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European

ISSUE 51 – OCTOBER TO DECEMBER 2015 £5.95

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National Hunt Special Increasing opportunities for mares Reducing injury risk in National Hunt racing

JEAN-PIERRE CARVALHO

Germany’s training import from France RESISTING DEWORMING TRADITIONS

Prepare for anthelmintic armageddon

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THE CARB CONUNDRUM

Starch content – What works best: high, low or medium?

EIPH OR BLEEDING

The impact on career longevity in a 10-year study

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BOOST

GILES STAmINA, ANDERSON Making their mark

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HIS time two years ago, I very much doubt that our cover profile trainer, Jean-Pierre Carvalho would have believed you if you’d told him that his life was about to change and that he’d be the man in charge of one of Germany’s most prestigious stables – Gestüt Schlenderhan. Well two years later, he’s there and Carvalho is quickly establishing himself as a trainer on the up in Europe. When training in France, he had a mixed bunch of handicappers and claimers under his command and started out with only three horses in training. Like so many trainers out there, it’s those lucky breaks that get you noticed and Carvalho certainly has got his. The same can be said for our TRM Trainer of the Quarter, David O’Meara, who, like Carvalho, had switched from the jockey ranks to training and is now making his mark on the international stage with three group wins in one weekend. But just as two careers are propelling forward for a big future, I couldn’t let this opportunity pass without highlighting a trainer who has been there and done it on the world stage, as at the end of this year Clive Brittain will saddle his last runner and close out a training career of some 40 years. The exploits of Pebbles and Jupiter Island got me hooked on racing back in the 1980s and I’ve been fascinated by their trainer’s methodology ever since. Indeed, when we launched European Trainer some 15 years ago, Clive, as an icon of international training, was the first choice “cover profile” trainer on our first ever issue. Looking back at the articles we have published over the past fifteen years it’s easy to get a small snapshot as to how training and research has developed in such a short space of time but then to think about how training methodology has changed over the past 40 years – I think there may well be an article to come on just that subject! But before then, in this issue we carry a range of subjects with an in-depth look at the new opportunities for jumping mares across Europe, and we discover just how increasingly difficult it is employ stable staff across Europe, as well as the results of a major 10-year study as to whether bleeding really does affect performance. That’s before we advise trainers to check out the credentials of their equine dentists before they are let loose on horses teeth. Unfortunately there have been too many cases this year of supposed dentists botching horses teeth. Wherever your racing takes you this autumn – good luck! ■

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Chairman’s message

CRIQUETTE HEAD As the autumn weather starts to draw in we can look back at a wonderful summer of racing in Europe and beyond. We witnessed some fabulous performances at Royal Ascot, and the Newmarket and Goodwood Festivals, while of course in France the action moved to Deauville for the month of August for some top-class racing.

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HE yearling sales are also an important part of the Deauville scene and it was pleasing to see that the market yet again broke records this season. Breeding is the core of the racing industry and it is reassuring for the future that owners from around the world continue to invest in European bloodstock. More recently, the stewards had a busy weekend in Doncaster and Leopardstown on the occasion of the St Leger and Irish Champion Stakes. This came just weeks after a similar high-profile disqualification in the Beverly D Stakes during Arlington’s international turf meeting. I am afraid that this confusion has a very negative effect on all those involved in racing and serves once again to illustrate how important it is to harmonise rules around the world.

The difference in rules from country to country discourages international exchange, whether from a horseman’s or a punter’s point of view, and I sincerely hope that one day we will be able to make progress on this issue. I have followed with interest the career of American Pharoah across the Atlantic and applaud the decision of his connections to take up the challenge of the Breeders’ Cup. This champion has generated a great deal of interest in racing among the general public, and made a really positive impact on our sport. Closer to home, I am enjoying the media interest and enthusiasm surrounding Trêve’s bid for a third Arc. I encourage all trainers to communicate as much as possible, to help as many people as possible to understand and support racing. ■

I have followed with interest the career of American Pharoah across the Atlantic and applaud the decision of his connections to take up the challenge of the Breeders’ Cup. This champion has generated a great deal of interest in racing among the general public 2

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Issue 51

CONTENTS 12

Jean-Pierre Carvahlo

Reducing NH racing injuries

The French trainer reaping rewards in Germany, by David Conolly-Smith.

The risk factors for bleeding and injury in National Hunt horses, by Richard Reardon.

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EIPH

A 10-year study looks into whether bleeding affects performance, by Celia Marr.

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Opportunities for NH mares

An initiative by the British Horseracing Authority has increased the prospect of more NH mares in training, by Lissa Oliver.

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The carb conundrum

Dr Catherine Dunnett on the pros and cons of low starch and high starch diets.

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Stifle joints

Understanding the complex anatomy of the largest joint in a horse, by Thomas O’Keeffe.

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Situations vacant

Lissa Oliver on how European trainers are on the search for knowledgable staff. 4

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Deworming strategies

Taking an alternative outlook from traditional worming methods, by Stacey Oke.

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Dorothy Paget

The peculiar world of the great Golden Miller’s owner, by Simon Leyland.

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Equine dentistry

Chris Napthine explains why trainers should checkout their equine dentist before their horses’ teeth.

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Contributors

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ETF members

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TRM Trainer of the Quarter

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Product Focus

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Stakes Schedules

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CONTRIBUTORS ISSUE 48_Jerkins feature.qxd 17/12/2014 10:07 Page 1

CONTRIBUTORS CONTRIBUTORS

EditorialDirector/Publisher Director/Publisher Editorial Giles GilesAnderson Anderson Editorial Consultant Editor Frances FrancesKaron J. Karon Proof Reader Designer Jana Cavalier Neil Randon

Designer Editorial/Photo Management Neil Randon Louise Crampton, Eleanor Yateman Editorial/Photo Advertising SalesManagement Louise Crampton, Harriet Scott Giles Anderson Advertising Photo CreditsSales GilesAbraham, Anderson, Scott Rion Dan Fiona Boyd, Michael Burns, Celia Marr/EVJ, Empics, Chris Napthine, Circulation Caroline Norris, Stacey Oke, Thomas O’Keeffe/ Louise Crampton Rossdales, Press Association, Nick Smith Frank Sorge, San Photo Credits: Photography, Frank Sorge/Galopfotos, Sebastian Racing, Alan Crowhurst, Gerry Weatherhead/Creative Eye Darren McNamara, Royal Veterinary College, Marc Cover Photograph Reuhl, Shutterstock, Caroline Norris, Stefan Frank Sorge/Galopfotos Olsson/Svensk Galopp, Horsephotos, University of Sydney, Elina Bjorklund Cover Photograph Frank Sorge

Trainer Magazine is published by Anderson & Co Publishing Ltd. Trainer Magazine is published by Anderson & Co Publishing This magazine is distributed for free to Ltd. all ETF members. Editorial views expressed This magazine is distributed for free toare allnot necessarily those of the views ETF. Additional ETF members. Editorial expressedcopies are can purchased for of £6.95 (ex P+P). not be necessarily those the ETF. Additional No part of this publication may be copies can be purchased for £5.95 (ex P+P). reproduced in any format without No part of this publication may be the prior written permission the publisher. reproduced in any of format without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the European Union Printed in the European Union For For all all editorial editorial and and advertising advertising enquiries please please contact: contact Anderson Anderson && Co Co Publishing Publishing Ltd Ltd Tel: Tel: +44 +44 (0)1380 (0)1380 816777 816777 Fax: Fax: +44 +44 (0)1380 (0)1380 816778 816778 email: email: info@trainermagazine.com info@trainermagazine.com www.trainermagazine.com www.trainermagazine.com Issue 51 48 Issue

ISSN1758 0293

David Conolly-Smith Conolly-Smith was David wasborn bornin Nottingham, butbut hashas lived in in in Nottingham, lived Germany for for more Germany more than than 40 40 years years and for for the past 30 years and years has has been the leading English-language racing been the leading English-language correspondent in the country. racing correspondent in the He a bookshop in Munich, country. He used used to runtoarun bookshop in Munich, butisis now now aa full-time full-time freelance but freelance journalist journalistand and translator. translator.

Dr DrCatherine CatherineDunnett DunnettBSc, BSc, PhD, PhD,R.Nutr. R.Nutr. isis an anindependent independent nutritionist nutritionistregistered registeredwith withthe the British BritishNutrition NutritionSociety. Society.She Shehas has a abackground backgroundininequine equineresearch, research,in in thefield fieldofofnutrition nutritionand andexercise exercise the physiology, with many years spent at Theyears Animal physiology, with many spent Health in Newmarket. to setting up at The Trust Animal Health Trust Prior in Newmarket. Prior to her ownup consultancy business, she workedshe in the setting her own consultancy business, equine industry product development workedfeed in the equineonfeed industry on productand technical marketing. development and technical marketing. Simon Leylandis was a City trader Nick Higgins the ex-IRB and as a result has always been representative for Spain, founder of fascinated by the ridiculous and JockeysRoom.com, agent for Mike the absurd.He also owned a leg of Cattermole and his website and possibly the slowest horse ever to now International Agent for San run on the all-weather. Now a fullSebastian former time writer, he lives in a smallracecourse. cottage on Athe west coast of Ireland. amateur jockey, he is currently training for his race-riding debut in the Greatwood charity race at Newbury on Celia February 28th, Professor Marr is an2015. equine clinician at Rossdales, Professor Celia is anand equine Newmarket. She isMarr a RCVS clinician atSpecialist Rossdales, Newmarket. European in Equine She is a RCVS and European Medicine and Honorary Professor Specialist in Equine Medicine and at the Glasgow University the Glasgow Veterinary School.Honorary She hasProfessor previouslyatworked University Veterinary School. She at veterinary schools in Glasgow, Pennsylvania, previously at veterinary Cambridge and London andworked in racehorse practice in Glasgow, Pennsylvania, Cambridge inschools Lambourn. She is Chairman of the Horseraceand LondonLevy and Board’s in racehorse practice inResearch Lambourn. Betting Thoroughbred & She Consultation Group and Editor-in-Chief of Equine is Chairman of the Horserace Betting Levy Board’s Veterinary Journal. Thoroughbred Research & Consultation Group and Editor-in-Chief of Equine Veterinary Journal.

Stacey Oke is a licensed veterinarian and freelance medical writer and editor. In addition to writing for various horse publications, she also contributes to scientific journals, is an editor of an internationally-recognized, peerreviewed journal, creates continuing education materials for both human and veterinary medicine, and conducts biomedical research studies.

Lissa liveshas in Co Kildare, Chris Oliver Napthine been a Ireland is aTechnician regular contributor Equine and Dental since to The Irish Field and the the B.E.V.A 2005.He has passed Australian magazine, /B.V.D.A exam and is Racetrack. a member Lissa also the author of several of theisB.A.E.D.T and holds the collections of short stories officer. and two council position of Welfare novels. His main interests are performance-related dental issues in the modern racehorse. He has a keen personal interestDenise in racingSteffanus and ownsistwo Flat-bred a freelance broodmares. Based Yorkshire writerin and editor Chris basedtravels in Cynthiana, throughout the country visiting race yards and Kentucky. A longtime contributing studs. Twitter @dentist_chris editor for Thoroughbred Times, she earned the prestigious Michael E. Thomas Journalism O’Keeffe is a graduate DeBakey Award and the of University College USA Equestrian (now Dublin, the U.S. working in Ocala, Florida. He Equestrian Federation) Award for Media Excellence. worked for Rossdales and Partners Steffanus, a Pitttsburgh native, is a licensed in Newmarket, UK aasmember a member Thoroughbred racehorse trainer and of of American Mensa.their ambulatory racing veterinary team and in their hospital facility. He was also an associate with Scone Equine Hospital, Dr Brandon D Velie isAustralia, a young as resident veterinary surgeonwho for Darley’s Kildangan geneticist recently completed Stud in Ireland and in Lexington, his worked PhD in equine geneticsKentucky at the with Dr Ruel Cowles, DVM. University of Sydney, Australia. He joined Professor Claire Wade’s Lissa Oliver lives in Co Kildare, medical and behavioural genetics Ireland and is a regular contributor and genomics group at the to The Irish Field and the Australian University of Sydney in 2010 Racetrack. with a B.A. in Animal magazine, Lissa is also Science (2005) and M.S. in & of theanauthor of Animal severalBreeding collections Genetics (2007) from North Carolina State University short stories and two novels. in the United States. His research interests include both genetics andRay behaviour withisparticular focus onin Rearson Senior Lecturer improving the welfare of racehorses the(Dick) Equine Surgery atthrough the Royal application of bothSchool modern traditional genetic of and Veterinary Studies and methodologies. holds a Master’s degree in Equine Surgery and a PhD which was Dr Thomas is an Equine awarded for Witte his investigation of risk Surgeon and Senior Lecturer at the factors for injury to Thoroughbred horses during racing in 2013. Royal Veterinary College. Recognised as an RCVS, American and European Specialist, his clinical interests include head and neck surgery and minimally invasive surgery. Tom gained his PhD in the Structure and Motion Lab at the Royal Veterinary College while completing a Horserace Betting Levy Board Research Training Scholarship. He trained as an equine surgeon in Kentucky and then Cornell University in New York. His research focuses on the biomechanics and control of the equine locomotor system and upper respiratory tract.

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A HOMECOMING FOR THE AGES

Breeders’ Cup World Championships 2 Days • 13 Championships Races • $26 Million in Purses & Awards October 30 and 31 at Keeneland Race Course, Lexington, Kentucky Pre-entries close at Noon on October 19, 2015. For a horsemen’s guide & pre-entry forms, call +1 (859) 514-9422 or E-mail: bcracing@breederscup.com

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EUROPEAN TRAINERS’ FEDERATION AIMS and OBJECTIVES of the ETF: a) To represent the interests of all member trainers’ associations in Europe. b) To liaise with political and administrative bodies on behalf of European trainers. c) To exchange information between members for the benefit of European trainers. d) To provide a network of contacts to assist each member to develop its policy and services to member trainers.

ETF REPRESENTATIVES Chairmanship: Criquette Head-Maarek Tel: +33 (0)3 44 57 25 39 Fax: +33 (0)3 44 57 58 85 Email: entraineurs.de.galop@wanadoo.fr

Vice Chairmanship:

Vice Chairmanship:

Treasureship:

Max Hennau (Belgium) Tel: +32 (0) 474 259 417 Fax: +32 (0) 81 566 846 Email: mhennau@gmail.com

Christian von der Recke (Germany) Tel: +49 (022 54) 84 53 14 Fax: +49 (022 54) 84 53 15 Email: recke@t-online.de

Jim Kavanagh (Ireland) Tel: +353 (0) 45 522981 Mob: +353 (0) 87 289213 Fax: + 353 (0) 45 522982 Email: irishrta@eircom.net

CZECH REPUBLIC

SLOVAKIA

Roman Vitek Tel: +42 (0) 567 587 61 Fax: +42 (0) 567584 733 Email: drvitek@email.cz

Jaroslav Brecka Email: jaroslav.brecka@gmail.com

GERMANY Erika Mäder Tel: +49 (0) 2151 594911 Fax: +49 (0) 2151 590542 Email: trainer-und-jockeys@netcologne.de

SPAIN Mauricio Delcher Sanchez Tel: +34 (0) 666 53 51 52 Email: mdelcher@hotmail.com

SWEDEN NORTH

HUNGARY

Alex McLaren Tel: +46 (0) 709 306 761 Email: alex@mclarenracing.se

Livia Prem Email: queen.quissisana@hotmail.com

SWEDEN SOUTH

NETHERLANDS

Jessica och Padraig Long Email: jplong@live.se

Geert van Kempen Email: renstalvankempen@hetnet.nl

UNITED KINGDOM

NORWAY Annike Bye Hansen Email: annikebyehansen@hotmail.no

Rupert Arnold Tel: +44 (0) 1488 71719 Fax: +44 (0) 1488 73005 Email: r.arnold@racehorsetrainers.org

www.trainersfederation.eu 8

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David O’Meara (second right) celebrates the victory of Mondialiste (with Fergal Lynch on board) in the $1,000,000 Ricoh Woodbine Mile

Trainer of the Quarter

DAVID O’MEARA

The TRM Trainer of the Quarter award has been won by David O’Meara. David and his team will receive a selection of products from the internationally-acclaimed range of TRM supplements, as well as a bottle of fine Irish whiskey. WORDS: LISSA OLIVER PHOTO: MICHAEL BURNS

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FORMER successful jump jockey, David O’Meara has once again gone straight to the top as a trainer, taking out a licence in 2010 and enjoying a meteoric rise from his tranquil North Yorkshire stables at Nawton. The year after taking out a licence, Blue Bajan gave him his first Group winner, when taking the Group 2 Henry II Stakes and Penitent continued the success in 2012 with two Group 2 wins, G Force delivering the stable’s first Group 1 victory when winning the Haydock Sprint Cup last season. The philosophy of the yard is simple: teamwork and putting the welfare of the horse first, the winners will come. With around 100 horses in training, the winners are currently unstoppable. The weekend of 12th-13th September was a case in point and made the choice of Trainer of the Quarter another one horse

race for Arthington Barn Stables. With Group runners in four different countries, Custom Cut kicked off proceedings for Team O’Meara with a battling success in the Group 2 Clipper Logistics Boomerang Mile at Leopardstown, his seventh victory since joining O’Meara. The following afternoon Move In Time landed the Group 3 Qatar Prix du Petit-Couvert with ease at Longchamp. He will be returning in the hope of a repeat success in the Prix de l’Abbaye, “back in France, which he loves,” says O’Meara. The transformation of horses is something O’Meara is fast earning a reputation for and Move In Time is a great example. Rated 85 when joining O’Meara, he progressed through the ranks to land the Group 1 Prix de l’Abbaye last season. Last to go was Mondialiste on Sunday evening in the Grade 1 Ricoh Woodbine Mile. Coming from last to first, the Galileo colt landed the Canadian prize

and completed a fantastic weekend treble across three countries. Mondialiste was taking a step up in class following his wins in a Listed race at Pontefract and the Group 3 Strensall Stakes and he fully vindicated the faith placed in him. Like so many who have been transferred into O’Meara’s care, Mondialiste has improved out of all recognition since joining him from France at the beginning of the year and the Woodbine Mile was his third consecutive victory. “It’s fantastic for his owners, Sandra and Geoff Turnbull,” says O’Meara. “Everybody at home and all of the staff involved in making this happen deserve so much credit and are hugely proud of their achievement. “We contested four Group races and won three of them, which is immense,” he adds. “It was a huge logistical nightmare and Emma Jones in the office did a fantastic job in sorting it all out!” n

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PROFILE

JEAN-PIERRE CARVALHO

the French trainer in Germany 12

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JEAN-PIERRE CARVALHO

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PROFILE

When thoroughbred racing first became popular in Germany – in the second half of the 19th century – most of the trainers were foreigners, mainly from Britain or the USA. World War I changed all that, but in the past two decades there have been several trainers from other countries who have done well in Germany. WORDS: DaviD COnOlly-Smith PhOtOS: FRanK SORGE

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ustRIAN Werner Glanz was the top trainer at the 2015 Grosse Woche in Baden-Baden; he trains in Munich, as does Irishman John Hillis, whose compatriot Paul Harley is currently based in Hanover (but leaving soon). Mario Hofer in Krefeld is another Austrian, while 2014 champion trainer Markus Klug hails from a German enclave in Rumania, and top Cologne trainer Waldemar Hickst is from a similar background in Kyrgyzstan, in the former soviet union. Leading jumps trainer Pavel Vovcenko is Czech, as are quite a few of the top jockeys. Danish ex-jockey Lennart Hammer-Hansen made an excellent start at Iffezheim in 2015, while there are also two

training wiec

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JEAN-PIERRE CARVALHO Frenchmen, also both ex-jockeys: William Mongil and Jean-Pierre Carvalho. Carvalho was born in Clermont-Ferrand in central France in 1971 and had no obvious family connection with racing. However, he rode ponies as a boy and because he was small and light, weighing 40 kilos, he began an apprenticeship with trainer Jehan Bertran de Balanda. As a 20-year-old he received an offer from Gerard Martin, a French trainer based in Austria, and moved to Vienna. that is where he picked up his nickname Chippy (or sometimes Jippy) – from a Hungarian stable lad whose guttural accent was unable to cope with the soft French ”J”. “Actually,” Carvalho says, “‘Chippy’ is a rather nasty word in French, meaning a teenage girl of dubious morals, but after more than 20 years, it does not bother me at all.” He then came to Germany and spent five years based in Munich before moving northwest, spending almost ten years with Mario Hofer, with short intervals also with urs suter at Iffezheim and Hans Blume

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I only had three horses to start with, but they all won, and soon I had a dozen, and the next season 18 Jean-Pierre Carvahlo

at Röttgen. He was much in demand as a lightweight jockey and in all rode 853 winners, including several group race winners, although never a Group One, before a bad fall at Hanover in the autumn of 2008 put an end to his riding career; he broke his shoulder and sternum and was in hospital for several weeks. Fit again, he was ready to embark on a training career at the age of almost 38. His first job was as the private trainer to Klaus Hofmann (stall Lucky Owner), first at Iffezheim in 2009 and then at Frankfurt. In 2010 he won the Group three ZukunftsRennen at Baden-Baden for Hofmann with salona, but things did not really work out as expected, and he moved back to his native France, setting up shop in early 2012 at Chantilly. “I only had three horses to start with,” Carvalho recalls, “but they all won,

and soon I had a dozen, and the next season 18.” He sent out 10 winners in 2012 and 24 in 2013, quite an achievement for a small trainer without the backing of a major owner. His most remarkable runner was the German-bred and -owned Zaubertänzerin (which translates to “Magic Dancer”), who won ten races for him, all “à réclamer” (claimers). “I have had several favourite racehorses, but she is definitely one of them, and she put me on the map.” In the autumn of 2013 came the telephone call that was to change his life. It came out of the blue. On the other end of the line was Baron Georg von ullmann, boss of Gestüt schlenderhan, Germany´s most prestigious breeding establishment. “the Baron,” as he is always known in Germany, asked him if Carvalho could imagine training for schlenderhan at the state-ofthe-art training centre at Bergheim, built in 2007 and some 15 miles west of Cologne. Carvalho did not need to hesitate for long and an agreement was soon reached. “In France I had been preparing horses for claiming races and low grade handicaps. I knew all about schlenderhan from my time in Germany; in fact I had ridden for them a couple of times, and won the listed AllianzPokal at Munich in May 1999 on tertullian (now one of Germany’s leading stallions). Here I would be training well-bred horses who were being targeted at the classics and Group One races, the aim of every trainer.” Carvalho, his German wife sandra, and their two boys packed their bags again and moved to Bergheim at the beginning of 2014. success was not long in coming. In his first season there, he saddled 31 winners

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PROFILE

for a respectable strike rate of 20% and prize money of €880,000, putting him in sixth place in the German trainers’ statistics (by winnings). More importantly he saddled his first Group One winner, Gestüt schlenderhan’s Ivanhowe, who defeated the hot favourite sea the Moon in the Grosser Preis von Baden, Germany’s biggest race. After a below par effort in the Prix de l’Arc de triomphe on ground that was much too firm for him, Ivanhowe won another Group One in Munich, the Grosser Preis von Bayern, and then ran another good race to finish sixth as the best European in the Japan Cup. the prize-money for that sixth place, incidentally, was considerably more than Ivanhowe had earned by winning his Group

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2015 has been an excellent year for Carvalho. Apart from his Group One win with Giuliani, he has won Group Two races at Longchamp, Baden-Baden and Colognes

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One at Munich. subsequently Ivanhowe was sold to Australia, where he now races under the name of “Our Ivanhowe.” “Of course it was a shame to lose our best performer,” Carvalho says, “but that is normal in this game and happens to all trainers; in any case, that’s not my affair; my job is to train them. Buying and selling is up to the Baron and his racing and stud manager, Gebhard Apelt.” In 2015 Carvalho won another Munich Group One, the Grosser Dallmayr-Preis, with stall ullmann’s Guiliani. “Munich is my home from home,” he declared, “I loved the time I spent here and always love coming back.” Munich is also his favourite racecourse in Germany, although he rates Hoppegarten highly: “We had a wonderful day there in August, when Ito ran such a brave second in the Grosser Preis von Berlin.” In France, rather surprisingly, Deauville is his favourite course – “and especially the all weather track there.” Guiliani runs in the yellow and blue colours of stall ullmann, but Ito wears the traditional red with blue sleeves and black cap of schlenderhan. Ito, a strong frontrunner, is currently rated the best horse in the yard. He won his first three races in 2015; his excellent second in Berlin made him the obvious favourite for the Grosser Preis von Baden and the main German hope for the Arc until disaster then struck. “I went to see him on the morning of the big race at Baden-Baden,” says Carvalho, “and everything was fine. But I got a call from his lad just over two hours before the race – he was not happy with Ito. I went to look at him, he was hanging his head and feeling sorry for

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Already 3 Gr.1 winners from our 2012 September Yearling Sale

LUCKY LION • a BBAG graduate 1. Großer Dallmayr-Preis, Gr. 1 1. German 2.000 Guineas, Gr. 2 2. German Derby, Gr. 1

FEODORA • a BBAG graduate 1. German Oaks - Gr.1

SIRIUS • a BBAG graduate 1. Großer Preis von Berlin, Gr. 1

Sales dates 2016 Spring Breeze Up Sale: 27th May Yearling Sales: 2nd September October Mixed Sales: 21st and 22nd October

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gastriAid-

PROFILE

himself. He had a temperature, we called the vet and on his advice we scratched him.” It was probably only a low grade infection, but he was put on medication, was off work for a few days, was taken out of the Prix Foy (Plan B) as well and effectively out of the Arc. At the time of writing it seems that he will now run in Cologne’s Preis von Europa instead. Carvalho will still be at Longchamp on Arc day, as he plans to run Walzertakt in the Prix du Cadran. this two-and-a-half-mile marathon has often been won by Germanbreds in recent years. “He will be trying this extreme distance for the first time,” says Carvalho, “but the way he finished in the Prix Gladiateur strongly suggests to me that he will stay. I was very satisfied with that trial, and I hope that Christophe soumillon will ride him again.” Walzertakt was bred by schlenderhan and is a half-brother to their 2009 Deutsches Derby winner Wiener Walzer, but is now owned by Gestüt Aesculap. He is one of the most improved horses of 2015, as last year he was contesting lowly handicaps for a different trainer, and only came to Carvalho in April. Modestly, Carvalho takes no credit for this improvement – “he is very, very late developer, did not run at all until he was five, and is only now beginning to fulfil his potential at the age of six.” this year has been an excellent one for Carvalho. Apart from his Group One win with Giuliani, he has won Group two races at Longchamp, Baden-Baden, and Cologne, and more black type races at Cagnessur-Mer, Hamburg, and Hoppegarten. He has 48 horses on his training list, 19 of them owned by stall ullmann, 18 by 18

“I relish the challenge and I love it. And, of course, training Group One horse is much more satisfying and rewarding

Jean-Pierre Carvalho schlenderhan, and 11 by outside owners. “I am not a private trainer for ullmann and schlenderhan,” he insists, “but a public trainer, and all my horses get the same treatment, regardless of who owns them.” He has a strike rate of over 22% this year, impressive when one considers that his runners contest only the top races. With the big autumn races still to come, Carvalho looks certain to overtake his 2014 winnings by a considerable margin. He remains very modest and friendly and is undoubtedly one of the most popular characters in German racing. As for his training philosophy, he claims not to have one: “I just take things as they come. Obviously I am fortunate in that I have some very well-bred horses here, and basically my job is to identify their strengths and weaknesses and run them in the right races – but that is what every trainer does. It often goes wrong, as with Ito at BadenBaden, which was quite a blow, but we all know that these things can happen.” He regards Ivanhowe’s success in that same race at Baden-Baden a year ago as the most important win of his career so far.

“that was a pleasant surprise, as some of my horses had run below form at the meeting and the Baron had already gone home. And of course we were not at all sure that he could beat sea the Moon. But he did it well and also won in good style at Munich; we can put a line through the Arc form as everything was against him there.” the Arc is never far from Carvalho’s thoughts and he clearly regrets that Ito will not get his chance in 2015. “It would have been pointless after his setback, and anyway, having seen the trials, it is clear that the first two places are already booked for treve and New Bay.” It is well known that Baron ullmann wants to win the Arc above all else, and he has made several attempts on the Longchamp highlight without a great deal of success so far. Asked what race Carvalho would most like to win, the trainer hesitates, before also plumping for the Arc. “It’s the best race in Europe and probably the world, and obviously I would love to have a fancied runner – what trainer wouldn’t? I had no chance last year with Ivanhowe, and of course not even a starter in 2015 after Ito’s mishap. “However, I have some very nice twoyear-olds, many of them dark horses who have not even seen a racecourse so far, and that will we hope become top threeyear-olds in 2016. so we can dream on!” He admits that he is under more pressure now than he was when training a modest lot in Chantilly, but he maintains: “I relish the challenge and I love it. And of course training Group One horses is much more satisfying and rewarding – both financially and psychologically.” n

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VETERINARY

ExERcIsE INducEd PulmoNARY HAEmoRRhAgE

The latest research into bleeding in racehorses Exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage, also known as EIPH or “bleeding,” is a common problem in racehorses. Many trainers know from bitter experience that it can have a significant impact on some horses’ performance. Yet, other horses that bleed continue to race effectively. A recent issue of Equine Veterinary Journal (EVJ) contained three exciting new studies, each of which looked at the impact of bleeding on different aspects of race performance. These studies were accompanied by an article by Professor N Ed Robinson, a leading EIPH researcher from the University of Michigan, which summarised what we know about how bleeding arises and explained why some horses are affected more than others. WORDS: PROFESSOR CElia M MaRR, EquinE VEtERinaRy JOuRnal PHOtOS: CElia MaRR/EVJ

When looking for blood within the trachea (windpipe), it is important that sufficient time is given for the blood to have travelled up from the deepest parts of the lungs. A minimum of 30 minutes is considered ideal

Capillary stress failure

The racehorse is fuelled by oxygen, and an extremely efficient heart is needed to carry this fuel from the lungs to the body. At peak output, the equine heart is pumping up to 450 litres of blood each minute and beating 20

around four times every second. To operate at this rate, the heart must work at a very high pressure that is also maintained in the blood vessels. In the lung, the transfer of oxygen occurs within the capillaries. These form

a meshwork of very fine vessels around the air sacs: the thinner the capillaries, the more efficient the transfer of oxygen. But the thinner the capillaries, the less they can resist the pressure needed to fill the heart. EIPh happens when the pressure inside the

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EIPh capillaries causes them to burst, with leakage of blood into the airways. In a small proportion of horses that bleed, the amount of blood is sufficient to appear at the nostrils. capillaries in the upper part of the lung, immediately in front of the diaphragm, tend to be most affected and this is generally the site affected by EIPh. The capillary stress failure theory was first put forward in the mid 1990s and it explains why EIPh occurs but it does not shed any light on why some horses bleed more than others or why bleeding tends to get worse over time. Professor Robinson and his colleagues have spent several years unravelling the much more complex events that are at play.

Venous remodelling

Robinson’s team has shown with detailed pathology studies that horses that bleed have scar tissue within the walls of the small veins in the lung. As the walls thicken, the veins become less stretchy, causing a backing up of pressure into the connected capillaries, making them prone to burst. Robinson suggests that venous remodelling is likely to begin when horses first enter training and is a response to the increases in pressure that happen every time a horse gallops. The degree of remodelling in any specific horse is dependent on the number of “high-pressure events,” i.e. gallops or races it has been exposed to during its lifetime coupled with an individual sensitivity. In other words, some horses’ veins are more prone to scar tissue formation than others.

In grade 1 there is the presence of one or more flecks of blood or two or fewer short, narrow streams of blood in the trachea or mainstem bronchi visible from the tracheal bifurcation

Quantifying bleeding

Epistaxis is the medical term for nosebleed. Epistaxis only occurs in the more severely affected cases and can vary depending on whether the horse snorts, shakes its head, or simply swallows the blood, so overall, the proportion of horses with visible blood at their nostrils is relatively small. In one of the recent EVJ studies, 744 thoroughbreds in Australia were examined with endoscopy, once each within two hours of racing, and although 412 were found to have bled, only six had blood at their nostrils. Epistaxis is generally assumed to occur with the more severe bleeding cases and indeed five of these individuals had large quantities of blood seen by scope but, interestingly, the other did not. This shows that the presence or absence of blood at the nose cannot be taken as a reliable estimate of severity of EIPh. A major stumbling block in research on EIPh has been the fact that it is not possible to precisely document the amount of bleeding or the amount of scar tissue within the veins of the lungs in a non-invasive manner. In very extreme cases, scar tissue in the lung can be visualised with chest radiographs but this is a very blunt tool and x-ray does not easily differentiate mild and moderate cases. Trainers will know that vets generally quantify the amount of bleeding by examining the trachea after exercise and

In this example, there is a narrow long stream of blood occupying less than a third of the tracheal circumference so it was graded as 2

assigning a grade to any blood seen on a scale of 0 – 4. Ideally, this examination should be performed between 30 and 120 minutes after racing or galloping in order to give sufficient time for small quantities of

blood entering the airways right at the back of the lungs to make it up into the visible portions of the trachea. Blood transit time can be very variable and is affected by events like the horse coughing, ISSUE 51 TRAINERMAGAZINE.COM

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VETERINARY and the precise timing of the examination relative to the exercise period introduces great potential for inconsistency. A further problem is that grading scoping is a subjective process and one vet will not necessarily grade in exactly the same ways as another.

What is the impact of EIPH on race performance?

This x-ray is from a normal horse shows the area of lung just in front of the diaphragm (indicated by the arrows), towards the back of the chest. The horse’s spine and ribs are also visible. The healthy lung has a fairly uniform density, with fine white lines representing the blood vessels

This x-ray is from a horse that has bled on occasion but is still performing well. The back portions of the lung (above the yellow arrows) are slightly denser than the other regions, reflecting the build-up of some scar tissue in this area

This x-ray is from an older horse that retired from racing some time previously and has gone on to develop visible haemorrhage at the nose while hunting. There are dramatic changes and the lung is extremely dense.

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In the largest study of its type to date, an international team of researchers led by Professor Paul morley of colorado state university enrolled 1,000 horses racing in south Africa and examined them between 30 – 120 minutes after racing. The vets graded the degree of EIPh and looked for an association between the presence or absence of EIPh on the horses’ race performance on the same day. In this study, 68% of the horses had bled to some degree. horses that did not bleed were more likely to have won on the examination day but there was no difference in the proportion of horses with and without EIPh that were placed. on average, horses with EIPh finished about one length further behind the winners compared to those without EIPh. horses that did not bleed were more likely to be in the top 10% of earners but the proportions of horses that did or did not earn any money were not different between the EIPh positive and negative groups. Taken together, morley’s team interpreted their findings as showing that EIPh had its greatest impact on the ability of horses to perform as elite athletes rather than having marked impact on all levels of athletic performance. In other words, the researchers are saying horses that bleed may still be able to put in a reasonable race performance but an EIPh episode will stop horses achieving their absolute best. The conclusion from south Africa that EIPh affects race performance was backed up by a study from Australia, again based on classifying horses by one post-race exam and performed by an international team including Professor morley. The original examination and grading process was performed once in each horse 10 years before race performance data was collected, which was done the horses retired in order to look at the impact of EIPh on performance across horses’ entire racing career. In this long-term study, overall there was no association between the presence or absence of EIPh and long-term performance. But the notable exceptions were that horses with grade 2 EIPh or greater had lower lifetime earnings and horses with grade 4 EIPh had shorter careers, earned less money, and had fewer starts compared to horses that were EIPh negative or had lower grades. This Australian study is very important since it shows an association between specific grades of EIPh and outcome with higher grades having a higher impact.

What is the impact of EIPH on career length?

A major limitation of both the south

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VETERINARY

GradinG EiPH Grade 0 = no blood detected in the pharynx, larynx, trachea, or mainstem bronchi; Grade 1 = presence of one or more flecks of blood or two or fewer short (less than one-quarter the length of the trachea), narrow (10% or less of the tracheal surface area) streams of blood in the trachea or mainstem bronchi visible from the tracheal bifurcation; Grade 2 = one long stream of blood (greater than half the length of the trachea) or more than two short streams of blood occupying less than a third of the tracheal circumference; Grade 3 = multiple, distinct streams of blood covering more than a third of the tracheal circumference, with no blood pooling at the thoracic inlet; Grade 4 = multiple, coalescing streams of blood covering more than 90% of the tracheal surface, with blood pooling at the thoracic inlet.

In grade 3 there is multiple, distinct streams of blood covering more than a third of the tracheal circumference

African study and the long-term Australian study was that the classification of the horses EIPh status was based on a single examination. on the other hand, because a small team of vets performed the examinations, the grading process was consistent and every horse was examined in exactly the same way and in a specific window of time after racing. Researchers in hong Kong led by dr stephanie Preston of the university of Kentucky took a different approach. They looked back over medical records to find horses that had undergone endoscopy at any time. Inevitably, the reasons prompting the examination varied; the timing relative to exercise was not standardised; the number of examinations each horse had was inconsistent, with some horses having 30 individual exams; and many vets were involved in the grading. The researchers also noticed that some horses had severe EIPh on one occasion and less severe EIPh when examined on different occasions. This lack of consistency made analysis and interpretation of the data much more challenging than was the case in the Australian and south African studies. Nevertheless, the main findings from the hong Kong study were that overall there was no difference in the duration of race career between EIPh positive and negative horses. But again, this study showed that horses with severe EIPh were adversely affected, this time focusing on the subgroup of 4% that had epistaxis. The multiple exams performed in many horses also allowed the researchers to demonstrate that EIPh is a progressive event. horses that were diagnosed with higher grades of EIPh were more likely to have higher grades again and the researchers concluded that once the severity of EIPh rises beyond a threshold limit, horses are more likely to be retired due to EIPhrelated conditions.

P

D

Future challenges

In this example, there is multiple, coalescing streams of blood covering more than 90% of the tracheal surface, with blood pooling at the thoracic inlet

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When taken together the studies from Professor Robinson’s pathology laboratory and the observations in these three largescale field-based studies provide a substantial evidence base to show that EIPh is a progressive disorder with structural damage building up in the lung as the horse is exposed to more and more high pressure events. many horses are relatively resistant and can perform to a satisfactory level over a normal career span. But for those horses that are severely affected, the condition can reduce race performance and longevity. Even milder grades could prevent a horse from reaching its full elite potential. so, the challenge for vets and trainers now is to find better ways to identify those specific individuals that are at risk of developing scar tissue in their lungs and to find effective ways to intervene before irreversible damage has occurred. n

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RACING

Derrylea Girl ridden by Joseph Kelly, left, jumps the last on the way to winning the Style Evening At Tramore Races Mares Maiden Hurdle

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FLAT NH INURIES MARES

GIVING MORE OPPORTUNITIES TO NATIONAL HUNT MARES ISSUE 51 TRAINERMAGAZINE.COM

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A

LREADY in France the incentive is strong to put NH fillies into training, as NH breeders primarily breed to race and then sell proven performers, rather than unraced stores. In Britain and Ireland, however, a worrying trend to breed from unraced mares led in recent years not only to the decrease of NH fillies in training, but also to the weakening of the distaff side of many NH pedigrees and, in consequence, a fall in clearance rates at NH sales. Breeding from unraced mares may not have been the preferred choice of NH breeders, but they have often been left with little option. Fillies are hard to sell at the sales and for most small breeders, training costs are even harder to find. The arrival of a filly foal can be a financial disaster and, if she’s well-related, retaining her for breeding, even with no performance record, is the only route left open. The BHA’s latest initiative hopes to boost the numbers of mares in training by providing a valuable and comprehensive programme of opportunities, creating a specific series of targets for fillies and mares

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RACING

In July, the BHA announced a boost to the mares-only NH programme, which follows on from similar initiatives to make the Irish NH programme more appealing to owners of fillies and mares. WORDS: LISSA OLIVER PHOTOS: CAROLINE NORRIS

much like that of the Flat programme. An improvement to the balance of mares’ opportunities below Listed level has also been introduced, with a Rule in 2015 requiring racecourses to run a minimum of one mares-only race for every three days of National Hunt racing. David Stack of Coolagown Stud in County Cork, Ireland, stands National Hunt stallions and boards NH mares for a number of European owners and he is already seeing the benefits of the increased opportunities for NH fillies on the racecourse. “It has already had an affect,” he says. “The majority of NH studs have started to offer filly foal deals, which can be anything up to 50% off the covering fee if the resulting foal is a filly. The Breeders’ Associations and the European Breeders’

Fund pushed HRI, the Turf Club and the BHA to get extra mares-only races into the programme and what we are already seeing is that buyers are willing to give a little bit extra to get a three-year-old filly and they are selling better than they have been as a result. It hasn’t yet started to trickle down to the foals, but it will. “When these fillies have the opportunities on the racetrack it can only increase their value and it’s also increasing their paddock value and that of their stock and family. There is nothing but positive benefits to come from this,” Stack enthuses. In the NH Pattern programme, a Mares’ Novices’ Hurdle has been added to the Cheltenham Festival and the OLBG David Nicholson Mares’ Hurdle has recently been upgraded to Grade 1 status, ensuring the Festival provides valuable and prestigious opportunities for mares. As well as the new race at the Cheltenham Festival, the Listed Weatherbys Jane Seymour Mares’ Novices’ Hurdle, at Sandown in February, has been upgraded to Grade 2 status. There are now nine Graded or Listed mares’ novices hurdles over the course of the season in Britain, with plans to add a mares’ chase to the Cheltenham Festival, as well as a programme of supporting Graded and

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NH MARES Listed chases for mares only. It is intended that a further three Graded/Listed races will be added to the mares’ chase programme. Invitations have been sent by the BHA to racecourses for applications for two new Listed mares’ chases to be run in November and February, joining the existing Mares’ Chase added to the programme last season, at Doncaster in December. Ruth Quinn, Director of International Racing and Racing Development for the BHA, says, “They are a further step in developing a comprehensive, valuable and aspirational programme of races for mares across novice hurdle, hurdle and chase codes. It is hoped that this will help to encourage a meaningful change in behaviour with the long-term objective of bolstering the numbers of jumping mares in training. “Mares still represent a significant, relatively untapped, opportunity in terms of boosting the jumping horse population,” she points out. “There are many reasons why providing incentives to put National Huntbred mares into training would provide a major fillip for the sport, aside from simply helping field sizes. These include the meaningful assistance it could provide for breeders, the continued growth of a competitive market for such horses at the

We certainly have an ambition to, over time, produce the optimal mares’ Black Type programme in Britain

Ruth Quinn

Missunited, ridden by Kevin Manning, wins the listed Seamus and Rosemary McGrath Memorial Saval Beg Stakes at Leopardstown. The mare has won more than €500,000 in prize money, including success in the Galway Hurlde

sales, and the provision of greater incentive to test them on the racecourse, allowing their ability to race and to jump to develop properly before having them retired to the paddocks. We certainly have an ambition to, over time, produce the optimal mares’ Black Type programme in Britain.” The BHA Racing Department recently conducted a survey of all owners and trainers of mares that ran in a mares’ Pattern or Listed hurdle race during the season regarding the implementation of a Black Type mares’ steeplechase programme. Sixtyeight percent of owners and trainers said they would definitely send their mare chasing if there was a similar Graded and Listed chase programme as that of hurdles, while 89% said they would reconsider retiring a mare if a Graded and Listed chase programme existed. Trainer Alan King said of these developments, “They can only be for the good of the sport. We’ve always supported the mares races, but a better Black Type programme of mares chases in particular will provide a real incentive to keep good horses in training. The programme may take a little bit of time to develop, it’s not going to happen overnight, but in the long run this should prove to be a worthwhile investment for the sport.” As far as opportunities go, last season, prior to the recent changes, there were 72 races restricted to fillies and mares in Ireland, including two Grade One hurdles, two Grade Two chases, four Grade Three hurdles and three Grade Three chases; while in Britain the Pattern provided 21 maresonly races, including three Grade Two hurdles and four Listed bumpers, with nine Graded or Listed mares’ novices’ hurdles. In contrast, France offers only two Black Type NH races for fillies and mares, both Grade Three hurdles. Kick-starting these additions, in March 2013, following a series of meetings with NH breeders, the Irish Thoroughbred Breeders’ Association launched the ITBA NH Fillies’ Bonus Scheme. The industry self-help scheme, which began in January 2014, provides a €5,000 bonus to the winning owner of as many National Hunt fillies’ maiden races as possible programmed in Ireland. ITBA Manager, Shane O’Dwyer, commented, “This scheme came together following lengthy consultation with all National Hunt industry stakeholders. There are currently 23 maiden bumpers, 36 maiden hurdles and 13 beginners’ chases for fillies in the racing calendar and because of the commitment from industry bodies we hope to offer a bonus to a large majority of these races. We are very enthused about the scheme and its potential for building a sustainable future for breeders in terms of racing fillies and mares, while increasing the paddock value of broodmares.” O’Dwyer’s final words are perhaps the most significant. Once again, as David Stack and Ruth Quinn pointed out, the improvement of the racing programme ISSUE 51 TRAINERMAGAZINE.COM

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RACING

NATIONAL HUNT FILLIES AND MARES SALES Year 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010

Year 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010

Year 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010

Fillies Offered 60 56 54 35 27 50

Goffs Land Rover Fillies % of Sold Catalogue 47 12% 50 12% 46 11.5% 23 8% 15 7% 24 11%

Fillies Offered 52 63 52 48 57 82

Tattersalls Derby Fillies % of Sold Catalogue 41 15% 46 16.50% 47 14.50% 32 11% 34 13% 42 20%

Fillies Offered 62 85 52 74 63 35

Fillies Sold 45 71 40 51 43 17

DBS Spring % of Catalogue 26% 18% 11.50% 14.50% 11.50% 10%

% Sold 78% 89% 85% 66% 55.5% 48%

% Sold 79% 73% 90% 66.5% 60% 51%

% Sold 72.50% 83.50% 77% 70% 68% 48.50%

% of Geldings Sold 77% 81% 78% 84% 77% 69%

% of Geldings Sold 86% 91.50% 85.50% 71.5% 67.5% 57%

% of Geldings Sold 87% 88% 75% 73.50% 77% 77%

Offic

EU

Quevega won more than €1million in prize money including a record-breaking six consecutive Mares’ Hurdle victories at the Cheltenham Festival

and opportunities for mares on the track can only improve the situation for NH breeders and the quality of the stock they are producing. The French programme for NH fillies and mares has always been strong and French NH breeders are placed in the ideal position of breeding to race and sell a proven horse, rather than breed for the sales ring. A mare who has raced, whether successfully or not, will produce more sought-after progeny than that of an unraced mare. In Britain and Ireland, the arrival of a NHbred filly foal was, and in many cases still is, perceived as a loss. However well bred, she is unlikely to make as much money or garner as much interest at the sales as a colt foal would have done. Given the residual value of her pedigree for the paddocks, this makes little sense, but historically purchasers have looked for big, strong jumpers and view the smaller, weaker fillies as inferior to their male counterparts. That has never been a concern of Flat owners, who are happy to race fillies and take on colts and geldings. Looking at Horses In Training over the past five years, Flat trainers have an average of 39% fillies and mares in their stable and 61% colts and geldings. The number of fillies and mares in training in NH yards, however, averages just 13% of each yard. Furthermore, although it is too soon yet to see the rewards of the improved programme for NH fillies and mares, in 2009 the average percentage of fillies and mares in NH yards was 15%. This year, it has dropped to 10.5%. Perhaps the marketplace will be the best guide to any immediate affect of the programme changes, and in fact it does already show a marked upturn in the percentage of fillies in the catalogue at the DBS Spring Sale this year and last, Britain’s largest NH sale, as well as an increase in the numbers sold. However, the affect on the two largest NH sales in Ireland is not so immediately apparent, although there is certainly a steady increase in the number of fillies sold in each sale in recent years. What we cannot do is examine the average prices, as too many variables affect price, such as pedigree and appearance, which are not apparent from figures alone. To compare the average price of the fillies against the geldings would therefore be inconclusive.

PEAN RO

EN

104

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NH MARES

There are currently 23 maiden bumpers, 36 maiden hurdles and 13 beginners’ chases for fillies in the racing calendar and we hope to offer a bonus to a large majority of these races Shane O’Dwyer

Another question is how reasonable is it to hold the belief that over jumps a filly is at a greater disadvantage against her male counterparts than on the Flat? Considering that approximately only 13% of NH horses in training are fillies, while 39% of Flat horses in training are fillies, the results of the NH filly and mare against her male counterpart are impressive. In the past five years, 17 mares have won at Grade One level in NH races open to both sexes, amassing average earnings of €345,000 and averaging 19 career starts between them. This does not suggest they are weaker to train and any harder to keep going from season to season than a gelding. If we compare it to the Flat, 26 fillies have beaten their male counterparts at the highest level in France, Britain and Ireland since 2010. A good NH filly is every bit as powerful against the boys as a good Flat filly and the Grade One NH mares boast as good a record as a Grade One-winning gelding. In conclusion, the NH filly has as much to offer her owners on the racecourse as a gelding, and even provides additional value and opportunity on her retirement to the paddocks. The boost to the racing programme not only increases those opportunities, but publicises them and works as a valuable marketing tool to encourage the purchase of a NH filly. It can only be hoped that in a few years’ time the birth of a NH filly foal will be welcomed, not regretted. n

FEMALE WINNERS OF MAjOR IRISH NH RAcES FROM 2010 (not including races restricted to fillies and mares)

Bluesea Cracker (Irish Grand National) four wins from 25 starts ˆ 250,913 Liberty Counsel (Irish Grand National) five wins from 22 starts €200,600 Unaccompanied (Ryanair Hurdle, Spring Juvenile Hurdle) nine wins from 21 starts ˆ 303,122 Quevega (World Series Hurdle) 16 wins from 24 starts €1,030,000 Madam Bovary (Aon Handicap Chase) four wins from 14 starts €85,306 Blazing Tempo (Galway Plate) 10 wins from 30 starts €450,472 Missunited (Galway Hurdle) 12 wins from 29 starts €584,941 Voler La Vedette (Hatton’s Grace Hurdle) 13 wins from 27 starts €581,233. Eight mares averaged 24 starts and earnings of ˆ 436,000.

FEMALE WINNERS OF MAjOR BRITISH NH RAcES FROM 2010 (not including races restricted to fillies and mares)

Gitane Du Berlais (Scilly Isles Novices’ Chase) six wins from 14 starts €238,697 L’Unique (Anniversary 4yo Novices Hurdle) four wins from 16 starts €161,962 Two mares averaged 15 starts and earnings of ˆ 200,000

FEMALE WINNERS OF MAjOR FRENcH NH RAcES FROM 2010 (not including races restricted to fillies and mares)

Kotkikova (Prix Ferdinand Dufaure, Prix Cambacérès) nine wins from 11 starts ˆ 508,427 Fleur D’Ainay (Prix Ferdinand Dufaure) two wins from eight starts €226,126 La Segnora (Grand Prix d’Automne) eight wins from 30 starts €602,744 Tidara Angel (Prix Alain du Breil) five wins from 19 starts €298,287 Tanais Du Chenet (Prix Cambacérès) eight wins from 20 starts €484,795 Royale Flag (Prix Maurice-Gillois) four wins from 16 starts €276,821 Utopie Des Bordes (Prix Maurice-Gillois) seven wins from 31 starts €389,479 Seven mares averaged 19 starts and earnings of ˆ 398,000. 17 mares in total with average earnings of ˆ 345,000 and average career starts 19.

FEMALE WINNERS OF GROUp ONE FLAT RAcES IN BRITAIN, IRELAND AND FRANcE FROM 2010 (not including races restricted to fillies and mares)

Goldikova; The Fugue; Estimate; Black Caviar; Taghrooda; Danedream; Arabian Queen; Margot Did; Ortensia; Jwala; Mecca’s Angel; Lady Of The Desert; La Collina; Snow Fairy; Voleuse De Coeurs; Golden Lilac; Plumania; Sarafina; Treve; Moonlight Cloud; Immortal Verse; Molly Malone; Gilt Edge Girl; Wizz Kid; Solemia; Be Fabulous. 26 fillies have beaten their male counterparts on the Flat at the highest level in France, Britain and Ireland since 2010.

NH MARES RAcE cHANGES Race Pat Walsh Memorial Hurdle Mares’ Steeplechase Mares’ Steeplechase Mares’ Steeplechase Jane Seymour Mares’ Novice Hurdle Opera Hat Chase OLBG Mares’ Hurdle Trull House Stud Mares’ Novice Hurdle Liss A Paoraigh EBF Flat Race Prix D’arles Prix Christian De Tredern

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Course Gowran Carlisle Doncaster Huntingdon Sandown Naas Cheltenham Cheltenham Punchestown Auteuil Auteuil

Month October November December February February February March March April May May

Distance 2m 4f 2m 4f 2m 4f 2m 4f 2m 4f 2m 2m 4f 2m 1f 2m 2m 2f 2m 2f

Grade Listed Listed Listed Listed 2 Listed 1 2 Listed Listed 3

Change Upgraded New New New From Listed Upgraded From 2 New Upgraded New New

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NUTRITION

CaRb CONUNdRUm Cereals, which are a major source of starch, have been part of racing diets for decades. The staple racing feed in ‘the good old days’ was oats and bran, which powered many famous racehorses home. Some would say that tradition is a poor excuse to hamper progress, especially if health and welfare are concerned. High starch rations continue to be in the spotlight as they have been implicated in many commonly occurring health issues such as gastric ulcers, tying up, laminitis, colic, and other digestive disturbances. However, starch has in the past been equally regarded as essential for horses in training to adequately replenish important muscle and liver glycogen stores and to allow a plentiful supply of glucose to the brain. Starch has also been thought to be critical for giving racehorses that competitive edge or ‘will to win.’ Practically, in my experience there are racehorses that race and win on either high, moderate, or low starch diets, so which is preferable? Let’s look at the evidence. WORDS: DR CATHERINE DUNNETT BSC, PHD, R.NUTR PHOTO: SHUTTERSTOCK, FIONA BOYD

Oat starch is more digestible than starch from other uncooked cereals

Starch is a polymer of glucose with both straight chains (amylose) and branched structures (amylopectin). The nature of starch in different feed ingredients varies according to the proportion of each type and also on the degree of secondary folding in the structure. Horses produce the enzymes necessary to break down a variety of starch types in the small intestine, but some are more easily digested than others in their natural state. For example, oat starch is very much more digestible in the small intestine than barley or maize starch fed without processing. Cooking a cereal grain helps to unfold and gelatinise the starch making it more digestible, as does grinding to a certain extent, although other mechanical treatments such as clipping or rolling are much less effective. Starch is an efficient source of glucose, which helps to maintain the concentration in blood and also provides the building blocks to replenish muscle and liver glycogen (the storage form of glucose). Glucose is released relatively quickly from starch, as long as it is predominantly digested in the small intestine. We must also, however, appreciate that glycogen can be replenished from the fibre part of a ration. Fibre is fermented in the hindgut to produce volatile fatty acids including acetic acid, butyric acid, and propionic acid, the latter of 34

which supports glycogen re-synthesis. The ratio of propionic acid to other volatile fatty acids is increased when more concentrate feed is fed, and this probably reflects a greater delivery of starch to the hindgut, which is not necessarily desirable. The type of forage fed may also effect the production of propionic acid.

Horses have a slow rate of glycogen re-synthesis

When compared to human athletes, thoroughbred horses have an unusually

high concentration of muscle glycogen but have a contrastingly slow rate of resynthesis. Early studies showed that horses fed a typical high starch racing diet (35-40% starch) required three days to return muscle glycogen concentration to baseline levels following hard work. However, more recent work suggests that the composition of the diet has little effect on the rate of glycogen re-synthesis and that providing an adequate period of time between the last sessions of hard work and racing is important.

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CaRb CONUNdRUm

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Early studies showed that horses fed a high starch racing diet required three days to return muscle glycogen concentration to baseline levels following hard work

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Concerns regarding muscle glycogen concentration in horses fed low to moderate starch diets with good forage are probably unfounded if an adequate period of time for re-synthesis is allowed. This is because the overall content of starch, simple sugars, and even some amino acids from protein will all contribute to maintenance of muscle glycogen.

rate of glycogen use during intense exercise that is characteristic of flat racing is high, duration of exercise is relatively short and so total use of glycogen is limited. Studies have reported a 25-35% reduction in total muscle glycogen in thoroughbreds or standardbreds racing over 1500 – 2000 metres. Certainly over shorter races, glycogen depletion is unlikely to be critical compared to other factors such as muscle acidosis originating from the accumulation of hydrogen ions from dissociated lactic acid. muscle acidosis contributes to fatigue through inhibition of both the mechanics and biochemistry of muscle contraction. Normal blood glucose concentration is also needed for optimum delivery of glucose to the brain, its preferred fuel. The body has a number of tightly regulated homeostatic mechanisms to ensure that blood glucose is maintained within tight limits. There is no evidence that blood glucose is compromised when the level of starch in the diet is reduced, as other components such as sugars, amino acids, and volatile fatty acids are able to support vital glucose homeostasis. There is always, however, the intangible benefit of cereal starch that leads trainers young and old to top up the level of oats or other high-starch feed in the days or weeks preceding a race in the belief that it just may give them an edge. Certainly anecdotally some horses can be more exuberant on a highstarch ration and may

exhibit higher resting heart rate, although more work is needed to establish whether or not this is a valid practice.

How low is low in terms of starch?

Classification of the starch content of the diet is rather arbitrary to date, but in my view a starch content of 30% or higher can be considered to be high. Straight cereals such as oats, barley, or maize (corn) fit into this category, as would coarse mixes, muesli, or cubes with a high-percentage cereal content. Palatability and appetite is often an issue in horses, particularly fillies, in hard work, and studies have suggested that horses prefer a sweeter feed with a higher starch content, although I suspect that this may depend on what feed type they are accustomed to. also with picky eaters, one should always suspect gastric ulcers and this should be investigated and treated as necessary through a vet. Gastric ulcers are more prevalent in horses fed highstarch diets in combination with inadequate forage. Small, frequent meals are likely to be less problematic as food is mixed more effectively in the stomach with digestive juices and there may be less opportunity for localised fermentation.

Moderated starch may be healthier?

a diet that is high in non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) is also cited as a risk factor for tying up or recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis in susceptible horses, although the exact mechanism of its involvement is not totally clear. Excitability or stress precipitated by diet in combination with management practices and environment can increase the risk of tying up; how this occurs is unclear. Certainly horses with a history of tying up can often be managed more successfully when they are not overfed and are offered a low starch diet that relies to a greater extent on alternative fuel sources, including digestible fibre and oil. Perhaps the greatest concern with a highstarch ration is that of hindgut acidosis, which can precipitate Illustration of the relationship between speed and rate of glycogen use

How relevant is glycogen depletion to fatigue?

another question that needs to be addressed is the relevance of muscle glycogen for racing performance. For an elite endurance horse, muscle glycogen depletion, especially in individual muscle fibres, is very likely during longer and faster races. but is glycogen depletion a significant contributory factor to fatigue in racing over distances ranging from 400 metres to four miles? Whilst the ISSUE 51 TRAINERMAGAZINE.COM

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NUTRITION

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episodes of colic, chronic inflammation or colitis, loose droppings, and laminitis in some instances. Horses have a finite ability to digest starch in the small intestine, and a proportion will almost always reach the hindgut. This will depend on an individual’s capacity for starch digestion in the small intestine, together with the starch load per meal and the transit time of feed through the stomach and small intestine. Hindgut acidosis can arise when a large proportion of starch reaches that area, where it can be rapidly fermented, changing the pH of the hindgut environment, microbial balance, and potentially permeability of the mucosa to undesirable substances.

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The feed industry’s increasing use of cooked cereals improves starch digestion in the small intestine. In some countries amylase-

Low-starch feeds utilise high-fibre ingredients with good digestibility, such as sugar beet shreds and soya husk

or amylopectin-digesting enzymes can be added to feed to improve its digestion still further. There are not, unfortunately, any such additives approved for use in horses in Europe, although they are routinely used in agriculture. The impact of a high-starch diet on the hindgut can be reduced dramatically by careful choice of ingredients, either oats or cooked cereals. meals should be kept small, typically less than 2kg (approximately), and spaced out evenly through the day and evening. In addition, plenty of forage will offer some protection by reducing the impact of escaped starch on hindgut microflora, and live yeasts (Sachromyces Cerevisiae) have been repeatedly shown to ameliorate the negative impact of starch on the hindgut. I regard racing feeds with a starch content of 15% or lower as being ‘low starch’ and suitable for those horses with a particular dietary-related issue linked to starch intake. Low-starch feeds utilise high-fibre ingredients with good digestibility, such as sugar beet shreds and soya husk, and combine them with oilseeds such as soya, linseed, rice bran, and sometimes cereal biproducts such as oatfeed. There are also many feeds with a more moderate starch content (15-30%), which will limit starch intake and can be used successfully to reduce the starch load per meal when meal sizes are small. Feeds containing a moderate level of starch can be more palatable for horses in full training than the very low-starch alternatives. n

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VETERINARY

The stifle is the largest joint in the horse and is the articulation between the tibia, femur, and patella (knee cap). The equine stifle is host to a wide range of conditions causing lameness. A combination of clinical examination, lameness evaluation, diagnostic local analgesia, radiography, and ultrasonography is required as a minimum in the detection of stifle pathology. Additional diagnostic aids such as arthroscopy and computed tomography/ MRI may be employed if further information is required. In all cases a thorough understanding of the complex anatomy of the stifle is essential. WORDS: THOMAS O’KEEFFE PHOTOS: FiOnA BOyD, CAROlinE nORRiS, THOMAS O’KEEFFE

Anatomy of the Stifle

The condyles of the femur do not conform in shape to the tibial plateau, as two crescentshaped menisci made of fibrocartilage provide congruency between the two bones and function to cushion the articular cartilage from the compression forces of weight bearing. The centre of the tibial plateau forms the intercondylar eminence 38

comprising two prominences (medial and lateral intercondylar tubercles). The cranial ligaments of each meniscus are anchored to the top of the tibia at the medial and lateral intercondylar eminences respectively with the menisci also attached to the joint capsule. The patella is a large bone in the insertional tendon of the quadriceps femoris muscle. From its base, three patellar ligaments

converge distally to attachments on the tibial crest. The stifle has three synovial spaces: the femoropatellar joint and the medial and lateral femorotibial joints. The femoropatellar joint at the front of the stifle is the articulation of the patella and the two trochlear ridges. The femorotibial joint spaces are distinct from each other and are found between each meniscus and its corresponding femoral condyle. The two cruciate ligaments lie outside the joint cavity between the medial and lateral femorotibial joint compartments.

Examination of the Stifle

Palpation of the stifle is undertaken with the limb weight bearing. Apparent effusion of any joint compartment should be judged against the opposite limb and attention paid to stance, as limb position can affect perception of intra-articular pressure. The femoropatellar joint is the only compartment where distension may be noted visually. Medial femorotibial joint distension is readily palpable on the inside of

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STIFLE JOINT

Understanding the stifle joint the groin just above the tibial plateau, while lateral femerotibial joint effusion is rare and not easily palpable.

Conditions affecting the stifle of racehorses in training

● Osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD) of Stifle Diagnosis is traditionally made by radiography and/or ultrasound. Management depends on clinical/ radiological severity and the stage of training at detection. If detected as an incidental finding when already in training and there is no lameness present, no treatment may be necessary. If lameness is present, surgery (arthroscopic removal or re-attachment of defective cartilage) is the only effective treatment. Prognosis with these cases is dependent on lesion size. Horses with lesions less than 6cm that undergo surgery prior to the start of the two-year-old season have similar trainability to normal horses, while those with more extensive lesions (>6cm) are less likely to race.

● Locking Patella of Stifle This condition occurs when the patella fails to release correctly from its “sleeping” position on the lower femur, thereby preventing the stifle from flexing. This may be transient or require intervention to release. It is a common condition, can occur at all stages of training, and carries a good prognosis as it rarely interferes with training. The condition is most commonly seen during phases of reduced exercise/ stable rest. Diagnosis is straightforward, with obvious clinical signs being the affected hind limb held straight and rigid, and the horse demonstrating a reluctance to move forward. When forced to move the horse will drag his leg forward. Most cases are readily unlocked with firm pressure placed above and lateral to the stifle directed down and forward in the direction of the opposite front leg. Management of recurrent cases usually involves strengthening/ conditioning of the quadriceps (hill work, trotting) and shoeing with raised heels/

wedges. Surgery, involving the splitting or sectioning of the medial patellar ligament, is rarely needed and only as a last resort for severe non-responsive cases. ● Tibial Tuberosity Fracture This is a rare condition where the top of the tibia (point of attachment of the patellar ligaments) separates from the parent bone. This usually occurs as a result of direct trauma (kick/jumping) or avulsion of the quadriceps/biceps femoris muscle following a fall/slip. Diagnosis made initially by radiography and subsequent ultrasound allows assessment of associated soft tissue damage. Management is generally conservative, with a prolonged period of stable rest/walking exercise. As this is a nonarticular fracture (does not communicate with stifle joint), surgical reduction offers little advantage. ● Acute Trauma to Stifle The patella and collateral ligaments are ISSUE 51 TRAINERMAGAZINE.COM

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VETERINARY poorly protected by overlying soft tissues and are vulnerable to direct trauma, particularly kicks. Damage is usually short lived, with superficial bruising and/ or infection. In rare cases, supporting structures (menisci, cruciate, patellar, or collateral ligaments) of the stifle may be involved. Radiography is regularly the first line of diagnostics, following clinical examination; however, ultrasound and arthroscopy are the only practical ways of assessing many potential injuries, such as meniscal injuries. Management for acute trauma may be conservative initially, but meniscal injuries carry a guarded prognosis and arthroscopy is required as a diagnostic and treatment tool. Medial Femoral Condyle Subchondral bone cysts This is the most significant pathology seen in the stifle joint and will be discussed in greater detail for the remainder of this article.

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Diagnosis of Stifle Cysts

A medial femoral condyle bone cyst. Hhowever, the horse did not show any signs of lameness

The most common location for subchondral bone cysts in the horse is the medial femoral condyle. Approximately 75% of horses with subchondral cystic lesions are less than four years of age. The prevalence of stifle cysts in young sales horses has been estimated at 1.7-3.6% in thoroughbreds and 10-13.6% in quarter horses. The effect of stifle cysts on athletic function is difficult to quantify but in small groups of affected horses, stifle cysts greater than 6mm deep or 15mm in diameter have been associated with a reduction in some measures of racing performance. The cause of stifle cysts is debatable, with trauma and OCD most commonly implicated. While radiographic confirmation typically remains the mainstay for diagnosis of stifle cysts, ultrasound has recently been used with greater frequency in the standing horse. The development of digital radiography and the trend of repository radiographs at many thoroughbred auctions have led to increased scrutiny of stifle radiographs. The caudal-cranial x-ray projection of the stifle remains the initial gold standard in assessing the medial femoral condyle.

Treatment options for Stifle Cysts

A horse who was lame as a result of a stifle lesion. There is mild flattening of the medial femoral condyle causing lameness confirmed by nerve blocking 40

There have been many therapeutic options proposed for the management of subchondral bone cysts in the stifle. These techniques have continued to be somewhat controversial but success has been reported with conservative therapy (box rest and anti-inflammatory agents), direct injection of the cyst under ultrasound or arthroscopic guidance, and arthroscopic debridement of the cyst and its cavity. Following debridement, the subchondral cystic lesion voids can be left open or filled with cancellous bone, osteochondral grafts, or a combination of bone substitutes, possibly growth factors and chondrocyte grafts or mesenchymal cells in fibrin glue. The goal of all such treatments is to eliminate lameness

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STIFLE JOINT associated with a stifle cyst and allow affected horses to perform as expected. Treatment success rates range from between slightly under 50% to slightly less than 75%. Throughout the various studies that have been undertaken over the years, differences in inclusion criteria and definition of success and the lack of information on long-term lameness resolution make it difficult to affirm any one treatment as vastly superior. It has not been supported in all studies, but older horses treated tend to have lower success rates.

Arthroscopic Debridement

Success rates for soundness following arthroscopic debridement are 64-72%, depending on the size of lesion and horse’s age. The best results are seen in horses less than three years old and in lesions smaller than 15 millimetres. A potential reason for poor success rates could be related to tears in the stifle’s meniscus or meniscal ligaments. It has been described that approximately 9% of horses with stifle cysts have concurrent meniscal lesions.

The most common location for subchondral bone cysts is the medial femoral condyle. Approximately 75% of horses with subchondral cystic lesions are less than four years of age

Arthroscopic Injection of Stifle Cyst with Triamcinolone

A group led by Dr Brigitte von Rechenberg carried out research that led to the development of a technique of injecting corticosteroids directly into the fibrous lining of the cystic lesion under arthroscopic guidance. The rationale for intralesional injection of triamcinolone acetonide possibly improving results compared to previous studies using debridement included shorter convalescence, less articular disruption, less potential for cystic enlargement, and less potential for causing a subsequent meniscal lesion. In a retrospective study on the results of arthroscopic injection of corticosteroids into the cyst lining in 52 cases, the inclusion criteria were lameness and radiographic evidence of a stifle cyst. The results showed that 35/52 (67%) horses were successfully treated. An additional five horses, for a total of 40/52 (77%), were considered sound at veterinary re-check. There was a significant difference

A caudal lateral oblique projection of a medial femoral condyle bone cyst

A caudal lateral oblique projection of a medial femoral condyle bone cyst

in outcome when there was only one limb affected, with a much poorer outcome noted when two limbs were affected.

Study in Florida: Ultrasound-Guided Corticosteroid injection

In 2014 Dr Jonathan McLellan and Dr Sarah Plevin of Florida Equine Veterinary Associates presented a small study on the treatment of stifle cysts at the Annual Convention of the American Association of Equine Practitioners. They reviewed the outcome of stifle cysts that were managed via ultrasound-guided corticosteroid injection directly into the cyst in the standing horse compared to horses who were managed via intra-articular medication alone. Case selection was limited to the following: horses in training presenting with sudden onset unilateral hind limb lameness within the first six months of commencement of training, the source of lameness being localised to

the medial femorotibial joint by a positive response to intra-articular anaesthesia and with radiographic confirmation of a stifle cyst. The control group, which McLellan and Plevin identified from their medical records, were 20 thoroughbred horses of the same age and stage of training as the case horses with a known history of lameness from a unilateral stifle cyst. Controls had been treated with intra-articular triamcinolone acetonide injection and thus were considered to have been treated conservatively. For both groups, treatment was considered a success if the horse returned to training and remained free from stifle lameness for at least one year. Long-term follow up was assessed by the ability to start a race. Eleven (91.7%) cases required only a single ultrasound guided injection of the fibrous cyst lining to achieve soundness. Ten (83.3%) resumed training without lameness, and nine (75%) ISSUE 51 TRAINERMAGAZINE.COM

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VETERINARY

Stifle joint issues can occur in yearlings as they grow and can be reviewed with pre-sale radiographs prior to the sales

successfully started a race. Only 11 (55%) conservatively treated control horses became sound enough to start in a race following a single intra-articular injection with 14 (70%) returning to training. While there was no statistically significant difference in likelihood of a positive outcome between methods, cases treated with ultrasoundguided injection were significantly more likely than the control group to require only one treatment, with an average time of 50.8 days from diagnosis to return to training compared to 65 days in control horses.

Lag Screws to solve the conundrum: a possible solution? In 2014, a new treatment technique for stifle cysts was developed and published in the Veterinary Surgery Journal by Elizabeth Santschi, DVM, Diplomate ACVS and her colleagues from Ohio State University. Their work was based on using a cortical bone screw with the aim of altering strain on the cyst lesion, hoping to promote trabecular bone formation and remodelling. The team behind this new technique proposed that promotion of bone healing in the cystic lesion is desirable for long-term lameness resolution. Transphyseal screws are used routinely to correct angular limb deformities in young horses, and an increase in bone opacity has been noted around these screws. Santschi and her colleagues hypothesised that a lag screw across the stifle cyst might also promote bone formation within the 42

cyst, while maintaining existing hyaline and calcified cartilage. The screw can be left in place permanently with no untoward effects on horses in active training. Santschi placed a 4.5mm lag screw across the stifle cyst. Postoperative radiography and lameness examinations were performed at 30 to 60 day intervals for 120 days, and cyst healing and lameness were graded. Treatment was considered successful if lameness was eliminated and ô?°€50% bone healing occurred in the cyst by 120 days after surgery. Twenty horses had 27 limbs treated. Nine horses had adjunctive biologic agents placed into the cyst. In all horses, lameness was reduced by one to two grades by 60 days after surgery, and in 15 horses it was abolished by 60 to 120 days. At 120 days, the mean amount of cyst healing was 70%. Of the 15 successes, all were in work at the time of publication (mean followup of 12 months) without stifle lameness. Successful treatment occurred in 78% of horses treated with biologic therapies and in 73% without biologic therapies. Three of the five failures had additional injuries to cartilage, meniscus, or tibia, with one apparent at surgery and two after surgery. Santschi and her team concluded that transcondylar screw placement promotes cyst healing and lameness reduction in approximately 75% of all treated stifles.

Conclusion

Stifle conditions are thankfully a relatively

infrequent cause of lameness in the thoroughbred racehorse. However, clinical cases of stifle lameness can result in significant interruptions in training. Stifle cysts are the most significant cause of missed training days, and there have been a myriad of treatment options utilised to overcome this problem. Despite the many advances in surgery and the extensive research that has gone into exploring surgical resolutions, the differences in success rates between an aggressive surgical approach versus a conservative approach are not substantial. It is my opinion that a conservative approach, with intra-articular medication and a modified training regime, should be the first line of treatment and surgical intervention only considered when the lameness renders the horse un-trainable. New surgical options such as transcondylar lag screw placement offers hope in the treatment of stifle cysts with initial promising results but more work is needed to identify its long-term outcome. As with all orthopaedic conditions, stifle lameness requires a systematic, diagnostic approach, and the use of ultrasound alongside traditional x-ray has greatly improved our understanding of the stifle joint. Accurate diagnosis and a symbiotic relationship between trainer and vet in the management of horses with stifle conditions is crucial in minimising loss of training time for our equine athletes. n

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The growing shortage of skilled stable staff may be directly related to the reduction in farming and traditional agricultural work, and it was highlighted in Europe as early as 2011, when the Swiss economic and agricultural departments produced a paper on the scarcity of workers within the equine sector and offered possible solutions. WORDS: LISSA OLIVER PHOTOS: FIOnA BOyD, GALOPFOTOS (FRAnk SORGE), DAn ABRAHAmS, nIck SmITH PHOTOGRAPHy, GERRy WEATHERHEAD/cREATIVEEyE PHOTOGRAPHy

It’s a great job to come into and it pays quite well. For a young person coming into the industry it’s marvellous – the excitement of sitting up on a racehorse, taking your horse racing. It’s a great life and you can see the world Mark Tompkins

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T’S no coincidence that 2011 also saw tighter restrictions on employing workers from outside the EU. At that time, trainers voiced concerns over the limitations of employing only from the EU and predicted a staffing shortage within five years. Akin to predicting the odds-on winner of the Derby, here we are four years later facing what amounts to a crisis for many smaller yards. Three winning trainers in Ireland, in the week preceding the penning of this article, were unavailable for post-race interviews because they were on leading-up duties with their horses. Not so long ago the crisis was a shortage of new owners and horses; now trainers are finding they haven’t the staff to cope with the horses they have. This isn’t a problem limited to Europe. Australian racing jurisdictions have regularly carried out recruiting campaigns in Britain and Ireland, and job advertisements from Australian racing yards and stud farms are a common feature of European racing publications. Whilst searching for official documents on staff shortages within the thoroughbred industry, evidence of the problem can even be unearthed in Vietnam, so it’s not limited to the major racing countries either, or those whose employment acts restrict them to sourcing from within the EU. A British summit held at York in April highlighted the staff shortage within the racing industry and galvanised a reaction, resulting in an alliance between the British Horseracing Authority (BHA) and national training providers, and the drawing up of short-term, medium, and long-term plans to attract the type of employees trainers require. That type is ideally a skilled groom and rider. Work riders, in particular, are in high demand and low supply. Fortunately, a career in racing is no longer perceived as a “dead-end” job and the industry already offers favourable terms of employment and training schemes for progression. As Mark Tompkins, chairman of the Newmarket Trainers’ Federation, points out, “It’s a long-term problem and we’ve been very lax with the promotion of our industry in schools and colleges. A difficulty is that horses are seven days a week, you can’t just switch them off for the weekend, but we’ve changed our working practices to a certain extent. It’s a great job to come into and it pays quite well. For a young person coming into the industry it’s marvellous – the excitement of sitting up on a racehorse, taking your horse racing. It’s a great life and you can see the world. Once you’ve worked for four or five years and you have a good reference you can go anywhere in the world.” Nevertheless, the British National Trainers Federation (NTF) stated through its newsletter: “In our opinion, due to the diminishing pool of people with the necessary attributes or innate ability for the roles, it is still likely that we will need to recruit from outside the EU in the future.” Unfortunately, this option is

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STABLE STAFF being firmly closed by EU regulations. We have come to depend upon the innate horsemanship of visitors from Brazil, India, and Pakistan, in particular, but changes to work permit conditions have effectively ended that option for most trainers. In Sweden, the bulk of employees are Brazilian and that, happily for Swedish trainers, looks set to continue. Providing the monthly salary exceeds the minimum of €1,379 (or €7.97 per hour for a typical 40-hour week), non-EU citizens are welcomed and their families also have the right to live and work in Sweden. In Germany, general unskilled positions can only be filled by non-EU citizens if the position cannot be filled by a worker from the EU, EEA, or Switzerland. Skilled workers entering on an EU Blue Card must be on a minimum salary of €36,192 per annum in “shortage occupations,” or typically €17.40 per hour (40-hour week), which effectively rules out stable staff. In France, that minimum is €25,260 (€12.14 per hour), at least one and a half times the French average gross salary. The EU Blue Card is an approved EUwide work permit allowing high-skilled nonEU citizens to work and live in any country within the European Union, excluding Denmark, Ireland, and the United Kingdom, which are not subject to the proposal, but the

Card is clearly beyond the reach of stable staff. Interestingly, France does offer a Seasonal Work Permit, but those availing of a seasonal permit cannot bring members of their family into France. A Seasonal Workers’ Permit applies to those employed on a seasonal contract lasting more than three months, providing eligibility for a residence permit valid for three years, which is renewable for further three-year periods. The permit allows employees to work in seasonal employment for a maximum of six months out of every 12. The permit holders are only allowed to stay in France for six months each year. This is certainly of some use to stud farms, but of little benefit to racing yards. It is, however, the only option for non-highly skilled workers from outside the EU. The requirement to be highly skilled and in offer of a high salaried position is also the case for The Netherlands and Poland, with certain exceptions that don’t apply to the racing industry. The same situation applies in Spain, but unskilled positions can be filled by non-EU citizens providing the job has been advertised without attracting suitable applicants from the EU. A work permit can take up to 18 months to be processed, however. Similarly, in Hungary an employer must advertise the job for a fixed period of 15 days at the Hungarian Labour Office to

give unemployed Hungarian citizens a chance to apply for the position. After being unsuccessfully advertised for 15 days, the employer may then apply for a work permit on behalf of a non-EU employee. The work permit will be ready after a further 10-15 days. The employee must then apply for a working visa in person at the Hungarian Consulate in their country of residence. Predictably, the story in Italy is far more complicated and the Italian work permit scheme is administered regionally, so implementation differs significantly depending on the exact destination within Italy, and certain EU restrictions are not recognised. It remains the employer’s responsibility to sponsor a work permit, and permits cannot be applied for by a prospective employee or agency. The average processing time for issuing permits is two months. However, the recruitment from abroad has only been a quick solution to the employment problems at home and now that those have been, or are in the process of being, addressed, the loss of immigrant workers may not be a major future problem. For a start, stable work, whether in racing or otherwise, was historically seen as poorly paid and low in status, and it was perceived as an unskilled job one “ended up in” rather than a desirable career of choice. Racing schools, widespread equine science diploma courses,

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BHA STABLE EMPLOYEE REGISTER FIGURES 2012 TO 2015 Employees*

Staff work

Work riders

Yard staff†

Trainers†

Horses in training 2015 7381 2950 1072 480 636 14,582 2014 7591 3179 1114 439 659 14,201 2013 7586 3190 1167 413 661 14,550 2012 7750 3314 1189 398 676 14,461 *Total number of employees includes self-employed staff who account for around 600-800 staff each year. †Includes Permit trainers who account for around 100-120 trainers each year

and industry engagement with schools and colleges have corrected that erroneous view. There are several reasons why suitable staff cannot be sourced from home nations, not least the type of staff required. Although all employees are included within figures, trainers specifically identify a lack of competent work riders. Riding ability is only part of the requirement – a maximum riding weight narrows the availability. It’s a growing problem – pardon the pun – but people are getting bigger as the average height increases with each generation. Another problem, faced by most major racing centres but identified specifically by Tompkins in Newmarket, is accommodation. “There is a shortage of affordable housing in Newmarket,” Tompkins points out. “Cambridge is very expensive and all the smaller houses in Newmarket are snapped

In France, we do not have many problems with staff shortages due to a good racing school with 90% success at the exams

Hélène Basse

up by those working in Cambridge.” Rural communities or major town suburbs, often a good base for racing yards, are usually sought after when it comes to residential property,

and there are few opportunities for rental or purchase for those on a lower income. Tompkins would like to see the Jockey Club build 100 one-bedroom apartments available for rent to stable staff. “The BHA are organised and they’ve got some great ideas, but it would be good if they were based in a racing centre instead of London and could see at firsthand the problems faced. They don’t realise what the staff situation is really like,” he says. Of course, not everyone is finding it difficult to recruit. Hélène Basse of the French Racehorse Trainers’ Association reveals, “In France, we do not have many problems with staff shortages due to a good racing school with 90% success at the exams. The apprentices find a job when they have finished their formation.” However, she does point out, “The consequence of the crisis is fewer horses, fewer owners, so now we have fewer and fewer staff shortages.” Again, the shortage, even though minimal in France, is felt the most keenly with work riders. “Work riders and jockeys come from Italy and Spain to work in stables in France,” Madame Basse says. “It is very difficult for a trainer in France to recruit riders from outside the EU.” A few work riders in Britain come from France, Spain and Italy, with some from Sweden, too. The influx from Ireland has declined, as the Irish industry has strengthened and staff remain at home. Yet Irish trainers also report a difficulty in finding skilled staff with experience. It’s the

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There is a requirement for skilled staff to be available in greater numbers than currently

Carole Goldsmith, pictured

experience that’s key. As the BHA propose to go on a recruitment drive around Britain, extending this to Europe would be of even greater benefit. “It’s a highly skilled job and it takes time to learn it,” says Tompkins. “The racing schools do a great job, but they only give the basic grounding. Years ago, experienced staff could give the newcomers a lot more time, but these days we’re racing seven days a week and you don’t have the tack man or the yard

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man and the extra staff and time any more. It takes four or five years’ experience before the newcomers can gain these skills.” Carole Goldsmith, director of People and Development for the BHA, has been tasked with resolving the employment issue and engaging with potential recruits. She says, “There is a requirement for skilled staff to be available in greater numbers than currently. It is not a crisis – we estimate, for example, that the number of skilled work riders within the industry has reduced by around 100 in the last four years. However, it could become a crisis if we don’t act on it. “We, as an industry, need to explore all avenues for recruiting the right people into racing. Not only do we need to recruit more staff but we also need to target the skills of our workforce in order to fill skills gaps. We also need to become better at retaining staff, by ensuring that we are developing and training those already within the industry and improving their welfare support. This is an issue not simply for the BHA, the NTF, or NASS (National Association of Stable Staff), but the entire industry to address. “This is not about a quick fix,” she continues, “but rather developing and implementing together a strategy for longterm, sustainable improvement. For too long, we have perhaps relied on the sticking plaster of a new stream of foreign workers, many of whom can no longer work here under tightened immigration policies.” Goldsmith lists strategic objectives in three main areas. “Firstly focusing on the grass roots activities, for example pony racing, pony clubs, widening the access points into the industry by developing better links with equine colleges, ensuring we’re bringing people into the industry who are most likely to stay and attracting more skilled workers to the industry, especially riders,” she explains. “Secondly, building on the existing workforce’s skills base via the availability of flexible training for all ability levels, thus enhancing the career development opportunities of those working within the sport and helping them to build careers. Thirdly, the provision of better occupational health and well-being support to our workforce. A three-year strategy is in place across all of these areas to address the issues we currently face, which will be assisted by £1m of funding from the Racing Foundation.” Robin Mounsey, media manager at BHA, provides current figures for employment within the industry. “The total number of employees figure is a tricky one,” he warns. “These numbers are too high, because they include self-employed staff who do not really reflect the workforce. However, the data collection method cannot accurately provide figures without including the selfemployed. What it does show, though, is the trend, and that trend is one of pretty gradual, but not dramatic, decline, especially if you set it against the decline in number of trainers.” n

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Reducing injury risk in National Hunt racing

The horse is a superlative athlete, revered for its speed and beauty. However, there is an inherent risk of injury to those horses involved in racing. Since 2000, the Horserace Betting Levy Board (HBLB) has invested over £27 million on veterinary research and education. WORDS: RICHARD REARSON PHOTOS: CAROLINE NORRIS

P

REVENTION of musculoskeletal disease and injury in thoroughbreds and improvement of the training environment, racecourse design and surfaces – along with riding strategies, tack, and equipment – to enhance the safety, health, and wellbeing of racehorses are two of five key strategic research priorities. The risks of horse injury and fatality in National Hunt racing are higher than those in flat racing and as such, a recently completed HBLBfunded project has focused on National Hunt racing.

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The project was coordinated by a team from the University of Glasgow and the British Horseracing Authority, who gave the researchers unique access to data held on their computerised Equine Welfare Database. The aims of the HBLB National Hunt study were to: 1. Define the risk of injuries occurring during National Hunt racing on racecourses in Great Britain; 2. Identify factors that increase and decrease the risk of injury; 3. Make suggestions about how to reduce the risk of injuries in National Hunt racing in Great Britain.

The Equine Welfare Database

The Equine Welfare Database contains details of fatalities and all horse problems dealt with by racecourse vets in the UK. The data collected between 2000 and 2009 were analysed to determine the frequency of fatality, as well as epistaxis (i.e. visible bleeding from the nostrils) and some of the most common injuries in each of the three types of National Hunt racing: Hurdle, Steeplechase and National Hunt Flat.

Identifying risk factors

Epidemiology is the branch of science

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NH INJURY RISK

involved in quantifying risk of health problems. Epidemiologists work in the world of advanced mathematics, which may seem a long way from racehorse health but for epidemiologists, determining whether the presence of a potential risk factor results in an increased risk of injury is a mathematical task. Here’s a simple example in humans: From 100 people followed through their entire lives, say there are 50 who smoke cigarettes and 30 of them develop lung cancer, and the other 50 don’t smoke and only three of them develop lung cancer. From this example it would seem likely that smoking cigarettes is a risk factor for lung cancer and it appears that smoking cigarettes makes you 10 times more likely to develop lung cancer than if you don’t smoke.

An interconnected web

Risk factors can be grouped into those associated with the horse; the racecourse;

the trainer; the jockey; and the individual race. Within and between these categories there is considerable interconnection; for example, going is related to season of the year and weather which in turn might influence the pace of the race. Specific jockey restrictions in a specific race might in turn be connected to the weight and experience of the jockey. These interconnections between multiple different factors create challenges in risk factor analysis, such as the risk of lower limb fracture increasing with age. But specific age groups run in specific types of races and horses in steeplechase racing are typically older than most of those running in flat racing. If we analysed the association between type of racing (steeplechase compared to flat) and lower limb fracture without taking into account horse age, we might incorrectly conclude that that type of racing is a risk factor for lower limb fracture. Fortunately, with

modern computers epidemiologists can account for multiple interconnecting factors to identify true associations. In this example, there was no link between type of racing and lower limb fracture, and it was age that was the risk factor for that specific injury type.

Risk does not equal cause

A risk factor is simply something that makes injury more or less likely. It can be associated with an adverse outcome (i.e. increase the risk of injury) but specific factors can also be protective (i.e. decrease the risk of injury). It is important to understand that when scientists talk of risk factors, they mean there is an association or link between the factor and the outcome they are studying, but they do not mean that the risk factor is necessarily the specific cause. For example, age and race type are associated but one does not directly cause the other.

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Horse, jockey, race, and course factors associated with each race start

The HBLB National Hunt Study

Data from the Equine Welfare Database and Weatherbys were combined to allow investigation of more than 100 potential risk factors for fatality and the most common injury types. To allow thorough examination of previous start history, analyses were performed on injury data from 2001 to the end of 2009. The researchers were very pleased to find that injury rates in British National Hunt racing were low – although we would all like to see them become lower still. Rates for most of the common veterinary problems were higher in steeplechasing than hurdling, with a notable exception of lacerations and wounds, which occurred at very slightly higher rates in hurdling. As The most common veterinary problems that occurred in British National Hunt racing between 2000 and 2009 shown as number of events per 1000 starts

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many trainers know only too well already, injury to tendons and ligaments was the most prevalent problem and, of course, it is important to point out, that for this study, only injuries attended by vets on the racecourse were recorded. Different patterns of veterinary problems would be expected from training records. The researchers didn’t only look for risk factors associated with the veterinary problems, they also defined the strength of the associations to quantify how much more likely was a horse to suffer a specific problem if that risk factor was present. The scientists considered multiple injury types to minimise unintended consequences and avoid making recommendations that could potentially reduce the risk of one outcome but increase the risk of another. Having identified associations in one time period, it is important to be sure that they apply in other time windows. For this study, the factors identified in the first phase of the

study were tested against the injury data from years subsequent to 2009, to see if they were also significant in those years and thus could be used to help predict injury in future.

What factors were linked to injury in National Hunt horses?

Season, ground firmness, and race distance

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were “race-related” factors found to be associated with a lot of the outcomes investigated. Only a few “racecourserelated” risk factors were identified, one of which was that courses that had more race starts were associated with increased likelihood of fatal injury in hurdle racing, but decreased likelihood of hind limb fracture in steeplechase racing when compared to racecourses with fewer starts. Horse age was associated with increased risk for a number of different veterinary problems. Having sustained a specific injury previously increased the risk that the same injury would occur again, as is well known for tendon injury. Fascinatingly, horses that had spent a higher percentage of their previous careers in flat racing were at increased likelihood of all the outcomes that were looked at, suggesting that horses that had not had many previous jump starts, or those that had a large number of previous flat starts, were at increased risk of injury compared to other horses. But horses that had had a greater number of starts over a year previously were less likely to suffer many of the injuries. While it is very tempting to come up with theories for why these associations with previous start histories were found, it is important to bear in mind that the actual start histories may simply be a

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reflection of something else that predisposes to injury.

Can we make use of the results to reduce injury?

The ultimate goal of this HBLB research is to make the sport safer for our horses. Deciding which risk factors should be the focus of potential modifications is complex. A number of factors must be considered: 1. A successful intervention should impact upon as many different outcomes as possible. There is no point in imposing major changes if the injury that might be prevented as a result involves very few horses;

The researchers were very pleased to find that injury rates in British National Hunt racing were low – although we would all like to see them become lower still

2. The “importance” of the injury on the horse. For example, a fatal injury might would be considered a more “important” outcome than a limb injury that the horse is very likely to recover from after a short period of rest; 3. The size of effect of the specific risk factor: completely removing the impact of a risk factor with a very large effect will have a much greater impact on the prevalence of the outcome than removing the impact of a risk factor with a smaller effect; 4. How common is the risk factor? Modifying the more common risk factors will impact on the greatest number of horses. When these factors were taken into account, the Glasgow team concluded that the risk factors most likely to result in the most significant impact on the injuries that were studied were: 1. Firmer going 2. Previous injury 3. Proportion of career to date spent in flat racing 4. Longer races 5. Summer jumping 6. Maiden, novice, selling, and claiming races 7. Older horses 8. Number of years in racing 9. Horses with the following racing profiles: ISSUE 51 TRAINERMAGAZINE.COM

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Fewer starts in the period more than one year prior to the current race; l Fewer starts in the period between 10 and 12 months prior to the current race; l Fewer starts in the three months prior to the current race. l

Balancing cost and benefit

While it might seem a simple statement, remove these risk factors and veterinary problems will disappear completely! The reality is that change might bring relatively modest gains. Because British National Hunt racing already has a fairly low injury rate, removal of even those risk factors which have strong effects may only be beneficial for the health of very few horses. Every injury is regrettable, but benefit has to be weighed against cost. Consider summer jump racing – which is a risk factor for several outcomes including fatality and tendon and ligament injury. While preventing summer jump racing for the period studied would have resulted in 260 fewer fatalities and 379 fewer tendon

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“

Horses that had spent a higher percentage of their previous careers in Flat racing, that had not had many previous jump starts, or those that had a large number of previous Flat starts, were at increased risk of injury compared to other horses.

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injuries, it would also have resulted in 36,014 fewer race starts, with potential knock-on consequences for the number of horses maintained in training. The HBLB National Hunt study, for the first time, has provided robust statistics that racing needs to make evidence-based decisions on the balance between cost and benefit.

Conclusion

Following extensive examination of the common injuries that occur in National Hunt racing in Britain, it is clear that injury risk is already very low. The work of all of the veterinary surgeons, racecourse staff, members of the BHA, the Jockey Club, and all those involved in maintaining the health of racehorses should be highly commended. That is not to suggest that this research is not important; quite the opposite, as it provides an audit of the current situation, focuses attention on potential problems, guides further policymaking, and very importantly provides continued justification for jump racing in Britain. n

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DEWORMING

RESISTING DEWORMING TRADITIONS Consider incorporating fecal egg counts in deworming programs

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VETERINARY

The world of thoroughbred racing is ripe in tradition – almost as ritualised as the pre-game routines performed by superstitious professional hockey players. From tack and track selection, breezing and jogging schedules to feeding, supplementing, and everything in between, thoroughbred trainers are creatures of habit. This commitment to consistency also holds true in the case of deworming.

“I

WORDS: STACEY OKE PHOTOS: SHUTTERSTOCK, STACEY OKE

AM still doing it the old fashioned way, once every three months, and routinely switch products. If a horse looks bad, I will go ahead and deworm him again,” shared Kiaran McLaughlin, a leading North American trainer with a win percent of 24 during Saratoga 2015, making almost $2 million in purses. Todd A. Pletcher, the top trainer during this year’s Saratoga meet, concurred with McLaughlin, saying that his horses are scheduled for deworming about once every two months; no fuss, no muss. Despite deworming being routine, both McLaughlin and Pletcher clearly indicated that deworming is an important component of maintaining the overall health and well being of their horses but affirmed that deworming is simply not a trainer’s biggest priority. Experts in equine internal parasites like Martin Nielsen, however, caution thoroughbred trainers about taking deworming lightly. “Resistance of equine internal parasites to all classes of chemical dewormers is firmly established world-wide and in all sectors of the equine industry, including breeding and racing thoroughbreds. “The days of rotational deworming need to be replaced by surveillance-based deworming strategies, including fecal egg counts,” says Nielsen, DVM, PhD, Dipl. EVPC, ACVIM, assistant professor at the University of Kentucky (UK) Gluck Equine Research Center. Despite such warnings, McLaughlin and Pletcher are both adamant that resistance is

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not a concern for them at this time. Given their success as trainers, it’s hard to argue with their deworming protocols! Why exactly do equine veterinarians and parasitologists have a proverbial bee in their bonnet regarding parasite resistance to chemical dewormers? In Nielsen’s opinion, the answer to this question is simple: There currently are no other chemical options for deworming horses. Not now and not anytime in the foreseeable future. “Before the introduction of chemical dewormers in the 1960s, diseases caused by internal parasites, such as colic and diarrhea, were common. Those dewormers, also called anthelmintics, contributed greatly to improving the health and welfare of horses, dramatically decreasing the occurrence of life-threatening parasite-related diseases. With growing resistance of internal parasites to all of the currently available dewormers and no new dewormers anywhere near development, parasite-related diseases will occur more frequently and we will have no way to treat those horses. The continued indiscriminate use of anthelmintics is like shooting ourselves in the foot,” emphasises Nielsen.

Current deworming practices and principles in thoroughbreds

Throughout the thoroughbred industry, there seems to be three main rules when it comes to deworming: rotation, rotation, rotation. The process of rotational deworming involves the frequent application of anthelmintics using a different product each time. The problem is, that there are only three different classes of dewormers

and simply changing products does not necessarily mean that a drug from a different class is being used. Frequent or inappropriate application of chemical dewormers results in populations of parasites resistant to dewormers, making all products in all three classes increasingly less effective than they previously were. Several recent surveys and studies show that rotational deworming remains prevalent but problematic. For example: ● One survey found that the use of anthelmintics on Kentucky thoroughbred farms was “intensive,” with an estimated $1.7 million spent on dewormers for the 21,000 thoroughbred yearlings and foals in Kentucky alone that were dewormed about 8 times per year (Robert M, et al. Attitudes towards implementation of surveillance-based parasite control on Kentucky thoroughbred farms – Current strategies, awareness, and willingness to pay. Equine Vet J. In Press). ● A study performed in the United Kingdom reports that thoroughbred farms employ very frequent parasite control with little to no parasite surveillance, meaning that fecal egg counts (FECs) were not conducted (Comer KC, et al. Anthelmintic use and resistance on thoroughbred training yards in the UK. Vet Rec. 2006;158:596–8); and ● Thoroughbred trainers “design their own parasite control strategies and rely on the regular use of anthelmintics” and that “fecal egg counts are infrequently used, so that many of the treatments may be unnecessary…”, reports another group of UK researchers (Relf VE, et al. A questionnaire study on parasite c ontrol practices on UK breeding Thoroughbred studs. Equine Vet J. 2012;44:466–71). The latter research team specifically wrote, “The challenge now is to convince stud owners/managers to deviate from their current practices to control strategies that are more likely to preserve anthelmintic efficacy. Veterinarians need to get more involved in implementing these control strategies, with better emphasis placed on

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DEWORMING the role of diagnostic tests in facilitating targeted treatments….” Congruent with those sentiments, the American Association of Equine Practitioners (AAEP) has clear guidelines in place to facilitate appropriate deworming. The Parasite Control Guidelines (developed by the AAEP Parasite Control Subcommittee of the AAEP Infectious Disease Committee and available at http://www.aaep.org/ custdocs/ParasiteControlGuidelinesFinal. pdf) clearly states, “The true goal of parasite control in horses (and other equids) is to limit parasite infections so animals remain healthy and clinical illness does not develop. The goal is NOT to eradicate all parasites from a particular individual. Not only is eradication impossible to achieve, the inevitable result is accelerated development of parasite drug resistance.” Nielsen, Chair of the committee, adds, “According to those deworming Guidelines, adult horses with FECs between 0 and 200 eggs/gram are considered low shedders and treatment is most often not warranted in such horses.” To put the FEC to the test, Pletcher permitted the random collection of fecal samples from ten of his top horses with various deworming histories during the 2015 Saratoga meet. Samples were stored appropriately and generously analyzed pro bono by Rood and Riddle Equine Hospital in Saratoga under the direction of Brett Woodie, DVM, MS, Dipl. ACVS. The results, produced by a trained technician,

revealed an egg count of 0 in all of the tested horses. The results of this “Pletcher FEC Experiment” were useful in two ways: (1) they indicate that the tested horses do indeed have a low worm burden, likely because of the limited access to environments contaminated with parasite eggs; and (2) confirm that FECs are a useful tool to avoiding exuberant deworming. James C. Hunt, DVM says when he began

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practicing veterinary medicine at Belmont Park in 1980 he routinely performed 100 FECs on each of his “fecal days.” So what’s changed that FECs have fallen out of favor? The answer is virtually unanimous: Why spend the time and money testing when the horses are obviously healthy? In an attempt to further explore the industry’s opinion regarding FECs, Nielsen and colleagues surveyed the attitudes of 112 thoroughbred farm managers regarding deworming programs. Consistent with

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VETERINARY

other studies and general knowledge of the thoroughbred industry, traditional rotational deworming schedules were employed by 66% of farms. Only 13% of farms used FECs on all horses, whereas 17% of farms used a combination of traditional deworming and FECs. “Interestingly, 70% of farms reported that their veterinarians assisted with formulating the deworming program, which means those equine veterinarians serving Kentucky thoroughbreds are not following the AAEP deworming guidelines,” shares Nielsen. The mean number of treatments in foals, broodmares, and racehorses was approximately six (i.e., about once every two months), whereas stallions were dewormed slightly less frequently (approximately five times/year). It was also noted that 15% of racehorses were dewormed every month, and that 55% were dewormed every two months, for a total of 70% of racehorses being dewormed 6–12 months every year. Financial concerns were also analyzed in Nielsen’s study. Of note, farm managers were: ● Willing to pay more for a deworming strategy that guaranteed no development of anthelmintic resistance; ● Not willing to pay more for a deworming strategy that was associated with increased time and effort; and 62

Not willing to pay more if the strategy did not reduce health risks associated with parasite-related disease. FEC-based deworming programs can also save clients money. One UK study reported that deworming horses only once they have FECs ≥200 eggs/gram “facilitated a reduction in selection pressure for anthelmintic resistance” and saved managers/owners an average of £294.44 ($464.16 US dollars) annually compared with a moxidectin-based interval treatment program. As strong advocate of FECs, Nielsen and colleagues from MEP Equine Solutions, LLC created the Parasight System to facilitate the widespread use of surveillancebased deworming. Nielsen explains, “This is a smartphonebased fecal egg diagnostic and intestinal parasite management tool that allows veterinarian’s to perform rapid, quantitative, on-site FECs and effectively treat and manage parasite burdens that provides results within five minutes.” The system will be available in 2016 is capable of identifying strongyle and ascarid (roundworm)-type eggs and, like any FEC, can also be used to help assess the level of chemical dewormer resistance on a specific farm.

Time for new deworming paradigms

In anticipation of the increase in non-

treatable parasite-related diseases due to the lack of effective medication, Nielsen has been searching for novel ways to deworm horses and control the burden of equine internal parasites. Here are three unique approaches currently being developed to provide alternative deworming strategies and help prolong the usefulness of the currently available chemical dewormers. 1. Combination Deworming Based on a technique successfully used in sheep in New Zealand, Nielsen and colleagues are studying the use of two dewormers concurrently. “We know that some parasites are already resistant to pyrantel and benzimidazoles, but we wondered if using the two drugs together in horses would result in improved efficacy and if so, for how long?,” explains Nielsen. The research team is only a few months into a 1-year study evaluating combination deworming, and they are not prepared to make any recommendations at this point. “Only once we have data that I can rely on will I recommend instituting combination deworming,” Nielsen emphasizes. 2. Let the Germs Get the Worms Another one of Nielsen’s pet projects is called, “Let the Germs get the Worms.” “We are using proteins produced by

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VETERINARY the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis to kill strongyle parasites,” Nielsen explains. The bacterial-derived protein Cry5B has potent activity and is able to successfully kill strongyle larvae in a laboratory setting using cultured larvae. Cry5B is also able to kill parasite populations that are known to be resistant to chemical dewormers. Nielsen adds, “The next step is to take these laboratory results and see if the protein can kill strongyle larvae in live horses and ensure the protein is safe to use outside the laboratory. We are also going to test Cry5B on roundworms.” The positive results of the preliminary laboratory data combined with the success of this technique in pigs, have Nielsen and colleagues enthusiastic about this deworming option. The technology is anticipated to cost about $500,000 and take five years to develop. For additional information regarding this research project and to make a donation to help fund this research, visit http://equineparasitology. ca.uky.edu. 3. Ultrasonographic Screening of Foals for Roundworms One final way that Nielsen and co-workers are helping with the deworming debacle is by scanning young horses’ abdomens during routine ultrasound examinations of their chests for Rhodoccocus equi – a bacterial disease that causes abscesses and pneumonia. “Some farms on which R.equi is endemic routinely ultrasound foal’s chests in an attempt to diagnose and treat R.equi infections before the foals show clinical signs of disease. We found that roundworms can be visualised in the small intestines on abdominal ultrasound using the same ultrasound equipment in young horses with heavy burdens,” shares Nielsen. Large burdens of roundworms put foals and young horses at risk for impactions, and there is no test that can accurately identify foals with large numbers of ascarids. As mentioned above, the FEC is currently used to diagnose internal parasites, but egg numbers do not directly correlate with the number of adult parasites. “Ultrasonic screening provides veterinarians the opportunity to identify young horses at-risk for impaction at the same time as they are already screening for R. equi,” says Nielsen. The roundworms appear as bright lines or circular structures in the small intestine and sometimes have a “train track” appearance, especially when the parasites are located in loops of small intestine that are lying close to the body wall and therefore closer to the ultrasound probe. A YouTube video (available at: https://www.youtube. com/ watch?v= ODjDdcXKDRc) by one of Nielsen’s students provides an example of an ultrasound examination of a young horse with a high roundworm burden. 64

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PARASITES AND THEIR EFFECTS Parasite

Complications of infection Diarrhea and colic due to large numbers of larvae emerging from the wall of the large intestine

Predominant age affected All ages

Strongylus spp. (large strongyles)

Colic due to migration of larvae through arteries supplying blood to the small intestine

All ages. Extremely rare in managed horses

No evidence of resistance

Parascaris spp.

Large numbers of adult roundworms can cause impactions and colic as well as ill-thrift, and delated growth

Foals and yearlings

Ivermectin and moxidectin

Anoplocephala perfoliata

Colic due to large numbers of

All ages

None known at this point

Small strongyles (cyathostomins)

The ultrasound technique, which was developed with the assistance of Clara Fenger, an equine veterinarian, board-certified in internal medicine and with a PhD in equine parasitology, was studied in foals aged 162–294 days. That research: ● Confirmed that ultrasonography is a reliable screening tool for roundworms; ● Led to the development of an “ascarid scoring system” (a scale ranging from 1 to 4) to identify horses with large numbers of adult roundworms; and ● Helped generate a method for veterinarians to quickly estimate the costto-benefit ratio of the procedure. Nielsen adds, “Ultrasonography screening for roundworms is also easy to implement based on feedback from veterinarians that were trained for this procedure in January 2015.”

The challenge now is to convince stud owners/ managers to deviate from their current practices to control strategies that are more likely to preserve anthelmintic efficacy

Resistance Widespread resistance to pyrantel and benzimidazoles; early indication of resistance against macrocylic lactones

Resistance to resistance is futile

“The magnitude of the resistance problem on a global scale is evidenced by the fact that anthelmintics are prescription-only drugs in several European countries, including Denmark, Sweden, Finland, and the Netherlands,” emphasises Nielsen. Upgrading anthelmintics to prescription drugs ensures veterinary involvement in deworming, endorses surveillance, and makes deworming a medical procedure rather than the innocuous practice it was once considered. In sum, the ideal parasite control program is one that: 1. Minimizes the risk of parasitic disease; 2. Controls parasite egg shedding; and 3. Maintains efficacious drugs and avoids further development of anthelmintic resistance. On racetracks with minimal turnout opportunities, such as in Saratoga, heavy parasite infections are not common at this time, parasite-related diseases remain very rare, and fecal shedding of parasite eggs is not particularly salient because there is no real “environment” to contaminate. This leaves us focusing on goal #3 – maintaining the efficacy of available anthelmintics to minimize the development of resistance. Key ways to achieve this goal and prepare for anthelmintic Armageddon are to consider conducting economically proven FECs to monitor for resistance, not deworming until FECs are >200 eggs/gram of faeces using an appropriate product, and supporting research to find viable, sustainable alternates to chemical dewormers. n

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RACING

THE PECULIAR MISS PAGET The Honourable Dorothy Paget (1906-1960) was one of the most successful owners of her era. In all, her famous yellow and peacock blue colours were to win a total of 1,532 races on the Flat and over the jumps, including winning the Cheltenham Gold Cup an incredible seven times, plus owning the winners of the Derby and the Grand National. But despite her success, she led one of the most peculiar lifestyles of the 20th century. WORDS: SIMON LEYLAND PHOTOS: PRESS ASSOCIATION, EMPICS Five-times Cheltenham Gold Cup winner Golden Miller, also won the Grand National

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B

ORN on 21 February 1905, Dorothy Wyndham Paget was the (very spoiled) daughter of the wealthy Almeric Paget, who would become Lord Queensborough, and the American heiress Pauline Whitney, whose father was Secretary to the US Navy. She grew into a bad-tempered lump of a woman and in the pampered and glamorous world of the wealthy she stood out as a beacon of dowdiness. A creature of habit, for over 20 years, she nearly always wore the same outfit to the races – a large, shapeless grey ankle-length tweed coat with a plain, dark blue collar, low heeled shoes, thick stockings and, with a cursory nod to fashion, a blue felt hat. Over the years her outfit would be replaced but always with something almost identical. Paget hated the sight of men and surrounded herself with a women-only staff who answered to colours and not to their names She would also not allow her horses to leave at the end of a day’s racing before she had relieved herself in one of the horseboxes. On more than one occasion horses had to be removed in order for her to complete her ritual. In fact on the day Golden Miller famously won his fifth Gold Cup, she performed her ceremonial widdle twice, on the way back from Cheltenham causing a traffic jam in the process. She would sometimes travel to the races by rail, generally reserving a whole carriage to herself and if dining in the restaurant, booking whole tables at a time. Her visits to the local cinema in Amersham, were equally bizarre due to her habit of booking the entire auditorium. Also, if she was not going to the races she would sleep all day, and then would spend all night on the phone to her bookmaker and trainers. Welcome to the peculiar world of Dorothy Paget. Paget did not play at racing; she embraced it wholeheartedly. She spent tens of millions in her pursuit to become Queen of the Turf, as she was called. Her best horses were without doubt the incomparable Golden Miller, five Gold Cups and a Grand National to his name (still the only horse to achieve the Cheltenham Gold Cup/Grand National double in the same season); the double Champion Hurdle winner Insurance; and her Derby winner Straight Deal, who

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DOROTHY PAGET

Dorothy Paget leads in Golden Miller after his win in the 1934 Grand National

incidentally sired the Champion Hurdle winner of 1957, Merry Deal. If Dorothy Paget wanted a horse, she invariably got it. When one of her longsuffering trainers, Basil Briscoe, asked how much she was prepared to pay for a horse that caught her eye, she told him, “Don’t ask bloody silly questions. I said, buy him!” According to her biographer Quintin Gilbey in his 1973 “Queen of the Turf; The Dorothy Paget Story,” she knew nothing about politics but declared herself an ardent Conservative “because [she] dislike[d] being ruled by the lower classes.” Gilbey goes on to recount the tale that during

World War II, she wrote to the Minister of Transport asking for a special dispensation that she could reserve a railway carriage to herself, because, she said, sitting next to a strange man “is liable to make me vomit.” This request was not surprisingly turned down. When she didn’t arrive to the races via train, she pulled up in a Rolls-Royce – followed by a “spare” in case of a breakdown, as had happened to her once – so the sight of a small convoy of Rolls-Royces approaching a racecourse came to signify that Dorothy Paget had arrived. Paget also showed up her women-only

entourage, whose various tasks were not only to keep her company but also to find out the prices, carry messages, and place bets. Sitting next to her on the back seat of the Rolls would be a battered old wooden box, which she would entrust to one of her assistants. This box would contain nine sharpened lead pencils. She would take one to make notes on her race card or to send a message, but as soon as it was blunt a lackey would be despatched to get a replacement. However, one Christmas, her secretary presented her with a beautiful gold one, bringing the total of pencils to ten. Paget promptly gave it back to her the following ISSUE 51 TRAINERMAGAZINE.COM

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RACING day after losing £35,000 on the Boxing Day race meetings. Her hatred towards men, which some of her contemporaries attributed to her 20-stone appearance and permanent scowl which consequently meant a distinct lack of suitors, thawed a touch when dealing with her male trainers, but she was still difficult. The fear she instilled in her trainers can be summed up in a story about the 1939 Royal Ascot meeting. Paget arrived at the course, full of confidence that her Colonel Payne would win the Cork and Orrery Stakes, following her trainer Fred Darling’s glowing reports of his exploits on the gallops. Colonel Payne had cost Paget 15,000 guineas as a yearling, and she was keen to recoup her outlay. After having an enormous bet on the horse she then watched Colonel Payne finish well down the field. Paget menacingly strode into the unsaddling enclosure to confront her trainer. “Where’s Mr Darling?” she demanded of jockey Gordon Richards. “I wouldn’t be quite sure, Miss Paget,” Richards replied, “but I’ve a pretty shrewd idea he’s on the top of the stand, cutting his throat.” Another of her trainers, Fulke Walwyn, later said, “Training horses was child’s play, but it’s a hell of a job trying to train Dorothy Paget” Her gambling equalled and almost eclipsed her commitment to the turf as her behaviour became more and more eccentric to the outside world. She would pad around her home during the small hours, clad in her favourite “wooly teddy-bear dressing gown” phoning up bookmakers and haunting her trainers. The racing journalist Geoffrey Hamlyn described her as “betting like a Chinaman, eating like Henry VIII and living at night, like Winston Churchill.” She would normally back her selected horse to make a profit of £20,000. This very nearly backfired when she decided to back a horse that went off at 1-8, meaning that she had to risk £160,000 to make her twenty grand. She had anticipated that the horse would be a 1-2 shot which meant her risking £40,000 to make her required profit. But when the odds started shortening dramatically, her bookmaker called one of her secretaries to check whether Paget still wanted to place the bet with such an eyewatering sum at stake. She told her secretary, “I consider his question a piece of gross impertinence.” The bet stayed on and the horse won. Paget also had an unusual method of varying her betting stakes: if someone rang her on the morning of a race she would 68

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Dorothy Paget’s famous colours

discover their phone number, then stake that number in pounds on her runner. She was a bookmaker’s dream, and would frequently bet on races that had already run, assuring the bookies that she did not know the result. This most peculiar and somewhat one-sided arrangement was happily accepted by them, who knew that the majority of horses she backed tended to be losers. Life at her Buckinghamsire mansion, aptly named Hermit’s Wood, was equally odd. She would eat dinner at seven in the

She was a bookmaker’s dream, and would frequently bet on races that had already run, assuring the bookies that she did not know the result

morning then retire to bed. Breakfast would be at 8.30 in the evening, when staff would receive their instructions for the following day in little white envelopes. “Tell the gardener to grow Hyacinths” would be followed by a duplicate version that would then be distributed to all her house staff. A trip to the races involved a tidal wave of notes, instructions, and memos, one of which was always to remind Hall, the gardener, to stand in the middle of the road stopping any traffic to enable Paget’s chauffeur-driven Rolls-Royce to make an unobstructed exit from Hermit’s Wood. There would be messages announcing Paget’s frequent visits to the toilet, messages instructing a trainer to load a horse into a horsebox, followed a little while later by another message instructing the same trainer to unload the same horse. Gardener Hall became known as “the eunuch,” because the locals could not believe that Paget, with her well-known antipathy towards men, would tolerate an ‘entire’ on the premises. For the last few years of her life, she was a virtual recluse, very rarely venturing out, depending on nocturnal phone calls to her trainers and bookmakers for news about her horses and the outside world. Her continued loathing of men even extended to those who had come to save her life. One Sunday afternoon her house caught fire whilst she was still in bed. Apparently, she opened her bedroom window and yelled down to her staff, “I have no intention of getting up until the flames are licking my pyjama legs.” It was only when smoke started to appear through the bricks at the back of her bedroom fireplace that she then decided to get dressed and went down to sit in her car. As she was about to be driven off, she told her staff, “Now you can send for the fire brigade” Smoking up to a 100 Turkish cigarettes a day combined with her bizarre lifestyle, her health was beginning to fail. Just before her birthday in February of 1960, Paget complained of feeling unwell but soon perked up after devouring one of her gargantuan meals. Early the next morning one of her secretaries found her looking at her horses future engagements in the racing calendar and talking to herself, and Paget was dead of heart failure an hour later. When her estate was settled and despite all the millions spent on horses and her spectacular gambling losses, she still left a not inconsiderable £20 million fortune but will forever be remembered for her wonderfully eccentric quirks as much as for Golden Miller. ■

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VeTeRINaRY

Check your horse’s dentist before your horse’s teeth I could begin this article in a 100 different ways and the common theme of all of them would be to get you to read on and understand my quest to make both our industries better. I write this as welfare officer for the British Association of Equine Dental Technicians (BAEDT) and I’m partly responsible for the BHA’s recent clarification article that appeared in the March/April issue of the NTF Newsletter, on using correctly qualified dentists on your yard. I hope you will take a few moments to read the article as it is ground-breaking.

R

WORDS: CHRIS NAPTHINE PHOTOS: CHRIS NAPTHINE

aCehoRse trainers strive to be successful in their training careers and many look for any little edge that might improve the horses in their charge or make the training of them easier. a combination of small changes and tweaks can create a beautifully oiled machine to work just how you want it to. What is accepted practice now that was previously unheard of -– imagine ten years ago a vet telling you he was going to fasten a scope on your horse and while it galloped you

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could all sit and watch its palate on some sort of futuristic computer screen with no wires. Times are constantly changing and so have a lot of the ideas on what can be done to help you stay off the cold list. Conquering misconceptions is the biggest task faced by most qualified dentists. Take the old ‘thumb in the mouth and feel the first tooth’ check – I’ll say this tongue in cheek but imagine the lorry mechanic lifting the bonnet when in for a service just looking underneath and saying “well sir, I think she’ll be ok for a few more months”; it’s just impossible to judge a horses need for dentistry or the

skills of your dentist via this method. In the last few years techniques for recognising and diagnosing dental problems and their subsequent treatment has skyrocketed. here are a few things that I hope might be food for thought and positive change. The processed dry matter (hay) from a horse should be no more than 3.7mm long to enable the correct digestion. Think how short that needs to be. If the horses teeth work correctly then it will gain greater benefit from every kilo of hay you feed it to achieve the maximum absorption through digestion. Therefore with the correct dental care the

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eQUINe DeNTIsTs

An equine dental examination using a mouth brace

horse benefits and so do you. The horse makes around 70-90 chewing motions per minute eating hay and 800-1200 when eating one kilo of concentrate – that’s a lot. every time a horse chews, any sharp teeth further back in its mouth, maybe the ones you can’t feel, are cutting into its cheeks or it may be suffering discomfort from an overgrown tooth, overgrown ridges, decay or disease. 500 million years of evolution has programmed every horse to eat despite discomfort and show few if any signs. There are many factors affecting the modern day racehorse, even down to such

things as the dry matter we feed which drastically slows down the chewing motions and therefore the wear on teeth; a horse has up to 60 less motions per minute eating dry matter in a stable than it does outside grazing and both of these feed stuffs still contain considerably less silicates (abrasive substances) than the horse evolved to eat. The moisture content of feed directly correlates with number of chewing motions and these facts fit perfectly with how the modern horse is managed in training. all these factors can directly contribute to uneven wear patterns that result in an unbalanced and

restricted jaw movement. The effect is likely to cause stress on joints from stiffness down one side that originated from something very simple like a retained cap/decay or overgrowths and result in deep ridges on the surface from eating just the feed we give them. an unbalanced mouth at one end, even though only slight, could easily lead to unbalance a lot bigger at the other end. Think of the retained caps the stabled horse inevitably gets and the small infection that surrounds them – this in turn requires the immune system to fight this and may lead to susceptibility to something else. all fairly ISSUE 51 TRAINERMAGAZINE.COM

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VeTeRINaRY simple really when you break it down. There are so many factors that affect a horse and many can be easily corrected and maintained by regularly (twice a year) using a correctly trained dentist. every single horse is a complete individual and this goes right back down to the way he/she reacts to dental pain and discomfort. Just because no outwardly signs have been presented does not by any means mean everything is fine and yet often it’s said ‘oh look how well he looks’, eats fine. This doesn’t give the full picture that is needed. of the 24 functional molars and 12 incisors a horse finally has at 4.5 years of age they will have lost and regained 24 of these along the way, that’s 24 times there could be a retained Capp (baby/deciduous) tooth. Therefore, there are 24 times for a chance of an infection and worryingly 24 more times there could be an accident when a horse rubs and chews at bars e.t.c., trying to dislodge the offending tooth.

An unbalanced mouth at one end, even though only slight, could easily lead to unbalance a lot bigger at the other end

Swelling on the off side of the face denoting a tooth problem Teeth that have been removed

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so now you finally have the main basis for me writing this, which is to encourage you to look at who treats your horse’s teeth. I’m sure you all want to use someone correctly and legally qualified to do the job and I’m sure your owners expect this yet do you know for sURe? how do you know what they are doing, what tools they are using and if any of that falls into the tricky Category 1 or Category 2 sections of the Veterinary surgeons act? a procedure may seem simple but can easily be illegal and void your insurance if carried out by someone not holding the CoRReCT qualification. You can easily check who is qualified and that is your responsibility as the overseer of welfare of the horses. Please do not just presume that the person is correctly treating your horses because you have used them for years. I urge you to look at the bigger picture and check. In the UK, BeVa qualified dentists can be found on the members list of the BaeDT website (www.baedt.com) and you can rest assured that they have passed through a very hard and rigorous British equine Veterinary association exam and are committed to the most up to date techniques and research. They are also fully accountable, fully insured and that they have their work examined on a regular basis, so they have to maintain the high standards they are examined on. They also comply with Bha guidelines on the use of dentists on yards. It is a very important part of welfare yet so easily overlooked and I hope that some of my words have got you thinking. n

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PRO-BREATHE

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PRODUCT FOCUS

The effects of NOT dosing correctly Prohibited substances have the ability to strike fear into the hearts of many professional keepers of horses facing regular drug testing. Bans, fines and loss of reputation are generally associated with the finding of a prohibited substance in a routine postrace test. Recent positive tests of morphine contamination found in feed led to widespread concern in the industry. Since then, measures have been taken to ensure prohibited substances cannot be found in feed with the use of the British Equestrian Trade Association (BETA)/ Universal feed Assurance Scheme (UFAS) Naturally Occurring Prohibited Substances (NOPS) screening scheme. This means that you can be assured that feed stuff is safe to use. However what happens when a vet prescribes medication, a prohibited substance, for the welfare of the horse? For instance, a non-steroidal antiinflammatory (NSAID) for pain relief or omeprazole for treatment of stomach ulcers. Both pain and ulceration have shown to reduce performance ability- how would you like to run with badly bruised tendon or burning pain in your stomach? But how do you consider the welfare of the horse and also abide by the rules set by the European Horserace Scientific Liaison Committee (EHSLC) prohibited substances? The answer to this is to work closely with your vet to understand the correct dosing and withdrawal time for the individual horse using a prescribed substance. Any horse cannot compete whilst it is on any such prohibited substance. The length of time following administration of the medication until the horse tests clear of the drug will vary a lot for several reasons including the different medications used, and in some cases by the dose given and the route of administration (i.e. oral or by injection). The authority running the competition can give advice on recommended competition withholding periods however they can only be made on the assumption that the

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recommended dose has been given. Giving too much of a medication can mean you risk the horse testing positive after following a suggested competition withholding period. In some instances your vet may prescribe a medication at a different dose to that recommended by the manufacturer of a product. There are a whole host of reasons why this might happen but in this circumstance it is vital that you discuss with your vet and follow their advice on competition withholding times. Mistakes can also happen when there are subtle differences between similar products. There are a few ulcer treating omeprazole products available in the market currently. One has a syringe containing a maximum treatment dose for a 575kg horse, while the market leading* licenced equine omeprazole product Peptizole® has a maximum treatment dose for a 700kg horse. If those responsible for administering this medication are giving a full syringe of a product, without checking if they are treating for a 575kg or a 700kg horse, then they may be overdosing by 18%. This is when serious problems can arise and the recommended withdrawal period is not sufficient to put them ‘in the clear’ to compete.

Other innocent ways of contaminating horses that have not been prescribed medication is easy to do, for example feeding a horse phenylbutazone (bute) in a bucket and not cleaning out properly. Educating staff and ensuring they follow correct hygiene procedures is paramount. Another easy way of overdosing is to overestimate the horses’ weight, thankfully these days many veterinary practices have weighing scales for horses. If this is not the case then your vet may be able to recommend a suitable weighing tape and give advice on how to use it correctly. In summary, to ensure your horse receives the correct dose of any medication, pay attention to product you are using, check the concentration and volume that you are giving, educate your staff and get an accurate weight of the horse, these factors are essential to avoid being caught out. This will not only ensure the horse recovers efficiently, but it will also mean that accurate withdrawal times can be applied and the horse can compete safely under the correct regulations. * Based on GFK figures MAT 08/2015 packs sold For more information contact www.norbrook.com

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PRODUCT FOCUS

Products that will make your horses hooves even stronger and is great for sensitive soles or softer feet. Keratex Hoof Gel – weatherproofs the hooves all year round, preventing water damage and deterioration with wet footing, training or stable related changes in the feet. It is fully breathable. Keratex Hoof Putty – a semipermanent wax that provides a neat, self-adhesive plug for hoof cavities, separation or punctures. It can also be used to protect holes left by abscesses. Keratex Nail Hole Damage Repair – a powerful fortifying liquid that cleans and hardens the area in and around old and new nail holes, reducing cracks and chips as they grow out. For more information visit www.keratex.com

Correct use of topical hoof care products will strengthen hooves, minimize shoe loss, improve foot quality, protect nail holes and allow the horse to withstand a busy lifestyle and workload. Combined with good farriery and a nutritious diet, correct product use for hooves will support and encourage good, strong feet and ensure the horse has the strength and flexibility to manage their day-to-day workload. The Keratex Hoofcare range is known to help to achieve and maintain superior hooves. Keratex Hoof Hardener – produces excellent hooves when applied regularly and keeps shoes on tight; assists with cracks, chips and flakes and abscesses;

Super Sound Blue Bond shoe from Kerckhaert The Kings Plate ® Extra Sound Blue Bond race plates in sizes 4, 5, 6, 7, 7,5 and 8 will be replaced by Super Sound ® Blue Bond race plates. Only size 3 will remain available as Kings Plate ® Extra Sound Blue Bond. Reason for this change is that Kerckhaert recently made a whole series of spectacular improvements to the world famous Alu Kings Extra Sound race plate program. The new, wider Kings Plate Super Sound ® race plates offer even more comfort and protection, allow natural, unimpeded hoof expansion and drastically reduce bruising and soreness, through multiple innovative and patented features. The horse will perform better because it has more balance and support. Patented Super Pitch Plus will give you the best nailing experience ever and your horse will have sounder and thicker hooves.

Key features

l Strong, specially developed shock absorbing material on the foot-side of the shoe l Slight heel elevation offers better balance and support, because the hoof axis is kept level when the bonded plates are weight-bearing. This is particularly important in bonded horseshoes

l

Custom sole relief built into the bonded layer l Superior durability and as quick and simple to fit as a normal race plates l Clean, open nail holes for stronger nailing, with patented Super Pitch Plus: The first three nail holes at the toe quarter have extra pitch. This makes nailing easier and allows the farrier to drive nails higher into the hoof wall even on flatter feet, resulting in stronger and tighter clenches

l Especially useful on hard tracks and when shoeing horses which are still developing their bones and joints l Perfectly complimented when fitted together with Super Sound ® hind shoes l Available Sizes: 5 – 6 – 7 – 7,5 – 8 l Recommended nail: Liberty ASV 1 ¾ or BH 3,5 For more information visit www.kerckhaert.com

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equinITY – bringing sports science to horses equinITy is a secure, web-based training tool integrating GPS and heart rate technologies into a lightweight girth. The software has been developed “in the yard” in response to trainers’ interest in monitoring fitness using an intuitive, non-invasive and cost-effective system. Any web-enabled device can be used to access the confidential data, which is displayed in userfriendly graphic form. There is no initial cost. Installation, hardware, system-use and on-going support is bundled into a monthly fee. Heart rate monitors have been commercially available since 1977 and used by human athletes since the early 1990s. The heart of a high-performing horse works less hard to reach race-winning speeds, and at higher heart rates, faster speeds should be achievable up to maximum heart rate (HRmax). As speed increases, HR will follow and, as the horse becomes fitter, it should achieve the same speed with a lower HR. The time in which HRmax is reached is another key indicator.

The final key measurement is recovery. Time spent in the upper aerobic zones (working to 80 per cent upwards of capacity) helps generate muscle mass, but must be controlled to minimise the risk of injury and fatigue. Recovery time is how quickly HR restores to the recovery zone after a piece of work. Equally, a steady decline can point to a

potential health problem, as can erratic or “spiking” HR during work. equinITy will only ever complement the trainer’s expertise and instinct. All data must be interpreted within the context of training methods and a particular horse’s characteristics. equinITy is simply switched on at the start of morning exercise and off at the end, and

monitoring can easily be managed by work riders in a trainer’s absence. Analysis is not laborious with equinITy sending alerts when readings move outside pre-set parameters. The data is permanently stored on a secure system and, if preferred, need only be scrutinised when the alarm is raised. Additionally, equinITy’s yard management tools save time by standardising working processes to improve planning and organisation. One of equinITy’s newest features, RaceFinder (which has been developed with Weatherbys), searches for suitable races for multiple horses simultaneously simplifying what can otherwise be a very time consuming process. Most of equinITy’s clients have no previous experience of heart rate monitoring but all generations, if familiar with a web browser, find it easy to use. Bringing sports science to horses and giving even the smallest advantage can only be a positive. For more information visit www.fineequinity.com

Racing Hoof Aid to the rescue Good quality hoof horn relies upon a correct supply of essential nutrients through a balanced diet. Inadequate intake can disrupt the keratinisation process and weaken the intercellular glue, resulting in weak poor quality hoof horn. Adding elevated levels of specific nutrients can have a therapeutic effect, promoting optimal growth and quality. Horses with a history of hoof challenges should be supplied with the highest recommended levels of beneficial essential nutrients to promote good growth and development, but which key ingredients should be included? And why? Biotin. A B-complex vitamin with an important role as a component of major metabolic enzymes, it is involved in the synthesis of intercellular glue, and this may be why supra-optimal dietary levels can increase hoof quality and growth rate. 60mg of biotin is included in a daily serving of ReadySupp Racing Hoof Aid. Sulphur. An important component of hoof and hair because it’s essential for the disulfide bonds in keratin and it helps maintain strength in the hoof horn. The essential amino-acid methionine is included in Racing Hoof Aid as a biologically available source of sulphur. Essential microminerals. Zinc and

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copper are key components of keratinized tissue, and amino acid chelates of these minerals are included due to their higher bioavailability. Zinc is a constituent in many enzymes, including those involved in keratinization, and low body zinc has been associated with reduced hoof horn hardness and strength. Essential fatty acids. Omega-3 fatty acids are involved in maintaining cell membrane fluidity and function and are a key component of the integrity of keratinized tissues including hoof and skin. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) from algae is used in Racing Hoof Aid, which provides essential omega-3 fatty acids in the form used in the body, rather than the intermediary, alpha linolenic acid. DHA has been shown to have an effect on the endothelium, modulating flexibility and balancing inflammation, and is involved in both the epidermal water barrier and the intercellular glue that connects the hoof tubules.

Why feed ReadySupp Racing Hoof Aid? ReadySupp Racing Hoof Aid promotes strong, resilient, healthy hoof horn and should be fed on top of a balanced diet. It promotes optimal hoof quality and growth and supplies clinical levels of

biotin, and also contains chelated zinc and copper, methionine, lysine, magnesium, calcium, iodine, B-complex vitamins and the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). It is safe to feed with a full ration of compound feed. It is ideal for racehorses with poor quality hoof horn, those prone to losing shoes, undergoing remedial hoof rebalancing, and any with hoof cracks or poor hoof horn growth. ReadySupp supplements are NOPS tested with high traceability and manufacturing standards for additional assurance. ReadySupp Racing Hoof Aid does not contain MSM. For more information visit www.readysupp.com

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PRODUCT FOCUS

The saliva test to detect tapeworm Until now, it has been difficult to detect tapeworm burdens in horses as worm egg counts do not reliably detect tapeworm eggs and blood tests are very costly and inconvenient. The EquiSal Tapeworm Test has been developed by experienced scientists at Austin Davis Biologics Ltd. It works like a blood test but, instead, uses saliva that you collect yourself. The test is scientifically proven to diagnose tapeworm burdens with high accuracy – it tells you if your horse has a burden and whether you need to worm or not. It is especially important to correctly control tapeworms, as they are considered a common cause of serious colic. Routine worming strategies can cause worms to build up resistance, enabling them to survive the worming. It is becoming increasingly

important to avoid routine worming to ensure wormers stay effective in the future. A suitable worm control programme should include regular worm egg counts, together with EquiSal Tapeworm testing every 6 months. Horses only need worming if testing identifies that the horse has a worm burden. Despite this testing regime, encysted redworm should be treated routinely every winter. To test for tapeworm, all you need to do is collect saliva from your horse using the specially designed swab and return it to the lab using the freepost bag included with the test kit. Results will be emailed to you and whether worming is recommended. Test kits are available online at www.equisal.com or through stockists in the UK, Denmark, Sweden, The Netherlands, Germany and Belgium. For more information visit www.equisal.co.uk

Steri-7 take infection control seriously While some consider ‘Infection Control’ and ‘Biosecurity’ to be equivalent terms, there are important differences. There are various definitions of Biosecurity, and it can be broadly defined as measures to reduce the risk of pathogen transmission. More often, it is used to refer to measures used to prevent the entry of pathogens into a population. In contrast, infection control aims to limit the impact of the Animal Veterinary medicine has made tremendous advances, so why do infectious diseases continue to pose such challenges? Many factors contribute to this ongoing risk, some inevitable (e.g. latent pathogens, emerging diseases, the need for frequent horse movement) and some preventable (e.g. poor infection control measures). The preventable fraction for Equine infectious diseases is completely unclear but, certainly, a reasonable percentage of Equine infections

could be prevented through application of basic Infection Control measures. The importance of Equine infectious diseases, while poorly defined, is undeniable. Similarly, while the state of Infection Control in the Equine industry is poorly defined, there is clearly room for improvement, in stables, at events, at sales, by ambulatory veterinarians and in equine hospitals. There is also probably increasing legal liability in the event that ‘reasonable’ measures are not undertaken, and it has been stated that there is a standard of expected Veterinary care in terms of infection control. There is a need for a ‘culture-change’ to challenge dogma, and recognise the importance and potential impact of infection control practices. How to achieve change is unclear, and equal parts education and motivation are required. Education is needed to provide the skills and tools to improve, and while evidence-

based guidelines are lacking. However, for improvements to be made, there must be recognition of the need and motivation to make changes. Equine Veterinarians should be a driving force behind both education and motivation, and take a leading role in improving the state of Equine Infection Control and Biosecurity. For information visit www.farmstable.com

www.duralock.com

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When working with horses, you cannot compromise on safety or strength. Made using advanced PVC technology all Duralock fencing is safe, strong and requires no maintenance.

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Call +44 (0)1608 678238 or visit www.duralock.com

25/09/2015 08:25


STAKES SCHEDULES

STAKES SCHEDULES RACES

Races are divided by distance and the relevant surface is indicated as follows: AWT - All Weather Track D - Dirt T - Turf. Countries covered in this issue are: Canada, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom and United States.

CLOSING DATES

Closing dates for all Irish races are set for domestic entry dates. Please check International entry dates with the relevant issue of The Racing Calendar.

COPYRIGHT

Under Copyright law, no part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means. This includes but not limited to; photocopying for commercial redistribution and or facsimile recording without the prior permission of the copyright holder, application for which should be addressed to the publisher.

DISCLAIMER

Whilst every effort has been made to publish correct information, the publishers will not be held liable for any omission, mistake or change to the races listed in all published indexes.

Call us on +44 (0)1380 816 777 to subscribe from £13 Country GB FR GB FR ITY IRE

Track Ascot Longchamp Newmarket Longchamp Milan Dundalk

Race Name & (Sponsor) Rous (Albert Bartlett) Prix de l’Abbaye de Longchamp (Qatar) Cornwallis St (Dubai) Criterium de Vitesse Premio Omenoni Mercury St

FR USA

Chantilly Keeneland

De Bonneval BC Turf Sprint

GB GB JPN GB GB IRE FR GB ITY GB FR USA FR GB ITY GB FR JPN JPN

Ascot Redcar Niigata York Newmarket Curragh Maisons-Laffitte Ascot Rome Newmarket Maisons-Laffitte Keeneland Fontainebleau Doncaster Rome Lingfield Park Fontainebleau Kyoto Nakayama

Bengough St (John Guest) Two-Year-Old Trophy Sprinters St Rockingham (Coral.co.uk) Boadicea St (EBF) Waterford Testimonial St Criterium de Maisons-Laffitte QIPCO British Champions Sprint S Ubaldo Pandolfi Bosra Sham St (EBF) Seine-et-Oise BC Sprint Zeddaan Wentworth St (Betfred) Premio Carlo & Francesco Aloisi (Ex Umbria) Golden Rose St Contessina Keihan Hai Capella St

GER GB GB FR FR GB GB IRE GB FR GB IRE GB IRE GER FR ITY USA JPN JPN JPN FR ITY JPN

Cologne Ascot Redcar Longchamp Longchamp Newmarket Newmarket Dundalk Newmarket Longchamp Newbury Leopardstown Newbury Leopardstown Hannover Maisons-Laffitte Milan Keeneland Kyoto Tokyo Kyoto Fontainebleau Siracusa Hanshin

Kolner Herbst Preis October St (Totepool EBF) Guisborough St Prix de la Foret (Qatar) Prix Jean-Luc Lagardere-Grand Criterium Challenge St Oh So Sharp St Star Appeal EBF St Dewhurst St De Saint-Cyr Horris Hill St (Worthington’s) Killavullan St Radley St Knockaire St Neue Bult Youngster Cup Miesque Premio Chiusura BC Filly & Mare Sprint Swan St Keio Hai Nisai St Fantasy St Ceres Criterium del Immacolata Hanshin Cup

Breeders’ Cup

Class L Gp 1 Gp 3 L Gp 3 L

Race Date 3-Oct-2015 4-Oct-2015 9-Oct-2015 9-Oct-2015 18-Oct-2015 23-Oct-2015

5f (1000m)

Value £45,000 €€350,000 £80,000 €55,000 €61,600 €40,000

Age 3+ 2+ 2 2 3+ 2+

Surface T T T T T AWT

Metres 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000

€52,000 $1,000,000

3+ 3+

T T

1100 1100

5.5 5.5

3+ 2 3+ 2 3+ F&M 3+ 2 3+ 2 F 2F 3+ 3+ 2 3+ 2+ 3+ 3+ 3+ 3+

T T T T T T T T T T T D T T T AWT T T D

1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200 1200

6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6

3+ 3+ F&M 3+ 3+ 2 CF 3+ 2F 2 2 3F 2 C&G 2 2F 3+ 2F 2 F 2+ 3+ F&M 3+ 2 2F 3F 2 3+

T T T T T T T AWT T T T T T T T T T D T T T T T T

1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400 1400

7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7

Visit www.trainermagazine.com L Gr 1

5-Oct-2015 31-Oct-2015

5.5f (1100m)

Now available for iPhone/iPad via Appstore

Gp 3 L Gr 1 L L L Gp 2 Gp 1 L L Gp 3 Gr 1 L L Gp 3 L L Gr 3 Gr 3

3-Oct-2015 3-Oct-2015 4-Oct-2015 10-Oct-2015 10-Oct-2015 11-Oct-2015 16-Oct-2015 17-Oct-2015 25-Oct-2015 30-Oct-2015 31-Oct-2015 31-Oct-2015 31-Oct-2015 7-Nov-2015 8-Nov-2015 14-Nov-2015 19-Nov-2015 29-Nov-2015 13-Dec-2015

£70,000 £150,000 $1,718,000 £45,000 £40,000 € 40,000 €190,000 £600,000 €41,800 £30,000 €80,000 $1,500,000 €55,000 £40,000 €61,600 £37,000 €52,000 $685,000 $633,000

Mile Juv Turf

3-Oct-2015 3-Oct-2015 3-Oct-2015 4-Oct-2015 4-Oct-2015 9-Oct-2015 9-Oct-2015 9-Oct-2015 10-Oct-2015 16-Oct-2015 24-Oct-2015 24-Oct-2015 24-Oct-2015 25-Oct-2015 25-Oct-2015 31-Oct-2015 31-Oct-2015 31-Oct-2015 31-Oct-2015 7-Nov-2015 7-Nov-2015 19-Nov-2015 8-Dec-2015 26-Dec-2015

€25,000 £40,000 £40,000 €300,000 €350,000 £150,000 £80,000 €47,500 £5,000,000 €55,000 £37,000 €47,500 £25,500 €40,000 €25,000 €80,000 €61,600 $1,000,000 $1,030,000 $647,000 $504,000 €55,000 €41,800 $1,173,000

Tipperary

Concorde St (Coolmore Stud Home of Champions)

Gp 3

4-Oct-2015

Rome Deauville Pisa Deauville

Criterium Femminile Luthier Criterium di Pisa Miss Satamixa

L L L L

USA USA USA USA GB FR FR FR

Belmont Park Belmont Park Keeneland Keeneland Newmarket Longchamp Longchamp Saint-Cloud

Foxwoods Champagne Frizette St First Lady S Shadwell Turf Mile Sun Chariot St (Kingdom of Bahrain) Prix Daniel Wildenstein (Qatar) Prix Marcel Boussac Thomas Bryon

8-Nov-2015 12-Dec-2015 13-Dec-2015 27-Dec-2015

€65,000

3+

T

1490

78

Mile Juv F Turf

Gr 1 Gr 1 Gr 1 Gr 1 Gp 1 Gp 2 Gp 1 Gp 3

3-Oct-2015 3-Oct-2015 3-Oct-2015 3-Oct-2015 3-Oct-2015 3-Oct-2015 4-Oct-2015 8-Oct-2015

14-Oct-2015 8-Oct-2015 14-Oct-2015 15-Sep-2015 29-Sep-2015 29-Sep-2015 11-Nov-2015 10-Nov-2015

€41,800 €52,000 €41,800 €52,000 $400,000 $400,000 $400,000 $750,000 £160000 €200,000 €300,000 €80,000

7.4

26-Aug-2015

7.5f (1500m) 2F 3+ 2 3+

T AWT T AWT

1500 1500 1500 1500

7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5

2 2F 3+ F&M 3+ 3+ F 3+ 2F 2

D D T T T T T T

1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600

8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

Call us on +44 (0)1380 816 777 to subscribe from £13 Juv Juv F

27-Sep-2015 28-Sep-2015 26-Aug-2015 26-Aug-2015 8-Sep-2015 3-Oct-2015 5-Oct-2015 4-Aug-2015 8-Oct-2015 19-Oct-2015 20-Oct-2015 19-Oct-2015 20-Oct-2015

7.4f (1490m)

Now available for iPhone/iPad via Appstore ITY FR ITY FR

28-Sep-2015 28-Sep-2015 18-Aug-2015 5-Oct-2015 5-Oct-2015 6-Oct-2015 23-Sep-2015 3-Aug-2015 24-Oct-2015 14-Oct-2015 14-Oct-2015 23-Oct-2015 2-Nov-2015 15-Oct-2015 9-Nov-2015 11-Nov-2015 13-Oct-2015 27-Oct-2015

7f (1400m)

Visit www.trainermagazine.com IRE

28-Sep-2015 14-Oct-2015

6f (1200m)

Call us on +44 (0)1380 816 777 to subscribe from £13 L L L Gp 1 Gp 1 Gp 2 Gp 3 L Gp 1 L Gp 3 Gp 3 L L L Gp 3 Gp 3 Gr 1 Gr 2 Gr 2 Gr 3 L L Gr 2

Furlongs Closing 5 27-Sep-2015 5 26-Aug-2015 5 3-Oct-2015 5 1-Oct-2015 5 5 19-Oct-2015

8f (1600m) 20-Sep-2015 19-Sep-2015 16-Sep-2015 16-Sep-2015 4-Aug-2015 26-Aug-2015 26-Aug-2015 23-Sep-2015

TRAINERMAGAZINE.COM ISSUE 51

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STAKES SCHEDULES Visit www.trainermagazine.com Country GB FR GB GER GER SPN ITY IRE GB IRE GER GER ITY ITY IRE SWE GB FR FR GB JPN FR ITY GB USA IRE USA JPN USA GB GB FR FR FR FR JPN JPN GB JPN FR USA JPN JPN ITY

Track Newmarket Chantilly Newmarket Munich Cologne Zarzuela Milan Curragh Ascot Cork Baden-Baden Baden-Baden Milan Milan Naas Taby Galopp Pontefract Deauville Chantilly Doncaster Tokyo Nantes Rome Lingfield Park Keeneland Dundalk Keeneland Tokyo Keeneland Newmarket Newmarket Saint-Cloud Saint-Cloud Compiegne Toulouse Kyoto Tokyo Kempton Park Kyoto Chantilly Aqueduct Hanshin Hanshin Milan

Race Name & (Sponsor) Fillies’ Mile (Dubai) Du Ranelagh Autumn St Winterfavoriten Preis des Winterfavoriten Gran Premio de la Hispanidad Premio Dormello Silken Glider St Queen Elizabeth II St (Qipco) Navigation St Winterkonigon Preis der Winterkonigin Gran Criterium Del Piazzale Garnet EBF St Swedish Open Mile Silver Tankard St (EBF) Reservoirs (Haras d’Etreham) Isonomy Trophy (Racing Post) Saudi Arabia Royal Cup Fuji St Des Sablonnets Premio Ribot Fl€ de Lys St (EBF) BC Dirt Mile Cooley EBF St BC Juvenile Fillies Turf Championship Artemis S BC Mile Ben Marshall St Montrose St (EBF) Criterium International Perth Isola-Bella Criterium du Languedoc Daily Hai Nisai St Musashino St Hyde St Mile Championship Tantieme Cigar Mile H’cap Hanshin Juvenile Fillies Asahi Hai Futurity St Del Giubileo

Breeders’ Cup

USA USA GER USA USA GER CAN USA

Keeneland Keeneland Dusseldorf Keeneland Keeneland Krefeld Woodbine Oaklawn Park

Darley Alcibiades S Claiborne Breeders’ Futurity Landeshauptstadt Dusseldorf BC Juvenile Fillies BC Juvenile Herzog von Ratibor-Rennen Autumn S Apple Blossom H

USA FR GB USA IRE USA JPN FR JPN JPN FR ITY ITY JPN FR JPN USA

Keeneland Maisons-Laffitte Newmarket Keeneland Leopardstown Keeneland Hanshin Longchamp Tokyo Tokyo Longchamp Milan Rome Kyoto Marseille Borely Tokyo Oaklawn Park

Juddmonte Spinster Prix Le Fabuleux Darley St Queen Elizabeth II Challenge Cup S (by invitation only) Eyrefield St BC Distaff Championship Challenge Cup Conde Mainichi Okan Fuchu Himba St Casimir Delamarre Campobello Premio Guido Berardelli Miyako St Delahante Tokyo Sports Hai Nisai St Arkansas Derby

FR FR SWE FR FR

Longchamp Bordeaux Taby Galopp Deauville Deauville

Prix Dollar (Qatar) Grand Criterium de Bordeaux Stockholm Fillies And Mares St Lyphard Petite Etoile

GER GER JPN FR GB GB GB ITY GER FR FR IRE GB CAN

Hoppegarten Hoppegarten Hanshin Longchamp Newmarket Newmarket Newmarket Milan Munich Le Lion d’Angers Saint-Cloud Dundalk Ascot Woodbine

Deutschen Einheit Preis der Deutschen Einheit Sirius St Prix de l’Opera (Longines) Pride Pride Stakes (Dubai) Zetland (Dubai) Premio Verziere Nereide-Rennen Andre Baboin Dahlia Carlingford St Champion (Qipco) E P Taylor S

Class Gp 1 L Gp 3 Gp 3 Gp 3 L Gp 3 L Gp 1 L Gp 3 Gp 3 Gp 2 Gp 3 L L L Gp 3 L Gp 1 Gr 3 L Gp 3 L Gr 1 L Gr 1 Gr 3 Gr 1 L L Gp 1 Gp 3 L L Gr 2 Gr 3 L Gr 1 L Gr 1 Gr 1 Gr 1 Gp 3

Race Date 9-Oct-2015 9-Oct-2015 10-Oct-2015 11-Oct-2015 11-Oct-2015 11-Oct-2015 11-Oct-2015 11-Oct-2015 17-Oct-2015 17-Oct-2015 18-Oct-2015 18-Oct-2015 18-Oct-2015 18-Oct-2015 18-Oct-2015 18-Oct-2015 19-Oct-2015 21-Oct-2015 22-Oct-2015 24-Oct-2015 24-Oct-2015 24-Oct-2015 25-Oct-2015 29-Oct-2015 30-Oct-2015 30-Oct-2015 30-Oct-2015 31-Oct-2015 31-Oct-2015 31-Oct-2015 31-Oct-2015 1-Nov-2015 1-Nov-2015 3-Nov-2015 11-Nov-2015 14-Nov-2015 15-Nov-2015 18-Nov-2015 22-Nov-2015 24-Nov-2015 28-Nov-2015 13-Dec-2015 20-Dec-2015 21-Jun-2016

8f (1600m) Value £500,000 €52,000 £80,000 €155,000 €155,000 €30,000 €121,000 €42,500 £1,000,000 €40,000 €105,000 €105,000 €209,000 €61,600 €50,000 SEK 400,000 £40,000 €80,000 €55,000 £200,000 $723,000 €55,000 €104,500 £40,000 $1,000,000 €50,000 $1,000,000 $504,000 $2,000,000 £37,000 £30,000 €275,000 €80,000 €52,000 €55,000 $647,000 $671,000 £40,000 $18,080,000 €52,000 $500,000 $1,173,000 $1,274,000 € 61,600

Age 2F 3+ 2 2 2 3+ 2F 2F 3+ 3+ 2F 2 2 C&F 3+ 3+ F&M 3+ 2 2F 2 2 C&F 3+ 2 3+ 3+ F&M 3+ 3+ F&M 2F 2F 3+ 3+ 2F 2 CF 3+ 3+ F 2 2 3+ 3+ 3+ 3+ 3+ 2F 2 No G 3+

Surface T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T AWT D AWT T T T T T T T T T T D AWT T T D T T T

Metres 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1600 1800

2F 2 3+ 2F 2 C&G 2 3+ 4+ F&M

D D T D D T AWT D

1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700 1700

8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9

16-Sep-2015 28-Sep-2015 5-Oct-2015

9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5

26-Aug-2015 30-Sep-2015 14-Sep-2015

Now available for iPhone/iPad via Appstore Juv F Juv

Gr 1 Gr 1 Gp 3 Gr 1 Gr 1 Gp 3 Gr 2 Gr 1

2-Oct-2015 3-Oct-2015 4-Oct-2015 31-Oct-2015 31-Oct-2015 8-Nov-2015 8-Nov-2015 15-Apr-2016

4-Oct-2015 6-Oct-2015 10-Oct-2015 10-Oct-2015 25-Oct-2015 30-Oct-2015 12-Dec-2015 5-Oct-2015 11-Oct-2015 17-Oct-2015 18-Oct-2015 24-Oct-2015 8-Nov-2015 8-Nov-2015 8-Nov-2015 23-Nov-2015 16-Apr-2016

$500,000 €55,000 £80,000 $500,000 €40,000 $2,000,000 $723,000 €80,000 $1,173,000 $955,000 €55,000 €41,800 €88,000 $671,000 €55,000 $580,000 $1,000,000

3+ F&M 3 3+ 3F 2 3+ FM 3+ 2 3+ 3+ FM 3F 2 2 3+ 2 2 3

D T T T T D T T T T T T T D T T D

1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800 1800

Gp 2 L L L L

3-Oct-2015 8-Oct-2015 18-Oct-2015 1-Dec-2015 2-Dec-2015

€200,000 €55,000 SEK 400,000 €52,000 €55,000

3+ 2 3+F&M 3+ 3F

T T T AWT AWT

1950 1900 1950 1900 1900

3+ 3+ 3+ 3+ F 3+ F 3+ 2 3+ F 3+ F 3+ 4+ F 3+ 3+ 3+ F&M

T T D T T T T T T T T AWT T T

2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000

Now available for iPhone/iPad via Appstore

F&M Turf

Gp 3 Gp 3 Gr 3 Gp 1 L L L Gp 3 L Gp3 L L Gp 1 Gr 1

3-Oct-2015 3-Oct-2015 3-Oct-2015 4-Oct-2015 9-Oct-2015 9-Oct-2015 10-Oct-2015 11-Oct-2015 11-Oct-2015 12-Oct-2015 14-Oct-2015 16-Oct-2015 17-Oct-2015 18-Oct-2015

17-Sep-2015 6-Oct-2015 3-Aug-2015 6-Oct-2015 CLOSED CLOSED 24-Sep-2015 24-Sep-2015 13-Oct-2015 14-Sep-2015 13-Oct-2015 30-Sep-2015 14-Oct-2015 11-Aug-2015 15-Sep-2015 16-Oct-2015 8-Oct-2015 23-Oct-2015 14-Oct-2015 26-Oct-2015 14-Oct-2015 15-Sep-2015 14-Oct-2015 26-Oct-2015 26-Oct-2015 14-Oct-2015 14-Oct-2015 26-Oct-2015 3-Nov-2015 29-Sep-2015 29-Sep-2015 12-Nov-2015 29-Sep-2015 16-Nov-2015 27-Oct-2015 10-Nov-2015 28-May-2015 16-Sep-2015 16-Sep-2015 11-Aug-2015 14-Oct-2015 14-Oct-2015 18-Aug-2015 21-Oct-2015

20-Oct-2015 14-Oct-2015 27-Oct-2015 16-Sep-2015 1-Sep-2015 1-Sep-2015 9-Oct-2015 15-Oct-2015 29-Sep-2015 30-Oct-2015 13-Oct-2015

9.5f (1950m)

10f (2000m)

€85,000 €85,000 $633,000 €400,000 £37,000 £50,000 £50,000 €61,600 €25,000 €80,000 €64,000 €40,000 £1,300,000 CAN500,000

10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

ISSUE 51 TRAINERMAGAZINE.COM

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CLOSED

9f (1800m)

Gr 1 L Gp 3 Gr 1 L Gr 1 Gr 3 Gp 3 Gr 2 Gr 2 L L Gp 3 Gr 3 L Gr 3 Gr 1

Visit www.trainermagazine.com

Closing 4-Aug-2015 1-Oct-2015 5-Sep-2015

8.5f (1600m)

$400,000 $500,000 €55,000 $2,000,000 $2,000,000 €55,000 CAN150,000+ $600,000

Call us on +44 (0)1380 816 777 to subscribe from £13 Distaff

Furlongs 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

4-Aug-2015 4-Aug-2015 3-Oct-2015 26-Aug-2015 3-Oct-2015 3-Oct-2015 5-Oct-2015 17-Sep-2015 23-Sep-2015 6-Oct-2015 12-Oct-2015 4-Aug-2015 30-Sep-2015

79

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STAKES SCHEDULES Call us on +44 (0)1380 816 777 to subscribe from £13 Country JPN IRE ITY ITY USA CAN GB USA FR JPN GB ITY FR GER FR SWE GB GER JPN ITY JPN JPN GB JPN

Track Kyoto Leopardstown Rome Rome Keeneland Woodbine Newmarket Keeneland Saint-Cloud Tokyo Doncaster Rome Marseille Borely Krefeld Saint-Cloud Taby Galopp Lingfield Park Frankfurt Fukushima Rome Kyoto Chukyo Lingfield Park Nakayama

Race Name & (Sponsor) Shuka Sho Trigo St Premio Lydia Tesio Conte Felice Scheibler BC Classic Maple Leaf S James Seymour BC Filly & Mare Turf Criterium de Saint-Cloud Tenno Sho (Autumn) Gillies St (EBF) Premio Roma Grand Prix de Marseille Niederrhein-Pokal Solitude Songline Classic Churchill St Hessen-Pokal Fukushima Kinen G, Valiani (ex Buontalenta) Radio Nikkei Hai Nisai St Kinko Sho Quebec St Hopeful S

Breeders’ Cup

IRE FR FR FR

Dundalk Croise-Laroche Saint-Cloud Toulouse

Diamond St Grand Prix du Nord Flore Fille de l’Air

GER GER JPN

Dresden Hannover Kyoto

Grosser Dresdner Herbstpreis Herbst Stutenpreis Queen Elizabeth II Commemorative Cup

ITY

Naples

Unire

Class Gr 1 L Gp 1 L Gr 1 Gr 3 L Gr 1 Gp 1 Gr 1 L Gp 1 L Gp 3 L L L L Gr 3 L Gr 3 Gr 2 L Gr 2

Race Date 18-Oct-2015 24-Oct-2015 25-Oct-2015 25-Oct-2015 31-Oct-2015 31-Oct-2015 31-Oct-2015 31-Oct-2015 1-Nov-2015 1-Nov-2015 7-Nov-2015 8-Nov-2015 8-Nov-2015 8-Nov-2015 9-Nov-2015 12-Nov-2015 14-Nov-2015 14-Nov-2015 15-Nov-2015 15-Nov-2015 28-Nov-2015 5-Dec-2015 19-Dec-2015 27-Dec-2015

Value $1,608,000 €40,000 €264,000 €41,800 $5,000,000 CAN150,000 £37,000 $2,000,000 €250,000 $2,721,000 £40,000 €242,000 €60,000 €55,000 €55,000 SEK 400,000 £45,000 €55,000 $723,000 €41,800 $580,000 $1,085,000 £37,000 $1,173,000

10f (2000m) Age 3F 3+ 3+ F 3 3+ 3+ F&M 3+ 3+ F&M 2 CF 3+ 3+ F&M 3+ 3+ 3+ 3F 3+ 3+ 3+ 3+ 3+ F 2 3+ 3+ 2

Surface T T T T D AWT T T T T T T T T T D AWT T T T T T AWT T

Metres 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2050 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000

3+ 3 3+ F 3+ F

AWT T T T

2100 2100 2100 2100

3+ 3+ F M 3+ FM

T T T

2200 2200 2200

3+

T

2250

3+ 3+ CF 3+ F&M 3+ 3+ 3+ 3 + FM 3+ F 3+ 3+ 3+ 3+ 3+ 3+ 3+ 3+ 3+ 3+ 3+ 3+ 3+

T T T D T T T T T T T T T T T T AWT T AWT T T

2400 2400 2400 2400 2400 2400 2400 2400 2400 2400 2400 2400 2400 2400 2400 2400 2400 2400 2400 2400 2400

3+ F 3 3+ 3+ F 3+

T T T T T

2500 2500 2500 2500 2500

3+ F&M

AWT

2600

Visit www.trainermagazine.com Gp 3 L Gp 3 Gp 3

2-Oct-2015 4-Nov-2015 1-Nov-2015 11-Nov-2015 19-Nov-2015 25-Oct-2015 15-Nov-2015

€25,000 €55,000 $1,636,000

20-Dec-2015

€41,800

Ascot Longchamp Toulouse Jagersro Curragh Kyoto Ascot Naas Milan Longchamp Woodbine Newbury Nantes Zarzuela Keeneland Munich Kempton Park Lyon-Parilly Kempton Park Tokyo Toulouse

Cumberland Lodge St (Ascot) Prix de l’Arc de Triomphe (Qatar) Panacee Skanska Faltrittklubbens Jubileumslopning Finale St Kyoto Daishoten QIPCO British Champions Series Fillies & Mares New Race (EBF) Gran Premio del Jockey Club e Coppa d’Oro Conseil de Paris Pattison Canadian International St Simon St (Worthington’s) Grand Prix de Nantes Gran Premio Memorial Duque de Toledo BC Turf Grosser Pries Von Bayern Floodlit St Grand Camp Wild Flower St Japan Cup Max Sicard

FR FR JPN FR JPN

Longchamp Deauville Tokyo Saint Cloud Nakayama

Prix Royallieu (Qatar) Vulcain Copa Republica Argentina Belle de Nuit Arima Kinen

GB

Lingfield Park

River Eden St (EBF)

Gp 3 Gp 1 L L L Gr 2 Gp 1 L Gp 1 Gp 2 Gr 1 Gp 3 L L Gr 1 Gp 1 L L L Gr 1 L

3-Oct-2015 4-Oct-2015 7-Oct-2015 8-Oct-2015 11-Oct-2015 12-Oct-2015 17-Oct-2015 18-Oct-2015 18-Oct-2015 18-Oct-2015 18-Oct-2015 24-Oct-2015 24-Oct-2015 25-Oct-2015 31-Oct-2015 1-Nov-2015 4-Nov-2015 21-Nov-2015 25-Nov-2015 29-Nov-2015 6-Dec-2015 3-Oct-2015 21-Oct-2015 8-Nov-2015 14-Nov-2015 27-Dec-2015

L

29-Oct-2015

£40,000

Ascot Saint-Cloud Milan Rome Woodbine

Noel Murless Scaramouche St Leger Italiano Roma Vecchia Valedictory S

L L Gp 3 L Gr 3

2-Oct-2015 2-Oct-2015 24-Oct-2015 15-Nov-2015 29-Nov-2015

Longchamp Kyoto

Prix Chaudenay (Qatar) Kikuka Sho (Japanese St Leger)

Gp 2 Gr 1

FR FR

Saint-Cloud Saint-Cloud

Prix Royal-Oak Denisy

GB

Ascot

QIPCO British Champions series Long Distance Cup

3-Oct-2015 25-Oct-2015

£37,000 €52,000 €61,600 €41,800 CAN150,000+

3 3+ 3+ 3+ 3+

T T T T AWT

2800 2800 2800 2800 2800

25-Oct-2015 14-Nov-2015

€200,000 $2,029,000

3 3 No G

T T

3000 3000

€ 25,0000 €52,000

3+ 3+

T T

3100 3100

17-Oct-2015

£310,000

3+

T

3200

Nakayama

Stayers St

Gr 2

5-Dec-2015

Longchamp Cologne

80

Prix du Cadran (Qatar) Silbernes Band des Rheinlandes

Gp 1 L

4-Oct-2015 11-Oct-2015

28-Sep-2015 13-May-2015 29-Sep-2015 7-Sep-2015 6-Oct-2015 1-Sep-2015 3-Aug-2015 18-Oct-2015 24-Sep-2015 30-Sep-2015 30-Sep-2015 19-Oct-2015 16-Oct-2015

14-Oct-2015 11-Aug-2015 29-Oct-2015 13-Nov-2015 19-Nov-2015 13-Oct-2015

12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5

26-Aug-2015 13-Oct-2015 29-Sep-2015 6-Nov-2015 10-Nov-2015

13

23-Oct-2015

14 14 14 14 14

26-Sep-2015 24-Sep-2015 1-Oct-2015 11-Nov-2015

15 15

26-Aug-2015 15-Sep-2015

15.5 15.5

7-Oct-2015 6-Nov-2015

16

3-Aug-2015

18f (3600m) $1,085,000

3+

T

3600

Now available for iPhone/iPad via Appstore FR GER

12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12

16f (3200m)

Visit www.trainermagazine.com JPN

11.25

15.5f (3100m)

Call us on +44 (0)1380 816 777 to subscribe from £13 Gp 2

1-Sep-2015 29-Sep-2015

15f (3000m)

Now available for iPhone/iPad via Appstore Gp 1 L

11 11 11

8f (1600m)

Visit www.trainermagazine.com FR JPN

26-Aug-2015 27-Oct-2015 14-Oct-2015 21-Oct-2015

13f (2600m)

Call us on +44 (0)1380 816 777 to subscribe from £13 GB FR ITY ITY CAN

10.5 10.5 10.5 10.5

12.5f (2500m) €250,000 €55,000 $997,000 €52,000 $4,530,000

Now available for iPhone/iPad via Appstore

13-Oct-2015 27-Oct-2015 14-Dec-2015 10-Nov-2015

12f (2400m) £60,000 €4,000,000 €52,000 SEK 400,000 €40,000 $1,173,000 £565,000 €55,000 €242,000 €130,000 CAN1,000,000 £60,000 €60,000 €56,100 $3,000,000 €155,000 £37,000 €52,000 £37,000 $5,426,000 €60,000

Visit www.trainermagazine.com Gp 2 L Gr 2 L Gr 1

29-Sep-2015

11.25f (2250m)

Visit www.trainermagazine.com GB FR FR SWE IRE JPN GB IRE ITY FR CAN GB FR SPN USA GER GB FR GB JPN FR

14-Oct-2015 14-Oct-2015 26-Oct-2015 14-Oct-2015 14-Oct-2015 15-Sep-2015 2-Nov-2015 15-Oct-2015 30-Oct-2015 15-Sep-2015 2-Nov-2015 12-Oct-2015 9-Nov-2015

11f (2200m)

Call us on +44 (0)1380 816 777 to subscribe from £13 L

Closing 1-Sep-2015 20-Oct-2015 8-Oct-2015

10.5f (2100m) €57,500 €55,000 €80,000 €80,000

Now available for iPhone/iPad via Appstore L Gp 3 Gr 1

Furlongs 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

€300,000 €25,000

18

27-Oct-2015

20f (4000m) 4+ 3+

T T

4000 4000

20 20

26-Aug-2015

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European Trainer, October to December 2015 - issue 51  
European Trainer, October to December 2015 - issue 51