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titel Aalborg University. The Faculty of Engineering, Science and Medicine. Architecture & Design, 8. Semester, specialization in Architectural Design, project group 10. Project period: February 25 to June 3, 2008. Main theme: Architectural Form, Space and Environmental Design Project title: Meadow Creek - A sustainable home. Supervisor: Gert Michael Lauring Technical supervisor: Olena Kalyanova Number of pages: 134 Printed editions: 10 CD enclosed

The content of this report are to disposal, but a publication release must be authorised by the authors.

SYNOPSIS

The project focuses on designing two apartments and a site plan, which reaches the passive house standard and still is attractive to the Danish family. One of the apartments has to be designed for a family with four members, within an area of 110 m2 gross. The aim for this project has in particular been to create a home, which can adapt to a family’s change in needs over time. The site given for this task holds a special atmosphere, for that reason there has, in an integrated process of the design, been worked with the feeling of Genius Loci.

____________________________________________ Anders Oskar Kaag Frederiksen

____________________________________________ Anna Penzo

____________________________________________ Christian Brander KjĂŚr

____________________________________________ Sara Nespeca

____________________________________________ Susanne Henriksen

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content

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Introduction

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Ventilation

45

Method

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Room scheme

48

Future tendencies

10

Function diagram

50

Home identity

12

Concept diagrams

52

Site Analysis

15

Process

56

Mood collage from the site

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Design process

58

Mapping the area

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Design process phase 10

80

Weather conditions

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Indoor climate

84

Green & materials

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Prensentation

93

Serial visions

29

The site plan

96

Genius Loci

32

Facades

104

Site conclusion

34

110 apartment

116

Sustainable approaches

36

150 apartment

120

Vision

38

Discoussion

128

Problem

40

Conclusion

130

Outdoor spaces

42

Source criticism

131

Lighting

44

Source list

132


introduction Since the 1970´s a focus on the limited resources left on earth has emerged. The first to respond on this consequence was pioneers of a new sustainable way of living which greatly influenced on their life style in general from building design over food to politics. To describe the term “sustainability” we will use the ”Brundtland-Report”, which describes sustainability as: The development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their need. [Brundtland-Report, 1987]. Through the past decades the ideas of a sustainable way of living have had both good and bad conditions mostly due to war and politics, but still the awareness of making a sustainable development has been for the few and experimental. If we look through the few past year there has been a radical change on the subject of sustainable development, which now a days is a common focus point both for the public and the medias. Today (2008) it has become even popular to be conscious about the wellbeing of our environment, which can be seen in different sectors. The ecological food industry is constantly gaining market share in the European countries, [www. okologi.dk, 2008 March] and the electronic companies are speaking about new “cleantec” product which they are about to launch. These new electronic products are designed to decrease the energy consumption, and lower the environmental impact through their lifetime. The building sector (especially the residential sector) is always quite slow to adapt to new knowledge and technologies, but the resent change in public focus on sustainable development, will surely also raise the demand for sustainable houses suited for the wide audience.

This project aims to create sustainable housing units targeted the ordinary Danish consumer with family. For the general Dane the ideal way of living is in the singlefamily house in the outer ring of the city, this constellation thus gives some sustainable problems, due to the often low-density in these areas. Low density frequently causes an increased distance between different places in the city that is used daily, like shopping, work, and hobby’s. Also the floor to façade ratio is quite high for this type of houses as well as there is a downside in a sustainable perspective. Still the single-family house is by far the most popular housing type in Denmark, which properly relies on: - The users’ possibility to transform both the exterior and interior to match the personality of the owner. - The owner of a single family house is in total control of his/her own piece of land. - The suburbs areas are often quite, close to nature, and fresh air. - The neighbors are close by and they are all more or less the same types, which have had or have a family, with a reliable income. So the great challenge for this project is to create a sustainable housing type, which can attract people who normally would go for the single-family house. The goal for sustainability is that the housing unit or housing complex meets the passive standard for residential housing, and without losing any significant functional and architectural quality. The site is located just west from the city of Aalborg, where the built area on the site must correspond to 80% of the total area. In all this describes some of the main issues and challenges that is the foundation for the analysis, and design phase, which in the end will create this project.

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METHOD In this chapter the four overall phases and the considerations in those will be described. The Analysis Phase In this phase, important aspects that will be needed to start up the next phase have been analyzed: - the future for homes (What is a home?) - the site and context (Local existing architecture, topography, vegetation, access to the site, size of the site) - local climate (Wind directions, light and shadow, sun) - user needs (how are the evolvement of user needs over time, demands for indoor climate quality) - technical aspects (demands for lighting, ventilation, heating, overheating) - sustainability (What is our approach to this subject) - case studies The last thing of the analysis phase is to formulate the problem statement and the vision for the housing complex. These areas are the foundation for the sketching phase. The Sketching Phase In this phase all the above described investigations have an influence on the design of the housing complex. It is important to do this phase as an Integrated Design Process (IDP) because of the strict demands from the passive house standard. In order to fulfill these demands the technical requirements will have more power than the aesthetical and functional ones.

INITIATING PROBLEM

Ill. 6-1 Integrated Design Process

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It is important to do simplified calculations along the way in order to be able to see what impact the different design changes has on the energy demand, indoor lighting quality, etc. The impacts must be judged and evaluated to be able to have some aesthetical and functional qualities in the project. Indeed, if the calculations always determine the direction to follow, then architecture would be lost and a building would be the only thing left. In the end of the phase the most promising solution is picked out and kept on into detail in the Synthesis phase. The Synthesis Phase

On the scheme below the Integrated Design Process is shown graphically. The interations between the different phases are shown, as well as the way to walk through them. In the scheme shown in the next page we have shown the different overall concepts that have been run through the project. It is outlined how these concepts express themselves in the final design. The iterations between the different phases are shown here as a loop of doing design suggestions on the basis of the concepts. Then, the judgment and the start of the design are both on the basis of this evaluation. It is also outlined what work-methods that have been used during this proces.

The detailing of the housing complex in this phase deals with more thorough investigations of the energy demands, lighting conditions and indoor climate conditions. These investigations should give some area where the housing complex can be optimized even further without losing the overall concept. In this phase programs like PHPP, BSim and RELUX are to be used for the detailed calculations. In this phase, functionality and aesthetical qualities find their foot in the project: They are investigated according to different technical aspects like placement of installation cores and different furnishing of the plan according to the daylight distribution in the different rooms. The Presentation Phase This is the final phase where most of the visualizations take place. It is presented in a way that focuses on the qualities of the project and a description of how the demands from the analysis phase has been achieved.

ANALYSIS

SKETCHING

SYNTHESIS

PRESENTATION


CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT

WHAT

METHODS

SEPARATION BETWEEN PARENTS AND CHILDREN

B-SIM

PERSONAL PRIVACY

PRIVATE GARDEN/BALCONY SEMI-PRIVATE COURTYARDS

DIAL EUROPE

HEATING DEMAND 15 kWh/m2 pr. year ORIENTATION

MONTH AVERAGE

SOLAR SHADING LARGE GLASS SOUTH FACADES PHPP

VISION

ANALYSIS OF THE RESULT

FINAL PROPOSAL

HIGH INSULATION MINIMIZING THERMAL BRIDGES RHINO

NATURE WILD NATURE IN THE SITE JOINING NATURE AND COMPLEX

SKETCHING

SECURING THE FUTURE CHANGEABILITY

RELUX

Ill. 7-1 Design process in this project

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Ill. 8-1 Rendering from the site


future tendencies how to create a home

functions of the rooms

home family combination -over time

neutral | active frame

what is a home

Ill. 10-2 Teenagers

Ill. 10-3 Young couple

single family house versus housing complex Ill. 10-1 Mapping of things to investigate

To establish the focusgroup for this project we have gathered informations from different sources that give a suggestion of how the future might look. Of course it is not possible to predict the future but people who work with this every day are more likely to have a better suggestion than if we made one up ourselves. We have tried to establish this notion by looking at what the most respected and renowned danish futurologists are saying on this subject. The focus in this section is on the house and the occupants. How is the family constructed in the future? What are the demands from different people in different age and status? What rooms look to be important in the future? These are some of the questions we try to find answers to in the following. Several futurologists believe that houses of the future are either Zero-energy houses or Plus-energy houses due to the fact that we are running out of fossil-fuels and have to think in alternative energy sources. They believe that the closer we get to end of fossil-fuels the more economic reasons for researching in alternative energy sources. When it comes to organising the houses there is a ten-

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dency for a higher need for private space within the home according to futurologists. The man probably needs an office/mans room for him to be alone in. This is his refuge, the place where he is by himself and where he gets a break from the hectic family life and where he gets refueled. The office could be replaced by a workshop or similar. The woman needs a room for her too for the same reasons as the man does. Rooms like library, dining room, larder and storage rooms could also be on the wish list. Additional rooms for the kitchen/living room are necessary in the future to put away the untidiness. It is important to have a living room/kitchen that signalizes surplus and wellbeing. Due to the diversity in needs for a family or a couple over time, it is important that the apartment or the building complex can satisfy those needs either by having an apartment that is adaptable to those changes or having a large diversity in different apartments in the housing complex that fulfill these specific needs. In order to get an overview of what needs and demands different people of different ages and status have, we have tried to divide people into categories according to age and status.

TEENAGERS (15-20): This group covers the amount of teenagers that have moved away from home either to go to school or to work. They do not have many demands to the dwelling other than it has to be cheap due to their fairly limited income. They use the dwelling for the most basic things like eating, sleeping, laundry and homework. The rest of their time they spend away from their home. THE YOUNG PEOPLE (20-35): This category is the people that are in their twenties and beginning of the thirties. They haven’t settled down yet and had children or bought a house. They enjoy to live near the city center. Close to the pulsating life in the city. They are free and independent and enjoying their life as much as they can. The demands for the dwelling is, that it has to be very adaptable to changing uses and it must meet the demand of the floating boundaries between home and work or studies and home. Because of this the facilities for communication all around the world must be present.


THE PARENTS/FAMILIES (35-55): This category covers the group of people who have settled down and have had a family. They have probably moved to the outer ring of the city or to the suburb and bought a house. They are from the middle of their thirties and to late fifties. They are the age group with the highest income and they haven’t got the need to move around but are enjoying the peace and quiet outside the city centre. Their demands for a house are that there have to be a room for each of the family members. The common spaces in the house are also important. The common space has to be able to be the center of the family’s everyday life and the center of a fancy dinner for several people. The rooms also have to be able to adapt to hobby activities and quality time for the family. The parents might bring home some work and because of this there has to be facilities to fulfill such a demand. When designing for this category you have to be aware of the change in the needs of the family. When the kids are small an open plan solution is comfortable because the family can be gathered and close most of the evening, but when the kids become teenagers their use of the rooms changes. A teenager’s loud music, late night visits from friends, late homecomings from a night out and similar things can drive the rest of the family crazy, so in that case a more divided plan solution seems to be a better solution. The category contains the single parents as well. THE SENIORS (55-75): This is the group of people where the children have moved away from home. They are full of life and energy. They may have retired and have lots of time and money for themselves. This is a part of the population that spends a lot of money. They might go on vacation several times a year, to different cultural events on a regular basis and they appreciate the neighborhood they have been living in for more than 20 years but they might want to move to something smaller because they don’t need all the space anymore or they would want to change the children’s bedrooms into something else, perhaps a hobby room or by adding them to the main living room if possible.

Ill. 11-1 Family

Ill. 11-2 Seniors

Ill. 11-3 Elderly

THE ELDERS (75- ): They like the place where they have been living for a long time and they don’t want to move, but the health can make them. This is usually the people with the most space pr. person. Their demands are very much focused on the accessibility both around the apartment/house and on the outdoor area. The focus group for this project is occupants for a housing complex, that are environmentally conscious, but it is not a lifestyle to them. They want to be environmental as long as it does not compromise their current way of living. Most of them still want to have a car. They want to have a large apartment/house (140-250 m2) and some of them may try to justify the large apartment/house with argument that the apartment/house is a passive house and the environmental impact of that particular apartment/house is therefore not as big as in an ordinary apartment/house. This is of course a hypocritical attitude but a quite common one. This is of course in conflict with the sustainable approach of not squander space away. The more space – the more used energy. Sadly enough we can see that the more wealthy a society is, the bigger the houses are and thereby a bigger use of energy.

Due to the sites location in Aalborg it is not found realistic to attract teenagers, the young people and the elders. For the teenager the rent would be too high to pay and it is too far away from the city centre, friends etc. For the young people the location is the main problem. It is too far away from the city centre and pulsating life. For the elders it is a problem to be this far away from shopping facilities. It seems like the community council has directed their attention towards other parts of Aalborg for new development and because of this it is questionable that there is going to be supermarkets or such in the area nearby in the close future. It is the intention to create a housing complex that appeals to couples, which wants to settle down and be a bit distanced from the pulsating life in the city centre. This be both couples that have not had children yet and seniors were the kids have moved away from home. The aim is also to attract families that want a good alternative to the single family house. A dwelling that is situated close to the city but still in an area where you have nature and green areas around you. This chapter will be considered when making the room program and functions diagram. The chapter is based on readings [Clausen et al, 2007, pp.12-16], [Kruse, 2004], [Newsagency DK, 2008], [Paludan, 2001], [Jensen, 2001], [Jensen (1), (2), (3) and (4)]

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home Identity how to create a home

functions of the rooms

home family combination -over time

neutral | active frame

what is a home single family housse versus housing complex

Ill. 12-1 Mapping of things to investigate

This semester is focusing on creating houses that are energy efficient, functional, designed with indoor aesthetic qualities as well as outdoor architectural quality. These topics are all relevant to meet the basic physical needs for the dweller in a house. But eventually it is not only a house, which is being designed; it’s also a home. In this chapter we will look a bit further into the thought of “home” which relates to the more psychological perception of the dwelling. In ill. 12-1 are described some topics that are found important to elaborate on in order to define what creates the identity of a home. The question of a neutral or active frame, asks whether the house should consist of a well-defined frame with specific design elements that are easy to recognize, such as colours, shapes and levels or not. The question also relates to which type of flexibility to be used in order to create good conditions for creating a home. First of all we have to ask: What is a home? And what creates a home? Juhani Pallasmaa’s text called “Identity, Intimacy and Domicile” Review, 1994] generates some answers that we now will elaborate on.

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Ill12-2 Architects vision for a very visually coherent house, which eventually also is a home.

Ill 12-3 The more naturally version of home filled with memories and personality, also a more complex visual look

First off all Pallasmaa makes a clear distinction between the term “house” and “home”. The definition of a house is according to Pallasmaa only concerning the shell containing the actual home. A home on the other hand is defined as: “It is evident that home is not an object, a building, but a diffuse and complex condition that integrates memories and images, desires and fears, the past and the present. A home is also a set of rituals, personal rhythms and routines of everyday life” With this statement Pallasmaa criticizes the typical architect which only concerns about: “Meticulously articulated and temporally one-dimensional environment, whereas dwellers ourselves, we prefer a more layered, ambiguous and aesthetically less coherent environment”

tend to rarely focus on the purpose of a house, by being a home for the inhabitants of the house, but how can we as architects approach this psychological way of designing a home?

So Pallasmaa’s mission is to question why we as architects always seem to look for very strict organized, or very avant-garde references when designing houses and homes. Especially the modernist era has produced a lot of these houses, where the concept of the aesthetics and the organization of the building has been the only reasonable criteria for designing a house. Architects

“Home seems to consist of three types of mental or symbolic elements: elements which have their foundation in the deep unconscious bio-cultural level (entry, hearth) elements that are related to the inhabitant’s personal life and identity (memorabilia, inherited objects of the family); and social symbols intended to give certain images and messages to outsiders (signs of wealth, education, social identity, etc.)” In Pallasmaa’s point of view these three mental and symbolic elements form the body of our psychological perception of home. Now we will try to elaborate on the effect these three 3 elements has on our definition of home.


Element 1: Home on the bio-cultural level

Ill13-1 The experience of entering a room

Ill13-3 Visualisation of Gaston Bachelard image of his mind

Ill 13-2 The experience of gathering around the hearth

Ill13-4 The old medieval town filled interesting roads and passages

This level of home concerns our perception of a home in general and certain specific elements, and how we emotionally experience being in our home. “The phenomenology of architecture is founded on verbs rather than nouns. The approaching of the house, not the facade, the act of entering, not the door; the act of looking out of the window, not the window itself; or the act of gathering around rather than the hearth or the table as such seem to trigger our strongest emotions.” So in general to create a home that can be experienced it is essential to incorporate the act of doing specific tasks in the home. Pallasmaa also mentions the old medieval town or any old house as an example of how they stimulate our imagination, because they are not straightforward, but elements are hidden, and it is the act of discovery that makes them interesting to us. Pallasmaa refers to the book “Poetics of space” where Gaston Bachelard expresses the organization of the house of his mind. The numbers of stories in the house is not precise, but the house is looking like an archetype of a common house, and the presence of an attic and a cellar is essential. The attic contains all his fantasies and pleasant memories; the cellar on the other hand suits as storage for fears and unpleasant memories. Bachelard’s point is that both the attic and the cellar are essential for our mental well being, and that it relies on a constant condition of the human mind. It then makes sense that we need physical spaces that adjust to our mental condition at different times. Speaking of the wellbeing in the home it is important that the house mentally functions as symbol of protection and order. Home as a mental symbol of security, can also be supported by the physical design of the house. For instance Pallasmaas expresses his experience of home and protection like this: “I live in an attic flat under a tin roof. The strongest and most pleasurable experience of home occurs during a heavy storm when rain beats against the roof, magnifying the feeling of warmth and protection” The experience of these primal elements and still the protection from these makes us realized that we are home and safe. In addition Pallasmaa describes that the feeling of home is characteristic when sitting in your enclosed privacy looking out onto the public realm.

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Element 2: Personal identity of home

Single house vs. Apartment

The second level focuses on the identification of our specific home, home as being personal, filled with memories, and inherited furniture. By filling up our buildings with these memories, imagination, and objects that we relate to, we will create territories that express our personality. Pallasmaa gives an example. “It is frustrating to be forced to live in a space that we cannot recognize or mark as our personal territory. An anonymous hotel room is immediately personalized and taken into possession by subtly marking the territory -laying out clothes, books, objects, opening the bed, etc.”. A specific design of the building would eventually help the user to recognize the space as being his or her, and relate it specifically to their personality. Pallasmaa divides architecture into two groups, one group that can adapt to personalization and another group that will reject personalization. Pallasmaa defines the two groups this way: “The first one facilitates reconciliation, the second attempts to impose by its untouchable order. The first is based on images that are deeply rooted in our common memory, that is, in the phenomenological authentic ground of architecture. The second manipulates images, striking and fashionable, perhaps, but which do not incorporate the personal identity, memories and dreams of the inhabitant. The second attitude may create architecturally more imposing houses, but the first provides the condition of homecoming.” In order to feel home the house has to be able to adapt or reflect the personality of the inhabitant without being neutral like a hotel room for instance.

We will now use some of Pallasmaas ideas to describe home, in order to pin point the difference between the possibilities of creating a home in the different situations. The single house will often have the possibilities for personalization through a lot of elements, such as: garden, facade, and in general addition and restructuring of elements that are visible to the public realm. Apartments usually only offers personalization in the interior, where the user on the exterior is unable to express identity. In Pallasmaas terminology the apartment is built on an untouchable order, where as the single house in most cases facilitates reconciliation between house and user. In most apartment cases the user will be isolated from the forces of nature because of the little amount of facade facing nature, which eventually would decrease the primal feeling of home. Actually most of pallasmaas ideas concerning home is not fulfilled in the ordinary apartment complex, because the idea of an apartment complexes was widely spread through the 60’ up till now where architects was more concerned with making physical room rather than the wellbeing of humans living in this complexes.

Ill 14-1 Feeling of being home when looking out on the public from the enclosed privacy

This was a brief view on another approach of designing houses and homes ideas from this chapter will from now on be in our minds when designing and making decissions. Ill 14-2 The felling of inhabiting when you curl up to your own private space

Element 3: Home as communicator Because homes often are quite personal, in some cases people like the single house because it can function as a communicator of personality towards the public. „Home is a projection and basis of identity, not only of an individual but also of the family. But homes, the mere secrecy of private lives concealed from the public eye, also structure social life. Homes delineate the realms of intimacy and public life”. Pallasmaa also speaks of home as and two-way mediator especially if the dweller is able to express his or her personality through the façade, it will eventually also strengthens the dwellers self-image, and the dweller will be able to concretizes his or her perception of the world order.

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Ill14-3 Examples on how to expose identity on the façade.


SITE ANALYSIS

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the site city centre

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Ill. 16-1 Areal foto of Aalborg


The site for this project is situated in Aalborg west at the harbor front. The distance to the centre of Aalborg, Nytorv, is 2,5 km. The site analysis is made to create an overview of the character of the site, and it will be used to determine and evaluate the qualities and potentialities of a design idea. Ill. 17-1 Areal foto of the site

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Mood collage from the site

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Silo housing: Placed in Nørresundby, it represents a visual icon in the area.

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Housing complex The main material characterising the dwelling on the fjord are wood and steel. They convey natural and warm definitions to the buildings.

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Diving tower: It represents a high landmark that identifies the swimming bath next to the location.

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Garnisonsmuseum: This building is not considered in the project. The actual site will be an empty, open space in the field.

9 Ill. 18-1-9 Fotos from the site

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mapping the area The area in which the site is situated is characterized by being surrounded by an inferno of leisure activities and private and public spaces as showed ill. 20-1. The area has many different offers all the way from yachting harbor, swimming facilities, riding, a BMX field, and football activities to a church. But the area also contains institutions such as a nursery, a school etc. An old tradition for garden houses are kept alive in the area, these garden houses are mainly owned by people living in apartments in Aalborg west. The map (ill. 20-2) clearly shows that the majority of this area is being used for outdoor spaces. N

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Ill. 20-2 Outdoor spaces

1. THE PROJECT SITE

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Additional housing 2. gardenhouses

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INSTITution 3. protected housing 4. nursery 5. ground school 6. after-school centre 7. care of senior citizens

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Ill. 20-1 Mapping of the area

LEISURE 8. outdoor swimming pool 9. scout movement 10. bmx field 11. submarine museum 12. harbour 13. park area 14. church 15. haraldslund (swimming, fitness and library) 16. football stadium 17. riding school 18. aalborg freja (footballschool and fields) 19. public playground 20. ak Jyden (fitnesscenter) 21. trotting track 22. aalborg sejlklub (yachting harbour) 23. restaurant 24. pelikanen (windsurfing club) 25. aalborg forsvar og garnisonsmuseum


paths

nodes|landmarks

housing types

South of the site is the area bounded by Skydebanevej, a large road with cars driving app. 50-60 km/h. This road leads directly to the centre of Aalborg. On the opposite side of the site is the waterfront. At the waterfront there is a pedestrian path that leads from Aalborg Sejlklub (number 22) to a harbor closer to Aalborg centre. Three different approaches to the site are described on page 30-31.

In the area of the site there are a few landmarks and nodes. The most important is the silo housing on the Nørresundby side of Limfjorden. See page 18-19. Closest to the site is the diving tower in the public swimming bath next to the site. There is also a church close by.

The context of the site contains various types of housing. In the area east of the site there is an edge dominated by 4 level apartment housing, whereas to the south you first meet garden houses and then a more distinguished villa area.

There are three nodes in the near context: a bus stop, an ice cream booth and the place where the ferry from the island Egholm comes ashore.

local ferry

walk / bicycling

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apartment housing

slow speed (app. 30-40 km/h)

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villas

high speed (app. 50-60 km/h)

landmarks

gardenhouses

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Ill. 21-1 Paths in the area

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Ill. 21-2 Nodes and Landmarks in the area

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Ill. 21-3 Housing types

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weather conditions The course of the sun is on the opposite side of the view towards the fjord. At this point the only building creating shadows on the site are the Aalborg Forsvar og Garnisonsmuseum, but it will not be taken in to consideration in this project, since the site is considered empty.

solar

Illustration 22-1 shows a big difference in the height of the sun between June and December.

itude

alt

The windrose (Ill. 22-3) shows that the wind blowes primarily and strongest along the shoreline from WSW.

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The windsquare (Ill 22-2) shows the main wind directions according to month, windspeed and time of day.

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Ill. 22-1 Solar altitudes

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Ill. 22-2 Wind rose of the site

Ill. 22-3 Sun path diagram

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Ill. 22-2 Wind square

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GREEN & MATERIALS The greenery at the site is a great part of the experience coming to the site area. In the next pages there is an overview of the diversity of the area surrounding the site.

Rough, uneven nature

Controled nature

Ill. 23-1 Nature of the site

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The greenery in the area near the site is divided in two different zones (see ill. 23-1). The site is mainly surrounded by a rough, uneven nature but as the nearby housing is approached, the nature changes into a more human controlled nature. The amount of flowers increases rapidly, but nature itself decreses and is turned into a place of control and submission. The materials used in the surroundings mainly consist of wood, stone, metal and the water a mixture of warm and cold materials. A particular element at the harbour and the open bath are wooden bridges which go out into the water. From spring to autumn the sailboats gives the area a special calm spirit, both in the harbour and along the fjord.

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On the basis of the studies on the nature and materials that are in the surroundings, it has been decided that the intention is to preserve much of the rough and wild nature. This approach is to be taken because of the large diversity in vegetation that are present at the site area and because this is partly why a lot of people use this area of Aalborg for activities and this is not to be taken from them altough there is being built a large amount of dwellings. The large variety in materials that is in the area gives us fairly free hands when deciding on which types of materials to use for the dwellings. Due to the sustainable theme of this project and the wish to preserve nature at the site, a choice of material that blends in and is sustainable would be very obvious. In this way the impact of the dwellings on the site is reduced.

Ill. 24-28 Pictures from the site

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serial visions According to Gordon Cullen’s concept of “Townscape” the experience of a place is closely related to our personal and emotional involvement because visions evoke our memories and experiences. Therefore a place can be discovered and interpreted in many different ways according to the type of approach towards the site. By studying the site, it shows that the area is well reachable from three different approaches. In order to express the nature of each path a sequence of pictures was taken to understand how the surroundings reveal themselves through different scenarios of the landscape.

Bicycle Way

The Harbour side

The Main Street

10

11

12

6 5

6

4

3 2

1

9 8 7 6

5

5

4 1

2

3

1 2

4 3

Ill. 29-1 Described paths

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The harbour side 1

7

2

8

Path no.1 – Approaching the site from west: “The harbour side� Starting from the Aalborg Sejlklub and following the curving edge of the fjord water on a small path, the first visual impact is characterized by some residential dwellings facing the harbour front, a green rise on the right side and on the left the outdoor room opens up to the yachting harbour and the fjord. Continuing along the street and approaching the buildings little by little the flatness of the green area of the previous landscape on the right side is substituted by the apartments, which creates a 10 meter high wall. The dwellings contrast the openness of the harbour and sight towards Egholm Island which are still on the left side. As the picture no.7 shows, a perspective escape of the dwellings is seen as well as the contrast in the openness and closeness between the left and right side. These buildings hide the view towards the actual location of the project, but at the same time they allow some narrow sights between the housing blocks as in pic no.8. The undulating path ends up to the car park where the Egholm ferry line is set. Finally the location is clearly visible behind this housing complex, and the perception of the landscape changes dramatically to a wide and flat landscape without any mentionable obstacles

3

9

4

10

5

11

6

12

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ay w e l The bicyc 3

2

1

6

5

4

Path no.2 – Approaching the site from east: “The bicycle way” From the main axis street Vestre Fjordvej it is possible to access Raivej which leads directly to the project location through a bicycle rute. Looking down this dirt road, at first sight it seams narrow, but it opens up to a large and green field. When approaching the site the fjord is on the right and the diving tower of the swimming bath is on the left which is a landmark in the area because of its height. Visually this path starts out from the more dense character of the city towards the more open and wild environment. Continuing along this itinerary, in the front direction the residential dwellings are visible from distance, and the managing building of the open bath is lying on the left. Crossing a small timber bridge, which makes an enclosed space between fjord and building. The location appears on the left side, the path ends up in the same car park as in the previous road.

Path no.3 – Approaching the site from south: “The Main Street” Starting from the Vesterkær Kirke and moving away from the city, it is possible to walk along Skydebanevej on the right side. The road is visually large and straight and it is considered as a traffic main street. It is also possible to meet some different leisure activities like Strand Parken Camping and Aalborg Forsvar og Garnisonsmuseum on the right side. When reaching Væddeløbsbane lying on the left, Egholm Færgevej is to be taken on the right side. After turning building 3 on the left and building 4 is on the right (Ill. 20-1). The street opens up toward a green and flat landscape, surrounded by the residential dwellings on the left side, still visible from a distance. Moreover a low hill hides the actual location from the sight on the right. The same car park is approached then, and the project site is finally exposed.

The Main Stree

t

1

2

3

4

5

6

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genius loci

The good essence of a place is to be found not only in the physical and proper characteristics of the place itself, but especially in its relation and involvement with human and their expectations and feeling about it. This will allow a better and critical analysis of the location, explaining the emotional responses of people that might experience the place in the future. Although it lies not so far from the city centre, the location presents a very different characterisation from the more dense and traditional environment of the town. Indeed, the entire area allows people to detach from the ordinary city-life and to immerge themselves into a more quite and wild environment. Moving from the traffic of the main street, you are suddenly pushed in a more silent context, that seems to be protected by an invisible barrier, and that suggests you the calmness of the spot.

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As the human mind reacts to contrast, to differences between things, in this case the natural character of the place is expressed by the vivid contrasts of colours and the use of natural materials like wood in the buildings. Since there are not very high buildings, a very open and wide perception of the surrounding space reveals its warm features: a clear skyline divides the bright green of the grass and the burnt brown of the ground from a blue sky, and the presence of the water emphasises like a mirror the sense of expansion and involvement with the place. However, the apartment blocks facing the fjord represent a sharp edge for both the open areas of the yatching club on the west and the BMX-field on the east. Walking next to the buildings, their 10 m high façades convey you a sense of closure that opposes itself to the dilation of the natural environment towards the harbour and towards the location on the other side of the dwellings.

The natural character of the place gives contrasting feelings because of its various feature that are expressed in the different points of view: the natural context is sometimes exposed openly and directly, while some other times it reveals itself in a more intimate way, almost hidden itself from the observers’ eyes. From narrow paths or views suddenly a wide perception of the space opens up in an unexpected way, affecting the emotional involvement with the site. The way the environment is put together, as the transparency of the water defines its purity, is potentially one of our most exciting and widespread sources of pleasure. Moreover the water suggests the passing of time and the sequence of season, as light and colours change according to weather conditions. Indeed, in a rainy or cloudy day the darkness and the movement of the water may convey melancholic feelings while in a sunny and

Ill. 32-1 Panorama from the site


Ill. 33-1 Panorama from the site

bright day the calmness and the reflection of the blue sky suggest vitality and happy moods. Another strong element characterising the area is the presence of the wind: blowing mainly from west, it is shielded by the residence dwellings, although it is still allowed to blow through the narrow passages between the housing blocks. But being in the area is like a very open place, the location is actually windy and the wavy movement of the long plants between the vegetation reflects the water flowing in the fjord.

CONTEXT ARCHITECTURE The three different paths display the mixture of styles, materials and scales of the surrounding: moving away from the city centre the classical red and yellow-brick architectural style is left behind going towards more recent kind of textures and patterns in the building faรงades. The residential dwellings following the coastline of the fjord consist in three blocks of family houses characterized by a design which expresses itself in the timber construction and a warm texture of the faรงades. They are organized in three storeys connected by staircases in both the ends of the buildings providing also an external access to the apartments in form of open corridors. The main materials are wood for the structure and the covering while steel is largely used both for protective, aesthetic and texture reason. In a future configuration the steel railings may be covered by climbing vegetation.

Ill. 33-2 Panorama from the site

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site conclusion These conclusions from the site suite as an answer for the site analysis, and a tool to design and evaluate design proposals. Looking through all of the aspects related to the characterization of the project area, a large amount of potentials and qualities of the overall context seem to emerge from them. In fact the future inhabitants of the location will benefit of fantastic views towards the fjord and the surroundings. There will not be sharp edges between the wild and rough nature and the more private and controlled one but they will be given a continuous

transition instead. The vegetation and greenery studies have been very useful to this purpose in order to show the different types of existing plants and bushes and try to find reasonable design criteria for them to be fully integrated in our project vision. One of these for instance could be to assure privacy for the people according to the different degrees of visibility towards the area. A low level of visibility is to be found in the western part of the location while going towards south/east a more high one might compromise the privacy of the inhabitants.

A similar approach is kept for the materials which also convey a deep feeling of the human-made side of the spot. The paths are going to be taken into consideration in order for the housing complex to achieve a strong connection with the surrounding environment and provide a new curving topography of the landscape that is currently flat.

view from the site

view towards the site

wind

Low visibility to site

Wind protection

Semi visibility to site

Ill. 34-1 One of the most important design parameters is to establish the view from the housing complex towards the fjord.

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Ill. 34-2 Because of the many roads and tracks around the site some initiatives needs to be taken in order to assure the privacy of the site.

Ill. 34-3 The site can easily be quite windy from the western side and some protections might be required.


Bicycle route today New bicycle route Pedestrian road today New pedestrian road Car road today

new access routes through the site Ill. 35-1 All the existing roads and tracks could be integrated into the site. The bycicle paths could be drifted into the area as well as the pedestrian paths.

the topography Ill. 35-2 Today the topography of the site is looking quite flat, but with the advantage that a different landscape could be introduced to create a more interesting environment.

vegetation Ill. 35-3 The vegetation at the site is primarily consisting of low bushes and small trees. Higher trees could contribute to shade from the wind and the sun and give privacy.

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Sustainable approaches We have already defined the term “sustainable”, based on the “Brundtland-Report”, but now it is time to go further into the sustainable vision, that is the main focus for this project. To concretize the sustainable approach the lectures by Ph.d Hanne Tine Ring Hansen, which defines 6 approaches to sustainable architecture will be used:

1. Should it be obvious that the housing complex is sustainable? 2. Does the housing complex aim for highly sustainable conscious inhabitants, which are willing to let their everyday life, be affected, or not? 3. What are the main sustainable design initiatives that makes this housing complex sustainable?

- Selfsufficient architecture - Ecological Architecture - Green Architecture - Bioclimatic Architecture - Environmental Design - Solar Architecture

The answers for these questions are: 1. No. It’s not obvious that the housing complex is sustainable, or at least not for the general public. It is the goal to create a housing complex that visually doesn’t give the impression of a highly sustainable building, it should be up to the owner of the house to decide whether they want to display a sustainable lifestyle or a different lifestyle or atmosphere. 2. No. It’s the aim to make housing units that gives the inhabitants the opportunity to live their normal life. The housing units shouldn’t for instance force the occupant’s to live with a lower temperature in wintertime compared to the standard comfort temperature just to be more sustainable. By doing so we aim to make houses that attract the wider ordinance, and bringing sustainability in to the ordinary housing market.

These 6 approaches give an overview on what the primary focus is in the different approaches, which we will get back to. Because the actual starting point of our sustainable approach started with some general thoughts on how we would envision this housing complex. These thoughts have been organized in to these two lists of questions and answers:

3. With the previous answers it is clear in order to fulfil them that the sustainable design initiatives must be of a passive character, rather than active sustainable design elements. Active sustainable elements like photovoltaics, windmills, and active solar shading tend to be more exposed, and will thereby affect the image of the houses and the site in general. When choosing passive elements for the design of the houses, we also emphazise the use of low-tech rather than high-tech solutions. Low-tech solutions is less demanding when it comes to maintenance, and doesn’t recommend that the user is aware of how to use these systems, and finally the low-tech design solution is long-lasting. With the term “passive” regarding design initiatives in houses we more specifically refers to passive design topics, which are described in the list ”Our sustainable approach”. With the definition of “passive” we also introduce a hierarchy where the different passive initiatives are classified after which we most focus on in our design.

Ill. 36-1 Green Architecture Ill. 36-3 Ecological Architecture

Ill.36-2 Selfsufficient architecture

Ill. 36-4 Environmental Design

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Ill. 36-5Bioclimatic Architecture

Ill. 36-6 Solar Architecture


Our sustainable approach The 3 lists below are showing three sustainable approaches that have been selected from the previsously 6 mentioned. This selection has been made on the basis of what is found interesting regarding a passive sustainable approach. The list is based on Hanne Trine Rings analysis of the passive sustainable initiatives that are most used in the different approaches. Originally the list also contained some other sustainable subjects mostly concerning active sustainable initiatives that have been erased to focus on the passive part of sustainable design, which is our main concern. The list has also been organized into categories to make the different approaches easier to compare, and a shading parameter has been added. On the basis of these 3 lists we have picked out what we find interesting to work with and put in ”Our sustainable approach” The List ”Our sustainable approach” shows that we want to put a lot of focus in factors related to the sun, both for heating and daylight in order to reach the energy frame for passive houses of 15 kWh/m2 pr. year. Insulation of the building envelope is also set to be a major theme. Choice of material is also important although we do not consider this as a highest priority factor in creating a passive house. Surface to floor area ratio is also important in creating a passive house, but we won’t be extreme about this subject and start designing very low surface housing units. The same could be said

Solar approach

Building envelope

-Surface to floor area ratio -Insulation of building envelope -Thermal mass of material Solar heating and daylight

-Window to floor area ratio -Window area to orientation ratio -Utilization of daylight -Shading

-Zoning

about the priority of embodied energy of materials, although this subject probably is the lowest in the hierarchy. Zoning is about organizing functions like bedrooms, so they for instance face north this would result in a cold room which most people would prefer for sleeping in. The problem with zoning is that it affects the flexibility of the house and dictates the inhabitants to use it in a specific way, which is why we don’t use zoning in our design for a passive house. Eventually the use of certain active sustainable elements will also be necessary especially for ventilation both naturally and mechanical, which will be discussed in a later chapter. Also shading could be active and a far more visible object in the overall design of the houses, compared to some of the other passive and active initiatives. If we compare the 4 lists and their priorities, we see that our approach has most in common with the solar approach, probably because this approach was the foundation of the passive house movement. Solar architecture focuses a lot on passive elements such as sun heating and the design of the building envelope in their housing design. Unlike the solar approach the environmental approach is also concerned with utilization of daylight, which we see as very essential both from a sustainable and architectural point of view. Likewise the environmental approach is not particularly focusing on zoning different functions in the house. The comparison between the bioclimatic approach and our approach is not very significant, although there are matching elements.

Environmental approach

Building envelope -Surface to floor area ratio

-Insulation of building envelope -Thermal mass of material

Solar heating and daylight

-Window to floor area ratio -Window area to orientation ratio

-Utilization of daylight -Shading

Our sustainable approach Building envelope

-Surface to floor area ratio

-Insulation of building envelope -Thermal mass of material

Solar heating and daylight

-Window to floor area ratio -Window area to orientation ratio -Utilization of daylight -Shading -Zoning

Materials

-Life cycle assessment of materials -Embodied energy of materials

High priority : Medium priority : Low priority : Not used

Biocliamtic approach Building envelope

-Surface to floor area ratio -Insulation of building envelope -Thermal mass of material

Solar heating and daylight -Window to floor area ratio

-Window area to orientation ratio -Utilization of daylight -Shading

-Zoning

-Zoning

Materials

Materials

Materials

-Life cycle assessment of materials

-Life cycle assessment of materials

-

-

Embodied energy of materials High priority : Low priority : Not used

Embodied energy of materials High priority : Low priority : Not used

-Life cycle assessment of materials -Embodied energy of materials High priority : Low priority : Not used

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Ill. 38-1 Vision sketch

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vision The creation of a house is not only a functional and technical solution for a place where people can live; it mainly deals with expectations and human qualities added to the design that would rise up the emotional and psychological comfort of the inhabitants. Closeness to nature, openness to the landscape and involvement with a sense of freedom may appease people more then a house set in an ordinary block in the city centre. The poetic natural landscape characterising the location is a characteristic to be considered a strong value that should be emphasised with the design of the future buildings. The image of a place where people can feel invited to live thanks to the calmness and detachment from the city centre, in order to be more in contact with a wilder environment, is developing a vision on the qualities that will characterise the design of the housing in this project.

The element of the water, that is present all around the area in the fjord, in the open bath and in the private harbour next to the site, is gathering the atmosphere of the area and it is intended to have a focal role in the evolution of the design. Timber paths and creeks running through the site make spaces between rough and wild vegetation that follows the wind. Simple buildings are in a way hidden by high stems in a meadow that surrounds all the area. The building themselves do not break the sense of the place, but they are integrated in the environment thanks to warm and simple materials that approach them to the simplicity of the context. Wild vegetation and controlled greenery are integrating showing the cooperation between the man action and the presence of the nature. All the elements seems to gather in an overall relaxing atmosphere, ruled by silence and calmness and dominated by the wind.

39


prob The sustainable vision has been defined with primary focus on the passive sustainable design initiatives, in order to create houses that are sustainable, without requiring the users to changer their lifestyle. The design of the housing units also requires attention to the comfort of the house regarding thermal, and light comfort. The target groups for this project are families on different stages from the young family with small kids to the senior where the kids are grown up and have left the house. Based on the “home identity� chapter the housing units has been defined as owner-occupied dwellings, in order

40

to fulfill the basic need for human beings to have control over their property, and to express their identity. Still a major challenge is to design these dwellings in a way, which appeals to a Danish family who normally would live in a villa in the outer ring of the city. The possibilities of the location are of great importence, and the spirit of the site is also a vital factor for this project. Above-mentioned result in the following problem:


blem How can a passive housing unit and complex be created so that it appeals to a Danish family, fulfill their needs over time and takes on the spirit of the site?

41


outdoor spaces From the investigations of the materials at the site area and the mood of the site, there has been made a collage that represents different approaches to defining the character of the outdoor spaces. A proper understanding of the impact the surroundings have on people can lead to an intelligent use of techniques that can create the mood and experience that makes it a place were people can enjoy themselves. It is sought to explore some of these techniques and thus creating a more thorough understanding of these techniques.

2. PROJECT: FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT LOCATION: UTRECHT, HOLLAND ARCHITECTS: MECANOO ARCHITECTEN The architects have in this project accentuated the courtyards. The three story building is surrounding the green courtyard with different tall vegetation. They make the occupants interact with the space either by walking across the courtyard or by walking around in it, hereby creating different ways of experiencing the space.

2. Ill. 42-2

1. Ill. 42-1

1. PROJECT: DIANAS HAVE LOCATION: HØRSHOLM, DENMARK ARCHITECTS: TEGNESTUEN VANDKUNSTEN The architects have in this project achieved a nice and homely atmosfere between the houses. They have used different types of pavement and carefully placed vegetation allowing sunlight to access the space between the houses, to achieve this mood.

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3. PROJECAT: KINGO HOUSING LOCATION: HELSINGOR, DENMARK ARCHITECTS: JORN UTZON Jørn Utzon is noted for his design of housing reminiscent of traditional Danish farmhouses with four sheltering sections set around a central courtyard. The 63 houses were built in rows following the undulations of the site, providing a specific view for each house, as well as the best situation possible for sunlight and shelter from the wind. Walls of varying heights closed the open sides of the L. The arrangement of the houses is described “like flowers on the branch of cherry tree, each turning toward the sun.”

3. Ill. 42-3-4


4. PROJECT: BEL COLLE LOCATION: RUNGSTED, DENMARK ARCHITECTS: LUNDGAARD & TRANBERG In this project the architects have placed the buildings with great care of the eksisting nature at the site. They have placed the building so that views towards the south end of the park is maintained. 5. PROJECT: KIYOMIZU-DERA TEMPLE COMPLEX LOCATION: KYOTO, JAPAN This is an old Buddhist temple complex where the main roads for moving around the complex is siutated in the middle of the complex. Along the main road there is tall trees that creates a space and drawes the focus towards the end. Small temples are situated on the sides behind walls that secure privacy for the Buddhist monks.

6. PROJECT: TIETGEN DORMITORY LOCATION: COPENHAGEN, DENMARK ARCHITECTS: LUNDGAARD & TRANBERG This dormitory in a newly developed part of Copenhagen has a very interesting approach to the organisation of the dormitory. All the private housing facilities are situated on the outside of the circular building while all the common spaces are situated inwards. This creates a focus towards the courtyard and the commonspaces on the other side of the dormitory. The courtyard is quiet pragmatic with needly organised trees on a circular lawn in the middle of the courtyard. It is a nice space to be in because of the courtyard and the way the common spaces are pulled inwards or outwards in the facade.

4. Ill. 43-1

5. Ill. 43-2

6. Ill. 43-3

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lighting Light can be considered one of the most important element for the perception of a piece of architecture: volumes, spaces, forms, texture, colours and movements in the space achieve importance and focus according to studies and solutions on light conditions. As well as outdoor spaces, where orientation and shadow can give particular definitions of shape and expression of the building, in indoor spaces light increases its importance according to the use that people may need of it. Different rooms require different natural and artificial light conditions according to the activities that are scheduled or foreseen, and at the same time each users may need particular light conditions in the same place according to their age. The analysis led so far suggest also a first developing idea of how to orientate the building so that a better exploitation of natural sunlight and distribution of rooms can be achieved in the project. In addition to all this, rooms that do not need particular or natural lighting like service areas and bathrooms can be facing the north side of the dwelling. The other main living spaces like studios, living rooms and kitchen, where important activities take place, are better to be oriented with larger openings towards the south side allowing more natural direct sunlight into the building. To fulfil an adequate lighting of the different spaces, illuminance has to be investigated: it is defined as the quantity of light falling on a given surface (horizontal or vertical), and its level in the visual field can strongly affect the eyes’ performances. A good illuminance can be achieved using 3 different layers of lighting: first of all, an Ambient lighting should be considered to give as much as possible equal vision conditions through uniform lighting

of the interior; it provides general, all-purpose light and enable people to move around safely. Then, if a room requires a higher level of lighting, this may be increased using a Task lighting. Finally, an Accent lighting may be introduced to focus attention on elements of visual interest, but it is important not to over use it: a room with a too high level of it may appear disorganised and feel chaotic. Assuming that the ordinary illuminance level is to be 200 lux, we investigated which requirements could be needed for each room, according to different actions. The room scheme at page 48 summarises our understanding of the issue. There are also other parameters that have to be taken into consideration to obtain an optimal distribution of the light in indoor spaces. Luminance, that is to say the reflected light that is perceived by humans’ eyes, relates to the impression of brightness coming from a given surface. Materials and angle of reflection can determine different luminance levels, creating harmonious distribution of brightness in a room. Glare is an interference with visual perception caused by an uncomfortable bright light source or reflection. In its simplest form, glare is a consequence of the normal helpful capability of the human eye to adapt to different light levels. In fact the eye adapts to the high level of the glare source, which makes it hard to perceive details in the now "too dark" work area. Glare can be Direct, if it originates directly from a light source, or Reflected if the reflection of incident light partially or totally obscures the details by reducing the contrast. Finally, a control of contrasts and shadows is also needed to strengthen the 3Dimensional vision of objects and not to confound them with their backgrounds.

When designing a housing complex with such a high building precentage, good daylight qualities can be quite difficult to obtain but with this section in mind the design proces is attacked and the final design will be verified in RELUX. This is only concerning the daylight and not artificial light which is not detailed in this project.

Ill. 44-2 A good glare control avoids discomfort caused by strong differences in luminance levels and by weak light sources.

Ill. 44-3 Contrast and shadows convey a 3dimensional understanding of the spaces.

Ambient lighting thanks to glass surface in the roof and walls and to reflectors.

Task lighting to illuminate the terrasses over the atrium.

Accent lighting: chandeliers reflect light with shifting patterns.

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Ill. 44-1

Ill. 44-4


ventilation In the following section there will looked at ventilation in the dwelling. Concerning the advantages and disadvantages of both mechanical and natural ventilation in the attempt of figuring out what type of ventilation will be the optimal for the housing complex. A good indoor climate entails that the room has a suitable temperature, no draught, good airquality, the right amount of moisture, good lighting conditions, appropriate noise level and good acoustics. If the indoor climate is poor it can affect the health and wellbeing of the occupants. Air quality depends on a lot of factors: the amount of particles, gasses from the building materials and equipment, temperature, humidity and the amount of oxygen and carbon dioxide. The reason for ventilating a building is to uphold good air quality by ventilating the polluted air and smell from building parts and the occupants and their activities, and replacing it with fresh air. Principles of ventilation In order to fulfill the indoor climatic comfort demands the building has to be ventilated. Natural ventilation looks immediately to be the cheapest solution seen from an economic and sustainable point of view but in the more tempered climates as Denmark this can lead to problems with draught. This occurs especially during

Principle of ventilation

Inlet and outlet

Ill. 36-3 Ecological Architecture-

Displacement ventilation

or Mixing ventilation

+

winter because of the inlet air being very cold. This can be avoided by preheating the inlet air, but this takes a lot of energy. In mechanical ventilation systems there is the possibility of heat recovery and this saves a lot of energy for preheating the inlet air. If the amount of energy saved for preheating the inlet air is larger than the energy used for running the mechanical system then you are better off with the mechanical ventilation system than the natural ventilation system. The energy saved varies during the year so it might be wise to look at the savings monthly as oppose to annually.

On ill. 45-1 there has been set up the two different types of mechanical ventilation and compared them. On the basis of the comparison we have decided to go on with the mixing ventilation because it has the most advantages for the occupant and because it is possible to use the ventilation system for heating and cooling if necessary. Mechanical ventilation is very effective in summer and winter, but when heat recovery is not a requirement it can be more reasonable to use natural ventilation.

Mechanical ventilation As mentioned above it is possible to have heat recovery on a mechanical ventilation system and this is one of the huge advantages a mechanical system has. Another advantage is being able to regulate the system so it fits different situations. If the system is computer controlled it is possible to have sensors in the different rooms and then have the computer regulating the amount of air, being put in and extracted from the room, according to the contaminant air or the temperature in the room. + Enables heat recovery + Easy to regulate according to the surroundings + Possible to filter the inlet air รท Uses energy รท Expensive in establishing costs

Vertical tempera- Inlet in resting zone ture difference

Cooling

Heating

Room height

Efficiency

Yes

No

Large

Yes

>3m

>1

-

-

-

-

-

+

Optional

Optional

Small

No

<3m

=1

+

+

+

+

+

Ill. 45-1 Principles of ventilation

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Natural ventilation When looking at natural ventilation there are three different types of principles: single sided ventilation, cross ventilation and stack ventilation. Natural ventilation has its advantages and disadvantages. + No fans are needed and therefore no energy consumption for electricity and a low noise level + Large occupant impact and well received by occupants + Can be used for both ventilation and passive cooling + Improved air quality in summer season + Will be integrated with the building and can be combined with other passive energy technologies ÷ The natural driving forces can for longer periods be quite small (prohibits filtration and heat recovery), which might result in poor indoor quality and/or high interior temperatures ÷ Results in limitation in choice in building layout ÷ Outdoor dust and traffic noise can give problems ÷ It is difficult to fulfil requirements to thermal comfort in winter ÷ The air flow rate will always be dependant of the natural driving forces as well as the occupants control of windows etc. This might result in an increased energy consumption ÷ The indoor temperature will variate more than for a mechanical system

Single sided ventilation: + Possibility for high occupant control ÷ The ventilation air does not penetrate so far into the space ÷ Low ventilation rates ÷ Works only until about 2 times the floor to ceiling height, single opening. 2,5 times for single sided double opening Single sided ventilation is very much depending on thermal buoyancy during winter and wind turbulence during summer. Cross ventilation: + Can ventilate a very deep room. Works up to 5 times floor to ceiling height. + High ventilation flow rates can be achieved. ÷ Need an open plan in order to get the air flow going ÷ Difficult to have individual control due to the open plan ÷ Works only when windy because it is depending on pressure difference at the two openings ÷ Difficult to control due to large and rapid variations in wind flow

Stack ventilation: + Works with thermal buoyancy + Works when there is no wind + Can ventilate a very deep room. Works up to 5 times floor to ceiling height for each side of the atrium/ chimney ÷ Needs a chimney or an atrium ÷ Needs plan openness to work properly ÷ Needs multiple stories to work Because the building has not been designed it we cannot decide what principles to use but there will be looked at the energy consumption and see when mechanical ventilation is more beneficial than natural ventilation and vice versa. This section is written on the basis of lecture 5 and 7 of the PETES courses of this 8. semester.

This is of course the advantages and disadvantages in general, so now we will take a look at the three different principles of natural ventilation and what their advantages and disadvantages are. Single sided ventilation

Cross ventilation

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Stack ventilation

Ill. 46-1-3 Different natural ventilation principels


Heating/cooling in the building In the table shown here, we have mapped different heating/cooling principles and compared them on different characteristics. On the basis of the table it is decided to aim for a combination of thermal mass and mechanical/natural ventilation for heating and cooling the building. The downside of this is that you have to have the same temperature in all rooms unless you put in different systems for the rooms where you want a difference.

Heating / Cooling

Adjustable

Cooling

Heating

Heat accumulation

Draught

Floor heating

Slow

No

Yes

No

No

-

-

+

-

+

Fast

No

Yes

No

No

+

-

+

-

+

Slow

No

No

Yes

No

-

-

-

+

+

Fast

Yes

Yes

No

Yes

+

+

+

-

-

Fast

Yes

No

No

Yes

+

+

-

-

-

Radiators

Thermal mass

Mechanical ventilation

Natural ventilation

Ill. 47-1 Heating/cooling principles

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DEMANDS

room scheme

Kitchen/dining Adult bedroom Children Studio/library Woman/man Bath Laundry

- Operative temperature for winter is 22 +/- 1 (CR-1752) - Operative temperature for summer is 24.5 +/- 1 (CR-1752) - No more than 100 hours above 26 degrees and no more than 25 hours above 27 degrees (DS 474 1993: 15). This request could be modified to fit a housing situation where the occupants are more able to control their own thermal condition, by ventilation and clothing. - The maximal C02- concentration level ought to be less than 1000 ppm (Category B) according to (CR-1752) 2 PARENTS + 2 CHILDREN AGE: 0 - 4 YEARS 2 PARENTS + 2 CHILDREN AGE: 5 - 12 YEARS 2 PARENTS + 2 CHILDREN AGE: 13 - 17 YEARS COUPLE 30 < YEARS

48

Area 1

Area 2

200 - 400

1-2 4 h-1

3-4 4 h-1

1 h-1

-

- BR - demand

200 - 400

1-2 3 h-1

3-4 4 h-1

1 h-1

water

- BR - demand

200 - 500

1-3 1 h-1

4 0,7 h-1

1 h-1

-

- BR - demand

200 - 500

1-2 2 h-1

3 1,4 h-1

1 h-1

-

- BR - demand

200 - 500

1-2 4 h-1

3-4 2 h-1

1 h-1

-

- BR - demand

100 - 500

1-2 4 h-1

4 2 h-1

1 h-1

-

- BR - demand

200 - 400

1-2 4 h-1

3-4 4 h-1

1 h-1

water

- BR - demand

200 - 400

1-2 2 h-1

3-4 2 h-1

1 h-1

water

- BR - demand

4 2 h-1

1 h-1

-

- BR - demand

-

1 h-1

-

1 h-1

-

200

Guest Total m2

-

Garage

LUX 200

- BR - demand

BR= Building regulation POT= point exhaust device

ROOM AREA Total Total Total Total 2 3 4 1

LUX LUX LUX LUX LUX LUX LUX LUX LUX

Living

Different users have different requirements according to age, habits and life style. Here is why it is very important to understand what kind of users is involved and what needs they will have to their home. As it appeared from the previous analysis, families and couples will be the main clients for the project, but these two kinds of users can be further on grouped in 4 main family-groups as it is shown in ill. 48-1 The following table visually summarises the demands of each group under the functional, programmatic and emotional issues, focusing also on the more technical aspects like dimensions, light and ventilation. Some of the criteriaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s there has been setup for the thermal condition will be described. Overall there are lacking guidelines for thermal condition in housing complexes, therefore we are using guidelines from offices, and slightly modifying them into the context of a housing complex:

Ill. 48-1 Definitions of different family-groups

Ventilation Sound insulate Installations Olf internal

Daylight Ventilation Co2 conditions

Area 3

LOAD

USER

TIME

Area Person Person Person Person Time Time Time Time User User User User 4 load 1 load 2 load 3 load 4 load 1 load 2 load 3 load 4 1 2 3 4

Living

1

1

1

1

at 20 m2 at 20 m2 at 20 m2 at 20 m2

8

8

8

8

5

5

1

5

All

All

All

All

Kitchen/dining

1

1

1

1

at 30 m2 at 30 m2 at 20 m2 at 20 m2

8

8

8

8

3

3

2

2

All

All

All

All

Adult bedroom

1

1

1

1

at 15 m2 at 15 m2 at 15 m2 at 20 m2 2

2

2

2

8

8

8

8

30 <

30 <

30 <

30 <

Children

2

2

2

-

at 10 m2 at 10 m2 at 15 m2

2

2

2

13

13

13

0<

5<

13 v

-

Studio/library

1

1

1

1

at 5 m2

at 5 m2

at 10 m2 at 10 m2 2

2

2

2

1

1

2

2

10 -

10 -

10 -

30 <

Woman/man

2

2

-

2

at 5 m2

at 5 m2

-

2

1

1

1

30 -

30 -

-

30 <

Bath

1

1

2

1

at 5 m2

at 5 m2

Laundry

1

1

1

1

at 5 m2

Guest

-

-

-

1

-

Total m2

1

1

1

Garage

1

1

Outdoor

1

1

-

-

-

at 10 m2 2

2

at 5 m2

at 5 m2

2

2

2

2

1

1

1

1

All

All

All

30 <

at 5 m2

at 5 m2

at 5 m2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

10 <

10 <

10 <

10 <

-

-

at 10 m2

-

-

-

8

-

-

-

All

1

at 110 m2 at 110 m2 at 110 m2 at 110 m2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

1

at 20 m2 at 20 m2 at 20 m2 at 20 m2 2

2

2

1

1

at 20 m2 at 20 m2 at 20 m2 at 20 m2 8

8

8

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

0,5

0,5

0,5

0,5

All

All

All

All

8

1

1

1

1

All

All

All

All

2 -


CHANGEABLE SOCIAL CHARACTER Social character 1

Social character 2

Social character 3

Changeable 1

Changeable 2

Changeable 3

Changeable 4

Living

Very changeable

Very changeable

Very changeable

Changeable

Kitchen/dining

Very changeable

Very changeable

Very changeable

Changeable

Not changeable

Changeable

Changeable

Very changeable

Very changeable

-

Studio/library

Not changeable

Changeable

Changeable

Woman/man

Changeable

-

Very changeable

Bath

Not changeable

Not changeable

Not changeable

Laundry

Not changeable

Not changeable

Not changeable

Changeable

Changeable

Changeable

Very changeable

-

-

-

Total m2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Garage

Changeable

Changeable

Changeable

Changeable

Outdoor

Changeable

Changeable

Changeable

Changeable

Adult bedroom children

Guest

Changeable

EXPOSURE

Exposure 1

Exposure 2

Exposure 3

Exposure 4

Social character 4

-

-

-

ATMOSPHERE PRIORITY Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Atmosphere Priority Priority Priority Priority 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

Living

Playful

Playful

Cozy

Cozy

1st

1st

2nd

1st

Kitchen/dining

Comfort

Playful

Comfort

Stylish

1st

1st

1st

1st

Adult bedroom

Intimate

Intimate

Intimate

Intimate

2nd

2nd

2nd

2nd

Playful

Playful

Cozy

-

2nd

1st

1st

-

Cave

Cave

Cave

Cave

3rd

2nd

1st

1st

Cave/creative

Cave/creative

-

Cave/creative

2nd

1st

-

2nd

Comfort

Playfull

Cozy

Cozy

2nd

2nd

2nd

2nd

Order

Order

Order

Order

2nd

2nd

2nd

3rd

Order

Order

Order

Order

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Garage

Order

Order

Order

Order

3rd

3rd

3rd

3rd

Outdoor

Playful

Playful

Comfort

Comfort

3rd

2rd

3rd

2rd

children

-

Studio/library Woman/man

-

Bath Laundry Guest

-

-

-

Total m2

-

-

-

-

3rd

49


function diagram In order to investigate the best solutions for the function diagram of the project, some visual diagrams have been realised. These schematic visualisations aim to show which ones may be the optimal connections between the different rooms without defining an actual plan conformation. The diagrams are organised in order to keep a linear development of the spaces from a more public area, where the main activities are included, towards the most private and intimate area of the bedrooms and the personal rooms. In this way it is still possible to create a

variety of apartments very similar in the function diagram but still being flexible according to the different familiesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; needs over time. These four diagrams are related to the four different groups of customers that had been previously detected. This analysis is a guide to follow during the early stages of the future design process, but they are changeable according to new approaches that will be introduced later on during the development of the design.

2 PARENTS + 2 CHILDREN AGE: 0 - 4 YEARS

2 PARENTS + 2 CHILDREN AGE: 5 - 12 YEARS Children 10 m2

Children 10 m2

Children 10 m2

Living 20 m2

Children 10 m2

Living 20 m2

Outdoor 20 m2 Adult Bedroom 15 m2

Man 5 m2

Adult Bedroom 15 m2

Kitchen/dining 30 m2

Woman 5 m2

Outdoor 20 m2

Laundry 10 m2

Man 5 m2

Woman 5 m2

PRIVATE

50

Laundry 10 m2 Studio 5 m2

Studio 5 m2

Bath 5 m2

Kitchen/dining 30 m2

Bath 5 m2

PUBLIC PRIVATE

PUBLIC


2 PARENTS + 2 CHILDREN AGE: 13 - 17 YEARS

Bath 5 m2 Adult Bedroom 15 m2

Man 10 m2 Kitchen/dining 20 m2

Studio 5 m2

Children 15 m2

Children 15 m2

PRIVATE

COUPLE 30 < YEARS

Outdoor 20 m2 Living 20 m2

Bath 5 m2

Laundry 10 m2

PUBLIC

Living 20 m2 Outdoor 20 m2

Studio 10 m2

Kitchen/dining 25 m2

Adult Bedroom 20 m2

Bath 5 m2

Laundry 10 m2

Woman 10 m2

PRIVATE

PUBLIC

51


concept diagrams The analysis that has been undertaken until this moment developed the main concepts that will be included in the next sketching phase. They are generated in order to create a project that closely refers to the particular characteristics of the site, enhancing the spirit of the place and including considerations about functional issues that will be very important for the future users. The following concepts are to be taken into consideration both for the initial decisions about the design and the organisation of the spaces, as for the development of the project in an environmental and sustainable direction. The concepts are shown in form of diagrams, in order to allow an easy and immediate understanding of their meaning, and a short explanation summarises each of the illustration.

VIEWS In order to investigate design solutions further on, the most interesting views around the site have to be taken into consideration. The need for a good view has also to incorporate the need for privacy and intimacy proper of a house, here is why the area of the site should be divided from the public sphere of the public bath and the street.

VERTICAL APARTMENTS The distribution of the indoor flow is very important in order to create an active and functional indoor space. The future dwelling may be organised in a traditional way, with vertical public connections between the storeys, but it may also be designed in a different manner, such as with multi-storeys apartments with private connections.

DAYLIGHT/OPENINGS

The organisation of the indoor space is very relevant for the indoor lighting. Infact a multistorey apartment allows the daylight to enter the building lighting a wider area.

52

WATER INTEGRATION

Water is a strong element in the site. Lying to the edge of the Limfjord, the location ends up in the canal coast on the north side, and the link with the water continues in the eastern part where the open bath is set. The aim is to involve the water in the project, in order to maintain the connection to the area.


FLOODING

PATHS

The closeness of the area to the fjord requires a consciousness of the possibility of flooding when the showers or wind are more intense. The project may include a platform of simply a 1 m higher level where to set the building to avoid this.

In order to create an active outdoor space, a wooden path linking the different buildings in the area is included. The idea of the paths relates closely to the actual landscape, characterised by the harbour to the west.

WATER PATHS In addition to the concept of the walking paths, water enters the site in connection to them, defining an environment where bridges and paths replace the common idea of a street.

1m

WIND-SHIELD Vegetation can be actively included into the project to shield the dwellings from the strong wind blowing in the site, maintaining possible the natural ventilation in the indoor spaces.

53


concept diagrams PRIVACY 1

BLOCK VS SINGLE UNITS

Another way to obtain privacy indoor is to rise the building up from the street level, in order to avoid people to see inside.

Rather then designing a unique massive building, the same density can be achieved by separating the block into different volumes defining single house units.

PRIVACY 2 The envelope design of the building is also investigated to keep as much privacy indoor as possible. Windows get wider and wider in the higher storeys of the building, but vegetation may allow to open up the facades also in the lower levels.

PRIVACY 3 In order to maintain the privacy between the apartments in different buildings, vegetation is to be included in the project to shield the houses from the observersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; eyes.

54

BUILDING SHADOWS

A good light level in the indoor spaces is also determined by the distance between the different building in the surrounding. Two building set to close may shade each other during most of the day, here is why a consciousness about the shading during the day is necessary.


sustainability concepts ORIENTATION An easy way to fulfil the sustainable approach in the building is to work with organic and compact shapes. As much a building towards The orientation of isthedeveloping dwellings“branches” will take into the outside, as much itfactors becomes more difficult consideration important like sunlight and to controltoindoor wind, exploitclimate. their potentialities in the project.

N

SOLAR SHADING + SOLAR GAIN

SURFACE AREA

External shading can prevent the building from an over-warming: sunlight is shielded during the warmest hour in the day, still having a good light level indoor. In this way, a simple method to prevent direct sunlight and to allow an easier cooling of the building is reached.

An easy way to fulfil the sustainable approach in the building is to work with organic and compact shapes. As much a building is developing “branches” towards the outside, as much it becomes more difficult to reach the passive house standard.

INSULATION ENVELOPE

To minimise the energy consumption in the building, thicker and well-insulated walls may be necessary.

55


proc 56


ces

57


design process phase 1 flats The first approach in the plan design has been to organise the flats with living areas towards south and rooms set on the sides. According to the room scheme the living area should be the most exposed and therefore it is placed towards south and the large glass facades we need there to fulfill the passive house criteria.

to keep further

Since this very early stage the sustainable awareness led to the development of the fan plan, a simple shape that easily allows to obtain wide surfaces towards south. The flat is organised along an indoor flow from the access in the north to the living area in order to exploit the natural daylight from the south.

apartment - fan shape: sustainable plan solution - Living areas towards south - Service rooms where there are no windows - Double high room siteplan -

58

three storeys buildings water element connecting bridges south orientation

The concept of a 2 storeys flat with a double high room has also been introduced in this phase. The aims are to get more daylight inside the apartment and at the same time to organise it in a functional way, keeping service rooms and living room on the bottom level and the other spaces on top.

siteplan

straight row

In the very first phase of the siteplan designing process some different initial concepts have been tried out. In the first case foam blocks representing the 110 m2 apartments have been set where all are facing north-south direction and organized in horizontal lines. All of the little blocks were rised to three floors having each 3 apartments in order to achieve the density of 80% on the overall site area.

The water element could be pushed down along the site forming a pool in the bottom part of it while having little canals running in front of each building or perhaps tiny ones surrounding them like islands. In both suggestions paths and bridges would also function as connecting elements to the area.

In the second scheme we tried out a new organization of the buildings. Still maintaining their north-south orientation, the threestoreys buildings are pushed towards the border followed by the two storeys and one storey block towards the inner space. Decreasing the height a better view will be provided and terracing buildings facing a big outdoor area in the middle are created. Here it could be used to put common rooms.


design process phase 2 flats In the 2nd phase the service-core concept has been developed: all the spaces of the flat are organised around a core where all the tubes and technical tools are collected. In this way, not only a functional and technical issue is solved, but also an interesting circular flow is achieved in the flat; this flow allows to meet spaces that can be opened up towards different views.

to keep further apartment - service core concept - three storeys flat - fan shape plan siteplan -

three storeys buildings wide outdoor areas small courtyards water element connecting bridges

The circulation concept has been integrated then also in the fan plan, trying to obtain a fluent organisation of the indoor spaces also in the 3 storeys apartment. Also the double high room was integrated in the plan solution. Unluckily the small size of the apartment that is required caused some problems related to the dimension of the spaces on the sides of the staircase that were too narrow to fit a comfortable and proper room inside. However the idea of a spiral flow in the 3 storey flat was considered a potential issue to work on. Then, many investigations on the fan plan started, trying to organise the plan in a simple way coming back at solutions on 1 or 2 levels.

siteplan vertical

waves

In this new face a more organic and wavy shape of the site plan was investigated. The north-south orientation of the buildings was abandoned for a more wavy one in order to achieve a good flow and take the water in the area as a strong design element while creating outdoor spaces and enclosed courtyards as well. Still maintaining the same designing principles, in this solution the central big wave was split up into three vertical lines creating more passages between them. In this way all the housing complex have a better flow throughout the area and share their own outdoor spaces. The water can also be easily divided into two canals and be crossed by paths in many different directions. The third solution many organic rays seem to focus themselves on a central point, which could be the main plaza or a big meeting spot in the area. The spaces between one ray and another in all directions are still to be considered small private courtyards opening up towards the main paths that cross them. The water crosses the area along a vertical line.

59


design process flats phase 3

siteplan courtyards

This sketch shows the idea of shifting the man and woman rooms (blue) with the children rooms (red) according to the need of the children

In this phase the round circulation has been developed in one storey apartments, in order to investigate its potentialities in different plan solutions. Moreover, a new concern starts to appear in the design analysis: the effort to create plans that could be modified with the change of specific needs after a certain amount of time. The main focus concerns the children bedrooms: these rooms need to be set close to the parentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; bedroom when the kids are very young, so that they can be easily reached and heard; but the children want more privacy as they become teenagers. Then rooms that can be switched or moved if needed in a family flat.

In these new cases, the idea of shielding the area from the wind was the main one. The primary wind direction is coming from WSW and W. (See wind rose at p.22) By shielding the wind, enclosed courtyard are created, as well as well-defined spaces connecting to the others through streets or open corners. The purpose was to provide more private gardens in contrast with the public spaces where the paths are connecting elements.

In the first solution above the concept of courtyards was pushed to its limits. They become very enclosed space creating housing complex facing inwards and without being connected with each other. In the second evolution of this they were opened up more in order to achieve a better integration to the surrounding.

to keep further apartments - movable children bedrooms - round circulation - three storeys flat siteplan -

60

wind shield enclosed courtyards water element connecting bridges south orientation

Both the service-core and the staircase have been used to create the round flow indoor in the multistory plan.

In this case the buildings are facing north-south direction while the rows are turned 45° in order to integrate the water into the area with a more organic path. The bottom of the area is characterized by an unusual shape where the rows break up into a more enclosed outdoor space.


design process phase 4 flats

In this stage, the important decision of taking forward the 3 storey flat for a family is eventually taken. This choice came from different reasons from aesthetic, functional and organising concepts. A 3 levels apartment not only gives the opportunity of dividing the different functions on different floors, with an easy separation between the spaces and needs; it also offers a higher level of privacy, especially in the top floors and it allows to have views from different perspectives according to different heights. Of course there are also disadvantages in having all the stairs in such a small apartment. As in the previous phase, the attempts of keeping baths and kitchen aligned and of moving the children bedrooms are always considered focal issues to solve in the design. In order to reach the best results different shapes in plan have been studied, like square, rectangle and fan shapes. Moreover the location of the staircase resulted to be a problematic issue to be solved in the next phases.

siteplan horizontal waves

In opposition to the vertical waves phase, the organic idea was kept with a change in the orientation of the building rows into a more horizontal direction. As a result of that, a more direct connection to the surrounding are is gained through ideal horizontal paths, and the curving line is conserved to cross the area on a vertical direction. In doing that they could also meet many different outdoor open spaces with no sharp transition as it was shown in the previous case.

to keep further apartments - family flat: 3 storeys organisation - double high room: good daylight indoor siteplan -

connection to surrounding main outdoor areas wind shield open courtyards water element south orientation

In this phase the first investigations on indoor daylight with DIALeurope have been started; result are shown in the following pages.

In order to provide a better view towards the fjord for the first dwellings facing the fjord, the upper building row was pushed back into the area. As a result of this, a more open connection to the fjord is gained, without having the view or the passage to it blocked by buildings. Moreover, in the central part of the area two of the horizontal rows are pushed towards each other, and a main plaza in the very centre of the overall area is created. In the open spaces common rooms can be put as meeting social points.

61


Dial europe Apartment type

Section - 3 m high storey

3m

8m

N

13 m

8m

6m

8m

N

7m

8m

8m

9m

N

5m

62

8m

90% South - 10% North


50% South - 50% North

70% South - 30% North

Result discussion This investigation in Dial Europe takes into consideration three types of apartments, where the depth is kept fixed at a value of 8m, based on the calculations in Month Average Spreadsheet. This is done in order to underline how the daylight changes according to the different widths. The analysis is also reflecting three different cases of variable percentages of openings in the north and south faรงade; going from a case mostly open towards south and quite close towards north, towards less extreme cases in the facades. According to the different dimensions in the plan, the building develops itself in one, two or three storeys; each storey is considered 3m high in the first investigation and 3.5m high in the second one. In each case in the analysis, a big unique window is opened in the south faรงade, while the glass percentage in the north faรงade is organised in 2 smaller openings, both to give a variety in the faรงade definition and to show how the daylight enters differently in the room in this case. The results of the investigation show that the best case where the daylight is optimise, is the one where in both the facades a glass percentage of 50% is considered, while the extreme case of 90% of glass in the south faรงade against the 10% in the north one reveals some problems concerning glare and darkness on the sides and on the northern part of the room. This means that a compromise will be needed to integrate a good daylight factor with a solution that does not forget the sustainable principles. A combined solution with wider opening towards south and less narrow ones towards north will be kept into consideration when designing the apartments further on. The different daylightfactors can be read in this chart.

63


Apartment type

Section - 3,5 m high storey 90% South - 10% North

3,5 m

8m

N

13 m

8m

7m

7m

8m

N

8m

8m

10,5 m

N

5m

64

8m


50% South - 50% North

70% South - 30% North

The different daylightfactors can be read in this chart.

65


Volume and window phase 5 In this phase, general investigations on heat gains and losses are needed in order to integrate the aesthetical qualities of the project with some potential sustainable solutions. The following analysis refers to particular aspects of the design like windows and volumesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; surfaces or different displacements of the dwellings. It starts from a more general point of view, and the results are studied in order to choose the best cases to take further with new and more detailed investigations. In this way, hints to follow in the sketching phase are given, and the technical studies become a focal point for the development of the design. In this first sheet, an investigation concerning the windowsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; surface on particular facades is done. In order to investigate an exemplar case that could be considered realistic both for the site configuration and for our vision on the future dwellings, a symbolic building of 5500 m2

Height [m]

Depth [m] Width [m]

gross has been studied in 3 main different configuration: this floor area is organised into 2, 4 and 6 storeys, where each of these 3 cases refers to fixed depths. The analysis started with the aim to confirm or deny our assumptions about the best locations to open up the building in order to optimise the heat gains minimising the losses and the expenses. The results that have been obtained show that the heat gains increase as much as the building reaches the maximum high; then a very high and compact building would fulfil easier the requirements. But as far as the analysis of the site showed a very calm and natural landscape in the area, such a high element is to be avoided because it would ruin the good qualities of this area. Moreover, the 6 storeys solution seems not to be the best one under other points of views: for sure the shading in the area would be much more relevant according to the high

of the dwelling, and moreover the analysis shows also that in this case the energy needed for cooling down the building would be higher then in the 4 storeys block. The investigations about the window area showed that wide openings toward south combined with small window area on the north side is better then opening up the building on the western and eastern facades. Then, the analysis shows also that equal percentages of openings in the opposing facades increase the energy needs radically. All these considerations leaded to the choice of a 4 storeys building with a depth that varies from 8m to 10m as the best solution, and these 2 cases will be analysed more into the details in the next steps.

Window area

Window area

10 % towards North 90 % towards South

50 % towards North 50 % towards South

10 % towards East 90 % towards West

50 % towards East 50 % towards West

8

6 8 10 12

458 344 275 229

23,4 | 136,2 | 179,6 21,7 |109,4 | 131,1 21,1 | 81,3 | 102,4 24,1 | 60,0 | 84,1

34,0 | 102,1 | 136,0 31,0 | 71,3 | 102,3 29,4 | 53,3 | 82,8 28,6 | 41,4 | 70,0

43,5 | 120,1 | 163,6 38,0 | 91,5 | 129,4 35,3 | 69,5 | 104,8 33,8 | 54,8 | 88,6

42,4 | 128,0 | 170,4 38,0 | 91,5 | 129,4 35,3 | 69,5 | 104,8 33,8 | 54,8 | 88,6

16

6 8 10 12

229 172 138 115

20,2 | 163,0 | 183,3 18,3 | 116,5 | 134,8 17,6 | 88,7 | 106,3 17,4 | 69,9 | 87,2

30,1 | 107,8 | 137,9 26,8 | 76,7 | 103,5 25,2 | 58,5 | 83,8 24,4 | 46,5 | 70,9

38,4 | 132,8 | 171,2 33,6 | 96,5 | 130,1 31,0 | 74,8 | 105,8 29,4 | 60,0 | 89,5

38,4 | 132,8 | 171,2 33,6 | 96,5 | 130,1 31,0 | 74,8 | 105,8 29,4 | 60,0 | 89,5

24

6 8 10 12

153 115 92 76

19,3 | 165,7 | 185,0 17,3 | 119,1 | 136,4 16,6 | 90,8 | 107,4 16,4 | 72,2 | 88,7

28,9 | 109,9 | 138,9 25,6 | 78,8 | 104,4 24,0 | 60,0 | 84,1 23,3 | 48,2 | 71,5

37,1 | 134,7 | 171,9 32,3 | 98,3 | 130,7 29,7 | 76,3 | 106,0 28,3 | 61,8 | 90,1

37,1 | 134,7 | 171,9 32,3 | 98,3 | 130,7 29,7 | 76,3 | 106,0 28,3 | 61,8 | 90,1

Note: red numbers are energy use for heating, blue numbers are energy use for cooling and the white numbers are the total energy use.

66

N

N


HEAT phase 5 Heat capacity Height [m]

16

Depth [m] Width [m]

8 10

172 138

N

Heat capacity

Extra Light 40 [Wh/km2]

Medium Light 80 [Wh/km2]

Medium heavy 120 [Wh/km2]

Medium Heavy 160 [Wh/km2]

18,3 | 116,5 | 134,8 17,6 | 88,7 | 106,3

13,1 | 116,5 | 129,6 13,1 | 88,7 | 101,8

11,2 | 116,5 | 127,7 11,4 | 88,7 | 100,1

10,3 | 116,5 | 126,8 10,7 | 88,7 | 99,4

N

Note: - These investigations are based upon a building with 90 % window area in the southern façade and 10 % in the northern façade. - Red numbers are energy use for heating, blue numbers are energy use for cooling and the white numbers are the total energy use.

In this sheet the 2 cases that have been chosen in the previous analysis are considered under the point of view of the kind of construction. Extra, medium light and extra, medium heavy constructions are considered to check how the energy consumptions change according to the construction type that is used. Here is an explanation of the different kind of constuctions: - Extra light: light wall, floors and ceilings ex skeleton with boards without any heavy structures. - Medium light: a few heavy structures, ex concrete slabs with wooden floor or light-weight concrete walls.

- Medium heavy: several heavy structures ex concrete slabs with clinker and brick or clinker concrete wall. - Extra heavy: heavy walls, floors and ceilings of concrete, clinker or bricks. The next investigation wants to discover whether turning a building 45° the energy consumptions change radically or not. The reasons to turn the buildings could be several: not only a more various and dynamic layout would be created in the site plan, but this approach would also allow the building to gain sunlight from 2 directions (south-east and sount-west) instead of only from the south, and this would also allow to refer more

Turned building 45° Height [m] Depth [m] Width [m]

16

8

172

to the site thanks to the possibility of having different views to the area.

Medium Light 80 [Wh/km2]

Medium heavy 120 [Wh/km2]

20,1 | 104,1 | 124,2

18,4 | 104,1 | 122,5

N

Note: - These investigations are based upon a building with 90 % window area in a southwest façade and 10 % in the northeast façade. - Red numbers are energy use for heating, blue numbers are energy use for cooling and the white numbers are the total energy use.

67


increasing Surface phase 5 To give a higher level of variety in the facades, an interesting solution might be to shift the volumes increasing the wall surface of the building. This approach may also allow to open windows on the western side of the building, gaining then sun exposure for a longer time during the day and then optimising the daylight indoor. Moreover, the design would refer more to the context as a connection with the Vandkunsten dwellings on the west on the area.

In this section, the investigations concern the energy consumptions whether windows are set on the displacement or not, and according to the percentage of opening on the different facades. The analysis considers also the opportunity of turning the buildings 45째 checking how the result change when the building is south-west oriented.

Increasing wall surface

Displacement 1m

10 % on - towards North 90 % on - towards South 10 % on - towards Northeast 90 % on - towards Southwest 10 % on - towards North 90 % on - towards South - displacement area 10 % on - towards Northeast 90 % on - towards Southwest - displacement area

N

2m

Displacement 3m

11,2 | 116,3 | 127,7

11,6 | 115,7 | 127,3

12,0 | 114,8 | 126,8

12,4 | 114,0 | 126,0

12,8 | 113,1 | 126,0

18,4 | 104,1 | 122,5

18,7 | 103,2 | 122,2

19,4 | 102,4 | 121,9

20,0 | 101,1 | 121,7

20,5 | 101,1 | 121,6

12,9 | 140,7 | 153,7

14,0 | 154,5 | 168,5

15,2 | 168,2 | 183,4

16,4 | 181,9 | 198,3

18,8 | 118,8 | 137,1

18,9 | 126,6 |

19,3 | 134,6 | 153,7

19,7 | 142,7 | 162,3

N

N

N

Note: - These investigations are based upon a four storey high building (16 meter) and eight meter in depth. The heat capacity for this building is sat to be 120 [Wh/km2]. - Red numbers are energy use for heating, blue numbers are energy use for cooling and the white numbers are the total energy use.

68

4m


Increasing window surface

Displacement 1m

10 % on - towards North 90 % on - towards South 50 % on - displacement area 10 % on - towards Northeast 90 % on - towards Southwest 50 % on - displacement area 30 % on - towards North 70 % on - towards South 50 % on - displacement area 30 % on - towards Northeast 70 % on - towards Southwest 50 % on - displacement area 30 % on - towards North 90 % on - towards South 50 % on - displacement area 30 % on - towards Northeast 90 % on - towards Southwest 50 % on - displacement area

2m

Displacement 3m

4m

N

12,3 | 129,6 | 141,9

13,1 | 136,9 | 150,0

13,9 | 144,1 | 158,0

14,8 | 151,3 | 166,1

19,1 | 116,3 | 135,4

19,8 | 123,0 | 142,7

20,4 | 129,6 | 150,1

21,1 | 136,3 | 157,5

16,2 | 108,7 | 125,0

17,1 | 116,0 | 133,1

18,0 | 123,2 | 141,2

18,9 | 130,4 | 149,3

21,8 | 106,4 | 128,2

22,5 | 112,8 | 135,3

23,1 | 119,3 | 142,4

23,7 | 125,9 | 149,6

14,4 | 141,1 | 155,5

15,2 | 148,3 | 163,5

16,1 | 155,6 | 171,6

16,9 | 162,8 | 179,7

20,9 | 134,7 | 155,6

21,5 | 141,4 | 162,9

22,2 | 148,1 | 170,3

22,9 | 154,7 | 177,6

N

N

N

N

N

Note: - These investigations are based upon a four storey high building (16 meter) and eight meter in depth. The heat capacity for this building is sat to be 120 [Wh/km2]. - Red numbers are energy use for heating, blue numbers are energy use for cooling and the black numbers are the total energy use.

69


design process phase 5

to keep further apartments - 3 storeys flat: rectangular plan - 8m x 5m plan - shielded volumes siteplan -

As the fan plan was kept on for deeper studies, it appeared very complicated to organise the plan in an optimal way. The spaces obtained around the staircase appeared more similar to hallways rather then rooms, and it was very difficult to design double high room integrated with regular bedrooms on the top floor. Since this moment the rectangular plan with staircase in the corner or on the sides is preferred. The indoor follows the concept of 2 private areas on the top (for the teenagers) and on the bottom (for the parents), linked together by the living area as the meeting place between these two spheres. Moreover, since the first results with the month average calculation have been obtained, a rectangular 8mx5m seemed to be a good assumption to design on in order to optimise the heat gains.

flats 4 views

siteplan 70

views towards landscape easy and direct access to the area south/south-west building orientation differentiate use of outdoor spaces

In this stage, the housing rows have been turned towards opposite directions from each other. this new approach leaded to a different approach to the site plan which was creating semi-spherical spaces facing the border of the site. The previous enclosed outdoor areas left the place to wider ones still being easy accessible by the public streets.


Trying to give variety in the displacement of the volumes, they have been shifted in order to allow new opening in the west façade, to take more light in and to articulate the plan solution. This increases the area of the building envolope but the Month Average calculation told us that the increase in energy demand is significantly. Still it was investigated further on because of the dynamic and increase in the possibility to optimize according to

daylight. This approach has been used not only for the 3 storeys flat, but also for a new typology of apartment that has been developed since this phase: a flat for a couple, that is adaptable to work as a family apartment as well. This apartment type gives a lot of challenges according to the fact that it can be designed with a high level of flexibility and freedom, in order to meet the need of the user in the passing of the time. Solutions on one

and two floors have been developed, trying to integrate the double high room concept, and trying to maintain the same foot-print of the 3 storeys flat in order to be able to combine them easily in the future. Still, this has been the first approach for the design of this kind of flat, but the group wanted to investigate also apartments with new and different characterisation also according to new technical results, like a plan sized 8mx10m.

The calculations in Month Average told that turning the building 45° is not increasing the energy consumption to an extend that is unable to fulfill. In the meantime being able to have large and various view of the four main landscapes around the area is preferable. The visual experience of the spaces are improved much more because of the curving profile of the building and paths. By making the last row higher than the others it is also possible to provide the view to most of the houses.

71


design process phase 6

to keep further apartments - 110 apartment: where to locate children rooms - movable children bedrooms - couple apartment: circulation siteplan

crossing paths

siteplan

flats

-

72

the views two building typologies easy and direct access to the area private gardens facing south/south-west

In this phase, the final configuration of the functional division in the 110 apartment starts to be defined. In fact, after a first approach in setting the children on the top floor, other factors changed this: Because of difficulties in organizing the top floor with the childrens bedrooms we tried to move them to the basement and here it was possible to create two more regular and usefull bedrooms. The new organization puts the teenager at the bottom floor, with direct access to the outdoor, and a wider parentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; area on the top floor, where itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s still possible to create space when the baby cannot sleep by their own yet.

Afterwards new foam blocks of 8m x 5m for the onestorey and 8m x 5m three-storeys building were cut in order to have a more realistic visualization. The density demand would still be achieved with smaller footprint and more open outdoor areas. As a further development of the four-views concept, it was decided to have additional and easy accessible paths over the site as a strong connecting element to the surrounding areas.


A new concept then was developed in this phase for the 150 apartment, a new solution that was trying to integrate the circulation of the first stages with a 2 storeys apartment that could have been organised with a public zone on the bottom floor opposing itself to a more private top floor with bedrooms and private spaces. The design followed the results obtained by the calculations of the previous phase, and that’s why the plan dimension is 8mx10m, with the 10m façade facing south. Finally, in this phase sections start to be investigated, in order to give different characterisations and feeling in the different spaces of the 110 apartment. These studies mainly concern the roof and the indoor aesthetic qualities, but they will be kept on in the next phases simultaneously with the design of the facades in the elevations.

Orienting the dwellings towards south with an angle of 45° in the rows, it was possible to organize them along the paths maintaining the idea of the views towards the main interesting directions. Private gardens facing south or south-west and bicycle parking in the north area as well as the inhabitants’ privacy would be guaranteed by the spaces left from each displacement between the houses. The crossing-paths solution would also create unique shapes of outdoor areas and main squares giving new visual experiences.

The straight and well-defined characterization of the paths gives the opportunity to bring the water in to the site as a very organic element breaking these continuous lines and offering at the same time an attraction to the site. Car parkings would be dig underground using the soil for elevating the area.

73


design process phase 7

to keep further apartment - doublehigh room - movable bedrooms - well positioned balconies - staircases siteplan - 4 views - water path - 45° angled buildings - underground parkings - private outdoor space vs public gardens

74

As the first solution for the 150 apartment was created, the need to include the possibility to make children bedrooms og guest bedrooms was pointed out in the room program.In this way, both a young couple that is going to enlarge and an elder couple whose children have already moved out from home meet their requirements in this type of flat. From the previous phase, the plan has been turned 90° with the shorter façade towards south, in order to create a more various and active site plan in the large scale. The plan solution deals with the need of a double high room above the kitchen area and with the separation between the children space and the rest of the rooms. Then, parents can have their room upstairs when the babies share the room because they are young and they want to play together, and the parents can move downstairs when children grow up so they can have their privacy. Moreover, a new issue about which is the optimal position for the terrace in this typology of apartment is pointed out: On the external edges of the block, the outdoor space would ensure a higher level of privacy, being elevated on the other 110 apartments next to it in the surrounding, but at the same time a central position in the dwelling block would allow a better protection of the garden from the wind. The idea is then to alternate the typology of blocks whether the wind represents a critical issue in each case or not.Finally, at this stage the design of the staircase to reach the upper flat located then at the 3rd floor starts, and many solutions come out at first. An outdoor staircase seems to be the best solution in order to optimise the indoor space without wasting it, and still animating the design of the building on the facades.

flats


siteplan our vision

After investigating different possible site plans, all the most important concepts that had to be included in the final solution were summarized. Among all the assumptions, having water as an active element in the area (fig.1) as well as the keeping the wildness of nature in the site (fig.2) were considered main concepts. The main paths would function as connecting elements to and through the area while the small ones should provide access to the housing complexes (fig.3). The building organization should reflect rather clearly the sustainable architectural approach and that could be mainly achieved by having an optimal orientation of the dwellings towards south or south-west direction (fig.4) and in the meantime prevent the south and north-western areas from being affected by the strong winds (fig.5). The large housing complex with 3-4 storeys apartments and an area of approx 5500 m2 should each benefit of an interesting view towards the fjord, the open-bath or the nature (fig.3) and they ought to give a sharp division between private (gardens), semi-private (playgrounds) and public areas (fig.6). Last but not less important in the overall design are the car parkings which can be placed underground and soil used to elevate all of the site area (fig.7).

2

4

1

3

5

6 7

75


design process flats phase 8

In this phase, the indoor organisation of the 110 apartment is completed. The final solution is not very different from the last one, but it presents a more efficient distribution of the spaces in the bottom and top floor; at ground level, pushing the room all on the right wall wider and more regular rooms are provided. At the same time, a straight hallway allows a good viewaxis from the entrance door to the garden in the back. Laundry is set next to the back entrance and storages are located under the stairs. Moreover, parents may sleep downstairs in one of the 2 bedrooms until the kids are grown enough. They could also choose to sleep on the top floor keeping the babies in the next room that may be organised as a small kids-bedroom or as a small working place. On the second hand, for the 150 apartment the external staircase is chosen to reach the upper apartment. It will be detailed later, but being installed on the northern façade and being conceived as a light construction staircase it will not shade too much the façade. Concerning the terraces, both of the previous suggestions will be kept alive, in order to adapt to different parts of the area because of their different connotations. The design of the facades starts to be a focal point in this phase. In this first approach, colour is conceived as a way to display the individuality of each family, here is why each flat is characterised by a different colour in windows, shading devices, doors. In the same way, the introduction of a shelf in the windows may also allow people to show up objects, books or whatever they think characterises themselves. This first investigation on the elevations gives the start of an architectural debate that will find the groupâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s answer in the last phases: When is the time where an architect should stop designing, passing this task on to the future costumer?

76


siteplan the layers

Simultaneously, a new sketch solution stepping back into the concept of small courtyards, the wind shield, the news and the main paths was made. The idea of a big outdoor area connected to the small private gardens was thought to be well-functioning in terms of space and social environment for the future inhabitants.

Afterwards, another scheme was developed which in addition to the three-storeys houses it took into consideration the four-storeys building typology. Straight paths and small outdoor areas leave space for a more compact geometry where the strong wind are shielded and the 45째 orientation towards south-east and south-west is kept. The development of the previous solution would lead to a more defined site plan where there would be two main outdoor areas with enough room for the water and the paths to go through the site area. The eastern side seems to be less-defined than the rest of it though.

to keep further apartments - 110 apartment: children bedrooms at bottom floor - movable bedrooms - 150 apartment: external staircase - facades: curtains, shells, texture, openings siteplan -

small courtyards two building typologies water element compact geometry plan wind shield 45째 angled houses

Next step was to work further on the eastern building rows where they needed to be re-defined in shape. The two little rows in the middle were united in one and that allowed a more compact housing complex. Nothing was changed in the orientation and the overall site plan concept remained the same. Private gardens were mainly placed towards south-west while in some of the areas where there could be shadow balconies were put in the highest floors in order to avoid shaded gardens.

77


flats

design process phase 9

78

Starting from the vision about the inner qualities of the site, one of the main concepts that have always been considered in the design phase was the involvement of the roughness and wildness of the area in the project. Wood seemed to be the best material for the expression of the facades to relate more to the context thanks to its warm and cosy characterisation. Wood is also a reneweable material that can be ”produced” not far from the site and by that reducing the amount of embodied energy it contains. High concrete columns symbolising trees bear the balconies and shading device in both the main facades of the building. Being detached from the walls of the house, these “artificial trees” gives more variety to the facades, creating an active texture along the surfaces of the dwellings. Moreover, they create interesting shadows in the indoor of each apartments, remembering

the qualities of the area and of the greenery. As far as the discussion about the home identity continued, a new interpretation was achieved: until the overall expression of the architecture in the site is not compromised, the user can choose for itself. This means that facades expression in colour and material cannot be changed in order not to give a chaotic and overdrawn feeling in the area. The more private sphere of the private gardens and the balconies is used as a place where people can easily display the plants, furniture or objects they want. In this way, indeed they enhance the contrast between the artificial and personal touch in the apartments with the wilder and natural character of the context. The book shelf located in front of the windows is eliminated then in favour of a greater view, as far as it does not represent an optimal way to display who the customers actually are.


The apartments are finally detailed and optimised. The 150 apartment has been changed since the previous stage in order to be more functional according to wider spaces for kitchen on the bottom floor and for studio on the top floor. Moreover, thanks to a general reorganisation the children bedrooms are more regular and liveable. Both types have been equipped with an installation core, in order to economise the piping system to the optimal solutions. In the 110 apartment, this element is sharing the system used for the chimney of the fireplace. The partitioning walls between the apartments have been reduced to 400 mm: in this way, some more space is gained in each apartment.

79


design process phase 10 - The final design

80

Development of functions

Site plan

Referring to the initial analysis of the function program for the indoor organisation, it is necessary to point out how the design process has changed, improved and integrated with those first concepts. The four categories of customers that were detected have been reduced to two main categories: the first category is composed by ordinary families containing two parents and two children. This group gathers the first three categories of customers that have been detected in the first analysis; this choice has been made in order to create a more functional apartment that were able to adapt to the changes of the family in the passing of the time, instead of designing other less flexible apartments. The second type of customers is composed by couples, who are looking for an attractive place where to live and maybe where to start a family. They need a flexible apartment that answers to their need as young users but at the same time that might be modified according to the birth of babies. This type of customers is also the seniors were the kids have moved away and now the need a place to live that has less maintenance than a single family house. Moreover, a new concept that has been pursued is the necessity of including two bathrooms in all the apartments. This decision has been taken both because one bathroom wouldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t probably be enough in a family with two almost independent teenagers and because both the apartments are organised in more than one level. The man-woman room, library and studio have been included in the design as additional spaces that can be changed by the users according to their needs. For instance, as the children are young and they might prefer to sleep together, these rooms may occupy one of the child bedrooms. This means that often these rooms are not conceived as enclose spaces, but as furnished area in the apartment where can find a place for themselves like lofts or free areas.

The final solution for the site plan summarises all the issues concerning privacy, sustainability and liveability that the group have been dealing with when designing. As far as the project lies in a clearly defined area, the communication and reference to the existing context is something the project wants to fulfil. The will of including the water element in the site has always been considered as a must because of the calming and attracting effect the water has on people. The housing complex refers to the landscape opening up towards the different areas in the surroundings. On the other hand, an organic water stream breaks up the energy optimized scheme of the housings, connecting the site not only with the fjord but also with the open bath. It represents a physical and visual link all around the area, but at the same time it has been achieved to have close by intimate outdoor spaces. The outdoor spaces between the buildings has a high degree of being introvert because of the central axis made by to main paths and water stream which is the main attraction of the site. The housing complex and the stream of water interacts via the paths that are crossing the site in order to fit better with the roughness characterising the surrounding nature there are timber-made paths connecting the site to the existing streets. The paths are divided into smaller branches to give independent access to the single housing units. The paths are only for walking and cycling in order to maintain a calmness in the area. In this way every apartment is detached from the main streets, guaranteeing privacy and silence. The apartments and gardens are angled 45° towards south-east and south-west. This angle makes it possible to reach the passive house criteria and design interesting outdoor spaces while providing the apartments with good exposure to daylight during the day along with a high-quality of sunlight on balconies and in private gardens. The supplying balconies are positioned both

on the south side and in the oppose direction in order to allow the users to have an outdoor living area where they can enjoy the view and the sun. The dwellings are organised in a straight line on the south-oriented facades in order for the apartments not to create shadow for others. The facades towards the north are more various and active as a result of the different apartment types. The use of vegetation represents a strong element in the design of the site, both for a functional element to shield from the wind and to obtain privacy near the apartments. The design emphasizes the green character of the place. Along the coastline of Aalborg West one finds rough and wild nature. This includes reeds and grasslands with high stems that follow the wind and thereby adding poetry to the site. The private gardens and terraces at each apartment are more intimate and characterised by an artificial and accurate care in their exposure, reflecting the tastes of the individual choices.. As an intermediate between the two approaches to nature is a smooth transition of grass and flat vegetation, which slowly rises, in order to point out the strong identity of each private courtyard. In order to keep the naturalness of the place, the housing complex is detaching itself by the ordinary concept of a city district with shops, cars and services keeping itself as a recess and a refuge from the more rushing character of the city centre. To allow this, a parking area has been created underground together with the garbage collection. Four different parking areas are set under the building level in order to serve easily every dwelling with its personal garage avoiding the need to walk long before reaching the apartments.


Ill 81-1 Final Site plan

81


Exterior

Interior

150 apartment

The external design of the housing complex is reflecting the sense of the place and the warmness of the materials that already exist in the area.The reason why the building height is set to maximum 4 storeys is to have a scale of the housing that are not too far from the human scale and because of calculations in Month Average that told us that it was not worth it to increase the building height on behalf of the human friendly scale of the lower building. The housing complex is a strong competitor to the single family house and because of this there has been made different approaches to adapt to the ways of the single family house. One of them is having your own private entrance directly from the outside. The façades reflects the indoor organisation of the different apartments, showing the two types of apartments. At the same time they are consistent in expression in regard to materials, colour, texture and scale.

In order to answer to different needs of different customers, the housing complex includes two types of apartment; the two types are characterised by the same design principles to reach a good level of liveability and comfort, but with different indoor organisation and dimensions. Both of them have been designed in order to answer to the sustainable approach of passive houses, and in order to include light in the project as a strong element defining the indoor spaces.

The 150 apartment has the same demands to functionality as the 110 apartment. The plan is organised into two storeys; entering the apartment from the northern side you pass the bathroom on the left side and after that reaching the kitchen and living. A central kitchen is creating a circular flow leading to the living room, the dining room and the adult bedroom. Behind the kitchen a free staircase leads to the upper floor, where a studio opens up right next to an access to the balcony. On this floor, a bathroom and two big rooms are designed. A loft is opening up next to the stairs and kitchen area.

The facades reflects the sustainable and architectonically approach to the project. The shape is sharp and clear but at the same time the elements on the facade creates a depth in the facade that gives the facade a more dynamic an interesting expression. The design of the facades is mainly characterised by the wood and concrete tree structure that supports the balconies and overhangs, and gives the facades a dynamic and lively expression. These “artificial trees” convey the rhythm of the alternation of the apartments, at the same time they provide the simple façades with originality and variety. The housing complex underlines the presence of human but water, vegetation and concrete trees filter his action underlining the continuous interchange that is established between human and nature. The complex is organised allowing each apartment to open up towards two opposing direction, in order to vary the view and to allow an easier circulation of air inside.

110 apartment This apartment is for a family of two adults and two children. The design of the plan solution leaves room for versatility and flexibility in order to meet different stages in a family solution. The apartment is organised in three storeys, with different task and different use. Two main private areas are set at the bottom floor and top floor. They are kept in connection by the living area set in the middle. Entering the apartment from the northern side a linear and visual connection is created from the entrance door to the garden on the opposite side of the apartment. The teenagers’ bedrooms are set on the left, while a straight hallway with the stairs leading to the next storey is kept on the right side exploiting natural daylight. A bathroom is located between the two rooms, leaving then the bedrooms next to the facades. Walking through the corridor, the laundry is found on the right and below stairs storages and wardrobes are included. The 2nd floor is designed for the main living functions as cooking, dining and resting. The 2nd floor is organised as an open plan with a low wall dividing the living room and kitchen. A balcony opens up from the kitchen, while from the living room a staircase leads to the garden, allowing the users to reach it easily for barbeques or leisure activities. The top floor is designed so that it includes a bedroom, bathroom and a loft-office. In order to allow the babies to sleep close to the parents, the small office in the top floor can be furnished as a small baby-bedroom. The parents may choose to move their bedroom downstairs at the bottom floor, and the kids may sleep and play together in the other room.

82

As in the other type of apartment, parents have the possibility to sleep close to the young children rooms at the top floor, then moving downstairs when the kids grow older and they require their own privacy. Section The section shows how two apartments are arranged and it is easily seen how to access the 3rd floor where the top apartment is located. A staircase borne by the concrete columns connect the ground floor to the balcony of the 3rd floor where two apartments are set. The staircase is winding the elevator that gives additional access to the 3rd floor. The detail of the concrete branches supporting the balconies conveys the design and its relation to the context. Indoor, it is possible to see that the apartment at ground level has a small difference: At the ground floor, the bottom apartment is organised into two levels, with the kitchen area elevated a couple of steps on the living area. This element defines the two different spaces of the kitchen and the living room without the involvement of any wall, conserving then the visual connection with the garden. The warm atmosphere of the living area gathered around the fireplace is detached from the more functional sphere.


A

Ill 83-2 Final 150 apartment plans

A

Ill 83-1 Final 110 apartment plans

Ill 83-3 Final north oriented facades

Ill 83-5 Final 150 apartment section (AA)

Ill 83-4 Final south oriented facades

83


Indoor climate The buildings used for reference in the indoor climate calculations are marked with a red colour on the site plan (see ill. 84-1), the reason for choosing this part of a building complex is that it represents all of the buildings fairly well. The requirements for fulfilling the passive house standard are a heat demand at15 kWh/m2/y and a primary energy demand on 120 kWh/m2/y. The assumption is that if the red part fulfils the requirements, then the building complex as a whole will fulfil these. One could argue that the orientation of about half of the buildings are differing too much for it to be the same result. We assume that because of the orientation towards southwest we have higher temperatures outside when the sun hits this façade and therefore the problem with removing over temperature is larger than in the apartments that face southeast.

RELUX has been used. In RELUX we had a possibility to investigate the natural light distribution in a faintly model of the apartment in question and achieve results of the daylight factor and luminance.

The partitioning walls between the apartments consist of 100mm concrete, 200mm insulation and 100mm concrete. This is loadbearing and is also fireprotecting walls of at least REI-60 making each apartment its own firecell.

Different programs have been used during the calculations. The Month Average spreadsheet has been used for the initial calculations (see p. 66) on the energy demand and PHPP for the documentation of the actual energy demand. The 24 hour average spreadsheet has been used for finding the necessary air change rate in July in order to determine if natural ventilation is applicable during summertime. To determine the natural ventilation within one dwelling the spreadsheet â&#x20AC;&#x153;Task 7.xlsâ&#x20AC;? from the 7.th lecture in PETES has been used. Bsim has been used in the synthesis phase in order to document the thermal condition and to make smaller adjustments in the design to reach the goals set for the thermal condition. The purpose of making a simulation in Bsim is primarily to investigate the condition of the indoor climate concerning overheating. Bsim will also be used to evaluate the natural ventilation and the air change. For the calculations on the daylight conditions within one dwelling we have used Dail Europe and RELUX. In the design process at phase 4 there were made initial light investigations in Dail Europe based on the purpose to gain knowledge in regard to the depth of the apartment and the quality of indoor daylight conditions (see page 62). At phase 9 the natural light in the 3 story apartment is tested. This is done in order to verify the previous assumptions there were made based upon calculations from Dail Europe. For this test the programme

84

Ill 84-1 the red marked building is one that has been calculated


Natural ventilation In order to be able to reduce the energy consumption Natural ventilation for ventilation in summertime in the building, it has been investigated if it is possible to ventilate a section of the In order to be able to reduce the energy consumption building using nothing but the natural driving forces. for ventilation in the building in the summertime it has The is oneif it3isstory apartment. Seea the plans beensection investigated possible to ventilate section and section on the right to see which windows that of the building using nothing but the natural driving have been they isare a red colour. forces.opened, The section onemarked 3 storywith apartment. The The calculation is made on the basis of a calculation calculation is made on the basis of a calculationmade madein 24 hour average spreadsheet. The characteristics in 24 hour average spreadsheet. The characteristics for the building have into the thespreadsheet spreadsheetand and for the building hasbeen been put put into July has been picked picked as as reference referencemonth monthbecause becausethis this is the the month monthwith withthe highest temperatures. The average highest temperatures. The air change hasrate been until anuntil acceptable average air rate change haschanged been changed an maximum occurred atoccurred. 26˚C. This acceptabletemperature maximum temperature An took an acceptable maximum temperature was 26C.air This took air change of 4 h-1. This needed maximum change -1. This needed maximum air an airwas change rate put of into4 hthe natural ventilation spreadsheet change then beenthat putitinto the natural and hererate it ishasconfirmed is possible to ventilate ventilation spreadsheet and here we confirming an apartment on a warm summer dayare in July using only that it isdriving possible to ventilate an apartment on a warm natural forces. summer day in July driving forces. The calculation was using madeonly withnatural the characteristics of an The calculation was made with the characteristics of an apartment and the characteristics of the site. apartment and the characteristics of the site. Wind Factor Wind Factor The average wind speed on the site is determined. We start with determining the average wind speed on Unfortunately no statistics are found for this specific site, the site. Unfortunately no statistics are found for this however DMI (the Danish Meteorological Institute) has specific site, but DMI (the Danish Meteorological made statistics based on tenbased yearsonobservation Institute) has made statistics ten years at the airport area, 4km from the site. The statistics stateThe that observation at the airport area, 4km from the site. the mean wind velocity is 6,2m/s in 10m height above statistics state that the mean wind velocity is 6,2m/s in ground (mean value between 210˚ andbetween 240˚ deviation 10m height above ground.(Mean value 210 from north). [Cappelen & Jørgensen 1999 p. 23] and 240 deviation from north) [Cappelen & Jørgensen In order to change a reference velocity in a 1999 pp23] In orderthis to into change this into wind a reference city context at the given calculation height, the following wind velocity in a city context at the given calculation equation SBI 128 has been used: height, thefrom following equation from SBI 128 has been used:

Vref Vref Vmet h hmet Į

Vref

§ h · ¸¸ Vmet ¨¨ © hmet ¹

Ş

wind velocity at the wanted height in the wanted context meteorological average wind velocity wanted height, (at the floor in the apartment) height of the measurement surface roughness coefficient

§ 0.3m · 6 .2 s ¨ ¸ © 1,3m ¹ m

Wind Pressure Coefficient Southwest and East [Cappelen & Jørgensen The pressure created on each side of the building by1999 the pp23]. Using the TableA2.5 showing the wind pressure wind is dependent on the angle of the wind. There are coefficient data one reads the value to be 0.25 pa on two main wind directions at the airport that is southwest the windward side and -0.5 on the leeward side when and west [Cappelen Jørgensen 1999 Using the wind hits the&façade straight on. p. The23]. table is for the Table A2.5 showing the wind pressure coefficient buildings up to 3 stories high with a length to width data one value to be1996], 0.25 pa on the windward ratioreads of 2:1the[Liddament approximately same side and -0.5 on the leeward side when the wind hits shape as the calculated part of the building. the façade straight on. The table is for buildings up to 3 storiesLocation high withofaNeutral length toPlane width ratio of 2:1 [Liddament 1996],The approximately same shape the calculated part location describes whereasthere is no pressure of the difference building. and no wind velocities. It is quite important where the neutral plane is located because if it is Location ofatNeutral located the height Plane of a window opening you have a case ofdescribes air comingwhere in andthere out of thepressure same window The location is no diffenot very efficient. further from the neutral rence which and noiswind velocities. It isThe quite important where plane the windows are placed, the higher velocities the neutral plane is located because the further from and pressure difference and thereby a moreIll. 85 1-2 Plan and section of the part of the building that has been the neutral plane the windowsyou arehave placed, the higher efficient system.[Heiselberg 2008] velocities and pressure difference you have and thereby investigated concerning natural ventilation. The open windows are marked with red. a more efficient system. [Heiselberg 2008] Calculations In the calculations we have opened a window of 1,281 m2 by 50% in the children bedroom on the southBalcony m western side of the apartment in ground level.7,3The 2 other window is a window of 0,94 m by 50% in the adult bedroom on the north-eastern side of the building on third floor. Kitchen Adult bedroom Childconfirming that it is possible 10,5 m In the red section we are 7,6 m to ventilate using only thermal buoyancy. This gives a velocity in and out of the apartment of 0,51 m3/s which is an air change rate ofBath 7,55 h-1. In the blue sectionLiving wearea 4,2 m are confirming that it is possible to ventilate using only Bath Small kids Bedroom/ 4m office the pressure difference caused by the wind. This gives 5,8 m 3 us a velocity of 1,011 m /s which is an air change rate Child of 15 h-1.Laundry 7,6 m Dining area 3.6 m Double height From the results in the spreadsheet below we can see room 10 m that the neutral plane is situated in a height of 3,1m. This is a good height because it is between the two windows thus creating efficient natural ventilation. By this we have confirmed it is possible to ventilate the apartment using only natural ventilation.

0.4

Ÿ Vref

3,47 m s

Wind Pressure Coefficient The pressure created on each side of the building by the wind is dependent on the angle of the wind. There

1. floor

2. floor

3. floor

85


Calculations In the calculations a window of 1.281 m2 is opened by 50% in the children bedroom on the south-western side of the apartment in ground level. The other window is of 0.94 m2 by 50% in the adult bedroom on the northeastern side of the building on third floor. In the red section we are confirming that it is possible to ventilate using only thermal buoyancy. Thermal buoyancy is when temperature difference creates airflow; warm air rises because it is lighter than cold air. This gives a velocity in and out of the apartment of 0.51 m3/s which is an air change rate of 7,55 h-1. In the blue section it is confirmed, that it is possible to ventilate using only the pressure difference caused by the wind. This gives a velocity of 1.011 m3/s which is an air change rate of 15 h-1 . From the results in the spreadsheet below we can see that the neutral plane is situated in a height of 3,1m. This is a good height because of its position between the two windows, thus creating efficient natural ventilation.

CONCLUSION Hereby is the possibility of ventilating the apartment using only natural ventilation confirmed. However there is created a very high air velocity inside the apartment. This is because the calculations are made for the optimal case when the building is orientated almost straight against the main wind direction and an opening high on one side and low on the other. This is good for the thermal buoyancy and for ventilation using pressure difference. We have shown it is possible to ventilate with natural ventilation but the occupants should be encouraged to open windows closer to each other when using thermal buoyancy thus creating lower velocities. When the pressure difference is used to ventilate the apartments it would be better to open two windows on the leeward side of the building, even though this will create an under pressure outside the window and by that, dragging the air out of the apartment.

Solution Task 9

Task 7 Pressure Coefficient 0,25 Windwar Leeward -0,5 roof -0,6 Location of neutral p Outdoor temperature Zone temperature Discharge coefficien Air density Area m2 1. floor 1. floor 2. floor 2.floor Roof

86

1,281

0,94

Windfactor Vmeteo Vref 3,1 21 25,6 0,5 1,25

Eff. Area m2

Pwind Pmin Pmax

0,56 6,2 m/s 3,472 m/s Buildingvol. Volume

m C C

Height m

243 m3 m3/section/floor

Internal pressure,

kg/m3 Thermal Buoyancy AFR (thermal) pa m3/s

Pres Coefficient

7,5 pa -4,5 pa 1,9 pa

pa Wind pressure pa

-0,71 AFR Wind) m3/s

-0,71 Wind pressure pa

AFR total m3/s

0,641 0,000 0,000 0,470

1 0 0 7

0,397 0,586 0,586 -0,738

0,51 0,00 0,00 -0,51

0,06 -0,38 0,06 -0,38

1,160 -2,155 1,160 -2,155

0,873 0,000 0,000 -0,873

1,160 -2,155 1,160 -2,155

1,011 0,000 0,000 -1,011

0,000

7,6

-0,851 Massebalance

0,00 0,00

-0,38

-2,155 Massebalance

0,00 0,00

-2,155

0,000 0,00

Ill. 86-1 Calculations from Task 7 spreadsheet concerning Natural ventilation


Energy calculations In this section we are looking in to the programs Month Average spreadsheet and PHPP, which were used for calculating the energy demand in the building. Month Average spreadsheet has been used in design face 5 to investigate initial impacts on the energy demand when changing orientation and window area. The spreadsheet is a simplified calculation of the energy demand in a building. This is good for initial calculations concerning different design ideas, but because of the simplification its use limits to this particular stage. After doing the PHPP calculations, we have tried to do the calculations in Month Average Spreadsheet with the same parameters as the PHPP calculation in order to see the difference between the simplified calculation and the detailed one. The calculation shows an energy demand that is more than twice as big as the PHPP calculation. Part of this has to do with the fact that PHPP can calculate using heat recovery and Month Average cannot. The simplified calculation also means a lot in the calculated increased energy demand. PHPP is not a design tool in the sense that you use it during the design phase, but this calculation is made late in the process and on the basis of this calculation some things might have to be changed . There are different ways to adjust the calculations to have a lower energy demand for heating and a lower total energy demand. One way to lower the energy demand for heating is to increase the windows facing south, putting in windows with a lower u-value, decreasing the amount of window panes by using fewer bigger windows rather than smaller windows. A way to decrease the total energy demand is to use Solar DHW. This gives a supplement to the energy consumption for heating water. Another way to reduce the energy use is to put in a more efficient heat recovery unit. Not concerning its efficiency in recovering heat but concerning the amount of energy it uses to move the air in the airducts. Because this is only a sketch-project it is very difficult to do the PHPP calculation without doing some assumptions. Besides the assumptions there were given from the technical supervisors, we have made assumptions on the shading factor of the concrete tree-structure placed in front of the facade. We assume that this gives a shading factor about 0.9 on the northern facade and 0.8 on the southern facade.

Below you can see the verification sheet from the PHPP calculation. The rest of the documentation can be found on the CD that comes with this report.

Passive House Verification

Photo or Drawing

Building:

Passivhouse in Aalborg DK - København

Location and Climate: Street: Postcode/City: Country: Building Type:

Egholm Færgevej 9000 Aalborg Denmark Dwellings

Home Owner(s) / Client(s): Street: Postcode/City: Architect: Street: Postcode/City:

Group 10 Nytorv 10 9000 Aalborg

Mechanical System: Street: Postcode/City: Year of Construction:

2008 6

Number of Dwelling Units: Enclosed E l d Volume V l Ve: Number of Occupants:

2009,5 2009 5

m

3

Interior Temperature:

20,0

Internal I t l Heat H t Gains: G i

2,1 2 1

°C W/m W/ 2

19,1

Specific Demands with Reference to the Treated Floor Area Treated Floor Area:

669,8 Applied:

m2 Annual Method

PH Certificate:

Fulfilled?

Specific Space Heat Demand:

14

Pressurization Test Result:

0,6

h

0,6 h

Yes

Specific Primary Energy Demand

119

kWh/(m2a)

120 kWh/(m2a)

Yes

73

kWh/(m2a)

(DHW, Heating, Cooling, Auxiliary and Household Electricity):

Specific Primary Energy Demand

(DHW, Heating and Auxiliary Electricity):

Specific Primary Energy Demand Energy Conservation by Solar Electricity: Heating Load: Frequency of Overheating:

2

15 kWh/(m a)

kWh/(m a) -1

Yes

-1

kWh/(m2a) 11 0

W/m2 % kWh/(m2a)

Specific Useful Cooling Energy Demand: Cooling Load:

2

12

We confirm that the values given herein have been determined following the PHPP methodology and based on the characteristic values of the building. The calculations with PHPP are attached to this application.

over

25

°C

15 kWh/(m2a)

W/m2 Issued on: signed:

Ill. 87-1 PHPP documentation sheet

87


Bsim Thermal zone 5 Thermal zone 4

Thermal zone 3 Thermal zone 2

Thermal zone 1

Ill. 88-1 Showing the different thermal zones that the Bsim model has been devided into.

Bsim setup In order to simulate the overheating inside the model it has been important to structure the thermal zones in a way, so they would give some indication of the thermal condition inside the different levels of the building. In order to obtain some more accurate estimation of the thermal condition the building has been build up inside Bsim with systems describing the ventilation, solar shading, people load, wall construction and window positions. More information about the design of the model and the systems can be found on the CD-rom. Guidelines for the thermal conditions can be found in the room scheme on page 48

88

Bsim simulations Test 1 When simulating the model we see that the temperature is almost constant above 22 degrees, but especially during the summer season the temperature reaches 26 degrees and above. The high degrees are most present in the thermal zone 2 and 3, which could be due to the large amount of glazing in the southwest faรงade, but also the northeast faรงade. In test 1 we see the effect of large glazing areas without shading in combination with a small plan solution. this could be an explanation for these rates of overheating with 651 hours above 26 degrees and 322 hours above 27 degrees for thermal zone 2. The first test also shows that it is thermal zone 2 and 3 that are having most indoor climatic problems, because of their high position and their design. Test 2 Now in test 2 if we add the shading from the balconies we reduce the overheating hours to 119 hours above 26 degrees and 39 hours above 27 degrees for thermal zone 2.

Test 3 Until now the air change rate has been set to 0.5 1/h for the mechanical ventilation and maximum 5 1/h for the natural ventilation, which meets the recommendation of not having more than 1000 ppm of co2 concentration. And the air change for both mechanical and natural ventilation is fairly acceptable, but the temperature is just a bit too high. Therefore if the air change rate is enlarged to 1 1/h the overheating hours has been reduced to 48 hours above 26 degrees and 18 hours above 27 degrees for thermal zone 2. Thereby we reach an acceptable level according to DS 474. But the air change has also increased to 6.8 1/h in the winter season, which is not acceptable. Test 4 If we go back to test 2, we could analyse in which part of the year the over temperature are most present, and that is May. Ill. 90-1 Shows the temperature through the month of May, and we can see that until the 12th of May the temperature are quite high, which can be subscribed


Test 1 results

Temperature

CO2 ppm

Airchange rate 1/h

Temperature

CO2 ppm

Airchange rate 1/h

Temperature

CO2 ppm

Airchange rate 1/h

Test 2 results

Test 3 results

89


Ill. 90-1 Diagram shows the temperature throughout May for test 4. Around the 12 of May the mechanical systems goes from winter to summer mode and the natural ventilation starts up

to the fact that the mechanical ventilation is running in winter mode and the natural ventilation first start after the 12th of May. So now when we have enlarged the period of natural ventilation the amount of temperatures above 26 degrees have dropped to 62 hour and 21 hour above 27 degree. But in May we also increase the number of hours below 20 degrees to 8 because the cold nights in May. For this example the air change rate reaches 3 1/h in wintertime and above 6 1/h in summer time, which is acceptable. The Co2 level is maximum 670 ppm during winter, and around 540 ppm for the summer period, which fulfils the demands.

Test 5 In this test we will try to separate test 4 into two sections, one showing only mechanical ventilation all year without natural ventilation, and another with only natural ventilation during summer. This is tried out in order to describe how the two systems work separately. We continue focusing on thermal zone 2 and the result is that it reaches 1601 hours above 26 degrees and 1294 hours above 27 degrees, for natural ventilation in the summer period, and thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s for a mean air change rate of 1,67 1/h, which seems quite low. Only running mechanical ventilation through the year the result is that it reaches 1036 hours above 26 degrees and 494 hours above 27 degrees for

Test 4 results

Temperature

90

CO2 ppm

Airchange rate 1/h


Ill. 91-1Natural ventilation through May

Ill.91-2Mechanical ventilation through May

a air change rate at 2,85 1/h. If we take a closer look at the month of May for instance we see that the two diagrams ill. 91-1 and ill. 91-2 gives a picture of how the two systems act. The temperature inside the room varies a lot more with the natural ventilation, because it is not set to hold a minimum temperature, but only to ventilate if the temperature gets above 23 degrees. The mechanical system on the other hand are trying to hold a standard temperature through May around 23 degrees.

we already have, although this eventually could cause to high air changes it would decrease the amount of over temperatures. Another possibility is to increase the efficiency of the solar shading, which also would cause the over temperature to decrease. Anyway the simulation gives an indication of the thermal and indoor condition, which looks good.

Conclusion Test 4 shows an acceptable level of indoor climate with low amount of over temperatures, and with a good level of co2 and air change. Although the system in test 4 is running both mechanical and natural ventilation during the summer season, which is a result of testingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s with only using natural ventilation which did not work out because of too many over temperature hours. The over temprature of test 4 could be reduced by adding more openings for natural ventilation and enlargering the ones

91


RELUX From the calculations in RELUX it is seen that the 3 stories apartment at the ground level (1. floor) has an average of the daylight factor of 2.2. In the northern room the range of the daylight factor is from 0.4 to 81 and in the southern room it is from 0.7 to 14.3. The 2. floor has a daylight factor in the living room at a range from 1.8 to 22. The open space on the 3.floor the daylight factor is between 0.6 to 2.8, in the adult bedroom it is between 0.2 to 1.8 and in the bathroom it is 0.2 to 0.6.

reflection and conclusion The daylight factor calculations in RELUX various 0.1 in the three months, even though the daylight factor should be independent. This shows an uncertainty in the programme.

1. floor

2. floor

3. floor

21. june

21. march

In the design of the apartments there is solar shading. Therefore it is not seen as a problem with a maximum daylight factor on 22. Based on the limited possibilities in modelling in RELUX the mock-up of the stairs in the apartment has been simplified to an opening in the deck. This allows more light to penetrate between two floors, than it will in the real world.

21. december

The calculations in RELUX only concerns natural lighting, so if additional work were to be done artificial lighting could be an area to detail further on. Overall the apartment has a light area on the 2. Floor in the living room that are very satisfying and in the bedrooms the light conditions are more moderate, here it is assumed the spaces are mostly used for homework and sleeping. The good indoor light conditions helps minimising the energy demand in the building and thus contributing to meeting the requirements of the passive house standard.

92

Ill.92-1_ Daylight visualizations from the 110 apartment made in RELUX


presentation


the site plan

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The overall site plan shows a scheme for the passive housing complex. The future inhabitants will live in a dense place but without renouncing to all the comforts they might need from their ideal house and at the same time experience a new environment containing different landscapes. Water, wooden paths and wild nature are some of the main attractions in the area and they create together with the buildings a variation in the outdoor spaces where the private sphere meets the public through a transition and the common areas are placed in gathering points of the location both for the inhabitants and the visitors. Ill. 96-1 Site plan.

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5 This diagram shows the different activities are spread into the project area. A football field is placed on the left together with a playground while in the opposite direction the open bath makes it possible for the inhabitants to have swimming activities close by. Public greeneries are also shown in many spots of the area and with benches, seesaws and other similar structures for some leisure activities the project is in strong connection to the outdoor life as well as the indoor one for the inhabitants. Bike parking takes place at the entrance of each apartment whereas car parking is in a basement underground together garbage bins. This basement can be accessed from the staircases situated at the 2 story apartments. In the basement there is also storage space at 10 m2 per each 2 story apartment and for the corner buildings. Ill. 97-1 Mapping the area.

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flow

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The existing paths are integrated in the project location as shown in this image. The yellow lines represent the car streets leading from the main street towards the underground car parking. The orange lines are showing the pedestrian flow that drift to connect with the bicycle route to the area. In addition to this, smaller pedestrian paths are attached to the building complex to function as main accesses to each apartment. Ill. 98-1 Flow at the site.

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The privacy The transition between private and public is not sharp but rather fluid. The hierarchy in the width of the paths helps to define an invisible border inbetween the houses. Where it is not possible to achieve a good protection, the green vegetation is placed to guarantee that the private areas are not too much exposed.

Ill. 99-1 From private to common area.

Ill. 99-2 From controlled to rough nature.

The nature The project location is characterized by a large range of vegetation and it consists mainly of high and uncontrolled grass as well as low bushes that define the roughness of its nature. This aspect is being kept and integrated to the new greenery which will have a more controlled role and will give the opportunity for people to achieve a good degree of personalization in their private sphere.

99


density

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This diagram displays the building height using three different colours. The red colour represents the fourstorey buildings and the orange underlines the threestorey buildings. In some spots smaller buildings of two-storeys have been placed in order to allow sun light to pase through the corners into the buildings behind. The corner buildings contain additional functions such as common areas and meeting rooms. With this scheme and with the additional storage space in the basement the demand of having a density of 80% is achieved. The total amount of square meters that needs to be there is 27.316 m2 and in this plan solution there are 27.332 m2. By having smaller building footprints it was possible to increase the outdoor spaces for larger greeneries. Ill. 100-1 Building height in the site plan solution.

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basement 1160 m 2 2 floors 960 m 2 3 floors 5500 m 2 4 floors 19712 m 2

= 27.332 m

2

Density 80 %

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This plan shows more in detail what the central spot of the project area is consisting of. On the right side of the apartments is the main area for social activities, with direct connection to the various areas and activities at the site. On the left side of the housing complex are the private gardens shielded behind trees and bushes to protect privacy. Together with building on the opposite side of the path the trees and bushes also functions as wind protection. The diagrams points out the access to the car parking and recycling garbage that will be put underground and accessed from the 150 apartmentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; external stairs.

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Northern oriented facades This illustration shows the north facades of a small section of the buildings with the two types of apartments. Wood is chosen as the main planking material for facade to it give a natural feeling to the housing complex. The columns are made of concrete and their function is to bear the balconies and overhangs. The amount of glazed surfaces here are lower then the south ones because of the orientation of the houses towards north in order to achieve the passiv house standard. The 2 x 2 storey apartment is characterized by an external staircase and an elevator to provide access to the third floor apartment.

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Southern oriented facades On the south facades of the same building section the glazed facades are increasing according to the sunlight demands up to nearly 70% of the southern faรงade surface area. The trees define where the private gardens are placed and the balconies might function as secondary outdoor areas.

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site plan section The cross section of the site plan is intercepting the car parking spaces that are placed in the underground level. These car parkings are duged into the soil which is used afterwards to elevate the entire project area. The inhabitants can easily access the parking from external staircases and this allows them to reach their apartments in a more direct way. The site has been raised to prevent flooding. The car parking in the basement are protected by a gate that closes and keep the water out in case of flooding.

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Ill. 110-1 110 apartment in its context with the vivid, rough nature.


Ill. 111-1 - 110 apartment, ground floor.


Ill. 112-1 - 110 apartment, 2nd floor.


Ill. 113-1 - 110 apartment, 1nd floor.


Ill. 114-1 - 150 apartment, ground floor.


Ill. 115-1 - 150 apartment, 1nd floor.


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Ill. 116-1-3 110 apartment plans.

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THE PLAN The final plan solution for the 110 apartment is displayed in this section. The functional division of the spaces in different floor allows the family to be gathered in the living area at the first floor; at the same time, each individual component of the family is allowed to get apart and to find privacy in their own space without being disturbed. This specific plan solution is designed for a family with two children living at the bottom floor. They have the possibility of being detached from their parents that occupy the top floor. On the other hand, parents are not disturbed by the childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s lifestyle with loud music and friends gathering.

SECTIONS The apartment shows its variety and lively organisation in the sections; the staircases convey an active and various indoor organisation, reaching the floors on different levels. The double-height room allow increasing the daylight in the living area, making it more pleasant and liveable for the users. Both the balcony and the garden are directly connected with the apartment, allowing people to spend time in the open air in different times of the day from different directions.

Ill. 117-1 110 apartment - section DD Scale bar is on the opposite page.

Ill. 117-1 110 apartment - section CC Scale bar is on the opposite page.

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Other solutions to furnish the flat have been investigated to show how the apartment is fulfilling the requirements in different stages of the family life. When the children are young, they might like to play together and spend most of the time in the same room. They might not sleep by themselves because they are too young, then the pa-

Ill. 118-1-3 110 apartment plans displayed with a different furnishing solution.

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rents may sleep downstairs close to their room in order to be present and to hear them during night. During their childhood, parents may decide to exploit the top floor for leisure activities, furnishing the bigger room upstairs as a studio-man-woman room where to dedicate to their hobbies.

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Children may have a bunk bed in their room, in this way a play area may be obtained in their bedroom. The division of the apartment into 3 storeys allow the parents to furnish their loft in order to create a guest-area where to host friends and relatives during their visits.

Ill. 118-1-3 110 apartment plans displayed with a different furnishing solution.

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Ill. 120-1-2 150 apartment plans.

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THE PLAN The plan displayed on the opposite page is addressed to a family or a couple who wish for more square meters. A big common space is opening up at the bottom floor with a central kitchen. Big windows open up to the garden and balconies, allowing people to keep their view to the surrounding nature. The privacy between parents and children is kept setting their bedrooms in two different levels. A double-height room is present above the kitchen, leaving daylight entering the core of the apartment from the upper level.

SECTION Section BB is taken from the 150 apartment and it shows both indoor and outdoor spaces. On the ground floor the transition between the kitchen and the living room is underlined by the height difference given by the steps. On the upper level there is a private area with a southern orientated balcony. The external staircase and elevator is providing direct accesses to the third floor where the second 150 apartments are. The tree-shaped columns are bearing the external balconies and shading devices.

Ill. 121-1 150 apartment - section BB. Scale bar is on the opposite page.

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When the inhabitants for the 150 apartment are composed by a couple without children, additional spaces can be created at the top floor, in order to use them for other activities and hobbies. A regular guest room may be a good solution for one of the rooms upstairs.

Ill. 122-1-2 150 apartment plans displayed with a different furnishing solution.

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As it has been explained previously for the 110 apartment, the possibility of moving the parentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; bedroom close to the childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s is considered in this illustration. In this way the children can share a big room on the top floor, and the parents can move downstairs in the man-woman room as the children get older.

Ill. 123-1-2 150 apartment plans displayed with a different furnishing solution.

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Longitudinal section AA The longitudinal section here is showing how the different types of apartment are relating to each other. A far as the 110 apartment is concerned the vertical indoor flow is displayed by the staircases that allow to go from the children bedrooms on the ground floor to the living room and kitchen on the second floor and to the adult night area on the top level. As for 150 apartment on the first level from the left the small relaxing space is visible followed by the staircase is shown and on the right the bedroom is accessible. On the upper level the cut intercept the double- height room which is next to the studio and bathroom. A hall is leading to the childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s bedroom.

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N Ill. 125-2 Longitudinal section AA overview.

Ill. 124-125-1 Longitudinal section AA.

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Discussion In this discussion there will be focus on some of the major challenges for this project. The challenges there will be looked into in this chapter are:

sive house standard, but an relative equal integration of venustas, firmitas, and utilitas is found to be impossible due to the dominate passive house criteria’s.

- Designing in an integrated process, combining venustas, firmitas and utilitas. - Designing a house for a Danish family in a high-density building area. - Reaching the goal for the passive house standard and evaluating the result.

So when we look at the project at this state we see that the sustainable aspect stated in our sustainable approach are highly present in position, area and orientation of windows. The buildings are compact with highly insulated walls, and partly build of concrete material that can accumulate the passive heat. Finally solar shading in terms of overhangs covers the south facade.

Designing in an integrated process, combining venustas, firmitas and utilitas. This semester was presented to be the semester that requires the highest level of integration between venustas, firmitas and utilitas. But in praxis especially firmitas has required a lot of attention regarding the organisation and design of the building envelope seen from an energy sustainable point of view. Through this project many of the design decisions where based on whether a design initiative would improve or decrease the likeliness of reaching the passive house standard. In the group we knew from the start that this would be a semester highly influenced by the sustainable aspect of designing. In order to give some room for the more qualitative and aesthetic aspect of a design we tried from the start to start up a psychological aspect in contrast to the very quantitative and physical demands. But throughout the process, it has been an uneven “battle” between the two design approaches, obviously the more quantitative design parameter’s have influenced most of the design, and leaving only a small space for aesthetics to play. So why is this so important? Because an integrated design process is first of all to have the three designing parameters venustas, firmitas and utilitas present, and they are. Secondly it is the goal to equal them, so their combination makes a strong project when looking from either a technical, functional or aesthetic point of view. In this project venustas and to some extend utilitas are relying or dependent of the design of firmitas. In that sense we state based on our own project and many other cases that the passive house standard is not working in cooperation with an integrated design process, because the point of departure for the overall design always relies on firmitas. With that in mind it is not stated that the integrated design process is not possible with the pas-

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From a functional point of view the building is organized to fit the demands of a family living in the house over a lifetime, going from a couple and two small kids, to housing only the parents. Some of the rooms might seem a bit small for instance the living room and the two rooms on the ground and 1st floor in the 110m2 apartments, which could house the teenagers, but in overall the plan solution is very efficient. Not only is the plan efficient but it also allows both the isolated privacy and the open common area in the 110m2 housing unite. The lightning condition inside the house is also good according to the functions requirements in the different area of the house. So there is also indication of the functional or utilitas aspect of the house design. Of course when it comes to aesthetics there are elements of aesthetic influence but they are not crucial in comparison with the technical and functional design elements. The aesthetic is properly most present in the forming of the columns holding the balconies and solar shading. These columns refers to trees and thereby blurring the separation between out and indoor, by transmitting the shadows of the columns and the outdoor trees into the rooms. When looking at the façades of the housing complex they seem like a raw almost unfinished structure, which in combination with the raw wood cladding actually matches the surrounding nature quite good. So there certainly is aesthetic qualities in the project as well, although they could be more present, especially the aesthetics of the rooms in the housing unit could be improved. There are possibilities in designing significant ceilings that could emphasize the felling of the different levels in the houses. Also the appearance and material of the different room could be detailed and create different atmospheres. Finally, there could have been more work on the light and on how the windows

are put into the walls, and on how the windows allow the light to penetrate the thick walls. To summarise we are working integrated, but in order to improve the integrating of both technical, functional and the aesthetic, the technical part needs to be less dominant in criterias in order to create more complete projects. Designing a house for a Danish family in a high density building area Another important challenge in this project was to make a project that needs to be an attractive high-density alternative to the single-family house. In order to take this challenge seriously, we made the vision that states out a certain direction for this project. The vision was a dream of the ultimate way to dwell in this particular place; it was a vision of a raw place with large open area shielded by trees and low bushes. In combination with the raw nature we have the water element together they represent two of the most important elements in the “simple” Danish nature. In a Danish context the presence of raw untreated nature and water are considered to be very attractive, especially in combination with a short distances to the city, and other facilities relevant to the family such as kindergartens and schools. So we have preserved the good foundation for attracting the typical Danish families. A part from the qualities of the site, we provide the opportunity for a family to live at this site having their own house with entrance and direct access to their own garden and terraces. In order for the inhabitants to create their own recognizable home they have the possibilities of furnishing the balconies, terraces, and gardens in the way they like and thereby express themselves. Also the large glazing area towards southwest/southeast could be used for the purpose of protecting the private life while at the same time function as a way of expressing the inhabitant’s identity. The idea of having your own piece of ground is a very important demand for a typical Danish family. This simple but specific requirement has very much been the point of departure for this project, we had to involve much of the qualities of the single family house in the project if we wanted to succeed in attracting people to these


houses. But with the demand for a building percentage above 80% it has been difficult to structure the area and to keep the building height low; the addition of gardens and of common outdoor areas has been a challenge. Also the wish for a lovely view and direct sunlight coming into every apartment have been important parameters. The site plan is organized with building heights varying between 2 and 4 levels which is quite low although we are still maintaining every apartment to have minimum direct daylight on the entire southwest/southeast facade from 12.00 21. March to 12.00 September. This is not necessarily impressive but in comparison to how low the buildings are it becomes more difficult to assure the direct daylight in every apartment through the year. It could be argued that a building percentage of 80% is way to high for this place, in order to attract a typical single house family. In our case the 80% building percentage results in some narrow spaces between the houses with minimum 25 meters between the houses. Also the view from the houses does in some cases suffer from the high building percentage, but in general the site plan and the way the houses are tilted 45 degrees gives a lot of qualities to the individual apartments when it comes to heat gain, daylight and view, but the overall impression of the outdoor areas could be increased dramatically by lowering the building percentage slightely.

build passive houses. On the other hand the southern façade is highly glazed, which eventually could result in a glare problem between the dark northern façade and the light southern façade. Cold drop could also be a risk especially in the double high room of the 3 level apartments, although this of course is dependant of the position of the inlet of the mechanical ventilation. It could be discussed why the passive house standard for heating is set to 15 kWh/m2/year. This is a standard that is designed for housing in southern Germany where the solar gain is much higher than in Denmark. Should we just adapt this standard or should we modify it for Danish conditions. After having used the passive house criteria for a semester these regulations are not impossible to apply to a housing complex in a Danish context, but it could be argued that the architectual quality is suffering under these harsh regulations. An adaption of the regulation to the danish climate would be preferable

Reaching the goal for the passive house standard and evaluating the result. The pursuit for the passive house standard have as mentioned before been a major challenge in this project. During the process it has taken a lot of time to investigate the different design possibilities to improve the energy consumption of the design. All the way through the process we have been considered that we didn’t want to create or choose the most energy efficient design solutions just because they where energy efficient, as we wanted other aspect to influence the design as well. Still the passive house goals have played the most important role in this project for good and bad. One of the downsides about sustainable design is that it seems to create a certain type of aesthetics, where there is a huge difference between front and backside of a building. The backside or northern side of the building is closed and unfriendly although we are actually having a quite high amount of glazing on this façade compared to already

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Conclusion This project seeks to combine the technical functional and aesthetics parameters in an energy passive housing complex. Although the process has not always been easy, it is still the conclusion that the project combines all three parameters into an integrated and thought through project. The technical aspects have highly influenced the overall design of the form, faรงade and plan solution. Through the process technical aspects such as building orientation, building surface, window area, heat capacity, solar gain, thermal comfort, and ventilation have been of major concern, in order to assure a building that fulfils the passive house standard.

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Functionally the demands of a Danish family have been one of the highest priorities within the given boundaries, in order to give the family functionality throughout a lifetime. We can conclude that the functional demands put up in the analysis and through the process are clearly fulfilled, although a 90 net m2 apartment is not a lot of space for 4 people in comparison to the increasing demands for larger apartments that we see from our analyses of the future tendencies for homes.

From an aesthetic point of view the relation to the site has been valuable both for the design of the buildings and the design of the space between the buildings. Although the aesthetic parameter is not playing a primary role, the buildings are still well integrated into the aesthetic of the site. Thereby we can finally conclude that we have succeeded in making a project that can be certified as a passive house. The qualities of the site and buildings also seem to meet the requirements of the typical Danish family over a lifetime. Finally the site and the building preserve the spirit of the site and continue the specific wild and raw feeling to the site.


Source criticism Copenhagen Institute for Future Studies (www.cifs.dk) is the oldest and most renowned institutes for Futures Studies in Denmark and therefore their work is considered to be as trustworthy as predictions of the future can be. At first glance one might say that they are independent and that they are not gaining anything from their predictions, but because it is a company that is very much depending on getting paid for their work, the question is how objective they can be. Is it possible for them not to be influenced by their clients wishes and expectations to the product CIFS delivers. In the report this source is being used to set up a target group and to get an overview of their demands. This is a very important part of the project because the design is based on this, but their guess about the future can be just as good as our own and probably even better. Center for Fremtidsforskning (www.fremforsk.dk) is another center of future studies in Denmark. This is a newer center so the record of them is not that long, but the owner and leader of the center is a former Head of Research in CIFS, Ă&#x2026;rhus office. Because of this and the credibility of CIFS it is very likely that Fremforsk is as credible as CIFS, but because there is no knowledge of why the collaboration between them ended, Fremforsk is not considered to as trustworthy as CIFS. The literature from Fremforsk is used together with the literature from CIFS to create the above described target group and their demands. Because of how the literature is used in the project it is not considered a problem to use Fremforsk.

Almennet (www.almennet.dk) is an interest organization for housing associations from all over Denmark. In the literature used they deal with ways to secure housing complexes for the future. They are very much interested in getting the interested party to benefit mostly from the work they are doing on basis of the literature of Almennet. In the text they refer to Fremforsk, but because it is an interest organization that consists of housing associations it is assumed that what they present to their interested parties is of a quality that is acceptable for this project and itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s use in the project. It is the same use as previously described. Newsagency DK is a newagency that specializes in communicating news relating to the housing sector. On their homepage they claim to be independent and objective, not coloring nor altering the news but only communicating them from the market to the industry and vice versa. Of course the same question can be asked here as in CIFS whether they really can be independent and objective when they get paid to deliver news. One could say that because they earn their living from their costumers they cannot be 100% objective because they know what their clients likes and expects. Because they are placed between the market and the industry perhaps they are pressured from both sides and because of this they cannot alter anything without it being noticed. The used of the literature in the project is the same as previously described, to determine the target group and their demands.

Juhani Pallasmaa is a Finnish architect and professor at University of Technology, Helsinki, Finland. His work has been influenced by his Nordic roots in the humanist approach to architecture and because of this influence he is working a lot with perception of spaces and buildings. In the text that is used as a base for the Home Identity part of the report is concerned with the perception of home. How people feel more at home and what is home in general terms. The text is probably based on many years of research and interest in this subject, but none of this is referred in the text so that it seems to be his point of view on these matters. The group agrees with pallasmaaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s interpretaion of the home identity in the nordic culture; he has been considered a firm source because he probably is one of the most competent people to write about this subject because of his interest and researches over the last many years The text is used to help setting up some evaluation criteria for the plans and the occupants ability to influence the organization of the dwelling over time.

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source list AAA (2008), Light + Energy + Architecture, catalogue in danish and english Baker, N, Steemers, K (2000): Energy and Environment in Architecture - A Technical Design Guide. E&FN SPON, United Kingdom, ISBN 0-419-22770-9 Bell, J (1995): Designing buildings for daylight, London, Construction Research Communications Brundtland-Report. World Commision on Environment and Development (1987): Our Common Future, Oxford University Press. Cappelen, J, Jørgensen, B (1999): Technical report 99-13, Observed Wind Speed and Direction in Denmark – with Climatological Standard Normals, 1961-90, Danish Meteological Institute, p. 23. Clausen, S. H. W., Trampe, T., Nielsen, L. F. (2007): Almen Vejledning til fremtidsanalyse for almene boligafdelinger, www.almennet.dk, chapter 2. CR 1752 – ventilation for buildings – design criteria for the indoor environment (1998). CEN-European committey for standardization, Bruxelles. Dirckinck-Holmfeld, K (1985): Fuglsangpark i Farum. Arkitektur DK 5-6, Arkitektens Forlag, p. 201. Dirckinck-Holmfeld, K (1994): Dianas have. Arkitektur DK 4-5, Arkitektens Forlag, p. 262-263. Dirckinck-Holmfeld, K (2000): Bel Colle. Arkitektur DK 2, Arkitektens Forlag, p. 59. DS 474 – Norm for specification af termisk indeklima (1993). Dansk Standard, Hellerup. Edwards, B. (2001): Green Architecture - An international Comparison. John Wiley & Sons. EDP 2002. Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council on the energy performance of buildings. Förster,W (2006) : Housing in the 20th and 21st Centuries, Prestel Verlag, München, pp 8-22 + 138-167 Graf, A : ”Das Passivhaus” Calway 2000 ISBN 3-7667-1372-8, p. 8-13. Hansen, H. T. R. (2008): Lecture ”ArCID 3” at Architecture and Design, Aalborg University, 26.02.2008. Hawkes, D, McDonald, J, Steemers, K (2002): The Selective Environment - An approach to environmentally responsive architecture, Spon press, London, U.K, chapter 1, 2, 8 Heiselberg, P. (2008): Lecture ”PETES 5” at Architecture and Design, Aalborg University, 07.03.2008. Heiselberg, P. (2008): Lecture ”PETES 7” at Architecture and Design, Aalborg University, 12.03.2008. Hough, M (1984): City Form and Natural Process, chapter four, Plants. Jensen, J. B. (1): Det rummelige hus: Fra småbørnsfamilier til teenagefamilier, www.fremforsk.dk 04.03.2008. Jensen, J. B. (2): Fremtidens boligbehov i Hovedstadsområdet, www.fremforsk.dk 04.03.2008. Jensen, J. B. (3): Fremtidens hus på energisiden, www.fremforsk.dk 04.03.2008. Jensen, J. B. (2001): Midt i en Mellemtid. Jyllands Postens Erhvervsbøger, chapter 2.

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Internet pages: All pictures in ”Future tendencies” are from: www.sxc.hu Natural ventilation http://www.aivc.org/frameset/frameset.html?../Publications/guides/guide_to_eev.html~mainFrame A Guide to Energy Efficient Ventilation by Martin W Liddament - 1996, Code GV BR-08. http://www.ebst.dk/br08.dk/BR07/0/54/0 IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report, Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report, Summary for Policymakers pp. 1-13, see http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/syr/ar4_syr_spm. pdf http://www.sbi.dk/arkitektur/beredygtighed/arkitektur-og-energi/arkitektur-og-energi/ or p. 20-45 in Herzog, T. (ed.) 1996: Solar Energy in Architecture and Urban Planning. http://www.cei.group.cam.ac.uk/directory/people/record.html?id=59 http://www.komforthusene.dk/ http://www.andelssamfundet.dk/ http://www.vandkunsten.com/show/skabelon1.asp?ID=311 http://www.herzog-und-partner.de/english/html/projects-aarhus.html. http://www.dr.dk/OmDR/Besoeg_DR/DR%20Byen%20Fakta/20070108104721.htm

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