the 
 space. You will find the according application instructions on the 
 individual website. The general application material usually includes your CV, an artist statement and images of your work. Other supporting materials can be press releases from previous shows, articles and your website information. Most importantly, you will be asked to send an accompanying exhibition proposal. While your artist statement focuses on your practice as an 
 artist, the proposal lays out a specific plan and concept for a 
 solo or group exhibition.

General Proposal Requirements:
 - Exhibition Concept
 - Artwork Images:!jpeg format
 ! ! ! ! High-resolution images ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Proper filing: 
 ! ! ! ! ARTIST_WORK TITLE_YEAR.jpeg
 ! ! ! ! Pablo Picasso_Le Rêve_1932.jpeg
 - Sketch / Layout
 - Cost Overview
 - CV
 - Press Articles
 - Artist Statement 
 - Additional information as required 


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Part

3

Your Structure 1. Archive 2. Prices 3. Commissions 4. Invoices


Part 3

Images of Artworks Keep a good image of your artworks in your files and include 
 detail shots if you like to. Once the piece has been acquired by a collector or a gallery, you probably will not be able to get it back to take additional images to keep. If you have taken 
 images of the work prior to the acquisition, this will help you 
 recall the works and its story later down the line. 


1. ARCHIVE Inventory Number Imagine a few years from now you are trying to recall who bought this one piece from you. Or a client contacts you because he can’t find the title of a work they bought from you. 
 Or you are wondering where a specific work ended up even though you are sure it should be in your studio. This is the point you will know why it is important to have an archive and to keep track of information relating your work. When you are just starting out, you might want to generate a Word document or Excel sheet to which you add information about your work. A folder with labeled images in a consecutive labeling system can be helpful as well. Further down the road you might switch to one of the payable software options that you can find online.

Choose a consecutive inventory numbering system for the works in your archive. This could for example be: 2018_001 and so on. This gives you a good overview on the works you have made each year and you will be able to find them again easily. 


Size (height x width) Include the size of each artwork in your archive. Always follow the same rule of the formula height x width. Also state if you 
 use inches or centimeters.

Regardless of the format you will choose, this is the information you want to keep track of the following. 22


Title

Sales Information

Make sure to write down the title of each artwork. If you have not decided on a title yet, you can use the abbreviation ,tbt‘, 
 meaning 'to be titled’ in the meantime. 


Make sure to add the sales information to the according artwork. This includes the price you have sold the work for, but 
 also any given discounts as well as client and payment information.


Medium If you are using different mediums it will be helpful to mention this in your archive. For example, ‘Acrylic paint on canvas’, ,Chromogenic print‘ or ‘Tape and Paint on Plywood‘ and so on. 


Year This refers to the year you have finished the work in. If the completion of the work included a longer process or if you decided to rework on a piece at a later point you can also mention the time as 2016-2018. 


Price Keep track of your current prices as well as their possible increases or any changes in the future.

Location Tracking the location of a work will be important as long as it is in your possession. Continuously updating this section will help you in narrowing down if the work is located at your studio, flat, at a gallery or on display in an exhibition. Once the work has left your studio and went to a collector, simply change the location to ,Collector‘ and you will know it was shipped or picked up. 


Client Management Keeping your clients‘ information will assist you in reaching out to them in the future with new works or information about an upcoming exhibition. Filing this information digitally is recommended, as you can update and copy paste the information easily. If you are sending out newsletters you can also create a mailing list with this information.

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2. PRICES 
 After the creative process is completed, pricing your artworks will come up next. If you google how to set prices for artworks, you will come across many different options and opinions on this subject. If you have no selling history yet, this can seem especially overwhelming at first. When it comes to setting prices for your works, you should not think of any random numbers based on how much you like a work or how many hours you spent working on it. If you do this, you are suggesting to a possible client that one work is better than the other. You need to be objective in this process and your prices need to make sense in the end. A formula used to set prices in an objective and professional way is: (Height + Width) x Factor X = Price

If you are working with three-dimensional works you want to 
 use the diameter instead of the sum of height and width, and if you are working in inches, use these measurements instead of centimeters. Two things to consider when first starting out with this are 1) to keep in mind the money you spent on materials and 2) that you might want to calculate a price that allows you to extend a discount to a client.

e.g. 1 ! (HEIGHT + WIDTH) x FACTOR X = PRICE !

!

(50 cm + 30 cm) x Factor 5 = €400

!

!

(120 cm x 240 cm) x Factor 5 = €1.800

Let’s say you have a canvas or photograph with a height of 50 cm and a width of 30 cm in front of you. You first add up these two numbers and then multiply the sum by Factor X. Factor X is a number you choose and that can get higher the more successful you become in your career. When setting a factor you can start by as little as one and go higher whenever you feel there is a price raise needed. The advantage of this formula is to keep a consistent range of prices your works are being sold at. 


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3. COMMISSIONS 
 If you agree on working with a gallery or an art dealer, their 
 primary focus will be on selling your works for you. At this point, the prices set for your works do not only reflect your talent, but also the gallery’s status. Any payments made from sales will be shared between you both. Therefore, the gallery or art dealer will usually work with you on setting the right prices for your works. Any pre-existing agreements with another gallery or art dealer should be made known to all parties involved, to ensure that the works are priced equally. The split between an artist and a gallery or art dealer is usually 50/50. Due to additional costs such as shipment or the use of expensive working materials this split may sometimes vary. In any case this should be discussed and agreed on upon starting to work together.

Keep in mind that a relationship between an artist and gallery will be best if it is build on trust, communication and knowledge. 
 
 To young artists a 50/50 split sometimes seems unfair or exceptionally high at first. If you make yourself aware of the investment a gallery makes in you as an artist it does not seem that high anymore. The gallery will be mainly responsible to promote your work, make it public, sell it, have it installed at the gallery, shipped to an art fair and often stored and insured. It is important to have an initial talk 
 upon working together to make sure both sides are aware of their individual responsabilities.

Once a client has made a purchase and paid the art dealer or gallery for your work, you will be able to receive your share as well.

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4. INVOICES Tax laws and invoicing requirements widely vary between 
 countries. The below list can be understood and used as a brief introduction to writing invoices as an artist, but cannot cover all specifications at this point. It is strongly recommended to 
 contact an accountant that can individually advise you on this subject. If you want to write an invoice to a client or a gallery for an artwork being sold, you should consider including the following information in the document: 


Invoice Number Set up a consecutive numbering system to invoice your clients. For example, start with Invoice no. 2018-01 followed by Invoice no. 2018-02 and so on. 


Invoice Date

Artist Information Add your personal information to the invoice. This should in-
 clude your name, your address and tax number. Client Information Similarly to your artist information details, you should add the details of a client to the invoice, including their name, address and any business or tax relevant information they would like to use.


Tax Information As already mentioned above, there are a lot of different layers to the subject of tax laws. Taxes will vary due to the location you file your taxes at, but also on the location of your client and the final location the art work will end up being shipped to. 
 Remember to add your personal tax information and if app-
 licable the tax information from your clients or their companies to the according invoice. 


Include the date of the invoice in the document. 


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Work Description State the artwork’s information that has been sold on your invoice document. Add its title, measurement, medium, year of completion and an image of the piece. 


Price Make sure to add the price information to the invoice as well. This should include the net and gross price, any applicable tax charge or discount given. 


Payment Information Add information on how the client can pay this invoice. Another option may be to add a date on which the invoice needs to be settled by. 


Certificate of Authenticity Clients might ask you to send a Certificate of Authenticity along with the invoice and the acquired work. A so called COA is a proof that the work is an original work by you. This includes the date, your artwork‘s information, an image of the work as well and most importantly your signature.

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About Andrea was born in Vienna, Austria and has been based in Berlin, Germany since 2012. Having lived in different places along the way she has always been surrounded by art and a vivid cultural life. Andrea is a trained Art Manager and Educator. She holds an MA in Exhibition and Museum Design. Over the past few years she worked for high profile art institutions and art galleries. Since 2017 she has been working as an independent coach and workshop leader. Andrea offers coaching sessions and art management training for artists, art students and universities. Coaching sessions for artists involve multiple aspects of the artistic career and can give guidance in many areas such as the organization of exhibitions, networking and maintaining relationships with galleries, archiving, accounting as well as generating portfolios, proposals and resumes. 

Get in touch for more information! 
 
 andrea.marinkovits@gmail.com
 
 www.andreamarinkovits.com

Business Skills For Artists - The Practical Handbook  

I wrote this eBook for artists to provide them with hands-on information and to assist them in navigating the business side of their career.

Business Skills For Artists - The Practical Handbook  

I wrote this eBook for artists to provide them with hands-on information and to assist them in navigating the business side of their career.

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