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ISSUE 42 NOVEMBER ’16 - JANUARY ’17 $5.95

www.trainermagazine.com

THE OFFICIAL MAGAZINE OF THE

Opportunities to empower staff – groom training TESTOSTERONE

It’s not just about muscles

CHROME

“glorious in defeat”

as Art Sherman gears up for the Pegasus World Cup HOW TO RELAX

The importance of a raceday routine


GILES ANDERSON

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A classic Breeders’ Cup

E initially published this issue prior to the 2016 Breeders’ Cup as an e-zine only, and now that the championship races are in the history books, we’ve updated the magazine for both the print and e-zine formats. And what a great weekend of racing Breeders’ Cup 2016 was! The two best horses fought out close finishes in Friday’s and Saturday’s main features – Beholder over Songbird in the Distaff and Arrogate over California Chrome in the Classic, respectively. Naturally, with our cover profile of California Chrome’s trainer Art Sherman, I was leaning towards a “Chrome” victory in the Classic but was simply enthralled by the performance of the young Arrogate, whose sire is the late, much-missed Unbridled’s Song. Tying things together nicely, Unbridled’s Song stood at Taylor Made Farm, where California Chrome will take up residence upon his retirement from racing. This issue will last through Eclipse Awards weekend and the inaugural Pegasus world Cup, when the pre-event digital and post-event print format will be repeated for the next edition of North American Trainer. Traditionally, the time between the Breeders’ Cup and Dubai world Cup is a fairly fallow season for Grade 1 action. But with the birth of the Pegasus world Cup, this previously quiet period for racing top-notch, 10-furlong horses has now

sprung to life with the three most valuable dirt races in the world, and connections of the best horses in training can go after their share of $28,000,000. It will be interesting to see what effect this has over time on older stallion prospects. whereas in previous years a win or placing in the Breeders’ Cup Classic would have undoubtedly led to retirement to the breeding shed, now the temptation to keep horses going for that extra slice of glory has got to play heavily on connections’ minds. If these three big races continue to strengthen over the years to come, then this is going to be a scenario that could happen again and again. It’s slightly ironic that great horses have their racing careers developed to maximize breeding shed potential, but it’s close to or during the breeding season that the world’s two richest races are scheduled to be run. Naturally, fans and the betting public would be pleased to see their favorite horses racing on. And when these horses do eventually retire, breeders would be patronizing truly tried and tested young stallions with solid racetrack form. In addition to our profile on Art Sherman, this issue also covers the benefits of a race day routine for horses, training barn staff, and the truth about testosterone levels in the Thoroughbred. wherever your racing takes you this winter – good luck! n

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Issue 42

CONTENTS 10

Testosterone

Equine flu

Dr. Catherine Dunnett with some new insight into this hormone.

Pablo Murcia and John Marshall on how a greater understanding of the flu virus could help us overcome it.

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California dreaming

Ed Golden on California Chrome’s trainer Art Sherman.

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Ain’t misbehavin’

Stacey Oke on the psychology behind bad behavior.

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Terry Knight

Profile of longtime trainer Terry Knight, by Ed Golden.

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Teaching how to be a groom

Denise Steffanus on the educational programs helping grooms become horsemen and horsewomen.

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The absolute insurer rule The laws of trainer responsibility, as laid out by Peter Sacopulos.

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Race day routine

Keeping horses within their comfort zones on their most stressful days, by Bill Heller. 2

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International horse movements Dr. Morgane Dominguez, Dr. Susan Münstermann, and Dr. Peter Timoney on disease risks associated with international equine travel.

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Metabolomics

The key to understanding equine gut health, by Professor Christopher Proudman

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Business snapshot: Andrea Young Q&A with Sam Houston Race Park’s Andrea Young, by Bill Heller.

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Contributors

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Alan Balch

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TRM Trainer of the Quarter

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Suppliers Directory

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The Sid Fernando Column

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CONTRIBUTORS Editorial Director/Publisher Giles Anderson Editor Frances J. Karon Designer Neil Randon Editorial/Photo Management Eleanor Yateman 1 888 659 2935 Advertising Sales Giles Anderson, Scott Rion, Oscar Yeadon 1 888 218 4430 Photo Credits Ronnie Betor, Eclipse Sportswire, Horsephotos, Maggie Kimmit, Professor Celia M. Marr, Dr. C. Reid McLellan, Caroline Norris, Northlands Park, Suzie Picou-Oldham, Sam Houston Race Park, Shutterstock, Andrea Young Cover Photograph Eclipse Sportswire

An Anderson & Co Publishing Ltd publication

Alan F. Balch was hired as Executive Director of California Thoroughbred Trainers in April 2010. His professional career in racing began at Santa Anita in 1971, where he advanced to the position of Sr. Vice President-Marketing and Assistant General Manager, and was in charge of the Olympic Games Equestrian Events for Los Angeles in 1984. He retired in the early ’90s to become volunteer president of the National Equestrian Federation of the USA, as well as of the National Horse Show at Madison Square Garden. He remains president of USA Equestrian Trust, Inc. Dr. Catherine Dunnett BSc, PhD, R.Nutr. is an independent nutritionist registered with the British Nutrition Society. She has a background in equine research, in the field of nutrition and exercise physiology, with many years spent at The Animal Health Trust in Newmarket. Prior to setting up her own consultancy business, she worked in the equine feed industry on product development and technical marketing. Sid Fernando (@sidfernando) is president of eMatings LLC and Werk Thoroughbred Consultants, Inc. He is the former bloodstock editor of Daily Racing Form and also blogs about racing and

Contact details Tel: 1 888 218 4430 Fax:1 888 218 4206 info@trainermagazine.com www.trainermagazine.com United Kingdom 14 Berwick Courtyard, Berwick St Leonard, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP3 5UA North America PO Box 13248, Lexington, KY 40583-3248 North American Trainer is the official magazine of the California Thoroughbred Trainers. It is distributed to all ‘Trainer’ members of the Thoroughbred Horsemen’s Association and all members of the Consignors and Commercial Breeders Association, as well as all members of the Maryland Horse Breeders Association.

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breeding. Ed Golden is the author of Santa Anita’s widely acclaimed “Stable Notes,” hailed by peers as “the best in racing.” A native of Philadelphia, he earned Eclipse Award honorable mention while with the Philadelphia Daily News and has written for The Blood-Horse and USA Today. Bill Heller, Eclipse Award winner and author of 25 books including biographies of Hall of Fame jockeys Ron Turcotte, Randy Romero and Jose Santos, is a member of the Harness Racing Hall of Fame Communications Corner. He spends summers in Saratoga and winters in South Florida. His 26-year-old son Benjamin lives in Albany, N.Y., is an accomplished runner and recently won a 5-K race and a mini-marathon.

Professor Celia Marr is an equine clinician at Rossdales, Newmarket. She is a RCVS and European Specialist in Equine Medicine and Honorary Professor at the Glasgow University Veterinary School. She has previously worked at veterinary schools in Glasgow, Pennsylvania, Cambridge and London and in racehorse practice in Lambourn. She is Chairman of the Horserace Betting Levy Board’s Thoroughbred Research & Consultation Group and Editor-in-Chief of Equine Veterinary Journal. Stacey Oke is a licensed veterinarian and freelance medical writer and editor. In addition to writing for various horse publications, she also contributes to scientific journals, is an editor of an internationally-recognized, peer-reviewed journal, creates continuing education materials for both human and veterinary medicine, and conducts biomedical research studies. Peter Sacopulos is a partner in the law firm of Sacopulos, Johnson & Sacopulos in Terre Haute, Indiana where he represents clients in a wide range of equine matters. He is a member of the American College of Equine Counsel and serves on the Board of the Indiana Thoroughbred Owners and Breeders Association and Indiana Thoroughbred Breed Development Advisory Committee. Peter has written extensively on equine law issues and is a frequent speaker at equine conferences. Denise Steffanus is a freelance writer and editor based in Cynthiana, Kentucky. A longtime contributing editor for Thoroughbred Times, she earned the prestigious Michael E. DeBakey Journalism Award and the USA Equestrian (now the U.S. Equestrian Federation) Award for Media Excellence. Steffanus, a Pittsburgh native, is a licensed Thoroughbred racehorse trainer and a member of American Mensa.


A DV E R T I S E M E N T

PUSHING THE LIMITS: HOW SOME TRAINERS ARE GAINING “THE EDGE”! BY: MARK HANSEN

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he pressure to win is so enormous that many horsemen resort to whatever it takes to get a piece of the purse or a decent sale… even if it means putting their horses’ lives in mortal danger by doping them with illegal synthetic erythropoietin (EPO) drugs to boost endurance. Veterinarian Gary Smith said, “It’s a problem all over the industry. There is no way horses should be put on (synthetic) EPO.” So how do racers win? How do you gain a competitive edge without harming your horses or risking your livelihood? The answer may be found in a safe all-natural horse supplement that supports natural EPO function. Why is EPO boosting so critical? Just like in people, a horse’s muscles require oxygen for fuel. Red blood cells are the body’s oxygen-carrying cells. A higher red blood cell count = more oxygen = more muscle energy. Elevated muscle energy helps the horse perform harder, faster and longer during endurance events. All horses naturally produce EPO in their kidneys to stimulate production of new red blood cells from bone marrow. In short, EPO is a natural “blood builder.” With EPO doping, trainers try to boost the EPO effect to get a winning performance every time. They use a synthetic EPO (recombinant human EPO), even though the side effects can harm the horse. That’s one reason why it’s illegal. Fortunately there’s another option. EPOEquine® is a safe, highly effective natural dietary supplement scientifically engineered for performance horses. A Kentucky trainer who refused to give out his name, said, “I don’t want my competition to know about this.” He found EPO-Equine to be so effective that he’s

dead set against disclosing who he is, who his horses are, or even where he trains and races. He first started ordering a single jar of EPO-Equine® once a month. Now he’s ordering several CASES each month. And he won’t tell BRL exactly why. He said respectfully, “Sorry – no way.” Bioengineers at U.S. based Biomedical Research Laboratories (BRL), first discovered a completely natural EPO-booster for human athletes (and it’s working miracles for top athletes and amateurs around the world). Seeing these results, horse trainers contacted BRL and asked about using this natural formula for their animals. That’s when the BRL team dug deeper and discovered a proprietary, horse-friendly strain of a common herb that promotes optimal blood-building results. EPOEquine® is based on the blood-boosting abilities of a certain strain of Echinacea that’s astounding researchers and trainers alike. (It’s not a strain you can find at the local health store.) Veterinarians at the Equine Research Centre in Ontario, Canada ran a doubleblind trial investigating the blood building properties of the active ingredient in EPOEquine in healthy horses. For 42 days, one group of horses was supplemented with the active ingredient in EPO-Equine and another group of horses was given a placebo. The supplement delivered significant blood building results, increasing red blood cell count and hemoglobin levels. Researchers also observed improved blood quality and increased oxygen transport in the supplemented horses. Improved blood levels leads to elevated exercise physiology and performance. The patent-pending formula in EPOEquine ® contains a dozen different herbs, antioxidants and anti-inf lammatory components combined to promote natural red blood cell production… for remarkable speed, strength and stamina right out of the gate. Trainers find it easy to add just 1 scoop (3.2 grams) of EPO-Equine® to the horse’s daily feeding routine in the barn or on the road. Within a few weeks of daily use, you can expect to see increased red blood cell levels with no undesirable side effects. An increase in red blood cell levels can improve muscle performance, supercharge endurance, and enhance recovery after hard exercise. Nothing else is scientifically proven to deliver these benefits in a completely safe and natural formula. Compared to the cost of veterinarians, drugs, icing, tapping the knees, and putting the horse on Bute; or even the consequences of being banned for synthetic doping, EPO-Equine® is very affordable at the low price of just $59.95 per jar. Or save $180 if you are ready to commit to a larger trial of 12-jar case for just $539.55 with FREE shipping. EPO-Equine ® can be ordered at www.EPOEquine.com or 800-780-4331.


CALIFORNIA THOROUGHBRED TRAINERS

ALAN F. BALCH

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Interest . . . and conflict

ONCE had occasion to discuss the inscrutable issue of conflicts of interest in sport with Donald Dell, an attorney and former professional tennis player. At the time, he was an agent for several tennis greats and also an organizer of the Association of Tennis Professionals, as well as a sports marketer. “Don,” I impudently asked, “what about all your conflicts of interest?” He didn’t hesitate a second, undoubtedly having been down that particular road countless times, “If you have an interest, you have a conflict.” Unspoken, he was saying, “and if you don’t have an interest, you’re without any trace of necessary expertise, so you have no reason to be involved.” When millions of dollars of the public’s money is being bet on the outcome of a race, does his opinion hold? When hundreds of millions are being invested in track properties and bloodstock? In racing, the first time I can personally remember such conflicts getting attention was when Stardust Mel won the Santa Anita Handicap in 1975. Owned by Marjorie L. Everett, major domo of Hollywood Park at the time, the betting favorite slogged it out down a hopelessly heavy homestretch following a lot of rain, against longshot Out of the East, who lost by a nose despite bumping in the stretch. How bad was the track? They got the mile and a quarter in 2:06 and 2/5, by far the classic’s slowest running in history. After an inquiry, the result stood. In those days, the State of California appointed one steward, the track appointed a second, and those two appointed the third. A hue and cry went up after that race, suggesting that the stewards were in fear for their jobs at Hollywood had they

not left the winner up! I thought that was ridiculous, but I had to admit it looked like the bumping could easily have cost the longshot at least a nose. In any event, the controversy led almost directly to state employment of all stewards within a relatively short time afterward. Criticism of their expertise, in California and elsewhere, hasn’t lessened a bit. But that’s a subject for another day. It seems to me, based on nearly 50 years now paying close attention to racing, that our sport is rife with more actual conflicts of interest – and at the very least way more appearances of conflict of interest – than ever before. It can’t be helping the popularity of our sport, confidence in it, or betting on it. Let’s remember that when “modern” racing developed in the United States, from about 1930 onward, it did so in the aftermath of a reform movement earlier in the century that outlawed betting on racing in most of the nation, so corrupt did the sport appear to be. Theoretically at least, the advent of the pari-mutuel system and full public disclosure of virtually all wagering information, via the revolutionary totalizator boards, were designed to stimulate public confidence and protect the sport’s integrity. So, too, was the population of state regulatory commissions by appointees of significant un-conflicted accomplishment, who developed and enforced the rules of racing, written with the same goal in mind: public confidence. Santa Anita was a leader, founded on the bedrock principle of integrity in conduct of the sport. Just as one small but revolutionary example, “Doc” Strub actually opened morning workouts to the public, theretofore supposedly a dark haven

of mischief, and published the work tab. The coupling rules of that era, as well as restrictions on jocks’ agents requiring any agent to represent only one journeyman and one apprentice, are now seen as ancient relics, as are limits on the number of stalls allotted to a single trainer. Yet those very rules enhanced not just the public image of racing, but confidence in the betting propositions offered to the public. They eliminated important potential, apparent, and actual conflicts of interest that are now widely accepted if not admired. Many argue that these conflicts are even “necessities” now. One more fundamental piece of the bedrock is long gone: for decades, state regulators had to come from outside the sport. Yes, they were often criticized for “knowing nothing” about it. But that was exactly the idea. Originally, they were expected to be apolitical overseers possessing demonstrable objective perspective, accomplishment, and integrity, to apply to racing. Like any (un-conflicted) judge, they were expected to learn the issues at hand, then weigh and balance the interests of the stakeholders, to make decisions in the public interest, rather than according to any particular stakeholder interest; they had none of their own. Therefore, their decisions were largely above reproach, if not vocal criticism. In California, the Racing Law even went so far as to nearly prohibit the same organization from having an ownership interest in more than one track, or involvement in another entity conducting betting on any other track’s races but its own! The sport thrived for nearly six decades. It’s not thriving now. n

It seems to me, based on nearly 50 years now paying close attention to racing, that

our sport is rife with more actual conflicts of interest – and at the very least way more appearances of conflict of interest – than ever before

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Graham Motion with Miss Temple City, Anita Motion with Dancing Rags

Trainer of the Quarter

GRAHAM MOTION

The TRM Trainer of the Quarter award has been won by Graham Motion. Motion and his team will receive a selection of products from the internationally acclaimed range of TRM supplements, as well as a bottle of fine Irish whiskey. WORDS: BILL HELLER PHOTO: MAGGIE KIMMIT

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INNING a Grade 1 stakes at any track is a reason to celebrate for any trainer. Taking two in two days at prestigious Keeneland is truly special, and it’s why Graham Motion is the first trainer to win this award twice. “It was a phenomenal weekend,” Motion said on October 11th. “It was also extremely gratifying.” Here’s why. A day after his two-yearold filly Dancing Rags won the Grade 1 $400,000 Alcibiades by a length on Friday, October 7th, giving Maryland-based jockey Angel Cruz his first graded stakes victory, Motion’s four-year-old filly Miss Temple City captured the $1 million Shadwell Turf Mile by a head for her second Grade 1 stakes score over males this year, thanks to a flawless ride by Edgar Prado. “Edgar gave her a Hall of Fame ride,” Motion said. “It was probably one of the most rewarding things I’ve ever done in my career: win two Grade 1s against males in one year.” Motion’s decision to test Miss Temple City against males wasn’t an easy one. After her length-and-a-quarter victory over males in the Grade 1 Maker’s 46 Mile at Keeneland

on April 15th, Miss Temple City ran against her own sex three times and didn’t hit the board in any of them. First, she traveled to England, where she finished fourth in the Group 2 Duke of Cambridge Stakes at Royal Ascot. Back in the U.S., Miss Temple City finished fourth by a neck in the Grade 1 Diana Handicap, then a tiring fifth in the Grade 2 Ballston Spa. “She had extremely bad circumstances and it was very frustrating for me,” Motion said. “She ran very respectably in England on soft ground. She came back from England really well. We ran her in the Diana. She didn’t have a perfect trip and she was beaten a neck for first, and she was in front the jump after the wire. She may be the best mare I ever trained. I felt like I had let her down. The last race, she got caught up chasing a rabbit. It was a shame. It was very disappointing to me.” Motion had a choice of two one-mile Grade 1 stakes at Keeneland for Miss Temple City on October 8th: the $400,000 First Lady against fillies and mares taking on champion Tepin and her eight-race winning streak, or the Shadwell Mile against males. “I probably have to thank Tepin for that,” Motion said. “When she opted for the filly race this time, we opted to go the other way.”

Good choice. Ironically, Tepin finished second in her race. Then Miss Temple City won the Shadwell. Dancing Rags and Miss Temple City’s victories continue another outstanding season for the 52-year-old Motion, who is already 17th in trainers’ lifetime earnings ($105.4 million) with a gaudy 19 percent win rate off 2,145 victories from 11,575 starts through mid-October. Motion was 10th in earnings last year and is currently 12th for 2016. Motion has already trained two champions, Kentucky Derby and Dubai World Cup winner Animal Kingdom (Three-Year-Old Colt of 2011) and Main Sequence (Older Male and Older Turf Male of 2014) as well as Breeders’ Cup winners Better Talk Now and Shared Account. The native of Cambridge, England, worked for Hall of Fame trainer Jonathan Sheppard for five years before starting his own stable. He currently trains 120 horses who are stabled at Fair Hill in Maryland. “I feel very fortunate that almost every year was better than the one before,” Motion said. “That’s tough to keep up.” Then he deferred credit: “I’ve had some loyal guys that have been with me since I started.” n

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NUTRITION

TESTOSTERONE More than just about muscles

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TESTOSTERONE

Zenyatta wins the Breeders’ Cup Classic in 2009

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NUTRITION

Testosterone is a hormone that has received a lot of attention in the media, mostly in a negative context due to its historical use in doping in humans and animals. When we think about testosterone we associate it with muscle building and aggression. However, there is so much more to testosterone, which I have uncovered in recent weeks. WORDS: DR. CATHERINE DUNNETT BSC, PHD, R.NUTR PHOTO: CAROlINE NORRIS, HORSEPHOTOS, SHUTTERSTOCk

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ESTOSTERONE is a hormone that is produced naturally by colts, fillies, and geldings in varying amounts. Colts show a naturally higher circulating level of testosterone than geldings and fillies. Testosterone is classified as a steroid hormone and it has a characteristic ring-like structure, being ultimately derived from cholesterol (see figure 1). It is produced primarily in the testes in colts, but perhaps surprisingly also in ovaries and adrenal glands, which explains the natural levels found in fillies and geldings. Testosterone is responsible for the development of primary sexual characteristics in males and also drives muscle development. However, it is also converted to dihydrotestosterone and estradiol, both of which have inter-related functions. Estradiol has a major role

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to play in the brain, and in maintaining cartilage integrity and bone density. Interestingly, neither synthetic testosterone nor dihydrotestosterone can be converted to estradiol and so this is likely to have negative connotations for bone when the muscular strength is affected through synthetic testosterone administration. Testosterone also has an effect on blood by stimulating the production of red blood cells. It is reputed to have a psychological impact, beyond the well-recognized effects on sexual drive and aggression. In people, testosterone is reported to boost confidence and positivity in some circumstances, as well as dominance and competitive success. Testosterone synthesis is not straightforward, and it forms part of a complex series of pathways where cholesterol can be converted to one of many possible steroidal substances. How much testosterone is produced is controlled by a series of

hormones and various feedback mechanisms. Stimulation of testosterone syntheses would be difficult to achieve non-medically yet has been a target of supplement manufacturers in humans and horses over many years. Ingredients such as gamma oryzinol, fenugreek, ginseng, velvet antler, horny goat weed, and others have been offered as having a positive effect on testosterone synthesis. Most of these ingredients would have little in the way of science to support this, and even where some published studies exist – for example for extracts of fenugreek – there is significant controversy over the validity of the results. Additionally, one can never be sure that a positive result in one species will deliver the same in another species due to differences in digestion and absorptive capacity as well as physiological differences. As far as I am aware there are no ingredients or products that have been unequivocally shown to boost circulating testosterone in horses. One of the above ingredients, gamma oryzanol, is a nutritionally important constituent of rice bran oil, and it’s normally present at a level of about 1-2%. Gamma oryzanol is sometimes marketed as a ‘natural steroid’ because it has the ability to increase circulating testosterone naturally. Gamma oryzanol is, in fact, not a single compound but a mixture of ferulic acid esters of triterpene alcohols and plant sterols.


TESTOSTERONE

Gamma oryzanol has been used in both human and equine athletes in the belief that it elicits anabolic effects, ranging from increased testosterone production and release to stimulating growth hormone release. In man, firstly it is debatable as to how bioavailable these phytosterols are, with figures of only 5% absorption from the digestive tract being quoted in the literature. There is no available data for comparison in horses. Additionally, intravenous or subcutaneous administration of these compounds in rats has been reported to suppress luteinising hormone and growth hormone synthesis and release, as well as increasing the release of adrenalin, dopamine, and noradrenalin. This hormonal milieu may in fact decrease endogenous testosterone production. Research in human subjects fed 500mg/ day of gamma oryzanol failed to demonstrate any change in performance in weighttrained subjects, or indeed any change in the circulating level of testosterone, cortisol, estradiol, growth hormone, insulin, or beta endorphin following nine weeks of supplementation. In horses, oral administration of 2g of gamma oryzanol showed no effect on testosterone in either urine or blood. Gamma oryzanol may have other beneficial effects related to its function as an antioxidant or its ability to maintain 14

appetite, but it is very unlikely to have any positive effect on testosterone in horses.

The vitamin K connection

In other species, a link has been established between the regulation of bone density and turnover and testosterone biosynthesis, which is partially mediated via vitamin K1 and K2. In rats, a deficiency in vitamin K reduces testosterone synthesis, as the rate-limiting enzyme in testosterone synthesis Cyp11a is a vitamin K-dependent enzyme. This means that it requires sufficient vitamin K in the

body to function optimally. The vitamin K picture is, however, complicated by the fact that the bone-derived hormone osteocalcin in its undercarboxylated state stimulates testosterone synthesis when released by the bone cells known as osteoclasts. While there is very little information on the effect of a racing diet on testosterone secretion in horses, there may be some similarities with other species. Most nutrients that are important for normal testosterone synthesis are involved in some way, either directly or indirectly, in the synthetic pathway.

NutrieNts aNd microNutrieNts reported to iNflueNce testosteroNe status iN other species Nutrients Vitamin B6 Folic Acid

Vitamin K Vitamin E L-Carnitine Magnesium Zinc

Action with respect to testosterone Deficiency reduces circulating testosterone Vitamin B6 reduces level of prolactin, which stimulates hypothalamus to increase testosterone; B6 is also a cofactor for dopamine synthesis, which influences testosterone levels A deficiency reduces testosterone, as the rate-limiting enzyme for testosterone synthesis is vitamin K dependent Long term over supplementation with some forms may reduce testosterone May have a positive effect via dopamine synthesis Increases sensitivity of cells to testosterone Deficiency lowers testosterone, acts via prolactin

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NUTRITION Gamma oryzanol is a nutritionally important constituent of rice bran oil, and is sometimes marketed as a natural steroid

The B vitamins folic acid and vitamin B6 are both reported to have an effect on circulating levels of testosterone. B vitamins are synthesized by the resident bacteria in the hindgut in horses, but may also be provided in a proprietary racing concentrate. However, B vitamin status can be compromised with hindgut acidosis, which can result from feeding a very high starch-containing diet, particularly where meal size is large or uncooked cereals other than oats are fed. The fat-soluble vitamins D, E, and K are also reported to have an effect on testosterone synthesis. Racing diets contain variable amounts of vitamins D and E, but may be lacking in an appropriate form of vitamin K needed to affect testosterone synthesis, as this would normally be acquired via quality fresh green pasture, although stabilized synthetic forms of vitamin K1 are now available due to its relevance for bone strength (see North American Trainer, issue 19: ‘Vitamin K – the forgotten vitamin’ and issue 30: Vitamins as easy as... ABC”. The mineral magnesium has an effect on sensitivity of cells to testosterone, and zinc is reputed to support the stimulatory hormone prolactin. Finally, L-Carnitine, which is an amino acid derivative, may influence testosterone synthesis via an effect on dopamine production, which can prevent the decline in testosterone characteristically

Racing diets contain variable amounts of vitamins D and E, but may be lacking in an appropriate form of vitamin K needed to affect testosterone synthesis

observed following a period of intense physical stress. Many of the effects of these different micronutrients have been observed in other species while in a deficiency state and the aim therefore in the equine diet should be to provide a normal adequate intake, and supersupplementation is not being advocated. Cryptorchids are male horses whose testicles haven’t descended, and so physically they may look like geldings and may not behave like stallions; however, they are likely to show a higher concentration of circulating testosterone compared to true geldings. Equally, it is possible for an abnormally high level of circulating testosterone to occur in a filly or mare, as the result of an XY chromosome genetic anomaly. This was highlighted in a recent case where the particular horse

post-race threshold for testosteroNe Sex Geldings Fillies and mares Colts

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Plasma / Serum 100 picograms/ml No threshold set No threshold set

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Urine 20 nano grams / ml 55 nano grams / ml No threshold set

raced successfully as a filly, but after an abnormally high post-race urine test for testosterone she was investigated. This horse did not show any aggressive behavior, nor was there any external evidence for abnormal genitalia and the testosterone was confirmed by hair analysis to be natural in origin. However, following genetic analysis the mare was revealed to be an XY variant as opposed to the normal XX. This phenomenon has also caused controversy in the world of human athletics where some women have shown testosterone levels outside what is considered normal, albeit much lower than the lower end of the normal range for men. While I don’t want to delve into the rules of racing and medication violations and doping in this article, it is interesting that the Australian Racing Board modified their rules with respect to testosterone specifically in geldings in 2011. The new rulings allowed the stewards to further investigate the cause of a positive urine test for testosterone in geldings if warranted rather than applying a prima facie breach of the prohibited substance rules. This rule change followed a widespread study of pre-race and post-race testosterone concentration in the urine of 200 geldings. The study found a number of potential causes of elevated pre- or post-race testosterone other than the administration of testosterone or its related precursors. These factors included excitement, dehydration, and genetic predisposition towards high adrenal output, as well as some dietary micronutrients, although these were not specifically stated. However, the stewards were mindful that pharmaceutical testosterone is a potent anabolic agent with the potential to boost performance. n


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ISSUE 42 TRAINERMAGAZINE.COM

17


PROFILE

The native of Brooklyn, New York, turns 80 come next February 17, but don’t for a moment consider him an altacocker. He’s up bright and early, plying his trade in a rigorous routine he’s done for 37 years, training horses. Before that, he rode them for 21 years. Spend 75 percent of your life punching the same clock, you deserve a gold watch, although perhaps not a Rolex like California Chrome. At 14 million to one, there’s a better chance of hitting the lottery. But Sherman got his timepiece for the ages in California Chrome. He’s a once in a lifetime horse, and Sherman is a once in a lifetime trainer. It’s a match made in heaven. WORDS: ED GOLDEN PHOTOS: EcLiPSE SPORTSWiRE, HORSEPHOTOS

F

ORTHRIGHT, good natured, and favorably disposed, with never an utterance of jactitation, Arthur Sherman is a refreshing throwback in a culture where rarely does one admit to a mea culpa, even if he or she understood what the word meant. And Sherman has plenty to brag

about but precious little to feel guilty about. California Chrome is the most popular horse since Mister Ed, and while he has not been known to talk, he speaks loud and clear in his actions. Sherman left the Williamsburg section of Brooklyn when he was seven years old. Whether he was later fleecing contemporaries in the jocks’ room playing gin rummy at old Jamaica Race Course in the late 1950s as the standby rider on the New York circuit, or training 20 horses like he was at press time, it’s been a wild ride. “As the standby jock I had to stay until the last race in case a rider took off late and they needed someone to fill in,” Sherman said. “These days, I’m at the barn every morning except on a Monday or Tuesday, when I might be at home in Rancho Bernardo (near San Diego).” Art Sherman is a man of the people and California Chrome is the people’s horse, as witnessed by the majority of the 72,811 on hand at Santa Anita Nov. 5 who were there to see Chrome run in the $6 million Breeders’ Cup Classic. “One morning in September, a lady came all the way from Palm Springs to Los Alamitos just to see Chrome gallop,” Sherman recalled. (The trip to Chrome headquarters, Los Alamitos Race Course in Cypress, California, was nearly 100 miles each way and took more than two hours). “She couldn’t recognize him among all the horses coming and going and asked when he was coming out. I said he was out 15 minutes ago. “She said, ‘Oh, I didn’t know he went by already. I came all the way from Palm Springs just to take a picture of him.’ “I was busy but I felt bad for her and brought Chrome out to let her take the picture. She couldn’t thank me enough. “‘You don’t know what you’ve done,’” she said. ‘You made my day and my life. I just love this horse.’ “Little things like that make it all worthwhile. Just to have a horse like him, being that popular, it’s a kick. He has so


ART SHERMAN

CALIFORNIA DREAMING Art Sherman on training America’s favorite horse California Chrome is expected to have his last race in the $12 million Pegasus World Cup at Gulfstream Park for trainer Art Sherman, left

ISSUE 42 TRAINERMAGAZINE.COM

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PROFILE many fans sometimes it’s tough to keep them from interrupting his training routine. You want to accommodate everyone but it’s a business and you have to prioritize.” And prioritize he does. Sherman has overcome a myriad of hurdles, both equine and human, in establishing California Chrome as reigning king of the Thoroughbreds. Consider: The five-year-old Californiabred by Lucky Pulpit (ex Love the Chase) has won races worldwide including the 2014 Kentucky Derby and the 2016 Dubai World Cup, in which he set a track record. At 77, Sherman became the oldest trainer to win the Derby, supplanting Charlie Whittingham, who was 76 when he saddled Ferdinand to win in 1986.

The Awesome Again win was quite a thrill for me. The people, everyone who’s involved with the horse, the owners . . . what can you say?”

From the family of 1955 Kentucky Derby winner Swaps, who was trained by Rex Ellsworth, California Chrome has captured stakes on all surfaces--dirt, turf, and synthetic. He was Horse of the Year in 2014 and is North America’s lifetime leading money earner with $14,452,650 in earnings, boasting a 15-4-1 record from 25 races. In what amounted to a paid workout, California Chrome won his most recent start,

the Awesome Again Stakes at Santa Anita on October 1, by two-and-a-quarter lengths. It was his sixth straight win and put him in prime pouncing position to capture his next intended start, the Breeders’ Cup Classic, in which he was the 9-10 favorite. Unfortunately, that did not happen. Despite a gallant effort by Chrome, he was overtaken in the Classic by Travers winner Arrogate, who surged in the final yards of the mile and a quarter race to win by a halflength under Mike Smith. Sherman watched the race from his Grandstand box at Santa Anita. The twisted expression of disappointment on his face when he realized the loss was imminent would be apropos for ABC-TV’s “agony of defeat” logo. Still, Sherman quickly recovered and maintained his class. “He ran his race, but just got beat in those last couple of jumps,” Sherman said. “Arrogate is the real McCoy. I knew he was the one to beat, but I didn’t know how good he was. We had no excuses. Chrome broke so darn good that I figured we’d be in front early. “The fractions were fine. When we were in front turning for home, I thought he’d win, because he usually hangs on. He’s been so good all year long, but it just shows that you can’t win every race.” Now, the $12 million Pegasus World Cup at Gulfstream Park Jan. 28, 2017, is expected to be California Chrome’s final race before being retired to stud at Taylor Made Farm in Nicholasville, Ky. “Art Sherman and his entire crew, they’re just first-class people,” said Frank Taylor, Vice President of Boarding Operations at Taylor Made, which owns a share of the big chestnut with distinctive white stockings and a white blaze. “They’re salt of the earth, hardworking, great horsemen and

California Chrome and Victor Espinoza valiantly hold on to the lead ahead of Arrogate at the eighth pole in the Breeders’ Cup Classic at Santa Anita. Three-year-old Arrogate, with Mike Smith up, took the win in the final yards

Art Sherman with his son and assistant trainer Alan

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ART SHERMAN

just fantastic people, every one of them, including Victor Espinoza. He’s been flawless. I can’t say enough good things about them.” As for Chrome’s farewell race, Taylor confirmed that the game plan includes the Pegasus, “but potentially there could be a prep race before the Pegasus. We’re playing that by ear and whatever Art and (assistant) Alan (Sherman) recommend, we’ll probably do that. “But obviously, we’re going to do whatever the horse tells us to do.” Chrome’s stud fee is set at a realistic $40,000, said Taylor. “We’ve been talking to a lot of breeders and getting a lot of input from them. We want it to be good value for the breeders, where everybody can be successful and make money together.” Meanwhile, Chrome is still going strong at the human equivalent of 35 years old, Methuselah-like for an athlete. Pushing 80, Sherman isn’t far behind in stamina and savvy. Sherman laughed heartily when it was

California Chrome, with assistant trainer Alan Sherman, prepares for early morning work ISSUE 42 TRAINERMAGAZINE.COM

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PROFILE

Derby-winning trainers: John Cooper (seated), winner of the Quarter Horse version, and Art Sherman, the Kentucky version

“Perry told me he had a really good yearling – actually he had just turned two at the time – and needed a trainer down south. “I train all Perry’s horses in Northern California, but he kept telling me he had this really good Cal-bred and there was good money down south so he wanted to take a shot there. I didn’t blame him for that. I gave him my dad’s number and I’m glad everything worked out.” No surprise there, since the Shermans are generational horsemen. “When we were growing up it definitely was a horsemen’s family, that’s for sure,” Steve said. “We grew up in San Mateo, literally just a few minutes from Bay Meadows, but I wasn’t into the horses when I was younger like my brother was. I was into sports in high school. “I really didn’t get interested until 1982 when I graduated high school. I went to work for my dad and was his assistant for many years before going out on my own. “He’s a true professional and a great father. You couldn’t ask for a better father as a kid growing up, for sure.” Even nearing 80, Art has no intention of hanging up his tack.

They’re salt of the earth, hardworking, great horsemen and just fantastic people, every one of them, including Victor Espinoza

Frank Taylor

California Chrome wins the Dubai World Cup at Meydan in March

mentioned he was soon to become an octogenarian. “For some reason,” he said between guffaws, “80 sounds old to me. I like 79 still. Every time they write about me, it’s 79-year-old Art Sherman. They always put my age first. I know I’m 79, so what?” In Yiddish, there’s a word for Art Sherman. He’s a mensch. “He’s very good-natured,” said his youngest son, Alan, 47, a trainer in his own right and Art’s assistant who does most of the heavy lifting when it comes to California Chrome. Art’s other son, Steve, 52, trains out of the Bay Area. “But my father didn’t let us get away with much growing up,” Alan said. “We still had 22

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to work and go to school but once he began training at the track in the mornings, we were always there. “My dad’s pretty much at the barn every day, especially if I’m not there. If I am, he’ll go home for a couple days and hang out with my mom (Faye, Art’s wife of 55 years). It was Steve who was directly responsible for Art becoming the trainer of California Chrome. “I was very lucky to have a conversation with Perry Martin in the paddock at Golden Gate Fields,” Steve recalled. (Martin bred California Chrome along with Steve Coburn. They owned him until Coburn sold his 30 percent interest to Taylor Made in July 2015).

“I like the action, I like being around all the young people who work for me,” he said. “It keeps me on my toes. I wouldn’t know what to do with myself if I retired. I like the challenge. Even if I did retire, I’d always have a piece of a horse, be around the kids. “It’s a different ball game for me. I enjoy it. I’m going to keep going. I’m the kind of guy who’s got to have some action. I can’t stay home. I’m not that kind. I don’t golf, I just know what I know with the horse sales and this and that. I’ll probably still be pretty active.” Faith and peace of mind are two reasons Art sleeps easy. Others might hold their breath waiting for California Chrome to hiccup. Not Art Sherman. “It’s been pretty cool,” he said. “We’ve been doing it a long time now. When it gets real close to the race, you get a little anxious before shipping and schooling and stuff, but other than that, there hasn’t been any excess pressure. It’s just the pressure of knowing you’re going to run and then hoping he has a good trip.” Sherman’s father, Harry, was a barber,


ART SHERMAN

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California Chrome with regular exercise rider Dihigi Gladney at Santa Anita

and back in those days, a barber shop was more than a place you could get a shave and a haircut for two bits. It was a hangout for hirsute humans, a Runyonesque retreat. “I used to go in on weekends and help my dad clean up the shop,” Sherman said. “Bookies would hang out there, and I was so small (5-2, 112 pounds, 28 pounds lighter than his current weight), they would always say to me, ‘Aw, you ought to be a jockey.’ “But the only riding I ever did before becoming a jockey was in California, on a horse in Elysian Park, but later I got interested and applied for a job with Rex Ellsworth. I was told he would teach me how to ride, and it was a great experience. “I was with them for a year during breeding season, breaking horses at their old farm in Ontario. Then they bought a place in Chino. I went to the racetrack after I learned to ride. “Having been a rider, it gives you a different attitude about a horse when you become a trainer,” Sherman said. “It provides another perspective. Everybody looks at a horse differently. In the long run it helped me become the trainer I am. “I know what happens when you’re riding races. It’s a different ball game. I can tell you when a horse is going to get in trouble when he’s at the half-mile pole, if the race is 24

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not breaking right, whether he’s on the rail or got no place to go. You kind of have that sixth sense because you’ve been there and done that.” For Espinoza, getting a leg up from Sherman has been enriching in more ways than one. “I’ve been riding for him since I had the ‘bug’ at Golden Gate and Bay Meadows in 1994,” said Espinoza, now 44. “As a former rider, Art understands what can happen in a race. I’ve ridden for trainers who have been jockeys, but I think Art is the only one who doesn’t think about anything negative. Sometimes we’ll talk about what could happen, but basically, I just go out there trying to win the race. “Art and Alan have done an outstanding

He’s a true professional and a great father. You couldn’t ask for a better father as a kid growing up, for sure

Steve Sherman

job with the horse. Whatever they’re doing, it’s working. Like I said, I’ve known Art since I was a bug boy and I love to ride for him because there’s never any pressure, only positive energy. It’s fun and we look forward to giving our best performance. Art’s never upset, always easy-going. Even if we lose, it’s, “OK, we’ll get ‘em next time.’ Hopefully, we’ll do more good things with California Chrome.” Brian Beach, Espinoza’s agent, goes way back with Team Sherman, from the days in Northern California when Art’s sons trained there. Beach, Espinoza’s agent for the past three-and-half years, was Director of Broadcast Publicity at Golden Gate Fields and defunct Bay Meadows in the early 90s when he met up with Art. “He’s been just great through the whole process,” said the 53-year-old Beach, a native of Spokane, Washington, who has been an agent for 27 years and numbers Hall of Fame members Kent Desormeaux, Julie Krone, Mike Smith, Alex Solis, and Gary Stevens among his former clients. “Art’s always even-keeled and easy going.” That persona holds even after losses, perhaps none of which was more disappointing than the 2014 Belmont Stakes, in which Chrome dead-heated for fourth in pursuit of the Triple Crown. “Being a former jockey helps Art in his

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R A C I N G

C A L E N D A R

CHAMPIONSHIP MEET DECEMBER

FEBRUARY

DATE

STAKES

CONDITIONS

DIST/TURF

PURSE

DATE

STAKES

CONDITIONS

DIST/TURF

PURSE

12.3.16

Jewel (Claiming Crown)

3yo & up

1 1/8 M

$200K

2.4.17

Holy Bull (G2)

3yo

1 1/16 M

$350K

Tiara (Claiming Crown)

3yo & up (F&M)

1 1/16 M (T)

$125K

Forward Gal (G2)

3yo F

7F

$200K

Emerald (Claiming Crown)

3yo & up

1 1/16 M (T)

$125K

Swale (G2)

3yo

7F

$200K

12.10.16

12.17.16

12.26.16 12.31.16

Iron Horse (Claiming Crown)

3yo & up

1 1/16 M

$110K

Sweetest Chant (G3)

3yo F

1 M (T)

$100K

Express (Claiming Crown)

3yo & up

6F

$110K

Kitten’s Joy

3yo

1 M (T)

$100K

Glass Slipper (Claiming Crown)

3yo & up (F&M)

1M

$110K

Rapid Transit (Claiming Crown)

3yo & up

7F

$110K

Canterbury (Claiming Crown)

3yo & up

5 F (T)

$110K

Distaff Dash (Claiming Crown)

3yo & up (F&M)

5 F (T)

$110K

2.18.17 2.20.17

Buffalo Man

2yo

6F

$75K

House Party

2yo F

6F

$75K

1 1/8 M (T)

$350K

1M

$350K

Suwannee River (G3)

4yo & up (F&M)

1 1/8 M (T)

$150K

Royal Delta (G2)

4yo & up (F&M)

1 1/16 M

$200K

Old Hickory

4yo & up

1 1/16 M

$60K

Rail Splitter

4yo & up

6 1/2 F

$60K

2yo

1M

$75K

Old Man Eloquent

4yo & up

1 1/16 M (T)

$60K

2yo F

1M

$75K

Queen Mother

4yo & up (F&M)

7F

$60K

Pulpit

2yo

1 M (T)

$75K

Mary Todd

4yo & up (F&M)

1 1/16 M (T)

$60K

Wait a While

2yo F

1 M (T)

$75K

American Fabius

3yo

7F

$60K

Rampart (G3)

3yo & up (F&M)

1M

$100K

Sage of Monticello

3yo

7 1/2 F (T)

$60K

Harlan’s Holiday (G3)

3yo & up

1 1/16 M

$100K

Mrs Presidentress

3yo F

7 1/2 F (T)

$60K

Sugar Swirl (G3)

3yo & up (F&M)

6F

$100K

Rough and Ready

4yo & up

1 1/16 M

$50K

El Prado

3yo & up

7 1/2 F (T)

$100K

Trust Buster

4yo & up

7F

$50K

South Beach

3yo & up (F&M)

7 1/2 F (T)

$100K

Little Magician

4yo & up

1 M (T)

$50K

Mr Prospector (G3)

3yo & up

6F

$100K

Lady Bird

4yo & up (F&M)

7F

$50K

H Allen Jerkens

3yo & up

2 M (T)

$100K

Gulfstream Park Sprint (G3)

4yo & up

6 1/2 F

$100K

Via Borghese

3yo & up (F&M)

1 3/16 M (T)

$75K

Texas Glitter

3yo

5 F (T)

$75K

Melody of Colors

3yo F

5 F (T)

$75K

Tropical Park Derby

3yo

1 1/16 M (T)

$75K

Tropical Park Oaks

3yo F

1 1/16 M (T)

$75K

2.25.17

MARCH DATE

STAKES

CONDITIONS

DIST/TURF

PURSE

3.4.17

Fountain of Youth (G2)

3yo

1 1/16 M

$400K

$100K

Davona Dale (G2)

3yo F

1M

$200K

6F

$100K

Mac Diarmida (G2)

4yo & up

1 3/8 M (T)

$200K

3yo

7 1/2 F (T)

$100K

Very One (G3)

4yo & up (F&M)

1 3/16 M (T)

$150K

Ginger Brew

3yo F

7 1/2 F (T)

$100K

Canadian Turf (G3)

4yo & up

1 M (T)

$150K

Mucho Macho Man

3yo

1M

$100K

Palm Beach (G3)

3yo

1 1/16 M (T)

$100K

Fort Lauderdale (G2)

4yo & up

1 1/16 M (T)

$200K

Herecomesthebride (G3)

3yo F

1 1/16 M (T)

$100K

Marshua's River (G3)

4yo & up (F&M)

1 1/16 M (T)

$150K

Fred Hooper (G3)

4yo & up

1M

$100K

Hal's Hope (G3)

4yo & up

1M

$150K

Sand Springs

4yo & up (F&M)

1 M (T)

$100K

Sunshine Millions Classic

4yo & up

1 1/8 M

$250K

Captiva Island

4yo & up (F&M)

5 F (T)

$75K

Sunshine Millions Distaff

4yo & up (F&M)

6F

$200K

Silks Run

4yo & up

5 F (T)

$75K

Sunshine Millions Turf

4yo & up

1 1/16 M (T)

$150K

3.18.17

Inside Information (G2)

4yo & up (F&M)

7F

$200K

Sunshine Millions F&M Turf

4yo & up (F&M)

1 1/16 M (T)

$150K

3.25.17

Skip Away (G3)

4yo & up

1 1/8 M

$100K

Sunshine Millions Sprint

4yo & up

6F

$150K

Any Limit

3yo F

6F

$75K

Pegasus World Cup (G1)

3yo & up

1 1/8 M

$12M

Spectacular Bid

3yo

6 1/2 F

$75K

WL McKnight Hdcp (G3)

4yo & up

1 1/2 M (T)

$200K

La Prevoyante Hdcp (G3)

4yo & up (F&M)

1 1/2 M (T)

$200K

Hurricane Bertie (G3)

4yo & up (F&M)

7F

$100K

STAKES

CONDITIONS

DIST/TURF

PURSE

1.7.17

Hutcheson (G3)

3yo

6F

Old Hat (G3)

3yo F

Dania Beach (G3)

1.28.17

4yo & up 4yo & up

Smooth Air

DATE

1.21.17

Gulfstream Park Turf Hdcp (G1) Gulfstream Park Hdcp (G2)

Hut Hut

JANUARY

1.14.17

2.11.17

Poseidon

3yo & up

1 1/8 M

$400K

Ladies’ Turf Sprint

4yo & up (F&M)

5 F (T)

$125K

Gulfstream Park Turf Sprint

4yo & up

5 F (T)

$125K

3.11.17

APRIL DATE

STAKES

CONDITIONS

DIST/TURF

PURSE

4.1.17

Florida Derby (G1)

3yo

1 1/8 M

$1M

Honey Fox (G2)

4yo & up (F&M)

1 M (T)

$300K

Gulfstream Park Oaks (G2)

3yo F

1 1/16 M

$250K

Pan American (G2)

4yo & up

1 1/2 M (T)

$200K

Appleton (G3)

4yo & up

1 M (T)

$200K

Orchid (G3)

4yo & up (F&M)

1 3/8 M (T)

$200K

Sir Shackleton

4yo & up

7F

$100K

Cutler Bay

3yo

1 M (T)

$100K

Sanibel Island

3yo F

1 M (T)

$100K

Highlighted dates denote premium stakes days. Racing dates are subject to change. For nomination closing date please contact the Gulfstream Park Racing Office at 954.457.6260

W E L C O M E

T O

YOUR PLAYGROUND 9 0 1 S F E D E R A L H I G H WAY I H A L L A N D A L E B E A C H I 9 5 4 . 4 5 4 . 7 0 0 0 I G U L F S T R E A M P A R K . C O M


PROFILE

A true team effort: California Chrome’s jockey Victor Espinoza with Art Sherman

relationship with Victor when it comes to understanding what can happen in a race,” Beach said. “The few times we have lost on the horse, it’s not necessarily always been the jockey’s fault and it helps when you have a trainer who’s been there, done that and understands the unpredictability of racing once the gates open. “So Art’s knowledge and understanding has been a nice element in our relationship with him. “I probably speak to Alan more on a weekly basis than I do Art, but Victor and I have known Art for a long time. I was an agent in Northern California when Art was training there full time. He’s always ridden my jockeys and we’ve had a lot of success together. “It’s really special for the three of us to be together in Southern California and to

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be hooked up with a horse like California Chrome, win the Kentucky Derby, go through the Triple Crown – all those experiences together have been great fun, because with Art it’s kind of a family affair. “Steve has always been a very good friend of mine, and Art’s wife ran the gift shop at Bay Meadows for a long time, so everyone knows her. It’s been a lot of fun traveling with the family, being around them and seeing how much joy it brought to them. It’s been great for everybody.” How long it continues remains to be seen. “Racing has changed a whole lot from when it was in my era,” Sherman said. “I don’t think it’s for the best, to be honest. Fewer people come to the live races. There used to be crowds of 20, 30,000. Now you’re lucky to have five or six thousand. “With satellite and online betting, it’s

more convenient for people not to travel to the track. I think at times the tracks overprice their product. Just to have a beer at Del Mar costs ten dollars. You need a bankroll now if you’re going to the track.” It’s remindful of two friends who go to the races and an hour before the first race one asks to borrow $20. “You can’t be broke already,” the prospective soft touch says. “The races haven’t started yet.” “Nah, I’ve got money to bet,” the friend says. “I need money to eat.” California Chrome and Victor Espinoza are no-brainers for the Hall of Fame. Whether Art Sherman is enshrined would seem less certain, even though he has more than 2,000 victories as a jockey and more than 2,100 as a trainer. “It would be nice if my horse got in,” he said, deflecting any attention thrust upon him. “It would be quite an honor to say he made it to the Hall of Fame.” When Art Sherman does retire, racing will be the poorer. Without him, it’s a Barnum & Bailey world. He developed California Chrome into a masterpiece of form and function and contributed mightily to positive mainstream exposure the game sorely needs.

I’ve known Art since I was a bug boy and I love to ride for him because there’s never any pressure, only positive energy

Victor Espinoza

Take it from Hall of Fame contemporary Jerry Hollendorfer, a fixture with Art Sherman for decades when they were beating the bushes in the Bay Area, and still now, all these years later, together on the international stage with champions California Chrome and, in Hollendorfer’s case, Songbird. “A horse’s talent always contributes to much of the success a trainer achieves,” Hollendorfer said. “But management of the horse and keeping it sound are up to the trainer. “Art’s done a great job with California Chrome. He’s developed him into arguably the best horse in the world. The fact that it’s come later in his career makes it an even better story. “Through the change in ownership and the controversy that ensued following Chrome’s loss in the Belmont Stakes, Art handled himself with 100 percent class. That’s just the way he is. “He never complained about anything. He always did his best for the owners, and what was the end result? “It paid off for him.” And for racing. n


BreatheBREATHE For the welfare of the horse

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ISSUE 42 TRAINERMAGAZINE.COM

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VETERINARY

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TAIL SWISHING

AIN’T MISBEHAVIN’

C

The psychology behind starting gate jitters

ONSIDERING the pressure that athletes put on themselves – plus pressure from their fans – it shouldn’t be a stretch to consider that Thoroughbreds also suffer starting gate jitters that manifest in various ways. From swaying, weaving, and flexing and extending distal limbs to sizing up the competition, many horses in the starting gate behave like the competitors lining up for the ever-popular men’s 100m race in the Olympic Games. Take a look at the video coverage of this year’s Travers…while eventual winner Arrogate and Laoban both appeared cool as cucumbers, Governor Malibu was antsy, rocking from side to side, and many spectators

Pre-competition rituals can be witnessed in even the most seasoned competitor in almost every sport. From slapping their sticks and fussing with seemingly every single piece of equipment protecting their bodies before the puck drops, hockey goalies take the term “pre-game jitters” to a whole new level. Not to be bested, baseball players have their share of eccentricities while approaching and entering the batter’s box, and don’t even get me started on pro ping pong! WORDS: Stacey Oke DVM, MSc PHOtOS: HORSePHOtOS

witnessed overt head shaking by Forever d’Oro when the gate opened. What do these pre-race behaviors signify? Do they represent a welfare issue like stereotypies? In this article, both pre-race behavior and stereotypies are described with contributions from Sid Gustafson, DVM, a practicing veterinarian and novelist

from Montana. Gustafson, author of Equine Behavior: The Nature of Horses, also teaches equine behavior at Equine Guelph, University of Guelph in Ontario, Canada

Pre-race behaviors – stress or signs of success?

In the late 1990s, Geoffrey Hutson,

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VETERINARY

MARQUIS® (15% w/w ponazuril) Antiprotozoal Oral Paste Caution: Federal (U.S.A.) law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian.

For The Treatment Of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM) In Horses For Oral Use Only BRIEF SUMMARY Before using MARQUIS, please consult the product insert, a summary of which follows: INDICATIONS MARQUIS (ponazuril) is indicated for the treatment of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) caused by Sarcocystis neurona. WARNINGS For use in animals only. Not for use in horses intended for food. Not for human use. Keep out of reach of children. PRECAUTIONS Prior to treatment, a complete neurologic exam should be completed by a veterinarian. In most instances, ataxia due to EPM is asymmetrical and affects the hind limbs. Clinicians should recognize that clearance of the parasite by ponazuril may not completely resolve the clinical signs attributed to the natural progression of the disease. The prognosis for animals treated for EPM may be dependent upon the severity of disease and the duration of the infection prior to treatment. The safe use of MARQUIS (ponazuril) in horses used for breeding purposes, during pregnancy, or in lactating mares, has not been evaluated. The safety of MARQUIS (ponazuril) with concomitant therapies in horses has not been evaluated. ADVERSE REACTIONS In the field study, eight animals were noted to have unusual daily observations. Two horses exhibited blisters on the nose and mouth, three animals showed skin reactions for up to 18 days, one animal had loose stools, one had a mild colic on one day and one animal had a seizure while on medication. The association of these reactions to treatment was not established. ANIMAL SAFETY SUMMARY MARQUIS (ponazuril) was administered to 24 adult horses (12 males and 12 females) in a target animal safety study. Three groups of 8 horses each received 0, 10 or 30 mg/kg (water as control, 2X and 6X for a 5 mg/kg [2.27 mg/lb] dose). Horses were dosed after feeding. One half of each group was treated for 28 days and the other half for 56 days followed by necropsy upon termination of treatment. There were several instances of loose feces in all animals in the study irrespective of treatment, sporadic inappetence and one horse at 10 mg/kg (2X) lost weight while on test. Loose feces were treatment related. Histopathological findings included moderate edema in the uterine epithelium of three of the four females in the 6X group (two treated for 28 days and one for 56 days). For customer care or to obtain product information, including a Material Safety Data Sheet, call 1-888-6374251 Option 2, then press 1. ®MARQUIS is a registered trademark of Merial. ©2016 Merial, Inc., Duluth, GA. All rights reserved.

a Melbourne, Australia, native and equine behaviorist, co-authored a study titled “Pre-race behaviour of horses as a predictor of race finishing order” that was published in the journal Applied Animal Behaviour Science. The authors assessed the behavior and appearance of 867 horses in 67 races at two of Melbourne’s Thoroughbred tracks. Factors taken into consideration when assessing behavior included head, ear, and tail position. In the latter category, the authors looked at whether the tail was relaxed, stiff, or swishing/flicking. In total, 29 variables were assessed, including 19 behavior/ appearance variables, with the remainder being traditional race-book information (e.g., weight carried, starting price). Key findings of the study were that: • Traditionally held views, such as winners tended to be fitter and more relaxed whereas losers were more aroused and required great control, held true in this study. • Simple observations of the behavior and appearance of the horses prior to a race cannot predict winners. • Elevations of the head, neck, and tail were associated with increased arousal. • Tail elevation, neck angle with the jockey up, and resistance to the bit were all significantly related to finishing order, with a less relaxed tail associated with losing. The “power” of these variables, however, was poor compared to traditional variables mentioned above. • Although a single behavioral variable could not reliably predict outcome, a combination of behavior and appearance variables, including tail carriage, was capable of identifying horses that were more likely to be losers 67.4% of the time.

• Pre-race behavior and appearance of horses is a valuable aid in predicting losing horses, not winners. In conclusion, Hutson and co-author Marie Haskell wrote, “…objective analysis of racehorse appearance and behaviour is both fascinating and a legitimate application of animal behaviour science in one of the most popular world-wide animal industries. This area offers many intriguing research opportunities.” Indeed, Hutson went on to write two books using pre-race behavior to predict outcome, starting with, Watching Racehorses: A Guide to Betting On Behaviour, and he is now a full-time punter. According to Hutson, who, recall, is an expert equine behaviorist, one of the greatest challenges with assessing behavior in this subset of athletes is timing. Hutson and Haskell estimated they had approximately 38 seconds to assess the condition, appearance, and behavior of each horse in each race. “With 19 variables per horse we found that in some races we were working under considerable time pressure, with only two or three seconds to score each variable. In addition, many trainers try to hold their horses back in the stable area until the last minute, to minimise their exposure to the pre-race atmosphere and tension. Often we had to run to keep up with the late horses on their way to the mounting yard,” wrote the authors.

Starting gate and racing behavior: focus on tail swishing

The study by Hutson and Haskell clearly suggested that high tail carriage has a negative impact on racing performance. In addition to carriage of the tail, tail swishing

MARQUIS_PI_InBrief_NORTH AMERICAN TRAINER.indd 4/19/16 1:19 PM .COM ISSUE142 30 TRAINERMAGAZINE

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Is it really a lameness?

Or is it all in their head?

Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM) is an expert in deception and can be confused with other problems, such as lameness. Only stopping the parasite responsible can stop EPM from causing further damage to your horse’s brain and spinal cord. MARQUIS is a powerful anti-protozoal. Only MARQUIS has a 3X loading dose that allows it to reach steady state in 24 to 48 hours.*,1 *Clinical relevance has not been determined.

Time matters. If your horse is showing signs such as gait abnormalities, unexplained stumbling or loss of conditioning — especially to one side — call your veterinarian. 2 The sooner EPM is detected and diagnosed, the better the chance for recovery. The signs can be subtle. The treatment should be aggressive.

Save on your next purchase. MAX.merial.com MARQUIS Freedom of Information Summary and Supplement and product label. Reed S. Neurology is not a euphemism for necropsy: a review of selected neurological diseases affecting horses. American Association of Equine Practitioners. 54th Annual Convention Proceedings. AAEP. 2008:78-109.

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IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION: The safe use of MARQUIS in horses used for breeding purposes, during pregnancy, or in lactating mares, has not been evaluated. In animal safety studies, loose feces, sporadic inappetence, lost weight, and moderate edema in the uterine epithelium were observed. MARQUIS is a registered trademark, and ™MAX, Merial Awards Xpress is a trademark, of Merial. ©2016 Merial, Inc., Duluth, GA. All rights reserved. EQUIOMQ1506-A (03/16)

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VETERINARY is a relatively commonly observed behavior trait once horses are loaded into the starting gate. “I have been the gate veterinarian for thousands of horseraces. Tail swishing in the gate is often the horse communicating that s/he is uncomfortable or unsettled. All other kinetic empathy is often taken away when horses are in the gate. The assistant starter often has a hold of the head, the horse is confined in the gate, and the only method left to communicate is the tail,” explains Gustafson, adding, “In addition to communication, horses use their tails for balance, locomotion, teaching, expressing emotion, and more.” For example, horses use their tails to dissuade insects from feeding while they are grazing. The equine tail could also be viewed as a built-in fan to help thermoregulate. The article “Heat: how racehorses handle summer temperatures” in the Summer 2012 issue of North American Trainer describes how horses dissipate heat from their skin. Thus increasing airflow across the skin can help horses stay cool. In other equine disciplines, tail swishing during competition is considered a “conflict behavior.” According to a 2015 study published in the Journal of Veterinary Behavior, conflict behaviors (CBs) such as excessive tail swishing and mouth gaping are “indicative to some kind of discomfort confusion, and resistance or hyperactivity to riders’ aids.” In addition, the study authors wrote, “CB is a response exhibited by animals that experience difficulty coping with mental or physical discomfort, most often demonstrated as some form of resistance to handling or training cues and/or equipment.” In that study, the authors concluded that the occurrence of CBs such as tail swishing during elite level competitions suggests that horses participating in competition may not be sufficiently prepared for competition. Although still pictures of Thoroughbreds during a race shows their tails flying behind them, much like a superhero’s cape without much swishing or movement at all, Gustafson says that tail swishing during a race is relatively common. “Every week, as a regulatory veterinarian, I would see tail swishing during a race. Of course, that brought veterinary scrutiny to the horse, wherein causative factors were often observed, such as cinch sore, a pinching bridle, lots of tack troubles and human oversights, blinkers, and other sensory deprivation devices such as shadow and cheek rolls, ear plugs, nasal menthols, etc. “Some horses have nervous tails, and some tail actions are rewarded and become taught, not always on purpose. Certain horses regularly flash their tail during racing events, some perhaps in joy,” he adds.

Stereotypic behaviors in Thoroughbreds

Based on Hutson’s, Gustafson’s, and other 32

TRAINERMAGAZINE.COM ISSUE 42

Reed McKellan and Doctor Hunt gut blanket captions

equine behaviorists’ views, tail position and swishing appear to serve as a window into a horse’s mental state and possibly also their preparedness for competition. Tail swishing is not considered an abnormal or stereotypic behavior. Stereotypies are defined as repetitive,

Some horses have nervous tails, and some tail actions are rewarded and become taught, not always on purpose

Sid Gustafson

relatively invariant, and apparently functionless behaviors. Examples of stereotypic behaviors include cribbing, wind-sucking, stall-walking, weaving, pawing, among a slew of others. Professor Paul McGreevy, BVSc, PhD, MRCVS, MACVS (Animal Welfare), Cert CABC, Grad Cert Higher Ed and Sub Dean Animal Welfare at the University of Sydney, Australia (formerly from the Department of Animal Health and Husbandry, School of Veterinary Science, University of Bristol, Langford, U.K.), reported data regarding the occurrence of stereotypies in Thoroughbreds. Based on his own experience, McGreevy estimated that the prevalence of stallwalking, wind-sucking/crib-biting, and weaving in the U.K.’s Thoroughbred population was 1.7, 4.0, and 4.0%, respectively. In Italy, those rates seem to


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VETERINARY

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LEGEND®

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Injectable Solution

4 mL For Intravenous Use In Horses Only 2 mL For Intravenous or Intra-Articular Use In Horses Only BRIEF SUMMARY Prior to use please consult the product insert, a summary of which follows: CAUTION Federal Law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian. INDICATIONS LEGEND® Injectable Solution and LEGEND® Multi Dose Injectable Solution are indicated in the treatment of equine joint dysfunction associated with equine osteoarthritis. CONTRAINDICATIONS There are no known contraindications for the use of LEGEND® Injectable Solution and LEGEND® Multi Dose Injectable Solution in horses. RESIDUE WARNINGS Do not use in horses intended for human consumption. HUMAN WARNINGS Not for use in humans. Keep out of reach of children. ANIMAL SAFETY WARNING For LEGEND Injectable Solution 4 mL and LEGEND Multi Dose Injectable Solution – Not for Intra-articular use. The Intra-articular safety of hyaluronate sodium with benzyl alcohol has not been evaluated. PRECAUTIONS Complete lameness evaluation should be conducted by a veterinarian. Sterile procedure during the injection process must be followed. Intra-articular injections should not be made through skin that is inflamed, infected or has had a topical product applied. The safety of LEGEND Injectable Solution and LEGEND Multi Dose has not been evaluated in breeding stallions or in breeding, pregnant or lactating mares. ADVERSE REACTIONS No side effects were observed in LEGEND Injectable Solution clinical field trials. Side effects reported post-approval: Following intravenous use: Occasional depression, lethargy, and fever. Following intraarticular (LEGEND Injectable Solution – 2 mL only) use: joint or injection site swelling and joint pain. For medical emergencies or to report adverse reactions, call 1-800-422-9874. ANIMAL SAFETY SUMMARY Animal safety studies utilizing LEGEND Multi Dose Injectable Solution were not performed. LEGEND Multi Dose Injectable Solution was approved based on the conclusion that the safety of LEGEND Multi Dose Injectable Solution will not differ from that demonstrated for the original formulation of LEGEND Injectable Solution. LEGEND Injectable Solution was administered to normal horses at one, three and five times the recommended intra-articular dosage of 20 mg and the intravenous dose of 40 mg. Treatments were given weekly for nine consecutive weeks. No adverse clinical or clinical pathologic signs were observed. Injection site swelling of the joint capsule was similar to that seen in the saline treated control horses. No gross or histological lesions were observed in areas of the treated joint. For customer care or to obtain product information, including a Material Safety Data Sheet, call 1-888-637-4251 Option 2. ®LEGEND is a registered trademark, and ™ the Horse Logo is a trademark, of Merial. ©2016 Merial, Inc., Duluth, GA. All rights reserved.

be slightly lower at 2.5, 2.4, and 2.5%, respectively. Of concern, however, is that McGreevy reports that the combined prevalence of all abnormal behaviors in Thoroughbreds is estimated to be as high as 26%, which equates to an alarming one-quarter of the Thoroughbred population. Further, Daniel Mills from the Animal Behaviour Cognition and Welfare Group at the University of Lincoln in Lincolnshire, U.K., suggests that this data underreports the true prevalence of the condition and that stereotypies occur much more frequently. Specific to Thoroughbreds racehorses, Tamara Tadich, MSc. et al. reported in the Journal of Equine Veterinary Science that of the 743 evaluated horses at two separate facilities, the overall prevalence of abnormal behaviors was 11.03%. Of those, only 6.32% of horses were classified as having actual stereotypies. Behaviors viewed as stereotypies went beyond the classics and also included nodding, stall kicking, pawing, wood chewing, coprophagia (ingestion of feces), licking, and bed eating. Similar results were subsequently reported by Lisandro Muñoz from the Universidad de Concepción, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias in Chile, and his colleagues in 2014. This latter group found that 13.2% of 341 Thoroughbred racehorses had stereotypies, but they looked only at the occurrence of cribbing, weaving, and stall-walking. In other words, the overall occurrence of stereotypies was likely much higher.

Stereotypic implications of stereotypies and what to do

Why do we care about whether a horse bobs his head or sucks on her stall door? Other than damage caused by some stereotypies to the stall and potential injury to the horse, the real issue is one of welfare. According to a 2013 article by Amir Sarrafchi and Harry Blockhauis from Linköping University in Sweden published in the Journal of Veterinary Behavior, stereotypies are widely believed to be linked to poor welfare and are more frequently observed in suboptimal environments. While several studies have attempted to identify factors associated with the occurrence of stereotypies--such as diet composition, visual access to conspecifics, amount of turnout, and number of feedings per day--no consensus has been reached. In Gustafson’s opinion, lack of movement is a major contributor. “Stereotypies are a result of deprivation of friends, forage, and locomotion by their caretakers. Stalled horses require miles and miles of daily walking to maintain pulmonary, digestive, musculoskeletal, and behavioral health. Horses require near-constant 24/7 friends, forage, and locomotion to maintain behavioral health and contentment,” says Gustafson.

A broad discussion of treatment is not possible here, but in a nutshell, the prevailing thought is that once a stereotypie develops it is extremely difficult to curtail the cribbing and other unwanted behaviors. Owners/trainers frequently turn to physically deter horses from performing the behavior (e.g., using cribbing collars). Alternate techniques suggested by Mills include the following: • Reduced stable time and increased exercise; • Stable toys; • Additional social contact; • Alternating the horse’s stall, increasing the stall size, and providing a more varied view from the stable; • Using a chain instead of a door on the stall. Interestingly, during a presentation for the Havemeyer Foundation, Mills compared what we classify as equine stereotypies to human obsessive-compulsive behaviors

Not all tail swishing is problematic, nor is all tail swishing reflective of discontentment or pain

Sid Gustafson rather than actual stereotypic behaviors. He said, “It may be that this distinction needs to be made when considering apparently stereotypic behaviours in the horse, since they may share more with the latter (obsessive-compulsive behaviours) than the former (stereotypies).”

Concluding thoughts

In sum, it is reasonable to suggest that although Thoroughbreds do suffer from stereotypies like other horses when housed indoors or in heavily managed situations, their behaviors and tail swishing in the starting gate seems more comparable to the excitement of competition that is observed in human athletes. “Not all tail swishing is problematic, nor is all tail swishing reflective of discontentment or pain. Some horses have nervous tails, and some horses are simply communicating something to others. What the ‘something’ is, however, is not always evident,” added Gustafson. That said, it behooves the equine racing community to ensure that the horses are not swishing their tails due to discomfort from avoidable causes, such as tack issues. Further, taking proactive steps to abrogate the development or worsening of stereotypies that are fairly common in heavily managed horses is also encouraged. n

LEGEND_PI_InBrief_2016_FINAL_NORTH TRAINER.indd 4/19/16 1:22 1 PM .COM ISSUE 42 34 TRAINERMAGAZINEAMERICAN

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Save on your next purchase.

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IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION: The safety of LEGEND has not been evaluated in breeding stallions or in breeding, pregnant or lactating mares. The following adverse reactions have been reported following use of LEGEND Injectable Solution: Following intravenous use: occasional depression, lethargy, and fever. Following intra-articular (LEGEND Injectable Solution — 2 mL only) use: lameness, joint effusion, joint or injection site swelling, and joint pain.

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PROFILE

TERRY KNIGHT On the road back to Santa Anita 36

TRAINERMAGAZINE.COM ISSUE 42


TERRY KNIGHT

ISSUE 42 TRAINERMAGAZINE.COM

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PROFILE

A guy once asked Harry (The Hat) Hacek where he could find trainer Terry Knight. “Whenever I need Terry Knight,” the colorful agent said, “I look in the winner’s circle.” A stretch perhaps, but certainly within the bounds of elasticity. WORDS: ED GOLDEN PHOTOS: ECLIPSE SPORTSWIRE, HORSEPHOTOS

T

ERRY Ray Knight, a Thoroughbred trainer since 1978, had a winning average of better than 21 percent through early September this year, winning 890 races from 4,224 starts, not bad for a man who has been flying under the radar most of his career and was down to just seven horses as he motored back from Del Mar on Labor Day to his headquarters in the Bay Area, his home base since 1995. He pulled up stakes that year in Southern California, where he had a sizeable stable at that time. He might have stayed in the Los Angeles area if his priority hadn’t been to get his twin daughters, Shari and Shayna, through school in Northern California. His passion for training hasn’t waned since he was a boy when he learned the ropes under his father, Chay, who died on July 31, 2015 at the age of 80 after a long illness. Understandably, however, Terry put family first when it came to his daughters, now 30 years old. How time flies. “It was strictly personal,” Knight said in explaining his permanent move to Northern California. “I was divorced, by myself, had the children on my own and wanted them to go to school up here. We still had a house here at the time and it just made more sense. “They both went through high school in the Bay Area and Shayna went on to UC Davis and Shari went to Purdue. “Shari now works for the Golden State Warriors and is executive assistant to the owner, Joe Lacob, and the president, Rick Weltz. “Shayna lives in Tucson and is married to a doctor, but they’re moving to Sacramento because he’s completed his residency at the University of Arizona. She works for the athletic department at U of A. “Both girls are doing very well.” Ditto for Dad, although it’s not every 38

TRAINERMAGAZINE.COM ISSUE 42

day Terry gets a horse like Mo Soul, winner of the $150,000 I’m Smokin Stakes for California-breds at Del Mar on Sept. 2, upsetting favored California Diamond to win by a length and a quarter at 20-1 under jockey Tiago Pereira. Mo Soul earned $85,000 and remained unbeaten in two starts for owners/breeders Pete and Evelyn Parrella, who campaign as Legacy Ranch and have been clients of Knight’s for 25 years. Sam Rivinius is another testament to Knight’s longevity in trainer/client relationships. “I brought him into the business and this will be our 18th year together,” Knight said. “I have to thank them for their loyalty.” Also at the top of the list in appreciation is Terry’s current wife, Dru. “She’s my biggest fan and supporter,” he said. “Like most of us who have a parent in the business, I followed my father around from race track to race track to the barns every morning at a young age,” said Terry, who turned 62 on Sept. 27 and was born and raised in Ventura, California, where Chay was born. Terry now lives in San Ramon, 15 minutes from Pleasanton, where he’s stabled, and 30 minutes from Golden Gate Fields in Albany. “Originally, my father was a Quarter Horse trainer, then he transitioned fulltime to Thoroughbreds,” Knight said. Chay’s most notable Quarter Horse was Kaweah Bar, winner of 103 races and a member of the Quarter Horse Hall of Fame. “I learned most of my general horsemanship from my father,” Terry said. “I picked up bits and pieces from other people, but he was the main person who taught me everything. He was a real stickler for detail. “He believed in treating a horse right. He ran a real tough shed row. He was meticulous. It was very clean and things were done right. I have to say I learned the right way. “When I first came to Northern California around 1976, I was at the Fairs,

and Jerry Fanning had horses there with Jerry Hollendorfer. Fanning let me use a couple of his stalls. I carted a few Quarter Horses up there and my dad sent me two Thoroughbreds, so I was in Fanning’s barn with Hollendorfer. “Fanning sent me horses on my Dad’s recommendation. Richard Chew, (trainer Matt Chew’s father), Sid Martin, who trained for 505 Farms, Hector Palma, Larry Sterling Sr., Eddie Gregson, Chuck Taliaferro and Peter Cole, all good people, also sent horses to help get me started.” Knight also singled out the late James Pegram Sr., father of agent Jim Pegram, for being instrumental in his success. “He was the most influential person in my life, personally and professionally,” Knight said. In the small world department, Sterling Sr.’s daughter Patty is Pereira’s agent, and his son, Larry Jr., trains out of the High Point Training Center in Kentucky. “When Terry was up north, my brother was training in Southern California at the time and kind of helped him out down here,


TERRY KNIGHT

running his barn and exercising his horses for him,” Patty said. “That was a long time ago, the late ‘80s maybe.” There are those who view Hollendorfer as an enigma, choosing to confuse his unflinching workaholic philosophy as a negative demeanor. Knight is not among them. “Some people might not know this, but it wasn’t always smooth sailing for Jerry,” Knight said of the 70-year-old Hall of Fame member, whose career wins numbered 7,150 through Sept. 7 and whose undefeated champion filly Songbird owned by Rick Porter justifiably is all the rage. “Jerry was always a hard worker and I would say he and I became friends because we were attached at the hip. He was working for Fanning and I had a couple Quarter Horses and Thoroughbreds in their barn. “We spent a lot of time together, and after Hollendorfer left Fanning, he came back up north and worked for Bob Hubbard’s horse transportation company, running his phase of the business out of an office in my barn.”

Even though Hollendorfer would go on to win more than seven times the number of races Knight has, four decades later, he held the utmost respect for his contemporary. “Terry and I arrived in Northern California on the same day,” Hollendorfer recalled. “We kind of took different paths from there, but he’s always been an excellent trainer. Give a guy like that a good horse, he can win a big race.”

I’ve pretty much had the same crew for a long time. My main guy at the barn is Ismael Ramirez. He’s been with me for 25 years, along with his wife, Malana

Knight was vice president of the Northern California division of the California Thoroughbred Trainers in 2015, “but I didn’t run this year because we didn’t know what was going to happen and where we were going to be.” Through all the bumps in the road, Knight’s team, however, has remained Gibraltar-solid. “I’ve pretty much had the same crew for a long time,” Knight said. “My main guy at the barn is Ismael Ramirez. He’s been with me for 25 years, along with his wife, Malana, and Tony Zuniga has been my exercise rider for ages.” A smooth ship sails well, but stress always lurks beyond the next wave, waiting to rock the boat. It plays to a full house, and racing, with its uncompromising 24/7 schedule, is prime theater, ever susceptible to a temptress that can be deadly. Knight left the show briefly but was able to return to his seat before the curtain fell. “I had bypass surgery at Cedars Sinai three years ago when I was at Santa ISSUE 42 TRAINERMAGAZINE.COM

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PROFILE

Caution Federal (USA) law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian. Storage Conditions Store at 68°F – 77°F (20-25°C). Excursions between 59°F – 86°F (15-30°C) are permitted. Indications For treatment and prevention of recurrence of gastric ulcers in horses and foals 4 weeks of age and older. Dosage Regimen For treatment of gastric ulcers, GastroGard Paste should be administered orally once-a-day for 4 weeks at the recommended dosage of 1.8 mg omeprazole/lb body weight (4 mg/kg). For the prevention of recurrence of gastric ulcers, continue treatment for at least an additional 4 weeks by administering GastroGard Paste at the recommended daily maintenance dose of 0.9 mg/lb (2 mg/kg). Directions For Use • GastroGard Paste for horses is recommended for use in horses and foals 4 weeks of age and older. The contents of one syringe will dose a 1250 lb (568 kg) horse at the rate of 1.8 mg omeprazole/lb body weight (4 mg/kg). For treatment of gastric ulcers, each weight marking on the syringe plunger will deliver sufficient omeprazole to treat 250 lb (114 kg) body weight. For prevention of recurrence of gastric ulcers, each weight marking will deliver sufficient omeprazole to dose 500 lb (227 kg) body weight. • To deliver GastroGard Paste at the treatment dose rate of 1.8 mg omeprazole/ lb body weight (4 mg/kg), set the syringe plunger to the appropriate weight marking according to the horse’s weight in pounds. • To deliver GastroGard Paste at the dose rate of 0.9 mg/lb (2 mg/kg) to prevent recurrence of ulcers, set the syringe plunger to the weight marking corresponding to half of the horse’s weight in pounds. • To set the syringe plunger, unlock the knurled ring by rotating it 1/4 turn. Slide the knurled ring along the plunger shaft so that the side nearest the barrel is at the appropriate notch. Rotate the plunger ring 1/4 turn to lock it in place and ensure it is locked. Make sure the horse’s mouth contains no feed. Remove the cover from the tip of the syringe, and insert the syringe into the horse’s mouth at the interdental space. Depress the plunger until stopped by the knurled ring. The dose should be deposited on the back of the tongue or deep into the cheek pouch. Care should be taken to ensure that the horse consumes the complete dose. Treated animals should be observed briefly after administration to ensure that part of the dose is not lost or rejected. If any of the dose is lost, redosing is recommended. • If, after dosing, the syringe is not completely empty, it may be reused on following days until emptied. Replace the cap after each use. Warning Do not use in horses intended for human consumption. Keep this and all drugs out of the reach of children. In case of ingestion, contact a physician. Physicians may contact a poison control center for advice concerning accidental ingestion. Adverse Reactions In efficacy trials, when the drug was administered at 1.8 mg omeprazole/lb (4 mg/kg) body weight daily for 28 days and 0.9 mg omeprazole/lb (2 mg/kg) body weight daily for 30 additional days, no adverse reactions were observed. Precautions The safety of GastroGard Paste has not been determined in pregnant or lactating mares. Efficacy • Dose Confirmation: GastroGard ® (omeprazole) Paste, administered to provide omeprazole at 1.8 mg/lb (4 mg/kg) daily for 28 days, effectively healed or reduced the severity of gastric ulcers in 92% of omeprazole-treated horses. In comparison, 32% of controls exhibited healed or less severe ulcers. Horses enrolled in this study were healthy animals confirmed to have gastric ulcers by gastroscopy. Subsequent daily administration of GastroGard Paste to provide omeprazole at 0.9 mg/lb (2 mg/kg) for 30 days prevented recurrence of gastric ulcers in 84% of treated horses, whereas ulcers recurred or became more severe in horses removed from omeprazole treatment. • Clinical Field Trials: GastroGard Paste administered at 1.8 mg/lb (4 mg/kg) daily for 28 days healed or reduced the severity of gastric ulcers in 99% of omeprazole-treated horses. In comparison, 32.4% of control horses had healed ulcers or ulcers which were reduced in severity. These trials included horses of various breeds and under different management conditions, and included horses in race or show training, pleasure horses, and foals as young as one month. Horses enrolled in the efficacy trials were healthy animals confirmed to have gastric ulcers by gastroscopy. In these field trials, horses readily accepted GastroGard Paste. There were no drug related adverse reactions. In the clinical trials, GastroGard Paste was used concomitantly with other therapies, which included: anthelmintics, antibiotics, non-steroidal and steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, diuretics, tranquilizers and vaccines. • Diagnostic and Management Considerations: The following clinical signs may be associated with gastric ulceration in adult horses:inappetence or decreased appetite, recurrent colic, intermittent loose stools or chronic diarrhea, poor hair coat, poor body condition, or poor performance. Clinical signs in foals may include: bruxism (grinding of teeth), excessive salivation, colic, cranial abdominal tenderness, anorexia, diarrhea, sternal recumbency or weakness. A more accurate diagnosis of gastric ulceration in horses and foals may be made if ulcers are visualized directly by endoscopic examination of the gastric mucosa Gastric ulcers may recur in horses if therapy to prevent recurrence is not administered after the initial treatment is completed. Use GastroGard Paste at 0.9 mg omeprazole/lb body weight (2 mg/kg) for control of gastric ulcers following treatment. The safety of administration of GastroGard Paste for longer than 91 days has not been determined. Maximal acid suppression occurs after three to five days of treatment with omeprazole. Safety • GastroGard Paste was well tolerated in the following controlled efficacy and safety studies. • In field trials involving 139 horses, including foals as young as one month of age, no adverse reactions attributable to omeprazole treatment were noted. • In a placebo controlled adult horse safety study, horses received 20 mg/kg/ day omeprazole (5x the recommended dose) for 90 days. No treatment related adverse effects were observed. • In a placebo controlled tolerance study, adult horses were treated with GastroGard Paste at a dosage of 40 mg/kg/day (10x the recommended dose) for 21 days. No treatment related adverse effects were observed. • A placebo controlled foal safety study evaluated the safety of omeprazole at doses of 4, 12 or 20 mg/kg (1, 3 or 5x) once daily for 91 days. Foals ranged in age from 66 to 110 days at study initiation. Gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT) levels were significantly elevated in horses treated at exaggerated doses of 20 mg/kg (5x the recommended dose). Mean stomach to body weight ratio was higher for foals in the 3x and 5x groups than for controls; however, no abnormalities of the stomach were evident on histological examination. Reproductive Safety In a male reproductive safety study, 10 stallions received GastroGard Paste at 12 mg/kg/day (3x the recommended dose) for 70 days. No treatment related adverse effects on semen quality or breeding behavior were observed. A safety study in breeding mares has not been conducted. For More Information Please call 1-888-637-4251 Marketed by: Merial, Inc., Duluth, GA 30096-4640, U.S.A. Made in Brazil ®GastroGard is a registered trademark of Merial, Inc. ©2016 Merial, Inc. All rights reserved. Rev. 05-2011

GG_PI_InBrief_2015_NO AMERICAN TRAINER.indd 1

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Mo Soul, with Tiago Pereira up, wins the I’m Smokin’ Stakes

Anita,” he said. “It was unexpected. I was experiencing a little fatigue and had some tightness in my arm. “Doctors found I had blockage in four different arteries. I feel very fortunate that they were able to operate successfully and I’ve been good since. Hopefully, we’re OK.” Heart attacks sneak up on little cat’s feet, and they don’t play favorites. Just ask Bob Baffert. Knight expects to return to Santa Anita full time after the Breeders’ Cup meet ends on Nov. 5. “That’s kind of what our plan is now,” he said. “Right now I’m stabled at Pleasanton, and if all the indicators are correct, the facility will close for stabling after Christmas. We needed a place to go anyway and we kind of had it in the back of our mind to come back there, so that’s our plan.” Knight hopes there’s light at the end of the tunnel beyond Santa Anita, but he maintains a sense of reality. “I’m real concerned with our situation in racing both north and south,” he said. “We’re facing a lot of hurdles right now. With the status quo, I don’t think it’s going to work out if we can’t get our purses to where they need to cover the costs of operating and maintaining a horse. “I haven’t been able to replace my owners; it’s a tough sell up north. Obviously, the purses are better in Southern California. I don’t think anybody gets into this business thinking they’re going to make money and

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I don’t think anybody gets into something knowing they’re going to lose a lot of money.” Even though he was down to seven horses in early September, Knight has endured more challenging times. “It’s actually been leaner than that before now,” said Knight, who enjoyed his best year in 1988 when he won 71 races and neared $1 million in purse earnings with $959,422. “It’s one of those things where you kind of run out of clients. When I had a big stable, a lot of my clients where elderly people at that time. We just haven’t been able to replace any of them. That’s kind of what happens. “Actually, my few owners now have been extremely loyal. I’ve had a relationship with Legacy Ranch for a quarter of a century and trained for the Annuzzi family for almost 40 years. They pretty much provided the backbone in my getting started in Northern California. There wasn’t anybody they didn’t know in San Francisco. “I think all of us would like to have more horses, and if it works out, it works out, and if it doesn’t . . . You just get up, go to work, and hope something gets you going. “Horsemen really don’t know anything else and I think if you talk to any who have been in it as long as I have, they’ll tell you we like getting up and going to the barn in the morning. “That’s just what we do.” n


WI N N I NG d o es n’ t h a p p e n

B Y

A C C I D E N T.

A nose. That’s all you need to see your number on top. To pay off on all those early morning workouts. The late nights planning strategy. You don’t do this to place or show. So ask yourself, does your horse have the stomach to win?

Time for a gut check. TheStomachToWin.com

Save on your next purchase and take rewards to the MAX. www.max.merial.com ®GASTROGARD is a registered trademark, and ™MAX, Merial Awards Xpress is a trademark, of Merial. ©2016 Merial, Inc., Duluth, GA. All rights reserved. EQUIUGD1425-K (09/15)

IMPORTANT SAFETY INFORMATION: CAUTION: Safety of GASTROGARD in pregnant or lactating mares has not been determined.


TRAINING

TEACHING HOW TO BE A GROOM Programs that help new stable staff

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GROOMING

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Grooms are the backbone of the racing industry. They are the individuals who work most closely with our horses, caring for their needs and their physical well-being. Yet in North America, most grooms come into the industry with no prior training for this important job. WORDS: DeniSe SteffanuS PHOtOS: HORSePHOtOS, DR. C. ReiD MCLeLLan, nORtHLanDS PaRk

A

MERICAN grooms are different from European grooms. “Stable staff,” as grooms of both genders are called in the United Kingdom, must be able to manage several horses, doing everything for those horses from mucking stalls to exercise riding. Skilled horsemanship is a prerequisite for the job. In America, an entry-level position at the racetrack requires little more than brawn and a willingness to work.

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“The minimum qualification to be a groom is to be able to show up at the stable gate at five o’clock in the morning and have someone say the words for them over the loudspeaker, ‘There’s a groom at the stable gate looking for work,’” said Dr. C. Reid McLellan, executive director of Groom Elite, one of several programs developed to teach individuals the knowledge and skills needed to competently care for racehorses. In 2001, racehorse owner Susan O’Hara became disturbed that the most valuable asset in racing, our horses, were handled

by untrained and inexperienced help. She approached McLellan, a trainer who served as the racing education manager at Sam Houston Race Park in Texas, to ask him if he thought grooms would like to learn more about the work they did. Based on that conversation, they joined with Texas A&M University’s extension service to present a seminar to teach grooms the reasons behind the tasks their trainers asked them to do. The seminar was expected to attract 15-20 grooms, maybe 40 if the track kitchen fed them a free lunch. A standing-roomonly crowd of 120 showed up, eager to learn. The overwhelming success of that first seminar led to the development of Groom Elite, a course presented in 10 three-hour sessions split between classroom instruction and practical application of those principles. Two days at the conclusion of the course are devoted to assessment and testing. Individuals who successfully complete the course and pass the assessment become certified grooms and are awarded a Groom Elite logo jacket. More than 2,700 students have enrolled in Groom Elite, with nearly 2,000 sticking with it to obtain certification. Twenty-five racetracks in the United States and Canada have hosted the program. It also has been presented at Palm Meadows Training Center in Florida, Isothermal Community College in North Carolina, Santa Rosa Park in Trinidad, Woodbine in Toronto, and several private sites in Texas. In August, McLellan began discussions to bring Groom Elite to the Virgin Islands. In 2002, the New York Thoroughbred Horsemen’s Association (NYTHA) launched a similar initiative, the Groom Development Program. Lisa Ford, director of NYTHA’s Backstretch Education Fund, spearheads the program, which has taught


GROOM SCHOOL

grooming skills to more than 600 workers. A companion course, English as a Second Language, has drawn 1,000 participants. The Groom Development Program is a 10-week course taught by key industry figures. The late Racing Hall of Fame trainer Allen Jerkens was an enthusiastic instructor, imparting the wisdom that enabled him to topple giants Kelso and Secretariat (twice) with Onion, Beau Purple, and Prove Out, respectively. Other instructors have included veteran horseshoer Ray Amato; equine educator Ted Landers; racetrack practitioner Dr. James Hunt; NYTHA president and stakes-winning trainer Rick Violette Jr.; retired New York starter Bob Duncan; and the late equine dentist Chris Brown. In 2003, Horse Racing Alberta, which governs racing in that Canadian province, partnered with Olds College to offer a 15-week course, the Race Horse Groom Program. Unlike programs in the U.S. that must raise funds to support themselves, the Olds College course is funded by Horse Racing Alberta. Former trainer Theresa Sealy is the program coordinator. About 60 students have successfully completed the course, which includes 120 hours practical application of classroom work with a racing stable at Northlands Park in Edmonton or Century Downs Racing Centre near Calgary. Participants in the Race Horse Groom Program must enroll in Olds College, but the program is a stand-alone course that does not require enrollment in other classes or study paths at the college.

What they teach

Basic groom training includes instruction in horse behavior, bandaging, tack, nutrition, anatomy, health, hoof care, grooming, and mucking stalls. Some courses offer primers

in racing regulations and medication, as they relate to a groom’s job. While it may seem ludicrous to offer instruction in mundane subjects like grooming and mucking stalls, instruction is not limited to “how to.” Participants are taught the reasons behind everything they do: What is the logic behind where buckets, feed tubs, and hay are placed in the stall? Why are there so many different types of blinkers? What does heat in an ankle indicate? Why should you take a horse’s temperature every morning? What is the psychological effect of asking a horse to do something rather than forcing it to comply? Learning horse behavior is the key component of all these programs. Thoroughbreds are large, strong animals whose fight-or-flight instinct can make them dangerous to be around if they are not handled properly. Understanding how a horse’s mind works enables a groom to diffuse tense situations and earn the horse’s confidence and trust. “We teach basic behavior and how to recognize how horses act and feel, because that integrates into all the rest that they are

We teach basic behavior and how to recognize how horses act and feel, because that integrates into all the rest that they are learning

Theresa Sealy

Dr. C. Reid McLellan, executive director of Groom Elite in action, teaching individuals the knowledge and skills needed to competently care for racehorses

learning,” Sealy said. Duncan, a devotee of legendary cowboy Ray Hunt, teaches grooms to communicate with the horse in its own language of touch and movement, a skill he has used to calm horses, like Rock Hard Ten, with a notorious fear of the starting gate. Rock Hard Ten’s gate-loading tantrums delayed the start of the 2004 Preakness Stakes-G1 by five minutes. Duncan worked with the problem colt after he arrived at Belmont Park. As a result of his efforts, Rock Hard Ten entered the gate with minor hesitation for the Belmont Stakes-G1. “Basically, a horse can move in six directions – forward, backward, left, right, up, and down. And if you can control any or all of those actions and you can do it with lightness, suddenly that horse and you have a totally different relationship,” Duncan said. “That horse will stay out of your space and stop fighting you, and be willing to try different experiences with you. It doesn’t require strength; it requires good technique to have that horse cooperate.” At Groom Elite, McLellan devotes an entire module of his program to the groom’s crucial role in the test barn, which often is overlooked in on-the-job instruction. “We talk about the reason there is a test barn, why some horses are selected, how they’re selected, what happens when you get to the test barn, and why it’s important that you be a good witness to the sampling,” he said. Students also learn the importance of allowing only their horse to drink out of the bucket assigned to it and avoiding contact ISSUE 42 TRAINERMAGAZINE.COM

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TRAINING with other horses in the test barn to prevent the potential for cross-contamination from horses given illegal drugs.

Stable help shortage

Stable help is scarce, so trainers often have no choice but to hire individuals with no knowledge of horses who are willing to learn on the job. But the people charged with teaching them usually are too busy doing their own work to give them more than basic instructions. And many times, those instructions are wrong. Hotwalking is considered an entry-level position, but it can be one of the most difficult and dangerous jobs at the racetrack, especially for someone unfamiliar with highstrung Thoroughbreds. “It is often done based on what some groom told them,” Duncan said. “They’ll say, ‘Put that shank over his nose, and you just keep banging on his nose while I’m washing him to keep him distracted.’ So the horse is being punished while standing still because the [beginner] has no sense of pressure and release.” Mishandling the shank can confuse the horse about what is being asked of it or it may deaden the horse’s response to the shank, rendering ineffective this important piece of safety equipment. If trainers find that they and their employees are spending more time explaining to newcomers how to do things than if they would just do the work

With the knowledge of what he’s doing, he does a better job and can wind up taking care of more horses because he can be more efficient at what he does

Reid McLellan

Will Harbut, pictured here with Man o’ War, was one of many African-American grooms in the early 20th century who became part of the fabric of American racing 46

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themselves, the new hire is let go. “After getting fired a few times, some old groom will usually take them over and say, ‘Don’t let the boss see you don’t know what you’re doing. I’m going to teach you everything you need to know,’ because they need the help,” McLellan said. “I had some grooms working for me who took part in the program,” said Violette, who, as NYTHA’s president, was instrumental in bringing the Groom Development Program to fruition. “Even though you think they learn through osmosis, they don’t. I think sometimes when it is articulated to them in language they can understand, all of a sudden the light goes on in some areas. The anatomy part opens a lot of eyes.” Cadaver legs processed to be teaching models enable student grooms to see and touch the bones, ligaments, tendons, and other internal structures of the horse’s lower leg so they can better understand how they work. “What we see is that when grooms know the names of those bones, it impresses upon them the significance and the importance not only of that horse’s legs, but of their job,” McLellan said. “They start doing a better job of paying attention to what’s going on in that horse’s legs. That’s better for the horse, that’s better for the owner, that’s better for the trainer, and, ultimately because of sheer self-worth, it’s definitely better for the groom.”

Education benefits racing

In the early days of American racing, groom jobs were filled by African-Americans, some of whom became part of the fabric of American racing – Man o’ War’s Will Harbut, Nashua’s Clem Brooks, Secretariat’s Eddie Sweat, to name a few. Today, those roles are largely filled by immigrants struggling to survive and succeed in a new life. Life on the backside is tough for these individuals, and some turn to alcohol and drugs to fill their idle hours, Ford said. In 2000, she was working as a photographer on the backside when she realized grooms needed something worthwhile to occupy their downtime. “I started to realize that there was nothing for them to do except eat or drink or send money home after they finished working at 11:30 a.m., and they don’t have a home to go to,” she said. “So I started thinking, ‘Why don’t I do an educational program?’ I think they gave me $10,000, and I did all the work myself. Then I met Dr. James Hunt and talked to him about it, and we got a skeleton [program] together.” Ford said she was astounded by the response and success. “The thirst for knowledge of the horse! They’re very proud of their horses, and they want to know how to take care of them properly,” she said. “They get so proud when their horse is racing. The knowledge is really important for them. They love it.” With knowledge comes self-confidence, ambition, and personal empowerment to


GROOM SCHOOL Good grooms produce healthy, happy horses that perform better, which, in turn, translates into more money earned, which adds to the trainers’ success and encourages the owners to become more involved in the sport. Sounder horses make racing safer for riders and other horses, and better work practices make the barn area safer. The ripple effect of these benefits extends to everyone from breeders to bettors. McLellan explained how education can help a groom in economic ways. “With the knowledge of what he’s doing, he does a better job and he can wind up taking care of more horses because he can be more efficient at what he does,” McLellan said. “If the trainer is paying, say, $300/week for taking care of four horses at $75/head, if a groom can add a fifth horse, he can pick up a $75/week raise. “On the other hand, it can also help him

Trainers tell me they can tell grooms that have been in this class because of the way they are checking on their horses

Reid McLellan

to be recognized as the guy the trainer wants to send with his Grade 1 stakes horses, because ‘this is the guy who can answer my questions when I call on the phone.’ They understand the terminology and the things they need to be looking for. Those kind of grooms, of course, get paid the bigger money.” Of course, there’s the elephant in the room. Most Americans won’t work for low pay, long hours, no benefits, and a gypsy lifestyle that provides them with poor or no housing. Supporters of groom-training programs hope that making educational programs available at the entry level will raise the standards for grooms and encourage more people to recognize it as a trade whereby interested individuals can pursue a career in horseracing by learning from the ground up.

What trainers think

Good grooms produce healthy, happy horses

achieve their goals and improve their lives, Ford said. NYTHA suspended the Groom Development Program five years ago when Ford was no longer able to single-handedly manage its logistics and she couldn’t find someone to help her. But the overwhelming response to the program has convinced NYTHA to bring it back in 2017. In the meantime, Ford is seeking an assistant who can be part coordinator and part goodwill 48

ambassador, a dedicated individual who can work comfortably with everyone from nonEnglish-speaking stable hands to affluent owners. “While everyone talks about how grooms are the backbone of the racing industry and they publicly praise them for their efforts when their horses win, more needs to be done for these grooms,” she said. “And education is uplifting, and it would benefit the whole racing industry.”

Most trainers recognize the value of the groom-training programs. Horse Racing Alberta boasts that all of last year’s Race Horse Groom Program graduates received several job offers from trainers even before they graduated and that the average beginning salary for those jobs was $2,500 per month. “We also have some trainers that have recognized the benefit of the program,” McLellan said. “They do offer raises to grooms who go and get certified. “Trainers tell me they can tell grooms

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TRAINING

that have been in this class because of the way they are checking on their horses and the things they are telling them about what they found on their horses,” he said. Surprisingly, some trainers have not enthusiastically supported the initiative to offer schooling to grooms because many have mixed feelings about it. Trainers want their grooms to learn as much as they can, yet they expect their grooms to do everything their way, so they are reluctant to allow a third party to instruct them. Further complicating the issue is that much of what grooms learn in these programs is based on the latest scientific research, which often contradicts tradition, McLellan said. One example is watering-off a hot horse. Tradition holds that a hot horse must not be allowed to drink more than a few swallows per lap around the shedrow while it is cooling out to prevent it from tying up or getting laminitis. Research has proven this to be false; a horse safely can – and should – drink as much as it wants, even a whole bucket of water, as soon as it comes off the track. Convincing trainers to accept modern science is a challenge. For some, it’s a matter of ego. They don’t want their grooms telling them they are doing things wrong. “We give them basic tools,” Violette said. “Different trainers do things different ways, whether it’s using masking tape on bandages or pins, or sending horses out in polos or not sending them out in them. We try to underline that this isn’t the only way to do things. When you go back to your barn, the man who is signing your check calls the shots.” Sealy said, “[Trainers] know how difficult it is to hire staff. And to be able to take the time to introduce them safely into the barn is difficult. This is something where someone who has never touched a horse 50

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before can come in and get the training and feel very confident to be able to go into the barn and go straight to work safely. “Originally the trainers were skeptical about having someone else train their staff, but now they know that they’re coming in well-trained and they can put them straight to work.”

From groom to stakes-winning trainer

Amanda Gregory, 33, is the shining example of the power of groom education. Gregory grew up in Alberta, showing Quarter Horses in gymkhanas and rodeos. She always wanted to be involved in horseracing, so when she saw a television commercial for the Race Horse Groom Program, she decided it was the best way for her to get started. In 2005 at age 22, Gregory graduated from the program and began working as a groom for Canadian trainer Janet Wig. Six years later, she passed her trainer’s test and started her own stable. Shortly after she hung out her shingle at Northlands Park, Gregory got her first win on June 19, 2011, with four-yearold gelding First Fire. The longest shot at $15.20 odds in claiming company, First Fire was nearly knocked out of contention at the start when several horses roughly banged off each other. But he fought back three-wide

You don’t realize how much this school teaches you. A lot of it was on the trainer’s test

Amanda Gregory

Amanda Gregory, right, with Harvest Gold Plate winner Aces Again, came through the Race Horse Groom Program prior to becoming a trainer

and closed quickly to defeat the favorite by 2½ lengths – an amazing turnaround for a horse who hadn’t hit the board since breaking his maiden nearly two years earlier under another trainer. And First Fire raced medication-free for Gregory. On October 12, 2015, Gregory captured the Harvest Gold Plate Handicap at Northlands with her best horse, Aces Again, who had also won the race in 2013 and finished second in 2011. Under Gregory’s tutelage, the Ghostzapper gelding has had five wins, six seconds, and nine thirds for earnings of $142,980. Another horse, the Matricule mare Wine Not Whiskey, has delivered Gregory 10 wins, 10 seconds, and two thirds, earning the trainer nearly $100,000. As of September 15, Gregory’s 15-horse stable has made 454 starts with 47 wins, 50 seconds, and 60 thirds for $588,852 in purse money. “You don’t realize how much this school teaches you,” Gregory said. “A lot of it was on the trainer’s test. I took the test, and I came back and talked to Theresa [Sealy] and said, ‘Wow, you really do teach us everything that we need to know.’ There were only a couple of rules that they didn’t teach us in school. “I want to thank Olds College and Horse Racing Alberta for providing the school and giving me the opportunity to follow my dreams. If anyone is interested in taking it, I highly recommend it and encourage people to look into it. It literally made my dreams come true, and maybe it can do the same for others.” n


TRAINING

THE ABSOLUTE INSURER RULE Maintaining the integrity of racing

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ABSOLUTE INSURER RULE

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Absolute liability is defined as: “liability without fault – liability for which there is no excuse.”1 In the case of a trainer, absolute liability is imposed when a horse entered in an official workout or race tests positive for a prohibited medication or substance, or test results reveal permitted medication in excess of the maximum allowable levels. When such a positive test result occurs, it is prima facie evidence of a violation of the trainer responsibility rule/absolute insurer rule. WORDS: PeteR J. SacOPulOS PHOtOS: SHutteRStOcK, HORSePHOtOS

A

LL racing states have the equivalent of such a rule, and these rules are among the most important in horseracing. These rules are, in many ways, the lynchpin of maintaining integrity in our sport. The trainer responsibility rule is not a modern rule premised on a specific event or series of events. On the contrary, the accountability of trainers dates back to the prohibition against the use of banned or controlled medications in the 1930s. Once strict enforcement began, it was not long until such rules were challenged. In fact, one of the earliest challenges to a penalty imposed for violation of a trainer responsibility rule was in an appeal filed by Tom Smith, trainer of the famous Seabiscuit.2 Despite many challenges, attacks, and appeals over decades, Illinois and Maryland are the only two jurisdictions to have held the absolute insurer rule to be unconstitutional. Illinois did so in the case of Brennan vs. Illinois Racing Board 42 Ill. 2nd 352, 247 NE 2d 881 (1969) and Maryland in the 1946 decision in Mahoney 54

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vs. Byer 187 Md 81, 48 A2d 600 (1946). Both states have since rewritten and/or modified these regulations and have in place an absolute insurer rule, as do all states that presently have horseracing. Although all states’ trainer responsibility rules have similarities, it is both difficult and dangerous to classify any one as typical. This said, California’s absolute insurer rule provides a good example of the trainer responsibility standard. It states, in pertinent part: “(a) The trainer is the absolute insurer of and responsible for the condition of the horses entered in a race, regardless of the acts of third parties, except as otherwise provided in this article. If the chemical or other analysis of urine or blood test samples or other tests, prove positive showing the presence of any prohibited drug substance defined in Rule 1843.1 of this division, the trainer of the 1 Wheatland Irrigation Dist. v. McGuire, 537 P.2d 1128 2 Smith v. Cole, 62 N.Y.S. 2nd 266 (1946)

horse may be fined, his/her license suspended or revoked, or be ruled off. In addition, the owner of the horse, foreman in charge of the horse, groom, and any other person shown to have had the care or attendance of the horse, may be fined, his/her license suspended, revoked, or be ruled off. The owner of a ship-in horse is the joint-absolute insurer of and is equally responsible for the condition of the horse entered in a race.” 4 CCR 1887. California’s rule has been and continues to be challenged. One example involved a California trainer who argued it was unconstitutional for him to be held liable for a prohibited substance violation, pursuant to California absolute insurer rule, when the trainer’s brother administered the prohibited substance without his knowledge. The California Court of Appeals rejected the trainer’s argument and held that regarding delegated tasks, even where the agent disobeys express instruction, the principal/ trainer is liable for the act of the agent. The California Court of Appeals in this case determined the trainer’s constitutional challenge to be without merit, stating: “A trainer cannot disclaim responsibility for the performance of his duties merely because he assigns a task to another – whether a brother, an employee, or anyone else – who fails to properly perform the task. An innocent principal or employer is liable for the torts committed by an agent or employee while acting within the scope of the agency or employment, even if the agent or employee acts in


ABSOLUTE INSURER RULE excess of the authority or contrary to instructions.” Stokes vs. California Horse Racing Bd., 119 Cal. Rptr. 2d 792, 98 Cal. App. 4th 477. New York’s trainer responsibility rule contains similar absolute insurer language. However, New York’s rule specifically addresses licensed trainers’ duties and responsibilities regarding both the use and recording of corticosteroid joint injections. That specific provision is found at 9 NYCRR 4043.4 and states: “Trainers shall maintain accurate records of all corticosteroid joint injections to horses trained by them. The record(s) of every corticosteroid joint injection shall be submitted, in a form and manner approved by the commission, by the trainer to the commission within 48 hours of the treatment. The trainer may delegate this responsibility to the treating veterinarian, who shall make the reports when so designated. The reports shall be accessible to the examining veterinarian for the purpose of assisting with pre-race veterinary examinations.” See 9 NYCRR 4043.4. A recent high - profile case involving administrative action taken by a commission based on the trainer responsibility rule is seen in the New York case of Dutrow vs. New York State Racing and Wagering Bd. 949 N.Y.S.2d 241, 244, 97 A.D. 3d 1034, 1036-37 (App. Div. 3d Dep’t 2012). In this case, the trainer appealed an adverse decision by the Board revoking his license for 10 years for violation of the trainer

responsibility rule on the ground that there was no “substantial evidence” of the charges, being that samples were not tested to eliminate the possibility of cross contamination. The Appellate Division denied this point of error, however, noting that in light of the rebuttable presumption of trainer responsibility that arises under the rule, the tribunal below properly rejected the speculative “contamination” argument, instead relying upon positive test results, veterinary records, and the testimony of a veterinarian-pharmacologist to support the accusation. Indiana’s trainer responsibility rule states that a trainer is responsible for the condition of the horse entered in an official: (1) workout; or (2) race. Indiana’s rule, consistent with both California and New York’s rules, states that a positive test for a prohibited substance or a positive test in excess of the maximum allowable level of therapeutic medication is prima facie evidence of violation and, absent: “substantial evidence to the contrary” the trainer, “shall be responsible.” 71 IAC 5-3-2 and 71 IAC 5.5-3-2. The Indiana

Although all states’ trainer responsibility rules have similarities, it is both difficult and dangerous to classify any one as typical

Horseracing Commission has consistently and aggressively enforced Indiana’s trainer responsibility rule. A recent example involved a trainer arguing Indiana’s rule to be in violation of his due process rights is found in the decision in P’Pool vs. Indiana Horse Racing Commission 916 N.E.2d 668, 674-77 (Ind.Ct.App. 2009). In this case, the trainer sought review of a decision from the Indiana Horse Racing Commission imposing a six-year suspension and a substantial fine for violation of the state’s trainer’s responsibility rule. Specifically, this case involved multiple violations based on multiple positive tests for Dexamethasone. The trainer argued that the six-year suspension and stiff fine were arbitrary and capricious, and that Indiana’s trainer responsibility rule violated his constitutionally guaranteed right to due process. The Indiana Court of Appeals rejected both of the trainer’s arguments and affirmed the Indiana Horse Racing Commission’s decision. This decision clearly demonstrates that Indiana’s trainer responsibility rule is, in fact, an absolute insurer rule and that both the Indiana Horse Racing Commission and the Indiana courts have not, to date, been persuaded by a licensee with a positive test result arguing the rule violates his or her state or federal constitutional rights. As such, the best and perhaps only affirmative attack to Indiana’s absolute insurer rule is in assembling and presenting substantial evidence, that being, for example, that the positive was a result of environmental contamination, that there is no science to support the permissible level in an excess

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case, and/or other exculpatory evidence. Kentucky’s trainer responsibility rule is similar to those previously discussed, and the Kentucky Horse Racing Authority and Kentucky’s state and appellate courts have consistently enforced the rule and found licensees’ constitutional challenges unpersuasive. An example is seen in the case of Allen vs. Kentucky Horse Racing Authority, 136 S.W.3d 54 (KY Ct.App. 2004). In this case, a horse owner/trainer appealed from a decision of the Franklin Circuit Court that had affirmed a decision of Kentucky Horse Racing Authority disqualifying the horse as a winner of two races. The Kentucky Court of Appeals held, in part, that Kentucky’s trainer responsibility rule, making the trainer of a racehorse the sole insurer of the horse for any violation including the presence of a prohibited substance, was and is constitutional. The trainer argued that the rule was unconstitutional because it could hold trainers liable for factors out of their control (such as environmental contamination), but the appeals court rejected that argument, stating that such regulations are applied similarly nationally and because the rule is a reasonable means to promote the safety in the sport. An additional interesting case involving Kentucky’s absolute insurer rule involved a horse owner who admitted he had placed Prozac into an Equinyl bottle he fed to his horse before a race, an action the owner 56

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stated was done without the knowledge of the trainer. The trainer was held liable, pursuant to Kentucky’s absolute insurer rule, and suspended for 150 days. The trainer appealed, arguing, in part, that: (a) the burden of proof of his culpability should fall on the Commission, not on him, and; (b) the penalty was excessive. The Appeals Court denied both assignments of error. Significantly, this court affirmed Kentucky’s trainer responsibility rule holding it was a rational means to accomplish the goal of preventing use of prohibited substance, and enforcing violations. In doing so, the Kentucky Court held: [T]he trainer responsibility rule is a practical and effective means of promoting these State interests—

Florida’s courts have consistently enforced the Trainer’s Responsibility Rule. In doing so, they have provided the state’s rationale and reasoning for strict adherence to the absolute insurer rule

both in deterring violations and in enforcing sanctions. The imposition of strict responsibility compels trainers to exercise a high degree of vigilance in guarding their horses and to report any illicit use of drugs, medications or other restricted substances by other individuals having access to their horses. Additionally, the rebuttable presumption of responsibility facilitates the very difficult enforcement of the restrictions on the use of drugs and other substances in horse racing. Indeed, it would be virtually impossible to regulate the administering of drugs to race horses if the trainers, the individuals primarily responsible for the care and condition of their horses, could not be held accountable for the illicit drugging of their horses or for the failure either to safeguard their horses against such drugging or to identify the person actually at fault. It is not surprising, therefore, that trainer responsibility rules have been upheld, almost without exception, in other jurisdictions. Deaton, 172 S.W.3d 803 at 806. Florida’s courts have also consistently enforced the Trainer’s Responsibility Rule. In doing so, they have provided the state’s rationale and reasoning for strict adherence to the absolute insurer rule. Illustrative of this position is the decision of Hennessey vs. Department of Business and Professional


ABSOLUTE INSURER RULE Regulation, Division of Pari-Mutuel Wagering, 818, So.2d 697, 699-700 (Fla. 1st DCA 2002). The final order in this case upholding the validity of Florida’s trainer responsibility rule reflects careful consideration of the facts presented to the Administrative Law Judge and the Department’s actions in firmly enforcing the absolute insurer rule. In this decision, the Florida court set forth its rationale and reasoning as follows: “. . . Horse racing, at its best, is difficult to control, and would be practically impossible to regulate if every governing rule and regulation were made dependent for validity upon the knowledge or motives of the person charged with a violation. It would be almost impossible to prove guilty knowledge or intent in cases involving a reported positive test for an impermissible substance. . . . . . The trainer is singularly the best individual to hold accountable for the condition of a horse. The trainer is either going to be with the horse at all time or one of his or her employees or contractors is going to be with the horse at all times, whether the horse is racing on an individual day or is merely stabled at the track. . . At no time prior to a race is a trainer or his employer prohibited from seeing to the security of the horse in the paddock. While there are other persons who come in contact with the horse prior to a race, the trainer due to his responsibility for the care and supervision of the animal stands in the best overall position to prevent improper medication of the horse. . . .” Hennessey v. Department of Business and Professional Regulation, Div. Of Pari-Mutuel Wagering, 818 S0.2d 697, 699-700 (Fla. 1st DCA 2002). The Florida Supreme Court, in a separate decision that was written nearly four decades ago and is still heavily relied upon today for enforcement of this state’s absolute insurer rule, set forth the policy rationale that underpins implementation of the “absolute insurer” trainer responsibility rule and demonstrates why Florida’s rule has been and continues to be held constitutional. The Florida Supreme Court, in Division of Pari-Mutuel Wagering, Dept. Of Business Regulation v. Caple, 362 So.2d 1350, 1354-56 (Fla.1978), to this point, held, in part, “On review, we are now persuaded that Florida should align itself with the well-reasoned majority view. To protect the integrity of this unique industry, it is really immaterial whether “guilt” should be ascribed either directly or indirectly to the trainer. The rules were designed, and reasonably so, to condition the grant of a trainer’s license on the trainer’s acceptance of an absolute duty to ensure compliance with reasonable regulation governing the areas over which the trainer has responsibility. Whether a violation occurs as a result of the personal acts of the trainer, of persons under his supervision, or even of unknown third parties, the condition of licensure has been violated by the failure to provide adequate control, and the consequence of the default is possible suspension of the trainer’s license or a fine. We have no doubt that a rule which both conditions a license and establishes with specificity reasonable precautionary duties within the competence of the licensee to perform is both reasonable and constitutional.” Despite numerous multi-state attacks on the trainer responsibility rule/absolute insurer rule, over many decades, Illinois and Maryland appear to be the only two jurisdictions that have (previously) held the absolute insurer rule to be unconstitutional. No challenge, on constitutional grounds, has been successful in nearly five decades. In summary, constitutionality of state trainer responsibility rules have most often been upheld on the grounds that (a) the rule is a rational application of state police powers to regulate an industry inherently subject to corruption, and (b) liability is not premised upon holding trainers responsible regardless of any fault or negligence, but instead upon the trainer’s negligence in failing to adequately guard the horse, and verify the contents of medicines or ingestibles, prior to raceday. This having been said, it appears the trainer responsibility rule/absolute insurer rule is here to stay whether it is viewed as being “un-American” or not. n ISSUE 42 TRAINERMAGAZINE.COM

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RACEDAY ROUTINES

RACE DAY ROUTINES

Why a regular regime helps a racehorse to relax

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A trainer’s life would be simpler if he could walk up to each horse in his stable every morning and say, “You know the routine.” That’s not going to happen, even though horses are creatures of habit. They appreciate routines, knowing what’s next; knowing what’s expected. Familiarity breeds confidence. WORDS: BILL HELLER PHOTOS: HORSEPHOTOS, SuzIE PIcOu-OLDHam

Barclay Tagg focuses on keeping his horses settled on race day

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H

EARING the first person arrive in the morning means breakfast is coming. Seeing a groom walk up carrying tack, they know exercise is next. When they see the hose after working out, they know it’s bath time. When the last person leaves in the afternoon, it’s safe to watch soap operas. In the evening, it’s anybody’s guess: ESPN, knitting, chess. No one really knows. Do trainers stick with the same routine on race day? Do horses realize that a change in routine mean that today is race day? And what if today is race night under the lights? Trainer Kelly Breen walks his horses on race day. “I try to keep horses in the same routine,” he said. “Horses do like to go out early. Once you change their routine, they know something’s going on. I would say 80 percent of them feel good because they’re walking instead of working. They have a pep in their step. It’s a day off. Like my kids when they wake up on Saturday morning.” While stressing that “every horse is an individual,” trainer Linda Rice usually works


RACEDAY ROUTINES her horses on race days. “I train them, a lot of them, on race day,” she said. “If a horse is a bit of a runoff and a bit hard to train, you don’t want to have that happen in the race. If a horse is hard to rate or if he’s a bad bleeder, you need to empty him out. “Some horses will jog the day of the race. Some horses I walk. If I have a horse in the ninth race at Saratoga and post time is six, I gallop them a mile and a quarter. I use it to take speed out and relax them. Training them the day of the race, that keeps them in their routine.” Do horses know when it’s race day? “Some horses might pick up on it,” trainer Todd Pletcher said. “Wayne [Lukas, Pletcher’s former boss] used to leave the hay rack up a little longer. Now, everybody pulls the hay and pulls the water before the Lasix shot by the state vet at least four hours before the race. “Our standard policy is we walk on race day. We walk the shedrow. Occasionally, we gallop high-strung horses. There are horses that are difficult.” His accomplished three-year-old of 2004, Purge, set the bar very high on “high-strung and difficult.” After finishing second in the Rebel Stakes and fifth in the Arkansas Derby to subsequent Kentucky Derby and Preakness winner Smarty Jones, Purge won the Peter Pan Stakes by 6¾ lengths. Pletcher entered him in the Belmont Stakes. At the time, the New York Racing Association was using a retention barn at Belmont Park, Saratoga, and Aqueduct. “They had the retention barn for eight hours and he had a complete meltdown,” Pletcher said. “We had to scratch him. Some horses get too excited, too nervous before the race. Sometimes it doesn’t matter how much you school them. They just can’t handle it.” Breen knows the feeling. He shipped Ruler On Ice the morning of the 2011 Belmont Stakes, a race he won. “Ruler On Ice was shipped in a box stall,” Breen said. “When he shipped, he had two people with him, holding him and patting him on the neck on the van ride to New York. That was the last year we were allowed to ship on race day instead of being there 48 hours early. I may be the reason why they changed it.” Trainer Michael Matz varies the race day routine of his horses. “I think it varies individually,” he said. “Sometimes when we ship, they walk. On a horse who’s a little more high strung, we try to give them a gallop or we jog them a little bit to take a little bit out of him in the morning. It really depends on the horse.” He thinks horses do figure out that it’s race day. “They know what’s coming up,” he said. “When they go over there to be saddled, they know they’re going to race.” Trainer Barclay Tagg does everything he can to keep his horses settled down on race day. “You try to vary it horse to horse, but you have to keep the routine the same,” he said. “We ice most of them for an hour

before we walk over. If a horse is a nervous horse and he knows he’s going to run, I like to keep as many people away as I can. You don’t want a whole bunch of owners coming by. The horses become unnerved. It’s pretty hard to tell owners not to come over, but I hate to do anything to get the horse excited. If you get in a receiving barn, it’s much harder.” Tagg usually jogs his horses a mile on race day. “Nothing serious,” he said. “I’ll tell you why we do that. We take them out in the first set. They think their day is done. That can go back and relax and eat their

If a horse is a nervous horse and he knows he’s going to run, I like to keep as many people away as I can

Barclay Tagg

breakfast. That’s the reason I take them out the day of the race, just a little something. Sometimes we walk over and take a look at the paddock and walk back.” Of course, shipping on race day adds a lot more stress to the situation. “Some horses will get really nervous if they’re bad shippers,” Tagg said. “If they can’t get used to it, you stop racing them there.” Tagg shipped Showing Up, who was sixth in the 2006 Kentucky Derby to Barbaro, cross country to race in the $500,000 Hollywood Derby that December. Showing Up almost didn’t get to race after he showed up in the paddock for the stakes. “He showed up dripping in sweat,” Tagg said. “He looked like a wash rag. The vet wanted us to jog him up and down.” Tagg did that. Showing Up then won the Hollywood Derby as the favorite. “And he set a track record wire-to-wire,” Tagg said. Tagg would appreciate not having to live through that paddock scene again. “You try to do things as quietly as you can,” he said. Trainer Bob Baffert agreed. “I don’t want them too amped up,” he said. “I’ll walk a lot of them. I might give them something light, like a half-mile gallop. If you get attitude, ISSUE 42 TRAINERMAGAZINE.COM

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TRAINING you might want to take a little bit of an edge off him. It depends on how much energy they have. You have to know your horse real well. I just go by instinct, a gut feeling.” Trainer Graham Motion has an added variable for many of his horses because they’re stabled at Fair Hill and have to ship on race day. “Some of them will train the morning they’re in, usually an easy gallop about a mile,” he said. “You try not to change the routine. They get a little nervous.” Avoiding potential problems on race day is high on trainer Kiaran McLaughlin’s priorities. “We rarely train them on race day, only about five-to-10 percent if their race is late or at night,” he said. “We might jog or gallop them.” It’s not his first choice. “We take the things we can control and avoid taking risks,” he said. “We don’t go to the track where something could happen. We walk 90 percent of them, even with Frosted. We walked him the last couple times with a late post.” Trainer Tom Albertrani also said his race day routine varies. “Most of them walk the day of the race,” he said. “Some horses will train a little bit. Some jog one mile over the track or jog a half-mile and gallop a halfmile. It just depends on the horse. We get them out so they don’t worry about the race.” Asked if horses know that it’s race day, he said, “Absolutely. They sense something different because it’s out of their routine. They just feel a change in their routine.” Could there be a bigger change than racing at night? Under the lights? “We don’t race a lot at The Meadowlands now, but one thing I noticed over the years

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Our standard policy is we walk on race day. We walk the shedrow. Occasionally, we gallop high-strung horses. There are horses that are difficult

Todd Pletcher

when we did race at The Meadowlands, some horses felt uncomfortable in the paddock,” Pletcher said. “I’m sure that had to do with the lights. They got very anxious

in the paddock.” Rice said of night racing, “It’s a bit unusual. I will train them the day of the race. That keeps them in their routine.” When asked about evening racing, Matz said, “I think it’s just like humans. You adapt to it. Some horses like it; some don’t. I don’t think it’s a big deal. Anytime you disrupt something in a horse’s routine, the good ones act like it’s normal and they go about their business. The other ones, if they’re high strung, don’t.” Albertrani said, “I don’t normally do a lot of night racing, but I remember a time or two. One kept looking around with the lights on. It made him feel awkward. It’s just a different scenario.” Baffert, who routinely raced Quarter Horses at night early in his career, said, “I don’t think it makes a difference. If it’s a night race, I’ll give them a gallop in the morning.” Since trainers have to ship in to The Meadowlands to race at night, there is the added variable of a van ride. “In general, racing at night doesn’t bother them,” Breen said. “Some of them, when they get on the van, it affects them. Some horses don’t like to get on the van. It’s very comparable to us getting on a plane.” He said the possibility of horses getting spooked if they’re racing at night “is similar to a horse walking in a shadow. How often does that happen, once in a thousand? “The major difference for the horses is maybe an extra feeding time,” Breen continued. “There’s not that much difference. I think you could race them at three o’clock in the morning and they’d be fine.” n


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VETERINARY

EQUINE FLU

Research and development on the devastating virus

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EQUINE FLU

Wild aquatic birds are the reservoir of influenza viruses in nature and they can transport them over thousands of miles during their migrations. Photo courtesy of Ronald Barron

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Influenza viruses have emerged in horses on multiple occasions and in various geographical locations

Influenza viruses have emerged multiple times in horses, and at least three times in the last 60 years. There is no reason to doubt that they will strike again. Recent scientific advances can help us first to define the antiviral mechanisms and strategies that horses have to fight off viral infections, and second, how certain viruses (but not others) manage to overcome those defenses. If, with the support of the racing industry, we achieve these goals, then we will be closer to predicting, controlling, and perhaps even preventing the devastating consequences of future influenza viruses emerging in horses. WORDS: PablO R. MuRcia, JOhn F. MaRShall PhOTOS: PROFESSOR cElia MaRR

A long look back

On November 9th, 1872, almost the entire financial district of the U.S. city of Boston was burned to ashes. One of the reasons that the Great Boston Fire had such devastating consequences was an epidemic of equine influenza. Horses were so sick that fire wagons had to be pulled by men, and consequently response times were slow. Influenza as a respiratory disease of the horse had been recognised for many years. “After the Great Boston Fire” by James Law, a Scottish veterinary surgeon, reported that diseases “having the general characters of influenza” were known by the Greeks in A.D. 330. But it was not until 1956 that the virus that causes such an important burden on horse populations was isolated in the former Republic of Czechoslovakia and given the not-veryoriginal name of equine influenza virus. 66

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Influenza viruses also affect humans and various domestic animals such as pigs, dogs, and birds. However, each species tends to have its “own” virus (i.e. they are speciesspecific) and this is why equine influenza viruses infect horses but not humans and vice versa, although equine influenza has been linked to disease in dogs. Influenza viruses are classified into subtypes, which are defined by the presence of a distinctive set of molecules called Hemagglutinin (abbreviated H, for which 18 different forms exist) and Neuraminidase (abbreviated N, for which there are 11 different forms). The combination of H and N a virus possesses defines its subtype and this is why we often read or hear in the news about H1N1, H7N9, or H5N1 viruses. The equine influenza virus isolated in Czechoslovakia was an H7N7.

The emergence of the current flu virus

In 1963 there was an outbreak of equine influenza again in the U.S. in Miami, Florida, after the importation of horses from Argentina in South America. To everyone’s surprise, the virus isolated from sick animals was not an H7N7 but an H3N8, something completely different from what was known at the time. A new equine influenza virus had appeared and the rest is familiar to those who have been around horses for a long time: the H7N7 equine influenza virus became extinct (it has not been isolated from horses for almost 40 years) and the H3N8 virus spread to many countries around the world. It has caused devastating pandemics in Australia and South Africa with major loss to the thoroughbred industry in those countries, and H3N8 viruses are still infecting horses today despite the availability of vaccines.

A third, killer flu virus

What is less well known is that in 1989 there was a large epidemic of influenza in horses in Jilin, China, which was caused by another previously unknown virus, different to the “classical” equine influenza viruses known then. The Jilin virus was highly lethal with mortality reaching up to 20% in some herds. Fortunately, this virus did not spread to other countries and has not been isolated from horses since 1990.

Where do “new viruses” come from?

The appearance and establishment of a new virus in a given species is known as viral emergence, and the consequences of such events can be devastating, as illustrated by the 2009 human influenza pandemic.


EQUINE FLU

The map highlights the countries where new equine influenza viruses emerged since 1956

If we ask ourselves where new influenza viruses come from, the answer is very simple: they come from other animals. The human influenza virus that caused the 2009 pandemic came from pigs, while the three different equine influenza viruses that we described above are thought to have originated in birds. Wild aquatic birds possess the highest diversity and abundance of influenza viruses in nature and therefore they are thought to be the source of viruses of other species.

Will novel flu viruses continue to emerge?

An important question for those of us interested in improving the health of horses is whether new influenza viruses could emerge in horses in the future. While the most likely answer is yes, it is really difficult to determine when and where it will happen and what the consequences will be. Being able to predict which viruses will

“

Wild aquatic birds possess the highest diversity and abundance of influenza viruses in nature and are thought to be the source of viruses of other species

�

emerge in horses would be invaluable because it will allow us to take actions to prepare for those events and perhaps even prevent them. Such predictive knowledge requires a deep understanding of the mechanisms that allow influenza viruses to infect and become transmissible among horses, and this is something we are just starting to find out.

Flu viruses live and multiply within the cells of their host. To do this they have to be able enter their target cells and use the cellular machinery they find there to replicate. This is not an easy task, because it requires highly coordinated interactions between viral and cellular proteins (i.e. the molecules that carry out viral replication) and second, because horses are equipped with very effective natural antiviral defense mechanisms. For example, the mucus present in the respiratory tract helps prevent viral infections. The obstacles that viruses have to surmount in order to infect and establish in new hosts are known as the species barrier. The species barrier is very effective, as illustrated by the fact that horses are exposed to numerous influenza viruses of humans and other animals without getting infected. Just think how often horses are in direct or indirect contact with birds, dogs, or pigs.

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“

The genomes of influenza viruses are constantly changing as they acquire mutations in every infection. Some of these mutations will harm the virus but others are beneficial

�

Horses, like other animals, possess effective mechanisms that protect them against viral infections from other animals in nature. These mechanisms constitute the species barrier. Photo courtesy of Ronald Barron

we want to know how viruses manage to infect horses, looking at genetic changes in infected horse cells is only half of the story. The other half is likely to be found in the genome of the virus. The genomes of influenza viruses are constantly changing as they acquire mutations in every infection. Some of these mutations will harm the virus but others are beneficial; for example, a mutation can allow the virus to escape vaccine immunity and it is for this reason that influenza vaccines need to be regularly updated. Mutations can also allow the virus to infect a new host species. There are literally hundreds of thousands of influenza genomes available in public databases. By using computer science tools, we can identify those mutations that differentiate avian from equine influenza viruses. The effect of individual mutations on the ability of a virus to infect or adapt to a new species can then be tested under experimental conditions. But this information will have direct practical benefit as it will allow us to determine how much of a risk a given virus poses to horses. However, we are still far from being able to make such predictions, and research to fill this knowledge gap is currently just beginning.

How is the racing industry supporting flu research?

A cell infected with equine influenza virus (shown in red) observed under a fluorescent microscope. Molecular biology studies are essential to understand how viruses overcome the barriers to infection

Can science protect horses from future flu pandemics?

The horse genome was sequenced in 2009. Viruses also encode their genetic material, either as DNA like mammals or RNA, a similar molecule. Specific genomes of many equine influenza viruses have been mapped going back to those isolated in 1956. In fact almost 600,000 influenza virus sequences are available and over 5,500 of these are equine influenza virus sequences. Why is that helpful? Sequencing technology enables us to identify genes that 68

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horses have to protect themselves against viral infections and to work out which genes are turned on and off in a cell or tissue when the horse meets a foreign invader like a virus. We can identify the equine genes that are turned on by the virus in order to replicate and also work out which equine antiviral genes the virus must switch off in order to take up residence in the horse. Fortunately, this sort of scientific experiment can be achieved by looking at cells in the laboratory and does require live animals to be infected with flu for experimental purposes. But if

Significant support for the investigation of equine influenza has come from the horseracing industry through the Horserace Betting Levy Board (HBLB). One of the research centers currently supported by the HBLB is the Centre for Virus Research (CVR) of the University of Glasgow. The CVR carries out multidisciplinary research on viruses and viral diseases of humans and animals for the improvement of human and animal health. Researchers at the CVR apply a broad range of expertise to the study of equine influenza, from epidemiology, mathematical modeling, and bioinformatics to viral ecology, molecular, and structural virology. Through a range of HBLB research and educational funding streams, researchers at the CVR are investigating how the horse responds to infection and how influenza has adapted to the horse in order to overcome this immune response. This knowledge will, in turn, help us overcome the threat to our horses from the flu virus n


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VETERINARY

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HORSE MOVEMENTS AND DISEASE

International horse movements and disease risk

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The expansion of the equestrian sport horse and racing industries has led to increased movement of horses worldwide, and this has the potential to increase the risk of global spread of infectious equine diseases. WORDS: MORgane DOMinguez, SuSanne MĂźnSteRMann, PeteR tiMOney PHOtOS: HORSePHOtOS, SHutteRStOCK

T

O mitigate the risk of disease spread, international horse movements are strictly regulated. The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is mandated by its 180 member countries to improve animal health and welfare. The OIE has developed international standards for 18 important equine diseases. The disease risks vary depending on the country of origin and destination. Depending on exactly how each disease is spread, requirements for international horse movements include pre-export and/or post-arrival quarantines, laboratory tests, vaccination, etc., and these must be certified by veterinary authorities. However, despite these risk-mitigating regulations, incidents of disease introduction as a result of the international movement of horses still occur occasionally. A review recently published in Equine Veterinary Journal summarized evidence of such circumstances. The equine disease events were identified from the databases of the OIE and international surveillance reports, and the report covered the officially notified incidences, confirmed by either national

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into the importing country. The other 47 events did lead to the introduction of pathogens (bacteria, viruses, or other infectious agents) into importing countries, and for about half of these events (24/47), this resulted in subsequent transmission of the infectious agent to local horse populations.

How were these diseases introduced? or international reference laboratories as conclusively resulting from international live horse movements, that occurred from 1995 to 2014. This review provides an unique overview of the disease events that resulted from international horse movements over the past decades, and it allows lessons to be drawn for the development of international recommendations for the safe movements of horses.

What diseases were introduced by imported horses?

Overall, 54 disease events were identified. Equine influenza (13 events) and contagious equine metritis (12 events), both highly contagious, were the most frequent cause of disease introduction resulting from international horse movement. In seven cases, the infected horses were detected during post-arrival quarantine, and as a result, the infected horses were not released

It is important to distinguish temporary (<90 days) and permanent (>90 days) importation, although this could not be confirmed for 13 disease events. The 41 other events resulted from permanent importations (35 events) or illegal movements of horses (six events). Of particular importance to the racing industry, none of these disease events were linked to the temporary importation of live horses meant to compete at an international equestrian event or race. Nevertheless, complacency is not appropriate. In over 80% of the cases where disease-causing agents were introduced into the country of destination, failure of compliance with the OIE disease specific recommendations was identified. These included: l pre-export (e.g., failures in pre-export laboratory tests, pre-export vaccination history, disease surveillance in the importing country); l during shipment; l post-arrival (e.g,. failures in post-arrival


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1 st Prix Rothschild Gr1, 1 st Coronation Stakes Gr1 at Ascot, 3 rd Poule d’Essai des Pouliches Gr1, 3 rd Prix Marcel Boussac Gr1, 1 st Prix de la Grotte Gr3

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VETERINARY

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Subclinical infections are a challenge for international trade and for some diseases, clinical signs alone cannot be relied on

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Monitoring and verifying compliance with import protocols is essential in limiting the frequency of disease introduction.

A zero risk does not exist

Compliance with import protocols represents a risk mitigation approach. It is not a zero-risk approach. While protocols for international movements are designed to manage the disease risks involved, they are not robust when there are any imperfections in their implementation. Failure can occur at any stage (pre-export, during shipment, or post-arrival). Even when the standards for trade are applied rigorously, there is an inherent, albeit low, risk of pathogens being introduced into importing countries. Subclinical infections are a challenge for international trade and for some diseases, clinical signs alone cannot be relied on. Laboratory testing for the presence of these infections with fit-forpurpose diagnostic tests is essential. However, it has to be borne in mind that laboratory tests performed pre-export or post-arrival may fail to detect specific infections. It is also possible horses become infected after being sampled for laboratory tests (including during shipment). Finally, misdiagnosis in post-arrival quarantine could result in the release of infected horses. Additional risks include biosecurity breaches in post-arrival quarantine and thus the potential for spread of a pathogen.

You can prevent disease spread laboratory test, biosecurity breaches in postarrival quarantine, clinical misdiagnosis in post-arrival quarantine).

Why did no one notice the horses were ill?

In almost 90% of disease introduction events, the infected horses did not show signs of clinical disease at the time of import. Subclinical infections are a challenge for international trade.

How to limit the impact of the disease introduction

Analysis of the factors that contributed to the occurrence or non-occurrence of local transmission highlight the importance of local biosecurity practices. For instance, for venereal diseases, pre-breeding screenings 74

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are critical in mitigating the potential impact of introduction of the pathogen. For diseases that spread by direct or indirect contact, the protocols in place, such as isolation, vaccination, or screening programs, in the populations to which the imported horses are introduced are critical in mitigating the risk of transmission.

What were the Lessons? Import protocols are critical

For 81% of the disease events, the OIE recommendations applicable to the diseases involved had not been complied with. This is a stark reminder that the strict observance of international standards is paramount in reducing the risk of disease introduction and dissemination of equine pathogens from horses travelling internationally.

When receiving a horse from abroad into a training yard, it should be monitored carefully despite compliance with import protocols. Although the risk of disease introduction is very low, the continuous observance of good health management practices are essential in preventing disease spread from imported horses to the local horse population and the subsequent impact of any incident of disease introduction. This includes isolation of new entrants and close health monitoring of the resident equine populations to promptly detect any sign of disease. Vaccination and screening programs of the resident population may also be considered.

A new approach: the high health, high performance (HHP) concept

In an effort to facilitate the temporary import of horses for the purpose of competing in


HORSE MOVEMENTS AND DISEASE international sporting events while minimizing the risk of disease introduction and spread, the OIE, together with the Fédération Equestre Internationale (FEI) and the International Federation of Horseracing Authorities (IFHA), has developed the “High Health High Performance horse – (HHP)” concept. The HHP concept ensures full traceability of all international sport horse movements for temporary entry.

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What is a high health status?

The HHP concept is a globally applicable framework consistent with the mitigation measures identified by this review as being important factors in preventing pathogen introduction and spread. The high health status of the HHP horses is established by the continuous application of stringent health management practices and biosecurity procedures to create and maintain at all times a functional separation between HHP horses and horses of different health status. The health requirements for qualifying as an HHP horse are harmonized internationally and comprise a specific set of laboratory tests, treatments, and vaccinations appropriate to the disease status of the country/region of origin, regions visited, and the regions that it will visit, combined with limiting the exposure to horses of undefined status for a period of time in line with the recognized incubation period of the diseases of concern. In addition, continuous veterinary supervision of HHP horses is an important element that allows for rapid detection of any sign of disease, so that in conjunction with sound contingency planning, appropriate measures can be taken to minimize the risk of spread.

What is the role of private operators?

The HHP concept defines a clear role for the persons (trainer, owner, transporter, etc.) in regular contact with the horses to comply with the HHP practices and preserve the high health status of the horses that are under their responsibility. Monitoring compliance with the HHP requirements is integrated into the concept through strengthened collaboration between national veterinary authorities and the private equine sector (national equestrian federations and national racing authorities). The FEI and the IFHA encourage all national federations and authorities to support this concept. The HHP biosecurity requirements as described in the OIE Handbook for the management of HHP horses shall be implemented by the equine industry (FEI and IFHA) on the basis of corresponding operational guidelines developed by the industry.

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Subclinical infections are a challenge for international trade and for some diseases, clinical signs alone cannot be relied on

Conclusion

Incidents of disease introduction as a result of international movement of live horses are very infrequent. In the main, those incidents occur when international standards are not complied with. Compliance with import protocols regulating international horse movements in line with international standards is paramount in mitigating potential risk of disease introduction. In addition, the continuous observance of best biosecurity practices and best health management practices – as prescribed in the HHP framework – represents an additional safeguard to mitigate any residual risk of disease spread from imported horses. n More information on the HHP concept is available at: www.oie.int/en/international-competition-horse-movement/

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VETERINARY

METABOLOMICS The key to understanding equine gut health

Technology has the power to transform healthcare; just think about x-rays, anesthesia, or vaccination. In the United Kingdom, the Horserace Betting Levy Board (HBLB) is investing in metabolomics, a novel technology that is revolutionizing human healthcare and has the potential to do the same for racehorse health. WORDS: PROfeSSOR ChRiStOPheR PROuDman ma, Vet mB, PhD, CeRt eO, fRCVS PhOtOS: ShutteRStOCk, PROfeSSOR Celia m maRR

and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy are now capable of detecting and quantifying many hundreds of metabolites in an individual sample. Cataloguing all of the metabolites in a sample results in a “metabolic fingerprint,” a characteristic pattern of metabolites that changes in a predictable fashion in response to external influences, e.g. diet, medication, exercise, and disease. Part of the metabolic fingerprint of every individual is due to metabolites that arise from joint metabolism between host cells and the massive number of bacteria that live in their gut. These host-microbial cometabolites provide a useful window on the status of an animal’s gut bacterial population. Metabolomic studies have demonstrated the huge importance of gut bacterial communities to many aspects of human health. Characteristic changes in metabolic fingerprint have been associated with inflammatory bowel disease, obesity, cancer, asthma, and autism, amongst other conditions. These changes have been used to study patterns of disease, mechanisms of disease, and have been exploited for diagnostic purposes. Research funded by the HBLB has placed Ebony Escalona, a veterinary scientist, into one of the world’s leading metabolomics research laboratories to investigate the metabolic fingerprint of Thoroughbred racehorses.

F

OR many centuries it has been recognized that the bodily fluids of humans and animals can have altered physical properties associated with disease. Practitioners of ancient Chinese medicine and apothecaries of the Middle Ages would use changes in color, smell, and even taste of feces and urine to help them arrive at a diagnosis. For example, urine from diabetes patients tastes sweet due to the presence of excess glucose, and with the metabolic disease porphyria – possibly the cause of “the madness of King George III” – the feces take on a violet or purple color. A non-disease example that will be recognized by many is the unusual smell emanating from the urine of someone who has recently eaten asparagus. The smell is due in part to the presence of methanethiol, a by-product of asparagus metabolism. These examples illustrate how the chemical

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What is the aim of the Thoroughbred metabolomics project? composition of urine and feces reflect the body’s metabolic processes and can provide very specific information about the health status of a human or animal. Metabolomics is the study of the complete set of metabolites found in a biological sample (commonly urine, blood, or feces). Modern technologies have overtaken the analytical power of the human nose and tongue, and techniques including mass spectrometry

This project was designed to characterize the normal metabolic fingerprints of blood, feces, and urine from Thoroughbred horses in training. The horse has many metabolites that are common to humans and other animals, but also many novel equine metabolites that need to be identified. It is also important to understand the normal variation in metabolic fingerprints, and the sources of this variation. Escalona’s research also looked at how changes in diet could influence metabolic fingerprints in horses in training.


METABOLOMICS

How were these studies conducted?

Samples collected from a number of horses in training of specific ages were analyzed by NMR spectroscopy to work out exactly which metabolites were present. Some of this can be done by computer programs, but unusual metabolites and those unique to the horse were painstakingly identified using clues in their chemical signatures.

What did we learn about the metabolic fingerprint of racehorses?

The urine metabolic profile was remarkably similar between horses. The biggest source of variation was training yard of origin i.e. samples from horses on the same barn were more similar than those from horses on different stables. The major source of this variation was a metabolite called hippurate. Interestingly, this chemical gets its name from the Greek stem “hippos,” meaning “horse,” because it was first identified in horse urine. In humans, hippurate varies with diet, age, and composition of the gut bacterial community. Differences in diet and age profile are inevitable between stables, but the finding raises the intriguing possibility that horses in the same stable also develop similar gut bacterial populations. Metabolic fingerprints from individual horses across a ten-week period were found to be fairly consistent. One horse that received a short course of antibiotics following a racing injury was observed to have a massive shift in its metabolic profile resulting from disturbance of its gut bacteria. This shift was short-lived, with the horse’s normal profile being regained within two weeks of ending its antibiotic treatment. Metabolic profile data from a feeding trial showed how this type of analysis can be used to assess different diets. Characteristic and consistent changes in metabolic fingerprint were detected for horses fed on a traditional racehorse diet or a high-fat diet compared to a grass-only diet.

How will this study benefit racehorse health and welfare?

Metabolomics is still in its infancy but information arising from these HBLBfunded studies provides the essential foundations for future research. One of the most attractive aspects of the metabolomics tool is that samples of urine and feces are relatively easy to collect; understanding of the information that they contain about a horse’s health status is only just beginning. Metabolomic analysis is going to be key to unlocking the secrets of the bacterial communities that live in the gut of the horse. It is these bacteria that have a massive influence on health, performance, and susceptibility to disease. Influencing these bacterial communities through diet, feed supplements, and other methods will be an important means of ensuring racehorse health in the future. n

Top: A typical NMR spectrogram of equine urine, each numbered peak representing a unique metabolite. With this technique, the position of each peak depends upon its chemical composition and the height of each peak corresponding to the amount. Precise measurements of the position and height of each peak are used to identify and quantify the metabolites detected Above: Metabolomics may provide invaluable insight on racehorse health – with the clues contained in urine and feces

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PROFILE

BUSINESS SNAPSHOT

Five minutes with Andrea Young Andrea Young has a resume to die for. The dynamic 38-year-old president and chief operating officer of Sam Houston Race Park worked for the Tennessee Titans in the National Football League while attending college at Vanderbilt University. In 2005, after working six years for the Houston Comets in the Women’s National Basketball Association, she was hired as the president and CEO. She was 27. After the team was sold, she was hired by Sam Houston in 2007. The track, 15 minutes from downtown Houston, was young itself, having opened in 1994. Under Young’s stewardship, Sam Houston has become a prosperous hidden jewel in Texas, offering Thoroughbred and Quarter Horse racing as well as innovative events. Young cut the Thoroughbred meet in half and revamped the track’s purse structure. At the same time, drawing from her experience in professional sports, she’s trying to get maximum use out of the facility when there is no live racing. WORDS: BILL HELLER PHOTOS: SAM HOUSTON RACE PARK, SHELLLEE PHOTOgRAPHy

How did you get a job working with the NFL's Tennessee Titans while still in college at Vanderbilt? I wrote for the sports section in my college paper. I grew up playing softball, basketball, and soccer. I’m competitive. The Titans were the Houston Oilers (before the franchise was sold and moved to Tennessee). They played their second season in Vanderbilt’s stadium while they were waiting for their new NFL stadium to be finished in Nashville. When the Titans needed someone in their media department, they called me. It was a lot of fun. I was on the sideline for the Super Bowl in 2009 (when Tennessee reached the one-yard line but didn’t score on the final 78

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play of the game, allowing the St. Louis Rams to win). It was a pretty good place to be at the age of 21.

What did you learn from the way the NFL does business that's relevant to your job now? I think it’s all relevant. The leagues are different. Everything crosses over. This is a hospitality and entertainment business and you’re putting on a show for customers and trying to create memorable experiences for them. The only difference is the gambling, and it’s a significant difference. But I don’t wake up in the morning thinking of us as a gaming business. I wake up thinking it’s an entertainment business.

How did you become a top executive for the Comets at the age of 27? I worked in the organization for six years. I started to work for the chief of staff of the organization. I could work in the heartbeat of the company.

Why have you been so successful at such a young age? It’s hard to answer a question like that without sounding full of myself. I try to surround myself with good people and empower them. I’m not a micro-manager. I’m only as good as the people around me. I think God gave me some intelligence, but you can’t win if you don’t have good people. It’s like football. You don’t score if


ANDREA YOUNG Sam Houston racetrack

Sam Houston puts on a number of diverse events during the year, including camel racing

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PROFILE

BUSINESS SNAPSHOT

Your handle increased 15% to $51.2 million in 2015? What were the numbers for 2016?

everyone else doesn’t do their job. I think my team here blocks and tackles well. You say you you're not a micro manager, so how do you empower those around you? I try to do my best to give clear direction and define my expectations. I don’t get it right every time, but I try. We’re a team and maybe more like a family.

You have implemented 12% takeout on multiple race bets such as Pick 3s and Pick 4s. Has the resulting handle increased?

Why did you take the job at Sam Houston? The track only opened in 1994. I was 28. The business was ten times larger than the Comets. It was an opportunity to work in a larger business with more money coming in the door in a place I wasn’t familiar with, which I liked. Why would anyone want to keep doing the same thing over and over? I’d done the traditional sports. This was an opportunity in Houston with a young family. I really liked that the business wasn’t that healthy. It was an opportunity to make a difference.

How did you get knowledge of racing that quickly? I had to. I depended on the people who were here. We had some long-tenured people, especially in the racing office. I told people, “I know nothing about racing.” I can tell you how to create a good customer experience. If they’re not happy, they’re not coming back.

What challenges did you see when you first started? A lot. We were losing money. We were hemorrhaging. We diversified quite a bit. I liked the property location. I really liked the physical aspects of the track. We probably do 20 concerts a year. We did Cirque de Soleil.

Did you have a business plan when you started? No. I had a lot of ideas. I don’t think you can have a business plan when you haven’t walked into the door. Diversification was big. For example, we have corporate parties. I think one of the biggest things we have done was cutting our Thoroughbred meet in half, from the 60s to 32. We’ve been up every year. We reformatted. Then we revamped our purse structure. The purses are up. We race at the right time of the year, January through March.

How has that evolved into the way you do business now? We always think, “How do we continue to diversify?” This year, we had a food truck night. We created an event. See if anyone shows up. It was popular. We made money the first year. 80

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We were pretty flat this season on track, one percent off. There was a lot of politics going on.

Yes. Our belief is that fans can get bang for their buck. We’re going to keep doing it. We love it.

How have you been able to double sponsorships? That’s something we brought from my sports and entertainment background. Most racetracks don’t understand how to sell sponsorships or convey the value to thirdperson sponsors. Sometimes, racetracks undervalue what it’s worth.

You have tried such diverse things as ostrich and camel races, dollar days, luxury suites, etc. Which have made the biggest impact? If it’s crazy and bizarre we’ll try it. The suites were here. We’re the fourth largest city in the country. It’s a huge international city.

What is the average age of your racing fans? Our live racing fans average around 40. That’s our average not including simulcasting. We do plenty well in the 2534 market. You come to Sam Houston Race Park on a Friday night, you’ll see lots of 20-somethings, a lot of people bringing dates. We implemented 50-cent beers for three hours that night.

You’ve been quoted saying Sam Houston is “hands down known as the greatest running surface in America.” Is that true? People do say that about us. We have a great surface. We’ve proud of that. But that was here when I got here. I think this year we had one breakdown in the Thoroughbred meet. That’s amazingly low. When a horse breaks down we take it very seriously.

Where can Sam Houston be five years down the road? I have no idea. Five years is a long time for me. We want it to be in the very best position it can be.

Is it more profitable to run a Quarter Horse meet than a thoroughbred meet? Do you see much crossover in your two fanbases? Our Thoroughbred meet is more profitable sheerly because of the number of dates we can offer, the greater number of outlets that take our signal and the amount of handle generated by those outlets all over the world. We also have a great stakes

program that has been trending upwards to the tune of 26% in 2016 year on year. Our quarter horse meet also saw positive gains this past year. We dropped Thursdays and moved to Monday day racing. Overall, our Quarterhorse meet increased 16% in terms of daily average handle. We do see some cross over between the two among our more casual, promotion driven fans.

It hasn't been great for Texan horseracing over the last few years. What would you do if you were in charge of racing statewide? I think the real question is what would I do if I were in charge of the state legislature which I’m clearly not. I’d move to put Texas racing on even footing with our neighbor states through increased revenue streams provided by expanding gaming options so we can compete day in and day out. Texas is a great state for horse breeding. It’s inexcusable that we’ve long since fallen out of the top ten in Thoroughbred breeding statistics because of the great impact horse breeding can have on our economy. We were once #4 in the nation.


ANDREA YOUNG Pop concerts have proved a big draw at Sam Houston, while racegoers also enjoy the fine dining option at the track

Which (local) sports are best at engaging the local business community and why? I think they all do a pretty good job. Houston is a great business community with one of the highest number of Fortune 500 companies in the US so the opportunity is significant. There are some nuances to all of the local sports team – schedules, time of year, etc. I think they all do a nice job.

What three enhancements would you like to make at Sam Houston over the next three years? I’d like to see us to continue to build upon the success of our Thoroughbred meet by evaluating our takeouts, stakes schedules and the most opportune times to schedule races. We also want to continue to build on the quarter horse meet, our concert and event business and group sales lines. I think that’s more than three. And I haven’t even gotten to potential facility upgrades.

How much do your food and beverage operations add to your bottom line? It’s our second largest revenue source after wagering so it’s significant.

Do you feel that there is a business case for racetracks to offer more fine dining options? I think really this depends on understanding your market, your customers and your facility. The highest profit centers are general concessions. An easy entry point for first timers may be via fine dining. They can both complement one another if executed properly. Dining is a unique proposition in the sports/entertainment

world that our industry can utilize to it’s advantage, again, if done properly.

What about on the backstretch, tell us a little about what facilities you're offering for the horses, trainers and their staff? This really hasn’t changed much over the years. We take pride in maintaining a great racing surface and a comfortable backside. With over 1200 barns, there is plenty to keep up with. n ISSUE 42 TRAINERMAGAZINE.COM

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RACES

STAKES SCHEDULES COPYRIGHT

Races are divided by distance and the relevant surface is indicated as follows: AWT - All Weather Track D - Dirt T - Turf The indexes cover all graded races in North America over $50,000 in value, where information was available at the time of publication. Stakes Schedules are now updated monthly – visit trainermagazine.com

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Whilst every effort has been made to publish correct information, the publishers will not be held liable for any omission, mistake or change to the races listed in all published indexes.

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Track Sunland Park Tampa Bay Downs Tampa Bay Downs Gulfstream Park Gulfstream Park Sam Houston Race Park Delta Downs Delta Downs Delta Downs Delta Downs Gulfstream Park Gulfstream Park Sam Houston Race Park Gulfstream Park Gulfstream Park

Race Name & (Sponsor) KLAQ H The Lightning City St The Turf Dash Gulfstream Park Turf Sprint Ladies Turf Sprint Frontier Utilities Turf Sprint L.A Premier Night Bon Temps Starter L.A Premier Night Matron L.A Premier Night Ragin Cajun Starter L.A Premier Night Sprint Melody Of Colors Texas Glitter Bucharest Stakes Captiva Island Silks Run

Breeders’ Cup L L

S&R S S&R S

Race Date 17-Dec-16 17-Dec-16 31-Dec-16 28-Jan-17 28-Jan-17 29-Jan-17 11-Feb-17 11-Feb-17 11-Feb-17 11-Feb-17 25-Feb-17 25-Feb-17 25-Feb-17 11-Mar-17 11-Mar-17

Value $65,000 $100,000 $100,000 $125,000 $125,000 $75,000 $50,000 $100,000 $50,000 $100,000 $75,000 $75,000 $50,000 $75,000 $75,000

4½f (900m) Age 3+ 3+ F&M 3+ 4+ 4+ F&M 4+ 4+ F&M 4+ F&M 4+ La bred 4+ 3F 3+ 4+ 4+ F&M 4+

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Fair Grounds Fair Grounds Sunland Park Fair Grounds Fair Grounds Fair Grounds Oaklawn Park Fair Grounds

Battle of New Orleans Bonapaw S Bold Ego H The Big Easy Overnight Stakes Colonel Power Overnight Stakes Mardi Gras S Spring Fever Costa Rising St

S

03-Dec-16 17-Dec-16 01-Jan-17 28-Jan-17 25-Feb-17 28-Feb-17 04-Mar-17 01-Apr-17

$50,000 $75,000 $65,000 $50,000 $50,000 $75,000 $125,000 $60,000

5f (1000m) 3+ F&M 4+ 4+ F&M 4+ F&M 4+ 4+ F&M 4+ F&M 4+

T T D T T T D T

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AWT D D D AWT D D D D D AWT D

1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200

Check out Stakes Schedules online - trainermagazine.com/schedules USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA CAN USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA CAN USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA

Golden Gate Fields Aqueduct Fair Grounds Fair Grounds Golden Gate Fields Laurel Park Laurel Park Mahoning Valley Churchill Downs Laurel Park Woodbine Aqueduct Mahoning Valley Mahoning Valley Penn National Zia Park Zia Park Penn National Aqueduct Aqueduct Fair Grounds Aqueduct Churchill Downs Golden Gate Fields Mahoning Valley Woodbine Mahoning Valley Tampa Bay Downs Tampa Bay Downs Golden Gate Fields Aqueduct Fair Grounds Fair Grounds Fair Grounds Fair Grounds Laurel Park Laurel Park Gulfstream Park Gulfstream Park Aqueduct Fair Grounds Fair Grounds

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Golden Nugget Notebook Heitai Happy Ticket S Oakland The Frank J.De Francis Memorial Dash The Smart Halo Stakes Cardinal H The Bet On Sunshine The James F.Lewis III Stakes Kennedy Road S Key Cents Hollywood Gaming Mahoning Distaff Steel Valley Sprint Blue Mountain S Zia Park Distaff S Zia Park Sprint The Fabulous Strike H'Cap Fall Highweight H'cap Furlough Thanksgiving H King's Swan The Dream Supreme Golden Gate Debutante First Lady St Swynford S Glacial Princess St The Inaugural St The Sandpiper St Bear Fan Garland of Roses Louisiana Champions Day Juvenile S Louisiana Champions Day Ladies Sprint Louisiana Champions Day Lassie S Louisiana Champions Day Sprint The Willa on the Move Stakes Howard M Bender Memorial The Buffalo Man The House Party New York Stallion Series - Great White Way Division Letellier Memorial St S Sugar Bowl S

TRAINERMAGAZINE.COM ISSUE 42

S

Gr 2 S

R

Gr 3

S S S S

S

12-Nov-16 19-Nov-16 19-Nov-16 19-Nov-16 19-Nov-16 19-Nov-16 19-Nov-16 19-Nov-16 19-Nov-16 19-Nov-16 20-Nov-16 20-Nov-16 21-Nov-16 21-Nov-16 23-Nov-16 23-Nov-16 23-Nov-16 23-Nov-16 24-Nov-16 24-Nov-16 24-Nov-16 25-Nov-16 25-Nov-16 25-Nov-16 26-Nov-16 27-Nov-16 03-Dec-16 03-Dec-16 03-Dec-16 04-Dec-16 10-Dec-16 10-Dec-16 10-Dec-16 10-Dec-16 10-Dec-16 10-Dec-16 10-Dec-16 10-Dec-16 10-Dec-16 17-Dec-16 17-Dec-16 17-Dec-16

$50,000 $100,000 $50,000 $50,000 $50,000 $250,000 $100,000 $75,000 $70,000 $100,000 CAN200,000+ $100,000 $75,000 $200,000 $100,000 $75,000 $75,000 $200,000 $200,000 $100,000 $75,000 $100,000 $70,000 $50,000 $75,000 CAN125,000 $75,000 $100,000 $100,000 $75,000 $125,000 $100,000 $100,000 $100,000 $100,000 $100,000 $75,000 $75,000 $75,000 $150,000 $50,000 $50,000

Furlongs Closing date 5f 5f 03-Dec-16 5f 17-Dec-16 5f 15-Jan-17 5f 15-Jan-17 5f 18-Jan-17 5f 27-Jan-17 5f 27-Jan-17 5f 27-Jan-16 5f 27-Jan-17 5f 12-Feb-17 5f 12-Feb-17 5f 13-Feb-17 5f 26-Feb-17 5f 26-Feb-17

2 2 3+ 3+ F&M 3+ 3+ 2F 3+ 3+ 2 3+ 2 3+ F M 3 2 F (PA bred) 3+ F&M 3+ 3+ 3+ 2F 3+ 2 3+ F&M 2F 3F 2 2 F (Ohio bred) 2 2F 3+ 3+ F&M 2 3+ F&M 2F 3+ 3+ F&M 3+ (MD bred) 2 2F 2 2F 2

5½f 5½f 5½f 5½f 5½f 5½f 5½f 5½f

23-Dec-16

5½f (1100m)

D D D D D D D D D AWT T AWT T D D D D D D D D D D D D D

6f 6f 6f 6f 6f 6f 6f 6f 6f 6f 6f 6f 6f 6f 6f 6f 6f 6f 6f 6f 6f 6f 6f 6f 6f 6f 6f 6f 6f 6f 6f 6f 6f 6f 6f 6f 6f 6f 6f 6f 6f 6f

03-Nov-16

10-Nov-16 22-Sep-16 22-Sep-16 09-Nov-16 12-Nov-16 22-Sep-16 02-Nov-16 07-Nov-16 07-Nov-16 16-Nov-16 07-Nov-16 07-Nov-16 16-Nov-16

12-Nov-16 17-Nov-16 16-Nov-16 09-Nov-16 23-Nov-16 19-Nov-16 19-Nov-16 25-Nov-16

01-Dec-16 01-Dec-16 27-Nov-16 27-Nov-16


SUPPLIERS DIRECTORY

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Call • 800 821 4557 www.abacussports.com ISSUE 42 TRAINERMAGAZINE.COM

83


STAKES SCHEDULES Call us on 1 888 659 2935 to subscribe from $20 Country USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA

Track Gulfstream Park Mahoning Valley Aqueduct Aqueduct Sunland Park Gulfstream Park Sunland Park Fair Grounds Fair Grounds Fair Grounds Laurel Park Gulfstream Park Gulfstream Park Sam Houston Race Park Sam Houston Race Park Fair Grounds Gulfstream Park Gulfstream Park Oaklawn Park Sam Houston Race Park Sam Houston Race Park Ocala Training Center Ocala Training Center Oaklawn Park Sam Houston Race Park Oaklawn Park Turf Paradise Sam Houston Race Park Sam Houston Race Park Sam Houston Race Park Tampa Bay Downs Tampa Bay Downs Oaklawn Park Oaklawn Park Oaklawn Park Oaklawn Park Gulfstream Park Oaklawn Park Oaklawn Park Oaklawn Park Tampa Bay Downs Oaklawn Park Oaklawn Park

Race Name & (Sponsor) Sugar Swirl Joshua Radosevich Memorial St New York Stallion Series - Fifth Avenue Division Gravesend New Mexico State Racing Commission H Mr Prospector La Senora S Pan Zareta St Louisiana Futurity Louisiana Futurity The Daves Friend Stakes Hutcheson St Old Hat St Yellow Rose S Bara Lass S Duncan F. Kenner S Florida Sunshine Millions Distaff Florida Sunshine Millions Sprint Dixie Belle S Spirit Of Texas S Groovy S OBS Sprint St OBS Sprint St American Beauty S Space City Stakes King Cotton S Phoenix Gold Cup Sam Houston Sprint Cup Jim's Orbit S Two Altazano S The Minaret St The Pelican St Downthedustyroad Breeders Nodouble Breeders Gazebo Hot Springs S The Any Limit Instant Racing Rainbow S Rainbow Miss S The Hilton Garden Inn/Hampton Inn & Suites Sprint Bachelor Count Fleet Sprint H

Breeders’ Cup Gr 3 S S Gr 3 S S S Gr 3 Gr 3 S S S S S S R R

S

S S L L S S

Gr 3

Race Date 17-Dec-16 17-Dec-16 18-Dec-16 18-Dec-16 18-Dec-16 26-Dec-16 27-Dec-16 31-Dec-16 31-Dec-16 31-Dec-16 31-Dec-16 07-Jan-17 07-Jan-17 20-Jan-17 20-Jan-17 21-Jan-17 21-Jan-17 21-Jan-17 21-Jan-17 21-Jan-17 21-Jan-17 24-Jan-17 24-Jan-17 28-Jan-17 29-Jan-17 04-Feb-17 11-Feb-17 11-Feb-17 18-Feb-17 18-Feb-17 18-Feb-17 18-Feb-17 24-Feb-17 25-Feb-17 04-Mar-17 11-Mar-17 25-Mar-17 25-Mar-17 31-Mar-17 01-Apr-17 02-Apr-17 13-Apr-17 15-Apr-17

Value $100,000 $75,000 $150,000 $100,000 $85,000 $100,000 $85,000 $50,000 $100,000 $100,000 $100,000 $100,000 $100,000 $50,000 $50,000 $75,000 $200,000 $150,000 $125,000 $50,000 $50,000 $50,000 $50,000 $125,000 $50,000 $125,000 $75,000 $50,000 $75,000 $75,000 $50,000 $100,000 $100,000 $100,000 $125,000 $125,000 $75,000 $150,000 $100,000 $100,000 $100,000 $150,000 $400,000

6f (1200m)

Age Surface 3+ F&M D 2 T 2F D 3+ D 3+ F&M (NM Bred) D 3+ D 2 F (NM Bred) D 3+ F&M T 2F D 2 C+G D 3+ D 3 D 3F D 4+ F&M D 3F D 4+ D 4+ F&M D 4+ D 3F D 4+ D 3 D 3 CG AWT 3F AWT 4+ F&M D 3 D 4+ D 4+ D 4+ D 3 D 3F D 4+ F&M D 4+ D 3+ F&M (Ark Bred) D 3+ (Ark Bred) D 3 D 4+ D 3F D 3F D 3 C&G (Ark Bred) D 3 F (Ark Bred) D 4+ D 3 D 4+ D

Metres 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200

Stakes Schedules updated online monthly USA USA USA USA USA

Parx Racing Remington Park Sunland Park Gulfstream Park Gulfstream Park

Christopher Elser Mem SC Residence (C & G) Silver Goblin S Johnie L Jamison S Gulfstream Park Sprint The Spectacular Bid

CAN CAN USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA

Woodbine Woodbine Charles Town Del Mar Delta Downs Delta Downs Laurel Park Laurel Park Aqueduct Del Mar Parx Racing Charles Town Laurel Park Laurel Park Laurel Park Laurel Park Tampa Bay Downs Tampa Bay Downs Gulfstream Park Gulfstream Park Gulfstream Park Delta Downs Delta Downs Delta Downs Delta Downs Gulfstream Park Gulfstream Park Tampa Bay Downs Tampa Bay Downs

Bessarabian S Glorious Song S West Virginia Futurity (WV) Bob Hope St Orleans Sam's Town The Safely Kept Stakes The City of Laurel Stakes New York Stallion Series - Thunder Rumble Division Cary Grant St Pennsylvania Nursery St Eleanor Casey Memorial The Maryland Juvenile Futurity Stakes The Maryland Juvenile Filly Championship Stakes Gin Talking The Marylander Stakes The Gasparilla St The Pasco St Hurricane Bertie Forward Gal S Swale S L.A Premier Night Prince L.A Premier Night Starlet Take Charge Brandi Big Drama Inside Information Sir Shackleton The Ocala Breeders' Sales Sophomore The Stonehedge Farm South Sophomore Fillies

USA USA USA USA

Gulfstream Park Gulfstream Park Delta Downs Delta Downs

El Prado South Beach S Lookout B-Connected

R S S Gr 3

12-Nov-16 18-Nov-16 18-Dec-16 25-Feb-17 25-Mar-17

$75,000 $50,000 $85,000 $100,000 $75,000

6½f (1300m) 2 3+ OK Bred 3+ 4+ 3

D D D D D

1300 1300 1300 1300 1300

6½f 6½f 6½f 6½f 6½f

3+ F&M 2F 2 2 3F 3 3+ F 3 3+ 3+ (Cal bred) 2 2 2 (MD bred) 2 F (MD bred) 2F 2 3F 3 4+ F&M 3F 3 3yr La bred 3 F La bred 3F 3 4+ F&M 4+ 3 3F

AWT AWT D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D T D

1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400

7f 7f 7f 7f 7f 7f 7f 7f 7f 7f 7f 7f 7f 7f 7f 7f 7f 7f 7f 7f 7f 7f 7f 7f 7f 7f 7f 7f 7f

3+ 3+ F&M 3+ F&M 3+La bred

T T D D

1500 1500 1500 1500

Check out Stakes Schedules online - trainermagazine.com/schedules Gr 2

Gr 3 R R

S S S

Gr 3 Gr 2 Gr 2 S&R S

Gr 2

19-Nov-16 19-Nov-16 19-Nov-16 19-Nov-16 19-Nov-16 19-Nov-16 19-Nov-16 19-Nov-16 20-Nov-16 20-Nov-16 03-Dec-16 10-Dec-16 10-Dec-16 10-Dec-16 31-Dec-16 31-Dec-16 21-Jan-17 21-Jan-17 28-Jan-17 04-Feb-17 04-Feb-17 11-Feb-17 11-Feb-17 03-Mar-17 04-Mar-17 18-Mar-17 01-Apr-17 02-Apr-17 02-Apr-17

CAN200,000 CAN125,000 $50,000 $100,000 $75,000 $75,000 $100,000 $100,000 $125,000 $100,000 $100,000 $50,000 $100,000 $100,000 $100,000 $100,000 $100,000 $100,000 $100,000 $200,000 $200,000 $125,000 $125,000 £75,000 $75,000 $200,000 $100,000 $100,000 $100,000

84

TRAINERMAGAZINE.COM ISSUE 42

R R

$100,000 $100,000 $65000 $65000

10-Nov-16 12-Feb-17 12-Mar-17

7f (1400m)

Call us on 1 888 659 2935 to subscribe from $20 17-Dec-16 17-Dec-16 30-Dec-16 31-Dec-16

Furlongs Closing date 6f 04-Dec-16 6f 07-Dec-16 6f 6f 6f 6f 11-Dec-16 6f 6f 6f 6f 6f 22-Dec-16 6f 26-Dec-16 6f 26-Dec-16 6f 13-Jan-17 6f 13-Jan-17 6f 6f 08-Jan-17 6f 08-Jan-17 6f 6f 13-Jan-17 6f 13-Jan-17 6f 6f 6f 6f 18-Jan-17 6f 6f 01-Feb-17 6f 29-Jan-17 6f 6f 06/02/2017 6f 04-Feb-16 6f 04-Feb-17 6f 6f 6f 6f 6f 12-Mar-17 6f 6f 6f 6f 18-Mar-17 6f 6f

02-Nov-16 02-Nov-16 CLOSED 04-Nov-16 04-Nov-16 22-Sep-16 22-Sep-16

30-Nov-16 01-Dec-16 01-Dec-16 22-Dec-16 22-Dec-16 07-Jan-17 07-Jan-17 15-Jan-17 22-Jan-17 22-Jan-17 27-Jan-16 27-Jan-17 17-Feb-17 17-Feb-17 05-Mar-17 19-Mar-17 18-Mar-17 18-Mar-17

7½f (1500m) 7½f 7½f 7½f 7½f

04-Dec-16 04-Dec-16 16-Dec-16 17-Dec-16


STAKES SCHEDULES Stakes Schedules updated online monthly Country USA USA USA USA

Track Delta Downs Delta Downs Gulfstream Park Gulfstream Park

Race Name & (Sponsor) Azalea Pelican Dania Beach Ginger Brew

USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA

Remington Park Remington Park Aqueduct Delta Downs Delta Downs Delta Downs Delta Downs Delta Downs Fair Grounds Laurel Park Fair Grounds Zia Park Aqueduct Del Mar Del Mar Aqueduct Golden Gate Fields Del Mar Fair Grounds Fair Grounds Gulfstream Park Gulfstream Park Gulfstream Park Gulfstream Park Remington Park Remington Park Remington Park Remington Park Remington Park Fair Grounds Gulfstream Park Fair Grounds Aqueduct Aqueduct Fair Grounds Fair Grounds Laurel Park Laurel Park Gulfstream Park Gulfstream Park Turf Paradise Oaklawn Park Delta Downs Delta Downs Fair Grounds Fair Grounds Sam Houston Race Park Fair Grounds Gulfstream Park Gulfstream Park Delta Downs Fair Grounds Gulfstream Park Oaklawn Park Tampa Bay Downs Delta Downs Fair Grounds Gulfstream Park Gulfstream Park Gulfstream Park Gulfstream Park Delta Downs Delta Downs Fair Grounds Tampa Bay Downs Fair Grounds Gulfstream Park Gulfstream Park Gulfstream Park Gulfstream Park

Don C. McNeill Slide Show Artie Shiller Delta Mile Louisiana Jewel Louisiana Legacy Treasure Chest Delta Downs Princess Mr Sulu Geisha Si Cima Eddy County Stakes Cigar Mile H'cap Jimmy Durante St Cecil B. Demille St Go For Wand Hcap Gold Rush Matriarch St Magic City Classic S Louisiana Champions Day H'cap S The Hut Hut The Pulpit The Smooth Air The Wait A While Jim Thorpe S Remington Springboard Mile She's All In Useeit Stakes The Trapeze Tanacious Stakes Rampart Tiffany Lass S Damon Runyon St East View St Pago Hop S Woodchopper S The Jennings H'cap Stakes Thirty Eight Go Go Mucho Macho Man Hal's Hope H Cotton Fitzsimmons Mile Smarty Jones S Eldorado Fremont Lecomte S Silverbulletday S Star Of Texas S Keith Gee Mem Kitten's Joy Sweetest Chant L.A Premier Night Ladies Starter Joseph E Broussard Mem Gulfstream Park H Martha Washington S The Suncoast S L.A Premier Night Distaff Dixie Poker Ace S Fred W Hooper H'cap Canadian Turf Davona Dale St Sand Springs Owners' Appreciation Day Owners' Appreciation Day Distaff Red Camelia St The Columbia St Crescent City Oaks Cutler Bay Sanibel Island Appleton Honey Fox St

Breeders’ Cup S S Gr 3

Race Date 06-Jan-17 07-Jan-17 07-Jan-17 07-Jan-17

7½f (1500m)

Value $100,000 $100,000 $100,000 $100,000

Age 3F 3 3 3F

Surface D D T T

Metres 1500 1500 1500 1500

D D T D D D D D T

1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600

Check out Stakes Schedules online - trainermagazine.com/schedules

S S Gr 3

Gr 1 Gr 3 Gr 3 Gr 3 Gr 1 S S

S

Gr 3 S S

Gr 3

R R Gr 3 L S L Gr 3 S&R Gr 2

S&R S Gr 3 Gr 3 Gr 2 R R S S

Gr 3 Gr 2

18-Nov-16 18-Nov-16 19-Nov-16 19-Nov-16 19-Nov-16 19-Nov-16 19-Nov-16 19-Nov-16 19-Nov-16 19-Nov-16 20-Nov-16 23-Nov-16 26-Nov-16 26-Nov-16 27-Nov-16 03-Dec-16 03-Dec-16 04-Dec-16 09-Dec-16 10-Dec-16 10-Dec-16 10-Dec-16 10-Dec-16 10-Dec-16 11-Dec-16 11-Dec-16 11-Dec-16 11-Dec-16 11-Dec-16 17-Dec-16 17-Dec-16 26-Dec-16 29-Dec-16 30-Dec-16 31-Dec-16 31-Dec-16 31-Dec-16 31-Dec-16 07-Jan-17 14-Jan-17 14-Jan-17 16-Jan-17 20-Jan-17 21-Jan-17 21-Jan-17 21-Jan-17 21-Jan-17 04-Feb-17 04-Feb-17 04-Feb-17 11-Feb-17 11-Feb-17 11-Feb-17 11-Feb-17 11-Feb-17 11-Feb-17 04-Mar-17 04-Mar-17 04-Mar-17 04-Mar-17 04-Mar-17 11-Mar-17 11-Mar-17 11-Mar-17 11-Mar-17 01-Apr-17 01-Apr-17 01-Apr-17 01-Apr-17 01-Apr-17

$75,000 $75,000 $150,000 $250,000 $150,000 $150,000 $200,000 $400,000 $50,000 $75,000 $50,000 $140,000 $500,000 $100,000 $100,000 $250,000 $75,000 $300,000 $51,000 $50,000 $75,000 $75,000 $75,000 $75,000 $50,000 $300,000 $100,000 $50,000 $100,000 $75,000 $100,000 $50,000 $100,000 $100,000 $75,000 $75,000 $75,000 $100,000 $100,000 $150,000 $75,000 $150,000 $70000 $70000 $200,000 $150,000 $50,000 $50,000 $100,000 $100,000 $65000 $50,000 $250,000 $125,000 $100,000 $150,000 $60,000 $100,000 $150,000 $200,000 $100,000 £75,000 £75,000 $60,000 $75,000 $75,000 $100,000 $100,000 $200,000 $300,000

2 (OK Bred) 2 F (OK Bred) 3+ 3+ 2F 2 C&G 3+ F&M 2F 3+ 3+ F&M (MD bred) 3+ F&M 2 3+ 2F 2 3+ F&M 2 3 + F&M 3+ 3+ 2F 2 2 2F 3 2 3+ F&M 3 F (OK bred) 2F 3+ 3+ F&M 3+ F&M 2 (NY Bred) 2 F N.Y. Bred 3F 3 3+ (MD bred) 3+F&M 3 4+ 4+ 3 4+ F&M 4+ 3 3F 4+ 3 3 3F 4+ F&M 3F 4+ 3F 3F 4+ F&M La bred 4+ LA Bred 4+ 4+ 3F 4+ F&M 4+ 4+ F&M 4+ F&M 3 3F 3 3F 4+ 4+ F&M

1m (1600m)

D D D T T D AWT T D D D T D T D D D D D D D D D T T D D D D T D D D D D D T T T D T D D D D T D T D T

T T D T T T T

Call us on 1 888 659 2935 to subscribe from $20 CAN USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA

Woodbine Charles Town Churchill Downs Delta Downs Mahoning Valley Penn National Zia Park Zia Park Aqueduct

Princess Elizabeth S My Sister Pearl Commonwealth Turf $1,000,000 Delta Downs Jackpot Ohio Debutante H The Swatara Zia Park Derby Zia Park Oaks Gio Ponti

R S Gr 3 Gr 3

12-Nov-16 12-Nov-16 12-Nov-16 19-Nov-16 19-Nov-16 23-Nov-16 23-Nov-16 23-Nov-16 24-Nov-16

CAN250,000 $50,000 $100,000 $100,0000 $75,000 $100,000 $200,000 $300,000 $125,000

Furlongs Closing date 7½f 22-Dec-16 7½f 22-Dec-16 7½f 26-Dec-16 7½f 26-Dec-16

1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 70yds 1m 70yds 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m 1m

10-Nov-16 10-Nov-16 28-Oct-16 04-Nov-16 04-Nov-16 28-Oct-16 22-Oct-16 22-Sep-16 07-Nov-16

25-Nov-16

27-Nov-16 27-Nov-16 27-Nov-16 27-Nov-16 02-Dec-16 02-Dec-16 02-Dec-16 02-Dec-16 02-Dec-16 04-Dec-16

22-Dec-16 22-Dec-16 26-Dec-16 01-Jan-17 04-Jan-17 06-Jan-17 07-Jan-17

13-Jan-17 22-Jan-17 22-Jan-17 27-Jan-17 29-Jan-17 28-Jan-17 27-Jan-17 19-Feb-17 19-Feb-17 19-Feb-17 19-Feb-17 24-Feb-17 24-Feb-17 25-Feb-17 19-Mar-17 19-Mar-17 19-Mar-17 19-Mar-17

1m½f (1700m)

2F 3+ F&M 3 2 3 + F&M (Ohio bred) 3+ 3 3F 3+

AWT D T D T D D D T

1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700

1m½f 1m½f 1m½f 1m½f 1m½f 1m½f 1m½f 1m½f 1m½f

ISSUE 42 TRAINERMAGAZINE.COM

26-Oct-16 02-Nov-16 29-Oct-15 22-Oct-16 09-Nov-16 16-Nov-16 07-Nov-16 07-Nov-16

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STAKES SCHEDULES Stakes Schedules updated online monthly Country USA CAN USA USA USA USA CAN CAN USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA

Track Aqueduct Woodbine Churchill Downs Churchill Downs Del Mar Golden Gate Fields Woodbine Woodbine Del Mar Fair Grounds Fair Grounds Golden Gate Fields Aqueduct Fair Grounds Fair Grounds Gulfstream Park Mahoning Valley Aqueduct Gulfstream Park Gulfstream Park Oaklawn Park Gulfstream Park Gulfstream Park Oaklawn Park Sam Houston Race Park Fair Grounds Fair Grounds Gulfstream Park Gulfstream Park Tampa Bay Downs Ocala Training Center Ocala Training Center Sam Houston Race Park Sam Houston Race Park Tampa Bay Downs Gulfstream Park Delta Downs Delta Downs Sam Houston Race Park Tampa Bay Downs Tampa Bay Downs Gulfstream Park Oaklawn Park Turf Paradise Oaklawn Park Oaklawn Park Fair Grounds Fair Grounds Fair Grounds Fair Grounds Sam Houston Race Park Sam Houston Race Park Fair Grounds Gulfstream Park Gulfstream Park Gulfstream Park Fair Grounds Oaklawn Park Tampa Bay Downs Tampa Bay Downs Tampa Bay Downs Oaklawn Park Oaklawn Park Oaklawn Park Fair Grounds Fair Grounds Fair Grounds Gulfstream Park Fair Grounds Tampa Bay Downs Tampa Bay Downs Tampa Bay Downs Oaklawn Park Oaklawn Park Oaklawn Park Oaklawn Park Turf Paradise

Race Name & (Sponsor) Winter Memories Sir Barton S Golden Rod Kentucky Jockey Club St Seabiscuit H'cap Berkeley H Ontario Lassie S Display S Bayakoa H Louisiana Champions Day Ladies S Louisiana Champions Day Turf S Miss America Bay Ridge Blushing K.D. H Buddy Diliberto Memorial H Harlan's Holiday Bobbie Bricker Memorial H'cap Alex M. Robb H'cap Tropical Park Derby Tropical Park Oaks Fifth Season S Fort Lauderdale St Marshua's River St Pippin S San Jacinto S Col. E.R Bradley Hcp Marie G Krantz Memorial H Florida Sunshine Millions F&M Turf Florida Sunshine Millions Turf The Wayward Lass St OBS Championship St OBS Championship St Houston Ladies Classic Houston Distaff The Lambholm South Endeavour Stakes Holy Bull S L.A Premier Night Championship L.A Premier Night Gentlemen Starter Houston Turf Stakes Sam F. Davis St The Tampa Bay St Royal Delta Bayakoa S Turf Paradise Derby Southwest S Razorback H Daisy Devine Stakes Mineshaft H'cap Rachel Alexandra St Risen Star S Texas Heritage Stakes Jersey Lily S Black Gold St Fountain Of Youth St Herecomesthebride S Palm Beach S Allen Lacombe Mem Honeybee S The Challenger St The Florida Oaks The Lambholm South Tampa Bay Derby Essex H Azeri S Rebel S New Orleans Ladies St Crescent City Derby Fair Grounds Oaks The Gulfstream Oaks Star Guitar St The Pleaseant Acres Stallions Distaff Turf The Sophomore Turf The Tampa Turf Classic Arkansas Breeders (Open) Fantasy S Apple Blossom H Northern Spur Gene Fleming Breeders Derby

Breeders’ Cup S Gr 2 Gr 2 Gr 2 Gr 3 S Gr 2 S S

S

Gr 2 Gr 3 S Gr 3 S S R R S Gr 3 Gr 2 S S&R Gr 3 Gr 3 Gr 2 Gr 3 Gr 3 Gr 3 Gr 3 Gr 3 Gr 2

Gr 2 Gr 3 Gr 3 Gr 3 Gr 3 Gr 2 Gr 2 Gr 2 S Gr 2 Gr 2 S

S Gr 3 Gr 1 L S

Race Date 25-Nov-16 26-Nov-16 26-Nov-16 26-Nov-16 26-Nov-16 26-Nov-16 30-Nov-16 03-Dec-16 03-Dec-16 10-Dec-16 10-Dec-16 10-Dec-16 11-Dec-16 17-Dec-16 17-Dec-16 17-Dec-16 17-Dec-16 31-Dec-16 31-Dec-16 31-Dec-16 13-Jan-17 14-Jan-17 14-Jan-17 14-Jan-17 20-Jan-17 21-Jan-17 21-Jan-17 21-Jan-17 21-Jan-17 21-Jan-17 24-Jan-17 24-Jan-17 29-Jan-17 29-Jan-17 01-Feb-17 04-Feb-17 11-Feb-17 11-Feb-17 11-Feb-17 11-Feb-17 11-Feb-17 18-Feb-17 18-Feb-17 18-Feb-17 20-Feb-17 20-Feb-17 25-Feb-17 25-Feb-17 25-Feb-17 25-Feb-17 25-Feb-17 25-Feb-17 04-Mar-17 04-Mar-17 04-Mar-17 04-Mar-17 11-Mar-17 11-Mar-17 11-Mar-17 11-Mar-17 11-Mar-17 18-Mar-17 18-Mar-17 18-Mar-17 01-Apr-17 01-Apr-17 01-Apr-17 01-Apr-17 02-Apr-17 02-Apr-17 02-Apr-17 02-Apr-17 08-Apr-17 14-Apr-17 14-Apr-17 15-Apr-17 22-Apr-17

Value $125,000 CAN125,000 $200,000 $200,000 $200,000 $100,000 CAN150,000 CAN125,000 $200,000 $100,000 $100,000 $50,000 $100,000 $75,000 $75,000 $100,000 $75,000 $100,000 $75,000 $75,000 $125,000 $200,000 $150,000 $125,000 $50,000 $125,000 $75,000 $150,000 $150,000 $50,000 $100,000 $100,000 $400,000 $50,000 $150,000 $350,000 $200,000 $65000 $50,000 $250,000 $150,000 $200,000 $150,000 $50,000 $500,000 $500,000 $75,000 $125,000 $200,000 $400,000 $50,000 $50,000 $50,000 $400,000 $100,000 $100,000 $50,000 $200,000 $100,000 $200,000 $350,000 $250,000 $350,000 $900,000 $50,000 $75,000 $400,000 $250,000 $60,000 $100,000 $100,000 $100,000 $100,000 $400,000 $600,000 $150,000 $50,000

1m½f (1700m) Age 3F 3+ 2F 2 3+ 3+ 2F 2 3+ F&M 3+ F&M 3+ 3 + F&M 3+ F M 3+F&M 3+ 3+ 3 + F&M 3+ (NY Bred) 3 3F 4+ 4+ 4+ F&M 4+ F&M 4+ F&M 4+ 4+ F&M 4+ F&M 4+ 4+ F&M 3F 3 CG 4+ F&M 4+ F&M 4+ F&M 3 4+ 4+ La bred 4+ 3 4+ 4+ F&M 4+ F&M 3 3 4+ 4+ F&M 4+ 3F 3 3 4+ F&M 3 3 3F 3 3F 3F 4+ 3F 3 4+ 4+ F&M 3 4+ F&M 3 3F 3F 4+ 3+ F&M 3 4+ 3+ (Ark Bred) 3F 4+ F&M 3 3 (AZ Bred)

Surface T AWT D D T AWT AWT AWT D T T D T T D T D T T D T T D T T T T T D AWT AWT D T T D D D T D T D D D D D T D D D D T T D T T T D D T D D D T D D D D T T T D D D D D

Metres 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700

Check out Stakes Schedules online - trainermagazine.com/schedules CAN USA USA USA USA USA USA USA

Woodbine Churchill Downs Laurel Park Zia Park Churchill Downs Churchill Downs Churchill Downs Aqueduct

86

Coronation Futurity Cardinal H'cap The Richard W. Small Zia Park Distance Championship Falls City H'cap River City H'cap Clark H'cap Comely

TRAINERMAGAZINE.COM ISSUE 42

R Gr 3

Gr 2 Gr 3 Gr 1 Gr 3

13-Nov-16 19-Nov-16 19-Nov-16 23-Nov-16 24-Nov-16 24-Nov-16 25-Nov-16 26-Nov-16

CAN250,000 $100,000 $100,000 $150,000 $200,000 $100,000 $500,000 $250,000

2 3+ F&M 3+ 3+ 3+ F&M 3+ 3+ 3+F

Furlongs Closing date 1m½f 1m½f 09-Nov-16 1m½f 12-Nov-16 1m½f 12-Nov-16 1m½f 1m½f 17-Nov-16 1m½f 09-Nov-16 1m½f 16-Nov-16 1m½f 1m½f 1m½f 1m½f 10-Dec-16 1m½f 1m½f 1m½f 1m½f 04/12/2016 1m½f 07-Dec-16 1m½f 1m½f 18-Dec-16 1m½f 18-Dec-16 1m½f 1m½f 01-Jan-17 1m½f 01-Jan-17 1m½f 1m½f 13-Jan-17 1m½f 1m½f 1m½f 08-Jan-17 1m½f 08-Jan-17 1m½f 17-Jan-17 1m½f 1m½f 1m½f 18-Jan-17 1m½f 18-Jan-17 1m½f 28-Jan-17 1m½f 22-Jan-17 1m½f 27-Jan-17 1m½f 27-Jan-17 1m½f 29-Jan-17 1m½f 28-Jan-17 1m½f 28-Jan-17 1m½f 05-Feb-17 1m½f 1m½f NA 1m½f 1m½f 1m½f 1m½f 1m½f 1m½f 1m½f 13-Feb-17 1m½f 13-Feb-17 1m½f 1m½f 19-Feb-17 1m½f 19-Feb-17 1m½f 19-Feb-17 1m½f 1m½f 1m½f 25-Feb-17 1m½f 25-Feb-17 1m½f 25-Feb-17 1m½f 1m½f 1m½f 1m½f 1m½f 1m½f 1m½f 19-Mar-17 1m½f 1m½f 18-Mar-17 1m½f 18-Mar-17 1m½f 18-Mar-17 1m½f 1m½f 1m½f 1m½f 1m½f NA

1m 1f (1800m) AWT T D D D T D D

1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800

1m 1f 1m 1f 1m 1f 1m 1f 1m 1f 1m 1f 1m 1f 1m 1f

26-Oct-16 05-Nov-16 22-Sep-16 07-Nov-16 12-Nov-16 12-Nov-16 12-Nov-16


STAKES SCHEDULES Call us on 1 888 659 2935 to subscribe from $20 Country USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA USA

Track Aqueduct Aqueduct Del Mar Mahoning Valley Del Mar Fair Grounds Aqueduct Turfway Park Gulfstream Park Sam Houston Race Park Gulfstream Park Gulfstream Park Sam Houston Race Park Gulfstream Park Gulfstream Park Fair Grounds Sam Houston Race Park Tampa Bay Downs Gulfstream Park Fair Grounds Fair Grounds Fair Grounds Gulfstream Park Oaklawn Park Oaklawn Park

Race Name & (Sponsor) Demoiselle St Remsen St Native Diver H'cap Ruff/Kirchberg Memotial H'cap Hollywood Derby Louisiana Cahmpions Day Classic S Queens County H'cap Prairie Bayou St Florida Sunshine Millions Classic Richard King S The Poseidon Pegasus World Cup John B. Connally BC Turf Gulfstream Park Turf H Suwannee River Fair Grounds H'cap Maxxam Gold Cup The Hillsborough St Skip Away Louisiana Derby Muniz Memorial Handicap New Orleans H Florida Derby Arkansas Derby Oaklawn H

Breeders’ Cup Gr 2 Gr 2 Gr 3 Gr 1 S Gr 3 S S S Gr 1 Gr 3 Gr1 Gr 3 Gr 3 L Gr 3 Gr 3 Gr 2 Gr 2 Gr 2 Gr1 Gr 1 Gr 2

Race Date 26-Nov-16 26-Nov-16 27-Nov-16 03-Dec-16 03-Dec-16 10-Dec-16 17-Dec-16 19-Dec-16 21-Jan-17 21-Jan-17 28-Jan-17 28-Jan-17 29-Jan-17 11-Feb-17 11-Feb-17 25-Feb-17 25-Feb-17 11-Mar-17 25-Mar-17 01-Apr-17 01-Apr-17 01-Apr-17 01-Apr-17 15-Apr-17 15-Apr-17

Value $300,000 $300,000 $100,000 $75,000 $300,000 $150,000 $125,000 $50,000 $250,000 $50,000 $400,000 $12,000,000 $200,000 $350,000 $150,000 $125,000 $100,000 $200,000 $100,000 1,000,000 $300,000 $400,000 $1,000,000 $1,000,000 $750,000

1m 1f (1800m) Age 2F 2 3+ 3+ 3 3+ 3+ 3+ 4+ 4+ 3+ 3+ 4+ 4+ 4+ F&M 4+ 4+ 4+ F&M 4+ 3 4+ 4+ 3 3 4+

Surface D D D T T D D AWT D T D D T T T T D T D D T D D D D

Stakes Schedules updated online monthly USA

Gulfstream Park

The Very One

Gr 3

04-Mar-17

$150,000

Metres 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800

1m 1½m (1900m) 4+ F&M

T

1900

Check out Stakes Schedules online - trainermagazine.com/schedules USA USA USA USA

Del Mar Gulfstream Park Gulfstream Park Gulfstream Park

Red Carpet Stakes Via Borghese Mac Diarmida Orchid St

USA USA USA USA

Del Mar Gulfstream Park Gulfstream Park Gulfstream Park

Hollywood Turf Cup La Prevoyante WL McKnight H'cap Pan American

Gr 3 Gr 2 Gr 3

24-Nov-16 31-Dec-16 04-Mar-17 01-Apr-17

$100,000 $75,000 $200,000 $200,000

25-Nov-16 28-Jan-17 28-Jan-17 01-Apr-17

$200,000 $200,000 $200,000 $200,000

3+F&M 3+ F&M 4+ 4+ F&M

T T T T

2200 2200 2200 2200

3+ 4+ F&M 4+ 4+

T T T T

2400 2400 2400 2400

Woodbine

Valedictory S

Gr 3

04-Dec-16

CAN150,000+

Gulfstream Park

H Allen Jerkens

31-Dec-16

$100,000

1m 3f 1m 3f 1m 3f 1m 3f

18-Dec-16 19-Feb-17 19-Mar-17

1m 4f 1m 4f 1m 4f 1m 4f

15-Jan-17 15-Jan-17 19-Mar-17

1m 6f (2800m) 3+

AWT

2800

Check out Stakes Schedules online - trainermagazine.com/schedules USA

19-Feb-17

1m 4f (2400m)

Stakes Schedules updated online monthly CAN

1m 1½f

1m 3f (2200m)

Call us on 1 888 659 2935 to subscribe from $20 Gr 2 Gr 3 Gr 3 Gr 2

Furlongs Closing date 1m 1f 1m 1f 1m 1f 1m 1f 23-Nov-16 1m 1f 1m 1f 1m 1f 1m 1f 1m 1f 08-Jan-17 1m 1f 13-Jan-17 1m 1f CLOSED 1m 1f INV 1m 1f 18-Jan-17 1m 1f 29-Jan-17 1m 1f 29-Jan-17 1m 1f 1m 1f 13-Feb-17 1m 1f 25-Feb-17 1m 1f 12-Mar-17 1m 1f 1m 1f 1m 1f 1m 1f 19-Mar-17 1m 1f 1m 1f

4+

1m 6f

16-Nov-16

2m (3200m) T

3200

2m

ISSUE 42 TRAINERMAGAZINE.COM

18-Dec-16

87


SID FERNANDO

T

HIS is true for racetracks, breeding farms, ownership entities, and trainers (the “super trainers”). These trends, which noticeably began after the economic meltdown of 2008, will continue to significantly alter the racing industry from its recent past in the coming years, just as consolidation has already altered many other “mature” industries that have amalgamated smaller entities for survival. Succeeding in this evolving landscape for the small timer, whether a track, farm, stallion, owner, or trainer, will become increasingly challenging. And that’s putting it nicely. Essentially, the big tracks are getting bigger – the blogger and columnist Dean Towers addressed nuances of this recently in his “Pull the Pocket” blog – and these tracks are even stacking stakes races together for big days to maximize handle returns. Meanwhile, smaller tracks, even those subsidized by casinos, continue to struggle, by handle, small fields, and racing days. Likewise, the bigger Kentucky stud farms are growing while smaller entities in the industry are struggling, and big stud operators are foraying into regional areas to bolster their market share. What this means is that the few are getting more powerful by economies of scale. This is evident by the quality of the stallions they stand in various stud fee ranges and by the number of mares these stallions cover – several in excess of 150 mares a year. In the early 1970s, when the continent was dotted with smaller farms and “backyard breeders,” foal crops were similar to what they are now, but stallions then rarely exceeded books of 50 mares. By simple deduction, this means that the number of foals produced now are from a lesser number of stallions at a lesser number of farms. Owners are still active at the higher ends of auctions, where prices for the best yearlings are meeting demand and producing the high averages similar to preceding years, but prices for horses at the back ends of sales are stagnant or diminishing. This year the bellwether Keeneland September yearling sale, for example, was down 20% by median from 2015, mostly by lack of demand during the last few books of the sale. 88

TRAINERMAGAZINE.COM ISSUE 42

The widening elitism in North American racing The eminent pedigree scholar and theorist Franco Varola once said something to the effect that racing is a microcosm of society. And if society today, in broad terms of industry, trends toward consolidation, the same can be said for the various segments of racing that altogether comprise its “industry.” Even at the top of the market, however, there are changes in ownership structures. More partnerships between powerful owners are cropping up for expensive horses, particularly for colts, as hedges in stallion speculation, and quite a few of these partnerships are being formed with foreign entities. In fact, as I pointed out in this space in the previous issue, North American owners at the top of the market are beginning to embrace an international outlook and are shopping and racing in foreign venues at a greater rate than years past. And with this globalization has come an increasing interest in turf racing, which wasn’t as pronounced here before 2008. Still, the goals of winning the classics – particularly the Kentucky Derby – are front and center for the top North American owners, the most powerful of whom have embraced a small cadre of “super trainers” who seem to dominate the run-ups to the classics each year. What does all this mean? With fewer but more powerful trainers, owners, stud farms, stallions, and racetracks, the game is becoming more elite – and more global. And as this has happened, the “elites” have become more vociferous in clamoring

Essentially, the big tracks are getting bigger and these tracks are even stacking stakes races together for big days to maximize handle returns

for an alignment with the international community – the euphemism for no race day medication. The Jockey Club, perhaps the most elite of the many organizations with a say in the game, has led the charge to effect this change through legislation. And if racing is a microcosm of our society, the parallels in racing to happenings of this general election year are unavoidable. That is to say, there’s a battle being waged between an aggrieved working class against the elites. The notable battle of racing’s “working class,” or the small timers, is to continue to allow race day Lasix and to avoid federal legislation that would prohibit it. Doesn’t that sound similar to the rallying cry of working-class Republicans who want to protect their guns via the Second Amendment, which they feel is under assault by the Democratic nominee – i.e., an “elite” – for President (even if that’s not the actual case)? The distinct feeling more than ever is that the racing industry is deeply divided between the elites and the rest of the continent, and there’s a view among the small timers that the elites are operating for their own narrow benefits, opening up borders, allowing foreigners in, taking trade abroad, backing legislation to take away their rights, and ignoring their overall plight. And if that is a heavy-handed and gratuitous parallel to the populist movement in politics – which, I admit, it is – there’s still some truth to it, or, at least, the perception of it. That’s why it’s important for racing’s leaders to approach change – consolidation – in the most holistic of manners possible, to realize and assuage its constituents that racing’s ecosystem needs its various levels of the game to survive, and to address initiatives for this to happen, especially if North America is to be a racing continent for all. n


TRACK-RECORD-SETTING GRADED STAKES WINNER

NIAGARA

CAUSEWAY GIANT’S CAUSEWAY-THEORETICALLY, BY THEATRICAL (IRE)

SIRE OF:

LOGAN CREEK

($117,533) Stakes-placed in $100,000-added A. J. Foyt S. followed up by a wire-to-wire score in a $44,880 allowance on 10/5/16! • Has won 4 of his 9 starts in 2016 on dirt and turf.

HELLO PEOPLE

Stakes-placed at 2 in $75,000-added El Joven S., 2016 winner at Fair Grounds. Stud Fee: $2,500

BUCK POND FARM DOUG ARNOLD

n

VERSAILLES, KY

859.873.4081

YOU SHOULD BE HERE ($132,354) Four-time winner including by 10-lengths at Churchill Downs on dirt.


BREED

Simply BREED TWO MARES at WinStar Farm If won by a WinStar-sired horse:

RACE

Breeder Award**

TRIPLE CROWN race

$100,000

KENTUCKY OAKS

$100,000

BREEDERSâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; CUP race

$100,000

GRADE ONE

$80,000

GRADE TWO

$40,000

GRADE THREE

$20,000

LISTED STAKES*

$10,000

*Purse above $75K

WIN

More than $1,000,000**

projected in annual awards to breeders **Awarded in WinStar dollars applicable for 1 year to any WinStar Stallion

Breed to

Big.

For more information visit: www.WinStarFarm.com/WINnetwork Or call: (859) 873-1717 | Kyle Wilson: (859) 699-8589 Caroline Walsh: (859) 537-2527 | Sean Tugel: (859) 940-0456

169949-WIN-NATrainer.indd 1

11/9/16 10:52 AM

North American Trainer, issue 42 - November 2016 - January 2017  
North American Trainer, issue 42 - November 2016 - January 2017