Issuu on Google+

Typography from the 18th century to the 21st. Ana Milena De Leon.


Over the centuries type designers have created different letterform. Going from the 18th century to the 21st there is a variety of Serif & Sans Serif styles.


{Intoduction} 9 {18th century typefaces} 13 {19th century typefaces} 21 {20th century typefaces} 27 {21st century typefaces} 39


Introduction {type anatomy}

bracket terminal

apex

arm

bowl ear

link shoulder

loop

tail

junture of joint

aperture spur

leg


eye

ascender

serif spine

tittle

slab serif descender

ligature cap height meanline

baseline

closed counter descender line

7


Introduction {type direction}

Typefaces should not been seen as static shape, they actually convey movement, action and direction. Each letter portraits a different energy force according to its design. Counters (disclosed and open) are mainly relevant to determine the direction of the letterform.


{timeline}

20th century 1927 Futura

18

th

1928 Gill Sans

century

1722 Caslon 1757 Baskerville 1798 Didot

1957 Helvetica

19th century 1845 Clarendon

21st century 2000 Gotham

9


18

th

century {serif typeface} The 18th century typography was mainly inspired by 17th century Dutch Barroque typefaces. During this time, Serif typefaces were designed. Serif is the term given to the structural tail found at the end of some letters. Serif typefaces are commonly used for magazine, book and newspaper copy because of it high redability on prints. This type style is classified into three styles: Old Style, {Caslon}, Transitional {Baskerville} and Modern {Didot}.

11


Caslon In 1722 William Caslon created Caslon. It was mainly influenced by Garamonds type designs. Caslon is classified as classic and formal, and belongs to the Old Style Serif. Old Style Serif are characterized by there low contrast in the thickness of the letter form and excellent redability. They are derived from humanist calligraphy; Thus it has a left diagonal stress at about 8 and 2 o’clock.

dddddd

Caslon family includes regular, italic, semi bold, semi bold italic, bold and bold italic. The main difference between the styles is the thickness of the strokes, the angle of stress and the width. concave oblique apex

AAEQGgwa swash

concave extended apex

oblique serifs

96° Caslon regular has a stress of around 96º and a disclosed counter angle of 55.5º.

two part tail

no spur

extended stem

wide bowl

55.5° Caslon italic has a stress of around 55.5º and a disclosed counter angle of 96º.


Caslon regular letter “c, d and e� have the same curve angle.

13


Baskerville In 1757 John Baskerville created Baskerville. This typeface conveys dignity and tradition; and is classified as Transitional. Transitional is the style in between Old Style and Modern serif. During this period a new handwritting style is developed, the roundhand.Thus, this typeface is inspired by Renaissance Scribes which has a stress of 30 degrees and the heaviest parts are drawn from a 12 o’clock to 9 o’clock. Baskerville has a great contrast between captial and lowercase letter than most other roman faces.

bbbbbb

The family includes regular, italic, semi bold, semi bold italic, bold and bold italic.

Wv CC Baskerville

Caslon

Baskerville

Baskerville

Caslon

Baskerville

Caslon

Baskerville is an improvement of Caslon: the contrast in the thickness of the strokes is increased, the serifs are sharper, the curved strokes are more circular and overal the letters have a greater consistency in size and form.

Baskerville


Baskerville letter “A, V and M” have the same angle of 125º.

15


Didot In 1798 the Didot type foundry introduced Didot. This typeface is characterized for its high contrast of thick and thin strokes, by its consistenly horizontal stress and flat and unbracketed serif. Currently Didot is related to Fashion because of the contrast of the strokes and the long and fine serifs. Didot belong to the Modern serifs and there is a notable differennce from earlier typefaces mainly because of the clear impresions and soft edges.

eee

The Didot family includes regular, italic, and bold. The main difference between the regular, italic and bold style is the thickness of the strokes and the oblique stress (found in the Italic style).

z z z

Comparing Didot regular, italic and bold style in letter “Z” there is a notable difference in the terminal, weight and angle.The italic terminal is rounded and swash, while the rest are straight serifs. The weight of the stroke varies and there is a higher contrast in the bold. The regular and bold has a oblique stress of 60º and the italic of 48º. Regular and bold has the same width and height and italic is narrower and ellongated.


Didot number “6, 9 and 0� share the same bowl form.

number (inversed) and has the same bowl, terminal and width. The only difference is the link.

17


Caslon

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 1234567890!?<>(){}*&% Baskerville

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ 1234567890!?<>(){}*&% Didot

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R ST UVW XY Z1234567890!?<>(){}*&%

C CC oblique serif

slightly vertical serif

vertical serif


III

hh h Caslon

Baskerville

Didot

MM M

19


19

th

century {slab typeface} During the 19th century a new typography was needed for advertising, posters and flyers. Basic roman letterforms were bolded to create viewers an impact over the the advertismentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; headlines. Squared off, slab serifs were introduced. These typef style is all also known as mechanic, square or Egyptian. Slab serifs are characterized for their thickness and block-like serifs.

21


Clarendon

{

{

In 1845 the English Fann Street Foundry introduced Clarendon. This typefaceis characterized for its low contrast in the thickness of the strokes, the wide set, its large x-height and bracketed serifs. It is recommended for text and display and when print of a poor quality paper.

c

The Clarendon family includes light, roman and bold. The main difference between the styles is the thickness of the strokes and its contrast. The Bold style besides been really thick and having a low contrast, has a larger x-height. low contrast bracketed serif

wide set

downturned tear slight bracket

wide serif

upturned foot

upturned tear large x-height

secondary counter

wavy bar short descender


Clarendon letter â&#x20AC;&#x153;J, g and number 2â&#x20AC;? have the same downturned tear.

23


Clarendon

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ! ? * ( ) { } Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ! ? * ( ) { } Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ! ? * ( ) { } From the 18th century to the 19th. Evolution of letter “A” from Old Style Serif, Caslon (1727) to Slab Serif, Clarendon (1845).

Caslon

Baskerville


Didot

Clarendon 25


20

th

century {san serif typeface} During the 20th century typography turned simplier and sharper. A completly new sytle apperead: Sans Serif typefaces. Sans serif are also known in United States as Gothics and in Europe as Grotesks or Lineales. This style is divided in three categories: Humanist (Gills Sans), Geometric (Futura) and Grotesque (Helvetica). The main difference in between this san serif styles is the apex form, the wide set, weight and x-height.

27


{

{

Futura

In 1927 Paul Renner designed Futura. This typeface was inspired by geometric shapes and represents the Bauhaus design style of 1919-1933. Even though Renner was not realated to the Bauhas School, they shared the same belief of typography: â&#x20AC;&#x153;modern typeface should express modern models, rather than be a revival of a previous design.â&#x20AC;? Futura is designed from geometric shapes and the letterforms are simple and essential. It is characterized for its overal even weight stroke (low contrast) and tall ascenders (which rise above the cap line).

The Futura family was originally published in Light, Medium, Bold and Bold Oblique. Later in 1930 Light Oblique, Medium Oblique xand Demibold Oblique was included. high middle bar

pointed apex

angled finial

straight angled tail

wide open vertical finial

long ascender thin shoulder

perfect circle flat finial, open loop

slightly curved stem


30

29


Gill Sans

{

{

In 1928 Eric Gill designed Gill Sans. This typeface was inspired by Edward Johnston’s type for London Underground in 1916. As a Humanist sans serif, it follows the style of classical Roman letterforms, as is shown in the letter g and in the size of the capital letters. Gill Sans is characterized for the small counter in letter “a”, the double story “g” and the calligraphic variations of line weights.

Caslon “d, g, n, o, 3, A, G. ! * & }” Gill Sans “d, g, n, o, 3, A, G. ! * & }”

abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz


Gill Sans italic Gill Sans regular

90º

double -story hoocked foot

single story

80º angled tail

67º

curved tail

64º

narrower

80º

58º angled joint

80º

smaller loop

90º

flat central junction

90º

double -story

wider set

52º

overlapping strokes

Same, no changes

31


{

{

Helvetica

Helvetica was designed in 1957 by Max miedinger. During 1960’s and 70’s it was the only typeface used by the Swiss typographic movement and currently is one of the world’s most popular typeface. This type is classified as Grotesque sans serif and is characterized by its uniform, upright character, its roundess,large x-height and short descender and ascenders. It is recommended for both text and display.

J flat finial

uniform strokeweight

flat finial

Helvetica

Gill Sans


Helvetica Nue (1983)

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Helvetica Rounded (1978)

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Helvetica (1957)

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu

33


B BpB pp aaa

a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z


555 Futura

Gill Sans

Helvetica

g g g fff 35


From the 18th century to the 20th.Evolution of type from Old Style Serif, Caslon (1727) to Grotesque Sans Serif Helvetica (1958).

Caslon Old style Serif

Baskerville Transitional Serif

Didot Modern Serif


Clarendon Slab Serif

Futura Geometric Sans Serif

Gill Sans Humanist Sans Serif

Helvetica Grotesque Sans Serif

37


21

th

century {san serif typeface} During the 21st century typography became simpler and more abstract than 20th typefaces. Type Designer looked back to different Sans Serif, Serif type styles and architecture to get inspired.

39


Gotham

In 2000 the American type designer Tobias Frere-Jones designed Gotham. Gotham tyepface belongs to the gemotric sans serif style and the letterforms was insipired by mid-20th century architecture in New York City. Since 11 years ago, this typeface has been highly use in campaigns, as in Barack Obama’s 2008 presidential campaign and in the One World Trade Center, NY.

Frere- Jones was mainly inspired by NewYork buildings, specially the Eight Avenue facade of the Port Authority Bus Terminal. As Futura, (1927) Gotham is a essential and simple typeface. “deliberately evokes the blocky no-non sense, unselfconscious architectural lettering...”


Ultra

Bold

Rounded

Book

Gotham was initially designed for GQ magazine who were looking for geometric structure sans serif that conveys â&#x20AC;&#x153;masculine, new and freshâ&#x20AC;?.

41


j j j j yyyy 1111

kk k k 1722

1957

1798

1845


j j j yyy 11 1

kkk 1927

1928

1958

2000

43


letter â&#x20AC;&#x153;Lâ&#x20AC;? from the

18th century to the 21th.

Over the centuries typography has changed. Not only new styles have evolved, but each typeface has developed specific characteristic due to the x-height, stroke weight, contrast, serifs and wide. However, is surprisely how much similarities are found loooking over diferent typefaces styles over the time.


45


Bibliography: LUPTON Ellen.Thinking with type : a critical guide for designers, writers, editors, & students. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, c2010. PERFECT Chistopher.The complete typographer : a manual for designing with type. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, c1992. SOLOMON Martin. The art of typography : an introduction to typo-icon-ography. New York: Art Direction Book Co., c1994.


Gotham Gill Sans

Clarendon

zzzzzzzz Baskerville

Caslon

Didot

Futura Helvetica


18.21