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ILLIMITA B LE / VO LUME FIVE


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his edition of Illimitable coincides with a grand moment in the history of the University of Virginia: the launch of UVA’s bicentennial commemoration and the commencement of its third century as a model of excellence in higher education. On October 6, 1817, former U.S. Presidents Thomas Jefferson and James Madison and the sitting President James Monroe presided over the laying of the University’s cornerstone. It was a festive day, filled with pageantry and celebration. It’s worth noting, however, that the first classes at UVA did not begin until 1825. In the intervening eight years, Thomas Jefferson and his colleagues worked hard and overcame numerous challenges to raise funds to support the University, seek approval for its charter, plan the curriculum, hire faculty and oversee the construction of the Academical Village. Those early challenges remind us that a great and enduring creation such as the University of Virginia comes to life only through diligent, sustained effort. We draw inspiration from this truth as UVA’s faculty, staff, and students continue the work that Jefferson began 200 years ago, work that you can see on display in these pages of Illimitable. You can read about efforts in the McIntire School of Commerce and the Darden School of Business to educate future business leaders with an emphasis on ethical decision-making. You can learn about a scholarship program that supports UVA students with artistic aspirations as they explore music, dance, drama and studio art. You can see our plans to grow and enhance telehealth programs that benefit patients far beyond Charlottesville. For 200 years, this University has been committed to the “illimitable freedom of the human mind.” What will the next 200 years hold? The possibilities are endless.

Teresa A. Sullivan President

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TABLE OF CONTENTS COMMONWE ALTH, NATION, WORLD

Lives on the Line ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 8 Power in Numbers  ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 10

DISCOVERY

Nano Mission  ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 16 Data-Driven Solutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

INGENUIT Y

Hidden No More �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 24 Cultivating Creativity �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 26

GRE ATER GOOD

Bicentennial  �������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 32 The Business of Ethics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 One Man’s Poison ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 38

OF NOTE The Brogdon Effect ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 44 The UVA Grounds That Could Have Been ����������������������������������������������������� 46 Honorable  ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 54

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IL L IM ITA BL E / VO L UM E 5

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COMMONWEALTH, NATION, WORLD

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THROUGH TELEMEDICINE, UVA DOCTORS PROVIDE URGENTLY NEEDED EXPERTISE TO THOUSANDS ACROSS VIRGINIA — AND THEY’RE JUST GETTING STARTED

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EXAMPLES OF

FROM THE MOMENT symptoms of an ischemic stroke begin, victims have only

TELEHEALTH SUBSPECIALTIES

three hours to get help. This could spell disaster for patients in rural Virginia, often hundreds of miles from the nearest stroke neurologists. The telestroke program at UVA’s Karen S. Rheuban Center for Telehealth is changing that. Telehealth provides prompt virtual connections between stroke victims in underserved areas and UVA specialists. That allows local caregivers to administer the right drug before it’s too late. “Now, a stroke patient who presents to our rural community hospital partners — where they have no stroke neurologist on site — will be given clot-busting medication at the same rate they would in our emergency department here,” said Dr. Karen S. Rheuban, the center’s co-founder and medical director.

TRANSFORMING TRE ATMENT The available help goes far beyond stroke treatments. The center provides access to more than 60 medical subspecialties at 152 telemedicine partner sites across Virginia. That translates to more than 65,000 clinical patient encounters and 16 million miles of travel saved for Virginians. Those specialties include psychiatry, pediatric cardiology, diabetes management, best practices for breastfeeding and more. Additional services are planned. “Currently we have over 100 new-use cases on the books where we are trying to bring additional services to patients,” said David Cattell-Gordon, director of UVA’s office of telemedicine.

STROKE DIAGNOSIS

CARE WHERE IT COUNTS For caregivers on the ground, the difference is clear. “We do not have a lot of psychiatrists in our area, and that was a huge need here,” said Lindsey Kennedy, telehealth coordinator for Bland County Medical Clinic, a federally qualified health center in southwestern Virginia that provides care for many uninsured patients. Kennedy, who recently graduated with a master’s degree in nursing from UVA and earned certification to become a family nurse practitioner, is one of hundreds of skilled health care providers the University has trained to manage telehealth connections across the commonwealth. Executive Vice President for Health Affairs Dr. Richard P. Shannon said training providers such as Kennedy and testing new treatment areas are important building blocks as the University of Virginia Health System expands its national leadership in telehealth. “The Karen S. Rheuban Center for Telehealth at UVA facilitated 11,000 virtual visits last year,” Shannon said. “Our goal is to provide 60,000 virtual visits over the next two to three years, helping us provide excellent care more efficiently while also enabling more patients to receive the care they need closer to home.” BY KATIE MCNALLY

DIABETES MANAGEMENT

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PEDIATRIC CARDIOLOGY

BREASTFEEDING BEST PRACTICES

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5.9B

POWER in

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ECONOMIC I M PAC T

NUMBERS 239.9M THE UNIVERSIT Y OF VIRGINIA HELPS MAKE THE COMMONWEALTH ONE OF THE NATION’S BEST PLACES TO LIVE AND WORK

GOVERNMENT R E V E N U E I M PAC T

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51,653

JOBS

E M PLOYM E NT I M PAC T

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ince its founding two centuries ago, the University of Virginia has evolved into a leading global university and health system. And while UVA’s contributions to research, medicine and intellectual discovery are well-known, the school also plays an increasingly important role in the lives of Virginians from all walks of life. In 2015, one out of every 76 jobs in Virginia was held by a UVA employee or was supported by the University’s presence. UVA generated $5.9 billion in economic impact for the commonwealth, including nearly $240 million in government revenue. Its students, faculty and staff gave away more than $50 million in volunteer time, and visitors to UVA events created more than $350 million in economic impact.

644. 5M UVA RESEARCH HAS A $644.5 MILLION ANNUAL IMPACT

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DEFINING IMPAC T UVA researchers pursue groundbreaking discoveries that hold the promise to advance the human condition. In 2016, for example, medical researchers in the lab of JONATHAN KIPNIS upended decades of accepted science when they determined that the brain is connected to the immune system by vessels previously thought not to exist.

DIRECT

INDIRECT

INDUCED

Accounts for operational spending on goods and services within the region — including employee compensation, employee spending and spending by patients and visitors.

The impact is seen through spending on goods and services by the companies and people who do business with the University. The payments to suppliers lead to payments to other suppliers who pay other suppliers, and so on, in a ripple effect.

The University’s economic contributions do not end when it prints paychecks for employees or pays its suppliers. That money is filtered back into the economy by household and vendor spending, and greatly increases the contribution of the University.

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VALUE OF UVA FACULT Y, STAFF AND STUDENT VOLUNTEERISM

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4M

M AKI NG OUR PR E S E N C E F E L T The University’s impact on Virginia can take several forms. The value of volunteer time is one example. UVA student IRIS CASTILLO spent a summer volunteering at Casa Alma, a local charity that supports and houses families in need. “Volunteering has definitely added value to my experience at UVA,” says Castillo. “It’s important for me to apply what I’m learning here in the real world.”

352.9M 91,530 18.9M

VISITORS Visitors to UVA events created $352.9 million in economic impact, supported 3,918 jobs and generated $23 million in government revenue.

ALUMNI 91,530 UVA alumni work in the state. Alumni have created an estimated 65,000 companies worldwide and employ approximately 2.3 million people.

D O NATI O N S Our faculty and staff are responsible for $18.9 million in annual charitable donations, and UVA is the top contributing state agency to the Commonwealth of Virginia Campaign.

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ONE IN EVERY 76 JOBS IN VIRGINIA HELD DIRECTLY AT OR SUPPORTED BY UVA

IM PACT FROM AL L AN GL ES

The University’s Health System, the Academic Division and UVA-Wise make significant contributions to Virginia jobs, revenue and communities.

H E A LT H S Y S T E M

ACADEMIC DIVISION

U VA - W I S E

27,194

23,779

680

JOBS

JOBS

$

143.9M

$

GOVERNMENT REVENUE

GOVERNMENT REVENUE

$

25.7M

IN COMMUNITY IMPACT

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JOBS

92.5M

$

3.5M

$

38.8M

$

IN COMMUNITY IMPACT

IN COMMUNITY IMPACT

GOVERNMENT REVENUE

5.8M

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2 DISCOVERY

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AL SIZ E *ACTU

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NANO

MISSION

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A University of Virginia student-built spacecraft, a cube the size of a softball, will be launched into orbit next year as part of a joint NASA mission.

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UVA’s craft will conduct atmospheric density measurements. The objective is to better

FROM CONTRAC T TO FLIGHT

understand the rates at which low-orbiting spacecraft decelerate and ultimately descend 1

to Earth when encountering the “drag” of the outer edges of our atmosphere.

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The other two satellites in the constellation are being designed and built by students at Virginia Tech and Old Dominion University through the Virginia Space Grant Consortium. Hampton University also is collaborating. Students at each institution will communicate with their craft and each other throughout the mission, and have worked jointly on the project during its design phase.

EXTRAORDINARY EXPERIENCE

FAMOUS FOOTSTEPS

“Our students will have direct control of our spacecraft, gaining valuable firsthand experience in spacecraft operations,” said Christopher Goyne, a professor in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering who serves as faculty adviser for the project. “They also will have control over the data received from the spacecraft and will handle its distribution and dissemination. It’s a great learning experience that will prepare them for careers in the aerospace industry and with government.”

The CubeSat mission is a multi-year project, begun at UVA in 2013 when students launched a test craft via high-altitude weather balloon. The project is passed down to each succeeding group of fourth-year engineering students as part of their final projects. Everything learned since the project’s inception contributes to the overall growth and development of the CubeSat mission.

The satellite is expected to be launched with two others aboard a NASA-sponsored rocket as part of an International Space Station resupply mission. It will be deployed into orbit as a “constellation,” either directly from the rocket or later by astronauts aboard the space station. The satellites will circle the Earth at different altitudes, gathering atmospheric drag information from specific orbits.

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Spring 2016 2

he miniature spacecraft, called a CubeSat (for cube-sized satellite), will be the first developed and flown by UVA. Students will track the craft and collect data from it using a ground station they designed and built. The station will include a steerable, roof-mounted antenna linked with radios and computers in a room dedicated to mission control.

“Our students are walking in the footsteps, in essence, of famous NASA programs like the Apollo missions,” Goyne said. “It’s a special experience for them to design, build, test and ultimately fly a craft that goes into space.” The space-phase of the mission will end when each CubeSat re-enters Earth’s dense atmosphere and burns up like a meteor. Then the data analysis begins.

AWARDING OF NASA CONTRACT

DESIGN OF SPACECRAF T Fall 2016 — Spring 2017

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TESTING COMPONENTS Spring — Summer 2017

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GROUND STATION DESIGN Spring — Summer 2017

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ASSEMBLY, TESTING AND DELIVERY Summer 2017 — Spring 2018

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LAUNCH OF SPACECRAF T Late 2018

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ORBITING EARTH 6-12 months in late 2018, early 2019

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DATA ANALYSIS UVA’s departments of astronomy and environmental sciences also are working on proposals to NASA for possible space- and Earth-observing missions using CubeSats.

BY FARISS SAMARRAI

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U V A’ S

CUBESAT

SOLAR CELL

ALUMINUM FRAME

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATIONS

INSIDE THE BOX 19

CubeSats weigh about three pounds and measure 3.9 inches by 3.9 inches by 4.1 inches. CubeSats contain radios, solar panels, batteries, battery heaters and inertial measurement units. They also include electronics, including GPS, for altitude and flight control and data storage. Ground station commands are sent via amateur radio signal, and data is streamed to ground stations from the onboard radio.

FEET

BAT TERY

PORTS

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DATA-DRIV E

SOL U

IN THE MUSHROOMING QUANTIT Y OF DATA GENER ATED

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BY MODERN SOCIE T Y, THE UNIVERSIT Y OF VIRGINIA SEES

AN OPPORTUNIT Y FOR ACCOMPLISHING SOME GOOD. UVA’S

DATA SCIENCE INSTITUTE SERVES AS A HUB AROUND WHICH RESEARCHERS CAN PROBE AND ANALY ZE MASSIVE DATA

SE TS TO GLEAN INSIGHTS THAT COULD HELP SOLVE THORNY PROBLEMS AND IMPROVE QUALIT Y OF LIFE. BY FARISS SAMARRAI

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COUNTERING SOCIAL MEDIA RADICALIZATION UVA researchers led by Psychiatry Professor Janet Warren are using text analytics and eye-gaze tracking to combat social media radicalization by terror groups. The team will use data analysis to identify risk factors associated with the decision to support terror and to reduce the appeal of radicalization messages.

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EN

STROKE WARNING SYSTEM

UTIONS A McIntire School of Commerce team is using text and psychometric analysis to identify patterns and risk factors for stroke. The team is developing technology that, when paired with wearable devices, can track stroke warning signs and alert patients and physicians.

NEWBORN BLOOD SCREENING

Newborn blood screening identifies diseases in thousands of U.S. infants each year. UVA Data Science graduate students are improving the process with data visualization tools. The team has already helped the state produce hospital report cards in minutes versus hours.

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EXPRESSIVE ROBOTICS

UVA roboticists and musicians are giving robots an expressive “voice” so they can better interact with humans. The lead researchers — both Presidential Fellows in Data Science — recorded musicians making expressive sounds to match the qualities of expressive movements. Using signal-processing and statistical tools, they are now analyzing these sounds to understand how sonic features map to features of movement.

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3 INGENUITY

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HIDDEN NO MORE 24

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A

bout a year ago, very few knew about the extraordinary work of NASA “computers” Katherine Johnson, Dorothy Vaughan and Mary Jackson. A year later — thanks to the research of University of Virginia alumna Margot Lee Shetterly — the country and the world know how these “hidden figures” altered the course of history. Johnson, Vaughan and Jackson were part of a group of female mathematicians and engineers whose careful calculations played a critical role in John Glenn’s successful 1962 orbit of the Earth. Unlike Glenn, the African-American women’s stories and names were lost to history — at least until Shetterly came along. Shetterly’s resulting book, “Hidden Figures,” hit The New York Times bestseller list when it was published last fall. The subsequent movie of the same name, starring Taraji Henson, Octavia Spencer and Janelle Monáe, was one of the year’s blockbusters and earned three Oscar nominations and several awards. Shetterly, a 1991 McIntire School of Commerce graduate, is not done yet. After the success of “Hidden Figures,” she is determined to continue uncovering the stories of African-American men and women who, without fanfare, have significantly changed history for the better. She first learned about Johnson, Vaughan and Jackson from her father, who also worked at NASA’s Langley Research Center in Hampton. “I realized that my husband had never heard these stories, and that I didn’t even know the whole story,” said Shetterly, who began

her career on Wall Street before working in digital media and publishing. “I started really investigating Katherine Johnson, who was the best-known, and the more I looked, the more women I discovered.” What she found proved irresistible — to Shetterly, to the film producers who snapped up her book proposal and, ultimately, to audiences around the world. “I hope it will change our perceptions about what scientists look like or what mathematicians look like,” Shetterly said of the book and the film. “Talent is distributed among all populations and, given a chance, people can excel in these fields. This story shows what we can learn from the past, in terms of opening the doors for people to excel today.” After the success of her first book, Shetterly is expanding her focus and looking for hidden figures in other industries. Last spring, she signed a two-book deal with Viking Books, focusing on the stories of influential African-Americans in mid-century Baltimore: a media industry titan, a philanthropist, a venture capitalist and the first black woman on the Baltimore City Council.

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Their stories, like those of Johnson, Vaughan and Jackson, are what Shetterly describes as “all-American stories,” not just “women’s history” or “black history.” They offer a window into one of the most tumultuous centuries in American history — a span that included two world wars, the Civil Rights Movement, the space race and fights for gender equality — and they raise important questions as we write the next chapter of the American story. BY CAROLINE NEWMAN

THIS STORY SHOWS WHAT WE CAN LEARN FROM THE PAST, IN TERMS OF OPENING THE DOORS FOR PEOPLE TO EXCEL TODAY. —MARGOT LEE SHETTERLY, AUTHOR OF “HIDDEN FIGURES” IL L IM ITA BL E / VO L UM E FIV E

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. ars l o 27 Sch ; s s t r Ar phe y a l i r g to uch Fam s o , h r s ille dp ine l n M ram a p i g d c s o r r s o pr EY r di e anf inge e ML h s S t h RO t . , a B o J r s E NN dy as ent ope u YA d t , B s d u s r te r st any ake u r it. elec M o m f s e . t m n f ese are sa ; fil low h e s c t s r l t m e r s a t Fo t co ion ain arti . a s t p r h t a a n w occ and eir nd ude n s t a h r t a s e— nce ing ven c a l of n e n d u o e f i , and le h ors per and i t s x h h t c e s a ,a e, w arti de UVA c u r l a n ear i i c e y d the h sci s in me g i r k t n l e n i Eac t u a pu hap ,m ir r s m s e t o n h T le i righ or c o w r s y t s n e pla orta usin p b im as n a s play IL L IM ITA BL E / VO L UM E 5 ill365_1617_ill_vol_5_text_M.AC.indd 27

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WE’RE OFFERED COUNTLESS OPPORTUNITIES TO FURTHER EMBOLDEN OUR ART, TO EXPLORE, GROW AND BE GUIDED ALONG THE WAY. BRAELYNSCHENK | DANCE Braelyn Schenk is learning about arts administration, using dance to help motivate youth and build community ties. Last year Schenk worked with a group of local students on dance improvisation. This summer, with support from a Miller Arts Scholar award, she returned to her native Cleveland to intern with the non-profit Refresh Collective, helping to run its “hip-hop in action” camp.

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CORRINNEJAMES | STUDIO ART Corrinne James’ colorful illustrations, animations, gifs and videos are packed with imaginative figures and vibrant scenes. She might take a photo, combine it with sketches and animate the final product, perhaps also bringing in music or film clips. The Miller Arts Scholars program enables her to venture further into those experiments in pursuit of her goal.

I want to learn more about the impact media has on people today and to use that knowledge to create design-based conceptual work.

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I HAD THIS MOMENT WHERE THE ACTORS AND DIRECTORS STARTED TO TAKE OWNERSHIP OF MY WRITING. IT WAS MINE, BUT IT ALSO BECAME THEIRS.

MICAHWATSON | DRAMA

WESLEYDIENER | MUSIC

For fourth-year student Micah Watson, the Miller Arts Scholars program provides the opportunity to bring complex and authentic black stories to light through playwriting. Watson produced “The Black Monologues” for two years, and wrote an original play entitled “Wake Up Music!” in reaction to recent police shootings across the country. The Drama Department will produce another of her new plays in the spring.

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Being a Miller Arts Scholar has opened doors for opera singer Wesley Diener, from national voice competitions to summer months abroad. Diener has also performed at the Bethesda Music Festival, and he was the directing intern for the Charlottesville Opera’s production of “Oklahoma!” Beyond his involvement in plays and musicals, Diener serves on the University’s Music Arts Board and the Student Council Student Arts Committee.

I am really passionate about heightening the arts as much as possible here. There is a lot of interest and so much talent and passion.

IL L IL IMLITA IM BL ITAEBL/E VO / LVO UM L UM E FIV E 5 E

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4

GREATER GOOD

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HITTING A BRICK WALL

On the morning of October 6, 1817, Presidents Thomas Jefferson, James Monroe and James Madison gathered on property west of Charlottesville for the ceremonial placing of the cornerstone for what would become Pavilion VII, the first building of a university founded for the future of the republic.

Carriages and people covered the property, its approval. Per Masonic custom, wine and according to the account of Capt. Edmund oil were sprinkled on the stone, followed by Bacon, overseer of Jefferson’s Monticello. a scattering of grain. The weather was fair and mild. Members of In descriptions of the day included in “The two local Masonic Lodges marched in line to Papers of Thomas Jefferson,” the Freemason the foundation site, settling into a formation serving as master of ceremonies looked through which the day’s dignitaries could toward the future with his remarks. pass. The Freemasons sang an anthem. The Rev. William King provided the invocation. “May the Grand Architect of the Universe A band played “Hail Columbia.” grant a blessing on this foundation stone, which we have now laid, and by Monroe, the sitting U.S. president and His providence enable us to finish this a Freemason, joined in an inspection of and every other work undertaken for the the cornerstone, newly embedded in the benefit of the republic and perpetuity of building’s foundation. First, a square was our free institutions,” he said. “Brethren, placed on the stone, then a plumb, followed I pronounce this stone well formed, true by a level, all ensuring its perfect placement. and trusty.” Three strikes of a mallet on the stone marked

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Interested in seeing the actual cornerstone? You have your work cut out for you. That’s according to Brian Hogg, Senior Historic Preservation Planner in the Office of the Architect for the University. Hogg says no one knows exactly where the cornerstone is, except for its general location at the northeast corner of Pavilion VII. He adds that it wasn’t until the late 19th century that people began marking cornerstones with commemorative plaques intended for public viewing. And while the cornerstone ceremony itself had significance, the stone did not, and it was likely covered by brick shortly thereafter. Hogg points out that uncovering the stone would require destruction of sidewalks and potential damage to the Pavilion itself. Viewing it from inside the building is just as difficult, as much of the space is filled with the utilities powering the Academical Village.

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As Hogg says, “There are a lot of reasons why no one has seen it, not the least of which is that it was never meant to be seen in the first place.”

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Two hundred years later, Jefferson’s University of Virginia has flourished as one of America’s most vital public institutions, itself a cornerstone of higher education.

As the University of Virginia begins its third century, it brings forth a history and legacy like no other university. But in important ways it remains today as it was two centuries ago: an institution created to serve and help strengthen the republic by contributing to an educated citizenry. On their Final Exercises procession down the Lawn each spring, graduates pass the site of the cornerstone and Pavilion VII on their way to a lifelong pursuit of ambitions that fulfill the promise of the founder’s vision as educators, researchers, philosophers, entrepreneurs, public servants, physicians, architects, artists and so much more. What they share from their time on Grounds is an experience that reinforces values and pursuits that remain relevant across generations — honor, self-governance,

a search for truth, a commitment to serve — even amid the disruptive evolution of culture, economy and technology.

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In October, UVA began an extended commemoration of its bicentennial. The coming months and years will include many other opportunities to pay homage and celebrate, to explore and acknowledge the totality of our history. The University opens its doors widely for participation in this multifaceted opportunity. Like the celebration of the nation’s bicentennial in 1976, UVA’s opportunity includes a shared commitment to renew and extend our mission so that the time-tested values that distinguish the University of Virginia will perpetuate us forward for centuries to come — no matter the direction of the day’s societal or political winds. BY MCGREGOR MCCANCE

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the

BUSINESS OF

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/ UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA PROFESSORS WANT STUDENTS TO HAVE THE COURAGE TO ASK THE RIGHT QUESTIONS /

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During a psychology experiment, you’re instructed to repeatedly press a button that shocks someone in another room, despite their increasing protests. Would you continue pressing the button as they cried out? Surprisingly, 64 percent of us would.

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hat number comes from psychologist Stanley Milgram’s famous 1960s experiment studying tensions between conscience and deference to authority. Fifty years later, UVA Darden School of Business Professor Bidhan Parmar re-examined Milgram’s audiotapes. What he found exemplifies how both Darden and UVA’s McIntire School of Commerce approach ethics education. Parmar noticed those who disobeyed and refused to shock the person (thankfully, an actor) and those who obeyed had notably different speech patterns. The 64 percent who obeyed focused intently on procedural details, like exactly when to press the button. They often spoke over the actor’s cries, actively blocking cues that could spur their conscience. Conversely, the 36 percent who disobeyed dwelt on the consequences of their actions and realized they had control over those consequences. “They saw themselves as equal decision-makers, rather than as someone forced to obey an authority,” Parmar said. “They asked, ‘Will he be OK?’ or, ‘What happens if I do this?’” Those teaching business ethics at the University want to ensure that UVA students are the ones asking these types of questions. BY CAROLINE NEWMAN

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PRACTICE MAKES PERFECT Darden and McIntire use the case method, requiring students to analyze real-life scenarios and decide how to proceed. Faculty members believe this teaches ethics more effectively than simply studying policy or online training. Students in the highly ranked Commerce School take classes like “Managerial DecisionMaking” and “Critical Thinking and Ethics.” Darden — consistently ranked among the top MBA programs for business ethics — incorporates ethics teaching in many classes and has adopted Professor of Practice Mary Gentile’s “Giving Voice to Values” curriculum. Gentile said her teaching plans and case studies, used in leadership programs and police and military training programs worldwide, hone “moral muscle memory.” Seek Out Dissenting Views Avoid the echo-chamber effect by talking with people with different perspectives.

PROFITS AND PURPOSE Parmar said today’s students, growing up amid the 2008 financial crisis, “are refusing to make the choice between profits and purpose.” Initiatives like Darden’s Institute for Business in Society explore the social impact of business decisions. The institute’s Olsson Center for Applied Ethics, celebrating its 50th anniversary, hosts conferences, develops case studies and partners with corporate and government leaders.

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“The Olsson Center was founded with the idea that Darden would become a thought leader in business ethics. For us, that is not just an ivory tower ideal,” the center’s director, Andrew Wicks, said. “It’s standing with both feet on the ground, taking on important, interesting questions that matter to how we live in the world and manage organizations.” Question Routine Actions Why does something need to be done (or not done)? What purpose does it serve?

PREPARING FOR THE PROBLEMS OF TOMORROW Ultimately, UVA’s business programs strive to prepare students for issues we currently face and issues we don’t yet know. Already, ethical dilemmas involving self-driving cars, artificial intelligence, genetic testing and more loom on the horizon. Today’s students will encounter unpredictable ethical questions. In revisiting Milgram’s experiment, Parmar emphasizes that they don’t need to have all of the answers or even some of them. They just need the courage to ask the questions. Consider Multiple Angles How will something affect others? Who might gain? Who might suffer? IL L IM ITA BL E / VO L UM E FIV E

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ONE

MAN’S

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TITLE

Dr.

FIRST NAME

Christopher

M.I.

P.

LAST NAME

Holstege

DEPARTMENT

School of Medicine, Division of Medical Toxicology and Student Health Dep’t.

UNIVERSITY

University of Virginia

H3C

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DR. CHRISTOPHER P. HOLSTEGE is a professor of emergency medicine and pediatrics at the UVA School of Medicine, as well as chief of the Division of Medical Toxicology and executive director of the Student Health Department. He also ser ves as the medical director of the Blue

IN THE FALL OF 2004, Ridge Poison Center, is a consultant to the Critical Incident Response Group of the Federal Bureau

of Investigation, and contributes to the work of the UVA-based Critical Incident Analysis Group.

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In the fall of 2004, University of Virginia medical toxicologist Chris Holstege found himself in the thick of an international political mystery. Viktor Yushchenko, a pro-Western candidate for the presidency of Ukraine, had grown seriously ill, suffering from excruciating back pain, violent nausea and other worrisome symptoms.

Any number of relatively routine things could have caused some of those conditions, but they were soon joined by other unusual issues. More than one team of doctors struggled with a diagnosis. Yushchenko had a pretty good idea what was happening to him. He suspected poison, and his face would eventually tell the full story. In the following weeks, the handsome and tanned Yushchenko’s wrinkle-free complexion would turn mottled and disfigured, like a marshmallow held over a flame. “When I saw him, I shook his hand and I said, ‘Sir, you have the face of dioxin,’” Holstege recalled in a recent interview with Illimitable.

IN-DEMAND EXPERTISE

For Holstege, the dioxin poisoning case was one in a line of incidents drawing on his experience as a medical toxicologist. He’s a poison expert. And as specialists go, there aren’t many like him. There are only five in the UVA Health System, and they are responsible for handling poison-related patients, calls and consultations in a 49-hospital network across central and western Virginia.

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The relative scarcity of medical toxicologists means deeply experienced experts like Holstege might play key roles in investigations, criminal trials and even international events. In 2009, for example, Holstege’s knowledge about the toxic side-effects of khat, an herbal stimulant commonly chewed in East Africa, played a role in a hostage situation. Heavily armed, khat-chewing pirates had taken control of a container ship off the coast of Somalia — an incident that was the basis for the 2013 film “Captain Phillips” — and negotiators trying to lower the tension needed to know how khat affected the mood and behavior of its users.

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NaCN In 2010, UVA research led by Holstege for the FBI on cyanide and gel capsules was used to help convict an Ohio emergency physician who mixed cyanide into calcium capsules, killing his wife. Holstege also was part of a team of experts assigned by a federal judge in 2009 to explore the mental health issues of Bruce Ivins, a microbiologist authorities determined was responsible for mailing letters contaminated with anthrax to members of Congress and the media in 2001. “Chris has an international reputation in toxicology and demonstrates an uncanny ability to think out of the box,” said Dr. Gregory Saathoff, an associate professor of research in the UVA School of Medicine. 40

Yushchenko as a political candidate of Ukraine before he was poisoned.

“That shows through in his writing, teaching and clinical care. Just as important, he is well-regarded as a leader in the field, who has an expansive network of relationships that reflects not only his mastery of content and research, but also the respect of his colleagues.”

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How Holstege ended up in Vienna — and at Viktor Yushchenko’s hospital bedside when doctors there announced the dioxin poisoning to the world — has all sorts of UVA touch points. Because the poisoning occurred in the middle of another country’s election controversy, the U.S. government wasn’t about to get officially involved. Friends of Yushchenko’s family sought help from the Critical Incident Analysis Group, a UVA-based organization that brings together professionals with international expertise to review how critical incidents — terror acts, for example — affect society and what can be learned from them. Saathoff, who serves as the group’s executive director, assembled a team of experts, including Holstege and several others, to review the Yushchenko case. The group eventually had copies of Yushchenko’s medical reports in hand. But those from Austria were written in German — sparking another UVA collaboration, as a professor of German lended his help.

Disfigured during his 2004 presidential campaign.

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Weeks later, Holstege, Saathoff and UVA neurologist Dr. Lawrence Phillips flew to Austria to meet with Yushchenko and his wife, and help develop treatment plans. Yushchenko would ultimately win the Ukraine presidency in a second election held after officials invalidated the results of the first. The poisoning remains an open criminal case.

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ACK ON GROUNDS PANDORA’S BOX

Back on Grounds, Holstege is in the fifth year of an appointment as the Executive Director of Student Health. With more than 20,000 students on Grounds, the center handles a volume of inquiries and visits that rivals a bustling small city hospital. Services range widely, from sick visits to mental health counseling. Across the country, at institutions of higher education and beyond, health experts like Holstege know they must stay up to date and be prepared to provide increasingly sophisticated levels of education in their

The challenges are national in scope, and extend beyond substance abuse to include performance-enhancing drugs, threats to students traveling overseas, the chronic role of drugs and alcohol on the body and the role of surreptitiously administered drugs in sexual assault cases. Answering the challenge requires a combination of education, outreach and an ability to respond quickly to a changing landscape. “I personally think we can lead the country in the care of our students,” he said.

I PERSONALLY THINK WE CAN LEAD THE COUNTRY IN THE CARE OF OUR STUDENTS. communities about dangerous substances that are more readily available than ever. “The internet has opened Pandora’s box,” he said, adding that an increasing number of emerging substances are falsely rumored as “safe.” “In truth, health professionals often know little about new synthetic drugs or variants of known substances,” Holstege said. Holstege has assisted in the prosecution of distributors, and his work includes learning how emerging substances affect people and then sharing that information with colleagues and students.

A COMMITMENT TO SERVICE Soft-spoken, but direct, Holstege would rather pore over medical records or detectives’ notes in some unsolved case than watch TV or most other pursuits. “He is an independent thinker who demonstrates the courage of his convictions,” Saathoff said. “Although he is professional in his work, he doesn’t ever sacrifice his opinion and values for the sake of diplomacy and social grace.” Chemistry, his original interest that sparked a career in toxicology, still speaks to Holstege throughout his work. He laughs at his wife’s familiar joke that his work also serves as his hobby, and it doesn’t exactly translate into small talk at parties.

It’s a good line. The kind that probably breaks the ice nicely at an actual party, but sounds more like humility than reality.

Managing the toxicology division, directing the Student Health Department, overseeing the regional Blue Ridge Poison Center, teaching aspiring physicians, working in the emergency room — they’re all service-centered pursuits. And Holstege is quick to point out that none of the successes are possible without UVA colleagues with similar passion and dedication. Educating people about the dangers of toxins may help prevent the kind of deep anguish and guilt that he’s seen in the parent of a child who has died after ingesting something like a household cleaner that wasn’t stored carefully.

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Nailing down cyanide as the killer of an innocent spouse, or confirming on the witness stand that a drug placed in a drink facilitated a rape, can help bring justice to bear. And it sends a signal. “There are people out there on the other side. Bad people,” he said. “We want to put them on notice. We have a pretty good network of smart people who can figure this out and put a spotlight on you. You’re not going to get away with this.” Holstege pauses. There’s no denying or avoiding that element. But it’s not the thing that inspires him. “The good part of it is you’re helping. There’s a lot of good in the world, and there’s more good than bad.” BY MCGREGOR MCCANCE

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5 OF NOTE

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EFFECT

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MALCOLM BROGDON’S inaugural season as a professional your dreams if you have faith, if you sacrifice for basketball player went so well that his team, the Milwaukee what you want.” Bucks, decided to invest in promotions to boost their young HUMBLE MOSES star’s chances of being named the National Basketball As a child, Brogdon earned the nickname “Humble Association’s Rookie of the Year. Moses,” which tethers “humble” and his middle name, Moses. At UVA, Brogdon’s leadership landed a new But Brogdon wasn’t having it. moniker: “The President.” The former University of Virginia All-American asked that “He’s a guy who responds when you put a challenge the planned promotional funds go to charity instead. in front of him,” Bennett said. “He figures things out “I thought the money could be put to better use and to help and goes to work. He’s like, ‘plan your work and work people who needed it more than I did,” Brogdon said simply your plan.’ Get it done. That’s Malcolm to the highest when asked during the off-season about his decision. degree.” The act of selflessness stunned many in the professional Brogdon earned a bachelor’s degree in history from sports world and beyond — in a good way. Who would do the College of Arts & Sciences and a master’s in public such a thing? policy from the Frank Batten School of Leadership and Public Policy in 2016. UVA men’s basketball head coach Tony Bennett just smiled. Now more people would learn about the character of a The strong beliefs instilled in his youth flourished when person athletically gifted enough to have his college number he got to UVA. retired, academically gifted enough to live on the Range as a graduate student, but humble enough to decline efforts “My values were reinforced the moment I stepped on Grounds,” Brogdon said. “Being around Coach Bennett to shine the spotlight on him. and the staff allowed me to always remember how “He’s really remained the same person,” Bennett said. “To important being humble and sticking to your roots see him unaffected, and hear that report? I loved it because really is.” I think it embodies who he is.” His fondest memory outside basketball emerged from He was also unsurprised by Brogdon’s choice because the classroom. Bennett, like the rest of the University community, well “It was probably the moment I finished my final project knows his work ethic and dedication to others. Those for my master’s program. It was just such a huge sense qualities were on full display when Brogdon accepted the of accomplishment, and I was glad that I was able to Rookie of the Year award this past June. make my family proud.” “This is a testament to guys that are underestimated, guys “It makes me feel like doing the right thing can be that are second-round picks, guys that are undrafted every rewarded,” he said. “I don’t try to do the right thing with year, that get looked over regardless of the work they put the intentions of getting a reward, but it’s nice to see in, regardless of what they do,” Brogdon said. He was the 36th pick in the 2016 NBA draft. “You can always achieve that it can bring back good to you.” BY JANE KELLY

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TH UVA THE GROUNDS RO ND THAT COULD CO LD HAVE H VE BE BEEN SEE THE VERSION OF GROUNDS THAT SHALL FOREVER REMAIN UNBUILT

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IN AN ALTERNATIVE UNIVERSE , the University of Virginia has a chapel on the Lawn. Memorial Gymnasium is over on Mad Bowl. Physics students take classes in a striking, modernist building that seems to float. And there’s no Rotunda. For 200 years, architects, University leaders and builders have been assembling UVA building by building, chasing an idea that Thomas Jefferson laid out at its founding: that the University’s physical presence embodies the education of its students. The original Jefferson-designed Academical Village is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and the enduring heart of Grounds, but the University has been expanding beyond it almost since its completion. Over the centuries, the custodians of that growth have taken care to build in the spirit of “Jeffersonian architecture” — even if opinions sometimes differed on what exactly that means.

As a result, the University’s history is replete with designs for buildings that were never built and alternative proposals for ones that were. Taken together, these snapshots of a Grounds-that-could-have-been illuminate ideas that still drive the University’s future: Architecture matters here, and planners plan for the long run.

THE KEEPER OF THE RECORDS Tucked away in a long, narrow, climate-controlled room in a Facilities Management building off McCormick Road are rows of file cabinets filled with large flat folders. They hold a large part of the records of the University’s architectural history.

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“The oldest one we have here is Fayerweather Hall,” Garth Anderson said on a recent afternoon, sliding open one of the drawers and pulling out a blueprint from the 1890s.

THIS EARLY JEFFERSONIAN SKETCH HAD THREE BUILDINGS FRONTING THE LAWN INSTEAD OF THE ROTUNDA (Source: Albert and Shirley Small Special Collections Library)

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Anderson is the man behind an extensive database of records on UVA facilities, a role he assumed almost by happenstance. Anderson came to UVA in 1984 to supervise a clinical investigation lab in the Health System. Before long, he’d taught himself to assemble and maintain a database. Twelve years later, when the lab closed, Facilities Management was confronting a data problem of its own. The blueprints for all the buildings on Grounds since the late 19th century were kept rolled in tubes in a jumbled closet without any sort of index. “If somebody wanted a particular record of a building on Grounds, they had to get in there and root around until they found it,” Anderson said. “I said, ‘I can do a database.’”

The project put Anderson in closer touch with the University’s academic life. He’s worked with students on undergraduate research projects, helped doctoral candidates run down records and collaborated with faculty in the School of Architecture and elsewhere. He also realized he likes following the historical breadcrumbs in the records. That itch to find out more makes him a really good tour guide for a University that doesn’t actually exist.

ACADEMICAL VILL AGE, V.1 One of the first examples of alternative design plans that Anderson cites is actually older than the University itself.

In 1814, Jefferson produced the first set of sketches for what would become the University of Virginia. Some features are familiar: a series of pavilions created a large “U” shape with a central Lawn or green space. But the details are very different. For one, there was no Rotunda, just three pavilions facing down the Lawn. Richard Guy Wilson, Commonwealth Professor of Architectural History in UVA’s Architecture School, is quick to point out that these sketches weren’t actual plans. They were developed before there was a site, years before the first workers — including enslaved laborers — would begin building the University after the laying of the cornerstone of Pavilion VII in 1817.

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ONE OF THE REJECTED DESIGNS FOR CLARK HALL CALLED FOR A LARGE DOME.

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“In all architecture, the site actually determines what the buildings will look like,” Wilson said. “This was more of a scheme.” These first sketches called for nine pavilions on a flat site, with expanse in the middle that stretched 257 yards across. (The actual Lawn is only about 188 feet across.) Perfect, Wilson said, for the flatlands of the Midwest or Tidewater. Not perfect for the rolling hills of Central Virginia. Some of the early sketches were done in letters Jefferson sent to correspondents such as William Thornton and Benjamin Henry Latrobe asking for input and ideas. In one letter back, Latrobe suggested that the center building ought to be a domed structure. As the University’s creation progressed and an actual site was chosen, the plans evolved into what we know today. The three imagined pavilions at the front of the Lawn became the Rotunda; the Lawn narrowed and the ranges appeared on either side. “In the end, the building site rules all,” Wilson said.

ANDERSON IS A TOUR GUIDE FOR A UNIVERSITY THAT DOESN’T EXIST MODERNISM ON GROUNDS The history of new buildings beyond the Academical Village is one of good stewardship and strong opinions. As University Architect, Alice J. Raucher is keenly aware of the forces that go into a new structure here, and she sees part of her job as making a marriage of sorts between the architect and the University.

On the one side, architects need to be free to bring their own vision to a project. But new buildings on Grounds have to be understood as being part of the comprehensive whole, and they aren’t necessarily vehicles for radical personal design statements, Raucher said. “We need architects that can put forward something fresh, but also understand our legacy and work within it,” she said. Two of Anderson’s favorite unbuilt buildings date to the middle part of the 20th century, when the University was grappling with how to stay current on modern design trends while maintaining a sense of connection to its Jeffersonian origins. In the 1960s, architect Marcel Breuer proposed a building design for the Physics Department that had upper stories that cantilevered out wider than the base. The design was too far-out for University planners at the time.

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A few years earlier, a similar fate befell a proposal for a chemistry building done by architect Louis Kahn, an up-and-coming architect who had done work for the University of Pennsylvania. Though a modernist, Kahn had studied neoclassical design, and he took the idea of fidelity to Jeffersonian principles seriously, said Brian Cofrancesco, a 2011 architectural history graduate who researched Kahn extensively in his student days. “In 1961 he actually stayed in Pavilion VII, studying what he called the ‘nuances of Jefferson’s Lawn.’” Kahn eventually delivered a design of a U-shaped building with an open end facing McCormick Road, with an enclosed amphitheater in the middle of a large courtyard. “In a way, it’s reminiscent of the three-sided Lawn and an open end,” Cofrancesco said. “It had at its center

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BREUER’S DESIGN WAS A BIT TOO FAR-OUT FOR UNIVERSITY PLANNERS this kind of communal space of learning — just like putting the Rotunda at the center of the Academical Village.” In the end, the edgy design (and accounts of Kahn being less-than-responsive to communication and deadlines) caused the University to abandon the plans after nearly three years of development. 50

“The president of the University, Edgar Shannon, said that calling Kahn to fire him was one of the hardest things he’d ever had to do,” Cofrancesco said. Both Breuer and Kahn are important modernist architects, and the fact that they were not able to advance their designs at UVA is neither a reflection of their talents nor a sign that the University was too conservative in its ambitions, Raucher said. Her own professional history — both as current custodian of the University’s architectural integrity and her past as an academic and as an architect in the private sector — equips Raucher to see both sides of the relationship. “Part of my job is to make a union between the University and architects so they can be successful on Grounds,” she said. “It’s not about having the next newest thing – I don’t believe in architecture as the latest fashion. Our architecture is civic in nature, and stands the test of time. And we have our iconic structures already: the Rotunda, the Lawn. Whatever we build today has to serve the University in that context, and then prepare us for the future.

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“That’s not to say that we can’t have interesting, thought-provoking buildings unto themselves — I hope we do — but there are a lot of things that play into our selections.”

LOCATION, LOCATION, LOCATION Some of Anderson’s other favorite alternate building designs are notable not for what they looked like, but for where they would have gone. One was a proposal for the University Chapel that placed it on the Lawn. Jefferson’s decision to make a university free from religious affiliation was controversial, and beginning almost immediately after his death there was a concentrated effort spanning decades to build a church or chapel on Grounds. One of those proposals came from William Abbott Pratt, an architect hired in 1858 as the University’s first superintendent of buildings and grounds. That same year, Pratt proposed a design for a Gothic chapel built on the south end of the Lawn. He produced an elevation drawing to sell subscriptions to help finance the building, but it was never constructed.

A ROCK Y PROCESS WITH GOOD RESULT Perhaps one of the most contentious building design processes in the University’s history involved Clark Hall, which sits at the bend of McCormick Road and was completed in 1932 as the home of the UVA Law School. Philip Herrington, an assistant professor of history at James Madison University who completed his Ph.D. at UVA, recently published an architectural history of the school. Many people played a role in the creation of Clark Hall, Herrington said. While the University’s Architectural Commission designed the building, it had to satisfy overlapping, and at times competing, interests. Edwin Alderman, the University’s first president, and the

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THE BUILDING MARCEL BREUER PROPOSED TO HOUSE THE DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS. (Source: Archives of American Art) IL L IM ITA BL E / VO L UM E FIV E

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A MODEL OF LOUIS KAHN’S PROPOSED CHEMISTRY BUILDING AT UVA IS HOUSED WITH HIS PAPERS AT THE UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA. (Contributed photo by Brian Cofrancesco)

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Board of Visitors were deeply involved in the project. And the Law School’s dean and faculty had expectations for the new building they weren’t shy about expressing, he said. Add an influential donor, William Andrews Clark Jr., and there was no shortage of opinions.

for having wings; he said that a monumental building would never have wings. President Alderman thought one plan looked more like a post office than a law school. The architects frequently got upset because they felt like they were always starting over.”

One complicating factor was that the University was concerned about keeping its new, large buildings to the north and west visually subordinate to the original Academical Village, Herrington said.

In the end, though, the final building design wasn’t that different from the commission’s original proposal, and Clark Hall is now one of the finest post-Jefferson structures on Grounds in terms of its proportions, materials and details, Herrington said. The building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2008.

“One of the rejected plans for the new law building was a hulking mass of a building that had a very large octagonal dome,” Herrington said. “This design failed in part because it was so out of scale with the rest of Grounds, and its dome would have competed with the Rotunda.”

Herrington’s book also traces the history of the Law School’s move to North Grounds — where one proposal called for a 12-story dormitory between the new law and Graduate School of Business buildings. He said the

THE HISTORY OF NEW BUILDINGS BEYOND THE ACADEMICAL VILLAGE IS ONE OF GOOD STEWARDSHIP AND STRONG OPINIONS “Clark Hall offered the Law School and the University an opportunity to assert their national prominence. There was a real fear in the period between the wars that the University was losing ground to other colleges and becoming a regional institution. So the question was, ‘How do you build something that evokes the local and familiar while also making it impressive?’” Herrington said. “The president and Board of Visitors wanted a ‘monumental’ building, but for months no one could agree on how to accomplish this. One member of the Board of Visitors dismissed a design

research process underscored for him the depth of emotion involved in the building process at UVA. “I can’t imagine another American university where people feel so invested in the look of the campus,” he said. For Raucher, that sense of emotional investment in the University’s physical presence is an asset that helps guide future projects, including upcoming transformations of the U.S. 250/Ivy Road approach to Grounds

from the west, the new student-oriented neighborhood at Brandon Avenue, or the new building for the contemplative sciences. “The style of the architecture is often used to describe what is, or isn’t ‘Jeffersonian,’” she said. “Jefferson was certainly looking at the historic buildings of Palladio for an architectural style, but he was also keenly aware of contemporary buildings of his time. It’s really about the ability of architecture to teach, and the ability for architecture to make use of technological advancements.” We also can’t forget that the architecture of the University would not exist without the landscape that binds the Grounds together and gives it its unique identity, she said. The Lawn would not exist without the Colonnade and the rooms, and vice versa. “Our buildings are always understood relative to the landscape they inhabit, which provides the connectivity we try to achieve in every project.”

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As plans for new projects come together, Raucher is also mindful that design choices now will affect students and faculty for centuries, and knows it’s important to get them right. This drives the professionals of the Office of the Architect, who represent architecture, landscape architecture, land-use planning, space planning and historic preservation. An integrated design approach ensures the careful stewardship of the historic Grounds and the thoughtful growth of the University for the next century. “The heart and soul of the University will always be the Academical Village and the Rotunda; there’s no debating that. It’s our responsibility to steward that for future generations,” she said. “But it’s also our job to lay the groundwork for future generations and build upon that strength.” BY RO B SE A L

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BEN WILLIAMS Ben Williams was four when he entered foster care with his one-year-old brother. Sons of a prostitute addicted to drugs, the toddlers became wards of the state. His brother died at 17. Today, Williams holds three UVA degrees and is the founding principal of Ron Brown College Preparatory High School in Washington, D.C. Like Williams and his brother, some of the school’s students have seen hardship. They’ve experienced trauma. Some were dealt a bad hand. But they persevere. “I wanted to really address young people who have struggled, to give them a space they can work in, be encouraged and feel loved while pursuing their academic dreams,” Williams said. “I feel like teachers and administrators did that for me when I was growing up; they were the consistent presence.”

The University of Virginia is proud to support the work of strong, dedicated, honorable leaders like Ben Williams.

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ILLIMITA B LE / VO LUME FIVE

Illimitable Print Volume Five  

Illimitable is a publication focused on showcasing the best of the University of Virginia.

Illimitable Print Volume Five  

Illimitable is a publication focused on showcasing the best of the University of Virginia.

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