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software development for their daily tasks, - even without a geographical mobility. For both types of profiles, civil servants and younger entrepreneurs, the desire to achieve these skills are related to the development of a work in the public sphere or in the business sector of their home communities. The diaspora does not exist in these cases: The specialized learning is promoted with the same peculiarities of the European Higher Education context that is linked to the prestige of European accreditations, but it is possible without geographical mobility. In sum up, despite data evidence the disappointment of most of the candidates with this type of learning method as they miss the travel opportunities, for other different profiles online method is an appropriate educational resource in order to train local elites. As consequence, distance learning programs contribute to the international cooperation by transferring specialized skills to the elites without a brain drain effect. In spite of the positive evidences showed here about the online training programs abroad, it is necessary to collect more information related to their complementary effects, and their advantages or disadvantages. We are specially interested in finding evidences in terms of the creation of networks and face to face interaction, because the lack of real mobility could prevent them from creating useful professional relationships. Managing the diaspora Mobility of the highly skilled personnel for professional reasons to encourage the creation of the social networks. The relevance of networking has been demonstrated by Saxenian (1994, 2006; Saxenian et al, 2002) in the study of the Indian and Chinese entrepreneurs living in US. This analysis has highlighted their success and the development of the region where they have established important ICT business. As a consequence, less developed countries defends the advantages of the mobility of the highly skilled personnel in order to acquire potential achievements without wasting their talent (Lucas, 2001: 22; Saxenian et al, 2002; Mera, 2005). Some authors argue that IT resources provide the connection between highly skilled personnel abroad with the home country, keeping in touch with local colleagues while they are abroad and therefore fostering the local research environment. According to their arguments, social networks are a valid way to support the weak R&D and innovation system at home countries by the national talent living abroad. The awareness of this people joints to the technologies facilities are promoting social networks establishment that favoured the contact with local community. Mera (2005) explains that a strong social identity is the key element to take advantage of their personal success (and in consequence also a professional success). They constitute a “floating identity� producing competitiveness in the host country and that could be used later to connect with the home country. This phenomenon is described in a similar way by Saxenian (1994, 2006) on the case of the Chinese and Indian highly skilled personnel in Silicon Valley. These people are organised around a feeling of a common identity which allows the diffusion of their ideas, a entrepreneurial initiative and other positive links that favour their own success and origin communities. Therefore, mobility of talented nationals represents an alternative position that helps to face the exhaustion of the developing countries according to certain theoretical approaches. The opportunity arises from a feeling of community, and it is established by means the facilities to IT and other advances technological resources. In this form, the talent abroad drives forward new initiatives (scientific and economic) taking advantage of the contacts and resources obtained in the host countries. Hence, social networks established by the diaspora play an innovative role for the developing countries. In the next figure, we see some examples of social networks related to these issues. Despite the

The diaspora of highly skilled ICT workers - contributions to economic development  

In this paper we will focus on the mobility actions promoted by the Carolina Foundation (FC), a Spanish non-profit organisation cooperating...