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速 A GOLDEN GUIDE

REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS

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COLDEN GUIDES BIRDS • BUTIERFLIES AND MOTHS •CACTI CASINO GAMES • FAMILIES OF BIRDS •FISHES FISHING •FLOWERS •FOSSILS • GEOLOGY HERBS AND SPICES •INDIAN ARTS •INSECT PESTS INSECTS •MAMMALS •NONFLOWERING PLANTS •ORCHIDS POND LIFE •REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS ROCKS AND MINERALS SEASHELLS OF THE WORLD SEASHORES •SKY OBSERVER'S GUIDE SPIDERS AND THEIR KIN STARS •TREES •TROPICAL FISH WEATHER •WEEDS

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212

SPECIES IN FULL COLOR

PTILES AND

AMPHIBIANS A GUIDE

TO

FAMiliAR AMERICAN SPECIES by

HERBERT S. ZIM, Ph.D., Sc.D.

and

HOBART

M.

SMITH,

Ph.D.

Department of Environmental, Population, and Organismic Biology University of Colorado, Boulder

I LLUSTRATE D BY JAMES GORDON I RVI N G

@

GOLDEN PRESS

NEW YORK

Western Publishing Company, Inc. Racine, Wisconsin


FOR EW ORD

So m a n y peo p l e of a l l a g es w a n t to k n o w a b out s n a ke s a n d t u rtl e s , fr o g s a n d s a l a m a n d e rs, t h a t the G o l d e n Nature G u i des would be i n com p l ete without an i ntrod ucti on to re pti les and a m p h i bi a n s . The authors express t h e i r g ratefu l tha n ks to a l l who h e l ped in making the book. Thanks a re due to Charl es M. B o g e rt a n d Bessie M. Hecht, of t h e A m e rican M u s e u m of N at u r a l History; J a m e s A. O l i v e r, of the N. Y. Zoo l o g i c a l Society; C a rl F. Ka uffe l d , of the Staten I s l a n d Zool o g i c a l Soci ety; Roger a n d I s a belle Cona nt, of the P h i l a d e l p h ia Zoological Garden; Robert C. M i l ler, Joseph R. Slevin, and Earl S. Hera l d , of the C a l i fo rn i a Aca d e m y of Scie nces; l. M. Kl a u ber, C . B. P e r k i n s , a n d C. S. S h a w of the Zool o g i c a l Society of San Diego; louis W. Ra msey, of Texas C h r i sti a n Un i­ versity; a n d W i l l i a m H. Sti c k e l , of t h e P a t u x e n t Re­ sea rc h Refuge. Special tha n ks a re d u e to our colleagues a t the Uni­ versity of I l l i n o i s - P h i l i p a n d Dorothy S m i t h , Ha rold Kerster, Dona l d H offmeister, a n d many others. Our g r a ti t u d e g oes a l s o to J a mes G o r d o n I r vi n g for his fine cooperation and to Grace C rowe I rving; to Rozella S m ith and. Sonia Bleeker Zi m for their a s s ista nce; and fi nal l y to our publishers for their untiring a i d . In t h e present revision, five add itional p a g e s of i nfor­ m ation h ave been added, p l u s a l i sti n g of scientific n a m e s . We hope readers will find th i s fu l l e r and more H . S. Z . � ttractive vol u m e more usefu l . H . M. S . ©Copyright 1953, 1956 by Western Publishing Company. Inc. All rights reserved. including rights of reproduction and use in any form or by any means. including the making of copies by any photo process. or by any electronic or mechanical device, printed or written or oral. or recording for sound or visual reproduction or for use in any knowledge retrieval system or device. unless permission in writing is obtained from the copyright proprietor. Produced in the U.S.A. by Western Publishing Company, Inc. Published by Golden Press. New York. NY Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 61-8324. ISBN 0-307-24495-4


U S I N G T H I S BOO K The first step in the use of this book is to learn the differences between reptiles and amphibians:

R E P TI L E S Usually: four-legged (except snakes and a few

TURTLE

lizards); each foot with three to five clawed toes; skin usually with horny scales, sometimes bony plates. Most lay eggs with hard or leathery skin.

1. TURTLES

leathery or bony shell. Four

limbs, short tail. Head can be withdrawn wholly

pages 18-43

or partly into shell.

2. LIZARDS

In the United States, mostly

small, four-legged, covered with equal-sized horny, smooth or beaded scales. Most are egg足 laying, fast-moving land reptiles.

3. SNAKES

long,

pages 44-69

legless. Scales on belly

usually larger than others.

Skulls loose, mouth Some are egg-laying;

large. lack ear openings.

pages 70-113

some live-bearing.

4. ALLIGATORS and CROCODILES

large,

lizard-like. Skull forming long snout. Adapted to

pages 114-115 A M PHIB IA N S

water life in warm regions.

Four- or, rarely, two-legged (except tadpoles). Smooth or warty skin, usually moist. No visible scales. Toes never clawed. Eggs usually in jelly足 like masses in water.

1. FROGS and TOADS

Adults with larger

hind limbs; tadpoles limbless when young. Adults lack tail. Most lay jelly-like eggs in water.

2. SALAMANDERS

FROG

pages 118-136

Most have four limbs,

even the larvae. limbs about same size. Adults

pages 137-1 53

have tails.

The introduction to each section in the book

gives more details. Use illustrations for fur足 ther identification. Pages 8-14 explain range maps and suggest activities. Index is on pages

158-160,

scientific names on

155-157.

3


have a h i story wh i ch beg i n s nearly 250 m i l足 l ion years ago. The g ro u p slowly s pread, and finally took over the l a nd. Dinosa u rs i n c l u d ed the l a rgest land a n i mals. Other reptiles took to the a i r and to the seas.

R E PTILES

4


S o m e were swift, s o m e were a r m ored, s o m e were ter颅 rible k i l l ers . As the cli mate changed, nearly a l l the g reat repti l e s died off. Repti les of toda y are interesting descen dants of m a g n ificent a ncestors. 路

5


had at least a 50- m i l l ion-yea r head sta rt on repti l es , but these fi rst l a n d a n i m a l s n ev e r became completely i ndependent of water. Their jelly- l i ke eggs c o u l d not s u rvive i n a i r, so a m ph i bi a n s had to return to

AM PHIBIANS

6


swamps, ponds, or streams to breed. Ancestors of pres颅 ent-day frogs and salamanders flourished in the Coal Age swamps. Many路 were clumsy giants. For more about living American amphibians, see pp.

1 1 6- 1 5 3 . 7


SEEING AN D STU D YIN G R E PTI L ES AN D A M P HIBIAN S DESERT IGUANA

COMMON TOAD

M a p s i n t h i s book s h o w a p proxi m ate ra n g e s of o u r f a m i l i a r s p e c i e s . Where a m a p shows r a n g e s of more t h a n one species, the n a m e of each species is placed with i n or n e xt to the color or k i n d of hatch i n g that s hows its ra nge. Overl a p p i n g of color and hatch in足 d i cates overlapping of ranges. FACT AND FABL E This book bri n g s together i nter足 esti n g facts and rel i a b l e scientific o p i n i o n s . Sometimes t h e facts a re stra n g e r th a n f a b l e s ; s o m eti m es f a b l es you h e a r a re e x a g g erati o n s or d i storti o n s of a s m a l l truth. Because s o m e people have m i sta ken i d eas about repti les and a m ph i bians, they destroy harml ess s pecies. We need not fear what we u n dersta n d ; s o try to un足 dersta n d these a n i m a l s . IN T E R E S T AND C U RIOSI T Y

W h i l e s o m e peo ple fea r repti l e s , most want to see what s n a kes, l i z a rds, t u rtles, a n d frog s a re rea l l y l i ke . This c u rios ity h a s been fed p a rtly by the fa bles a bout these creatu res and p a rtly by their u n u s u a l a p pe a r a n c e . Every g r o u p of


a n i m a l s i n c l udes stra n g e a n d u n u s u a l k i n d s a n d , as a g ro u p , repti les a n d a m ph i bians have the richest share. Repti les a n d a m p h i b i a n s h ave i ri d escent skin and var足 ied patterns of color that few other a n i m a l s can e q u a l . They a re attractive as w e l l as i nteresti n g . Repti les were i n the i r heyday m i l l ions of years ago; now they a re only a rem n a n t of a once-great group. Some a re of d i rect value. We use th e s k i n s o f a l l i g ators, l i z a rd s , a n d l a rg e s n a k e s for l e a t h e r . T u rt l e m e a t is a d e l i c a cy, as is the m e a t of l a rg e r l i z a rd s . T u rt l e e g g s a re eaten, a n d t u rtle shell h a s b e e n u s e d to m a ke co m bs and o r n a m e nts. Even the ven o m of poisonous s n a kes has u s e s in m e d i c i ne. I n N o rth A me r i c a , the poi sonous s n a kes a r e the only repti les considered very da ngerous. But the deaths from sna kebite scarcely tota l 50 per yea r. Reptiles feed partly on rats, mice, gophers, i n sects, and other pests; in turn they a re eaten by ma mma ls and la rge b i rd s . As a group they play a vita l role in the bala nce of natu re, i ncreas足 ing i n importance toward tropical regions. A bala nce of nature without them would vastly diminish our world of animal l ife. VALUES OF R E PTILES

VAL U E S OF A M PHIBIA N S In evolu ti o n , a m p hib足 i a n s were t h e a n cestors of t h e r e pti l e s . To us t h e y a re FABLES Bird Hypnotized by Snake


less conspicuous and probably less important. �::.:!!!!:! Frogs and other amphibians are used in scientific experiments. We eat frogs' legs, and frogs consume qua ntities of insects. Salamanders, too, serve as food for man and other animals, and help control harmful pests. Like reptiles , �!:!Ill they are a vita l part of our environment as well as clues to animal life long ago.

�����

Most k i n d s of repti les a n d am­ p h i bi a n s s h o u l d b e p rotecte d , for o u r own e n j o y m ent a nd for the future. N e e d l ess k i l l i n g , s o often b a s e d on f e a r and m i s u n d ersta n d i n g , s h o u l d sto p . N o re pti les s h o u l d be k i l l e d , except poison­ ous s n a kes n e a r hum a n h a bita­ tions. Perhaps even more im por­ t a n t i s t h e p r e s e rv a t i o n of wild areas w h e re r e pti l es, a m phib­ i a n s, a n d other wi l d l ife l ive. The cutti n g of forests, d r a i n i n g of swa mps, d a m m i ng of rivers, and even b u i l d i n g of roads i n wilder­ ness a reas a l l h ave a lon g-ra nge effect on plant and a ni m a l li fe. T h e preservati on of u n s po i l ed l a n d in state a n d nati o n a l parks a n d forests , the w i l d l i fe refuges, the w i l d e r n e s s a re a s , a n d t h e l i k e is i m p o rta n t i n t h e con­ servation progra m . And the swa m p s a n d m a rshes on fa r m l a n d a re worth keep i n g too . Ma ny re pti les d i e as a n i n d i rect result of their being cold-blooded. Snakes often come out on roads at n i g ht, possi bly because of the warmth of the pave ment. T u rtles a re constantly crossi n g h i g hways, too. An early morn i n g ride will show the tol l. taken by passi ng ca rs­ a toll that c o u l d be reduced by more care on the part of motorists. CONS ERVATION

10


A CTIVITIES WITH R E PTILES A N D A M PHIBIANS

Learn to k n o w reptiles a n d a m p h i b i a n s from b o o k s a n d , b ette r, fro m l i fe. Learn those in y o u r reg i o n fi rst. Be a b l e to rec o g n i ze poisonous sna kes at a g l a nce. Besides the zoo, m a ke u se of m us e u m s a n d e x h i bits. Become fa m i l i a r enough with l i z a rd s , tu rtl es, s n a kes, frogs, and sala manders to recog nize common ones seen in the fiel d .

LEARN TO K NO W THEM

i n y o u r o w n reg i o n c o m e next . If you c a n , go with an e x perienced pers o n . H i kes wi l l m a ke you fa m i l i a r with places where repti les a n d a m p h i bians a re fou n d . The best places depend l a rg e l y on loca l con­ ditions. Go to ponds and swamps, creeks, ledges, woods a n d fields. This i s the fi rst step i n observ i n g or col lecti n g . FIELD STUDIES

COLLE CTI N G m a y s e e m m o r e i m p o rta nt t h a n it i s . Y o u c a n l e a rn m u c h with o u t c o l l ecti n g . O n l y fo r the a d v a n c e d a m at e u r is i t n e c e s s a ry to p i n d o w n rare s pecies o r g e o g ra p h i c a l s u bspecies for study of body sca les, head pl ates, forms of toes and other deta i l s . At that sta g e s ys­ te matic collect­ i n g i s i m p o r­ ta nt. If you col­ l e ct h a r m l ess s p e c i e s , t u rn t h e m l o o s e af­ ter y o u h a ve exa m i ned and stu d i e d t h e m . Hunting Frogs with Headlight


COLLE CTING EQUIPM E NT

Snake Stick and Noose

S n a kes a n d liz a r d s c a n be carried in m u s lin b a g s o r pil­ low c a s e s . W h e n the e n d is tied , these a re safe, a n d pro­ vide enough venti lation. Cans o r jars are fi n e for a m p h i bi­ a n s . Keep the c o ntain e r half fu l l of m oist s p h a g n u m moss Snake Collecting Bag for y o u r ca ptive's comfort. A stout net wil l h e l p you get a m phibia ns, though some collectors prefer to grab by h an d . A snake stic k wil l pin d o w n a s n a ke til l y o u c a n pic k it u p safely. Some prefer to g ra b s n a kes q uickly behind the hea d . U sing a sti ck is safest for a b e g i n n e r , however. Amateurs s h o u l d l eave poiso nous snakes strictly alone. Experience in fi eld tr i p s wil l h e l p you p l a n s i m pl e but a de­ q u ate c o l l ecting eq u i p ment a n d the pro per ways of u s i n g such equipment. R e m e m ber that a m u s l i n bag can be a d eath tra p for a s peci­ men i f left i n the sun or in a closed car p a r ked in the open .

Terrarium for Frogs

12


Cage for Snake or lizard

Keep a m ph i b i a n s i n a q u a ria. Some req u i re a rock o r float so they c a n cl i m b out of t h e water. O t h e r s , e s peci a l l y t a d p o l e s , will use any aquaria s u it ab le for fish. Toa d s wi l l n e e d a moist ter足 r a ri u m ; l i z a r d s u s e a c a g e s i m i l a r to o n e for s n a kes. F o r s n a kes a n d l i z a r d s that cl i m b , u s e a l a r g e r cage with a bra nch set i n it. Allow at least a s q u a re foot of floor space for a m e d i u m-sized s n a ke, more for l a rger s pecies. Know the ha bits of the sna ke. Try, i n a s i m ple way, to d u pl i cate the natural h a bitat. A wooden cage of one-i nch boards with a g l a s s front i s good; the top s h o u l d b e h i n g e d a n d u s e d as a d oo, r . Three o r fou r o n e-i n c h ( o r l a rg e r ) h o l e s at t h e e n d s a n d ba c k aid venti l ation. These holes should be tig htly covered with fi ne scree n . Cover the c a g e fl oor with sand o r g rave l . Add a rock o r t w o a n d a l a rg e e n o u g h d i s h of c l ean water so that you r s n a ke o r toa d c a n d ri n k o r soa k . Be s u re that the floor of your cage i s a l ways d ry. F asten your water conta i n e r so a movi n g s n a ke wi l l not turn it over. R e pti l es kept i n wet cages ofte n develop skin i nfections which a re diffic u l t to cure. Turn such sick s n a kes loose. CAG ES A N D TA N KS

13


of many a m ph i bians and re pti l e s are sti l l u n k n o w n . S o me­ ti mes o n l y the a d u l ts have b e e n de­ scribed, and we know n oth i n g of thei r e g g s o r y o u n g . Eati ng h a b i ts , w i nter­ i n g ha bits, and mating habits of many s p e c i e s a re sti l l m y ster i e s . A c a ref u l , informed a mateur m a y be able t o make Amphibian Eggs in Aquarium a c c u rate fi e l d observati o n s a n d records of scientific va lue. Binoculars a re often a h e l p, and a notebook is essenti a l . Fiel d obser­ vation m a y teach you m u c h m o re t h a n watc h i n g ani­ mals i n a cage. For best res u l ts, combine both method s . F i rst s t u d y t h e a n i m a l s carefu l l y i n the fi e l d . T h e n ob­ serve them in ca ptivity fo r fu rther deta i l s . The m o re nat­ u ra l the cond itions, the bette r the observati o n s . LIFE HISTORIES

K E E PING RE PTILES AND A M PHIBIA NS AS PETS

Col l ecti n g repti l es and am­ p h i b i a n s to keep as pets is easy. Kee p i n g t h e m a l i ve req u i re s a d e q u ate c a g es, l ive food, a n d patience. Some a re unusua l, most are interesting, but a l l have their limitations. Turtles are favored. They live long and a re easier to feed. Species preferred as pets are noted, but turning these anima ls loose exactly or as near as possible to where they were found, after you hove studied them, is proper. Ma ny species cannot lega l ly be pos­ sessed without state or federa l permit. Inquire at you r state Fish and Wildlife Service, or eq uiva lent, before attempting to col l ect or keep any reptile or am phibia n even common or poisonous species. 14

'


FI RST AID FO R SNAK E BI TE

Read this before you beg i n han­ d l ing sna kes. Sna kebites of a n y kin d ore rare. T h ey ore e a s i l y preve nte d . Wear h eavy shoes, boots, or leg g i ngs in c o u ntry w h e r e poi s o n o u s s pecies o re fo u n d . Stay o n r o o d s , paths, or tra i l s i f p o s s i b l e . Step c l e a r of rocks and l o g s . When c l i mbing rocky l e d g es, l o o k befo re you g rasp. Fi n a l l y and most i m porta nt: no a mate u r s h o u l d catch or h a ndle poisonous s n a kes. Bites of non-poisonous snakes often l eave a U-shoped pattern of tooth ma rks . Treat them as sim­ ple, m i n o r w o u n d s with any good g e r m i c i d e . Bites of poisonous s n a kes u s u a l l y show a double p u ncture c a u sed by the e n l a rged front fa n g s . Other teeth marks may be present a l so. If bitten, try hard to rec o g n i z e a n d i d e ntify the s n a k e . I f the s n a k e is poi s o n o us, c o m p l ete q u i et with p ro m pt fi rst aid, a n d the use of seru m by a d octor, wi l l i ns u re the possi bility of c o m p l ete a n d rapid recovery. Phone doctor immediately.

Apply tourniquet. Loosen for 5 min. at 20·min. intervals

Make small incisions.

Suck out poison.

Keep patient quiet, warm, and comfortable.


Scaly Skin

R E PTIL ES

Ploted Skin

REPTILES (teoth oliko )

Th o u g h the Age of Re pti les, w h i c h fl our足 ished for some 1 20 m i l l i o n years, came to a n e n d a bout 70 m i l l i o n yea rs ago, many i nteresting and unusual reptil es a re sti l l fou n d today. Some n a tive re ptiles occur i n every state, though they a re more common and more species occur i n the warmer pa rts of this country. Re pti l e s are c l a ssified i nto fo u r m a j o r g r o u p s -t u rtles (45 s pecies), l i zards (90 species}, s n a kes ( 1 1 0 s pecies}, a n d a l l i g ators a n d c rocod i l es {2 speci es). Repti l es are n ot a l wa ys easy to fi n d . Some a re s m a l l , ma ny a re noc足 turn a l , and most are protectively colored. Reptiles a re cold-bloode d . A reptil e ' s body tempera足 ture is the sa m e a s the temperature of i ts s u rroundings, except a s evaporation lowers it o r i nsolation raises it. O n l y by behavior is a repti l e ' s te m perature control led. Only o n hot sand o r roc k does a repti l e get m uc h warmer t h a n the a i r. Desert repti l e s avoid di rect m i dday sun.

16


SNAKES ( 110 species)

MAMMALS (tooth variable)

Some beco me dormant ( a e stivate) in m id s ummer. In cooler reg i o n s repti l e s h i be rnate fro m late fa l l to early s p ri n g u n d er the soi l , rocks, or water. T h e n they a re in足 active, sometimes a l most lifeless. Al l repti l es , even aquatic species, have lungs and breathe a i r. Their ski n i s usually covered with scal es or p l ates . Repti l i a n teeth a re commonly u n iform i n shape and size, l a c k i n g the spec i a l ization seen i n m a m ma l s . Most repti l e s l a y e g g s . I n a few, the e g g s r e m a i n i nside the moth e r ti l l ready to hatch. All you n g a re a bl e to care for t h e mselves very soon after bi rth . T h o u g h a few s n a kes a n d l i z a r d s a re poi s o n o u s , t h e great m a j o rity of repti les a re harmless. They a re often classed as bene足 ficial to man because they feed on rodents and i nsects . Some re pti l e s m a k e i nteresti n g a n d u n u s u a l pets. Al l are a n i m a l s which deserve protecti on from needless destruction. 17


BOX TURTLE

TURTLES a re u n us ual, a ncient repti les. Their ancestors fi rst a p pea red s o m e 200 m i l l i o n years a g o , l o n g be足 fore the d i nosa u rs . And while those g reat beasts have long been exti nct, tu rtl es with their odd, u n g a i n l y form h ave mana ged to s u rvive a n d have remained relatively u n c h a n g ed for a t l e a s t 1 5 0 m i l l i o n years. Part of the re a s o n f o r t h i s l o n g s u rv i v a l m a y be the turtl e ' s un足 usual skeleto n . The top shell or carapace i s formed from overg rown, wi d e n e d r i b s . B e n e ath is the l ower shel l , or pl astro n . I n the course of thei r development, tu rtles have beco m e so m o d i f i e d t h a t t h e i r l e g s a re attached within th e i r ri bs. This devel o p m e n t for protection has m a de it necessary for turtles to develop longer necks a n d an un足 u s u a l w a y of g etti n g a i r i n a n d o u t of thei r l u n g s . A tu rtl e ' s neck forms a ti ght S-s h a ped bend, a n d the cu rve beco mes s h a l l ow as the neck extends. Turtles h ave n o teet h . B u t t h e i r horny b i l l wi l l tear p l a nt and a ni m a l food. Turtles eat insects, worms, grubs, shellfish, fish, and some pla nts. A few species are 揃


l a r g e l y h e r bivoro u s . Al l t u rtles l a y e g g s , u s u a l l y 6 to 1 2, a nd b u ry t h e m i n t h e g r o u n d . S ea T u rt l e s l a y m a n y m o r e . U n der the heat of the s u n these h a tch i n to yo u n g w h i c h g ro w to ma­ tu rity i n a b o u t 5 to 7 y e a rs. T u rtles may l i ve longer than any other a n i m a l s , perhaps up to 1 50 yea rs. S m a l l s pecies h ave s u rvived l o n g e r than 40 years in ca ptivity. Male t u rtles are g e n erally s maller tha n fe m a l es; they often h ave a longer tai l , a concave pl astron , a n d l o n g n a i l s on their front feet. In n o rt h e r n sections of the country, turtles h i bernate u n der soil or u n d e r m u d at the botto m of p o n d s . Some also be­ come d o r m a n t in h ot, d ry weather. Several k i n d s are prized as ta ble d e li caci es. Many m a ke i nteresti n g pets that are easy to keep a n d feed. Livi n g turtl es of N o rth America and adjacent seas fit i nto seven f a m i l i e s . S i x a r e i l l u st r a t e d at the r i g ht s i d e of the page by represe ntative species. The sev­ e nth fa m i ly, the l a n d tortoises, i s pictu r e d on p . 2 7. This i s the · only group correctly ca l l ed " tor­ toises . "

MUD TURTLE

SNAPPING TURTLE


SEA TURTLES a re l a rger tha n , a n d different from, pond and land species. The l i m bs of marine turtles a re modified into fl i p pers-strea m l i ned for swim m i n g , clum足 s y for use on land. As a result, these turtles seldom come ashore, though the fema l e does so to lay her l a rge batch of eggs i n l ate spri n g . The eggs a re bu ried in the sand j ust past the h i g h-water mark. Sea Turtles a re found i n warmer waters of both Atl a ntic and P'a足 cific, a n d occas i o n a l l y off northern s hores i n s u m mer. Of five kinds, the Leatherback is largest. Specimens

20


over 8 ft. long, close to 1 ,500 lb., have been caug ht. T h e r i d g e d , leathery b a c k m a kes i d e ntificati o n e a sy. The Hawksb i l l , s m a l l est of the Sea Turtles, also is easy to reco g n i z e beca u s e of its overlapping scales. This is the species fro m wh i c h "tortoise shel l " comes. The Green Tu rtl e , m ost ofte n used for food, h a s four p l ates on each s i d e between the top a n d the m a r g i n a l pl ates . The Loggerhead Turtle has five pl ates on each s i d e and a smaller head than the Green T u rtle, with which it may be confused. It is not a s good eati n g . 21


MUS K TURTLES a r e a q uatic s pecies of p o n d s , s l ow strea ms, and rivers. They often sun themselves i n shal­ l o w water, but sel d o m come ashore. T h e f e m a l e s do so to lay eggs. Note the na rrow, hig h carapace, often covered with a l g a e a n d water moss. T h e l o w e r s h el l ( p l a stro n ) i s na rrow a n d s h o rt, al­ most l i k e that of Snappi n g Turtles . T h e M u s k T u rt l e h a s a strong odor. Two s peci es occ u r; the com­ moner, shown a bove, has two light stripes on each side of its head. 22

�-- �- - - - - -� \--


COMMON MUD TURTLf

five species of th em , l ive a bout the s a me a s M u s k T u rt l e s . Th e y are a q uatic, feed i n g on l a rvae of water i n sects a n d s m a l l water a n i m a l s . Notice t h a t the plastron i s much w i d e r i n the M u d Turtle and i s all scaly. Both e n d s a re h i n g ed , so that the Mud T u rtle can p u l l the pla stron in, � givi n g h e a d a n d l i m bs m o r e protectio n . M u d T u rtles h a ve a m u sky ' odor, too. T h e y a r e s m a l l , ra rely ove r 4 i n . long, a n d a re m o re common i n the Southeast. 23 M U D T U RT L E S,

�� ··

·--�-------·---�r:l�((f

·· .

__


and its g i a nt rel ative ( see p . 2 5 ) are d a ngerous. Their l o n g necks, powerful jaws, and vicious tem pers m a ke them u nsafe to h a n d l e . Hold them well away fro m you. S n a p pers a re a q u atic, pre­ ferri n g q u i et, m u d d y wate r . They eat fish a n d so me­ ti mes waterfowl . Notice the sharp­ ly toothed rear edge of the rough c a r a p a c e , w h i c h is oft e n c o a ted wit h g reen a l g a e . T h e p l a stron is s m a l l . Adu l ts, 1 8 i n . or m o re, wei gh 20 to 35 l b .

COMMON SNA PPER

7·- - - - ­ \-24


ALLIGATOR SNA P PER is the l a rgest fresh-water tur足 tle, reach i n g a l ength of 30 i n . a n d a w e i g h t o f cl ose to 1 5 0 l b. E ntirely a q uatic, i t l i es o n the m ud d y bot足 to m , its h u ge mo uth a g a pe , wi g g l i n g its pi n k, worm足 l i ke to n g u e to attract a n u n wary fish . Its powerful jaws can m a i m a h a n d or foot. It d iffers from the C o m m o n S n a p per in hav足 i n g th ree h i g h ridges or keels on its back. Speci m e n s are reported to have l ived 50 to 60 years and more in zoos.

25


SPINY SOFT-SHELLED TURTLE

SOFT- SHELLE D T U R TLES have, in fact, a h a rd she l l , b u t i t i s soft-edged a n d l a c k s horny sca les. T h e s e tur足 tles can pull i n head and l i m bs for protection neverthe足 less. Of two species, one h a s s m a l l bumps o r tubercles a l o n g the front edge of the carapace; the othe r does not. Both h ave long necks, sharp beaks, vicious tempers . H a n d l e them by rea r of s h e l l . T h e s e turtles g r o w to a l e n gt h o f a bo u t 1 8 i n . a n d w e i g h u p to 3 5 l b . T h e y a re excellent eati n g .


or GO PH ER TURTLES a re l a n d tu rtles with b l u nt, c l u b- s h a p e d feet very d i ffe r e n t fro m the w e b b e d feet o f a q u a t i c s p e c i e s . T h e i r diet i n c l u des m uch p l a n t m ateri a l a s well a s i nsects and s m a l l a n i 足 m a l s . O u r t h r e e s p e c i e s , w h i c h d i ffer o n l y i n m i n o r ways, a re related t o the Giant Tor足 toises of the G a l a pagos Islands, la rgest and o l dest of l a n d turtles. The r e l a t i v e l y h i g h , a rc h e d c a ra足 pace and the habit of d i g g i n g deep bu rrows are cha racteri stic . 27

TORTO I S ES


are a co m m o n g r o u p of fo u r s p e c i e s . The c a ra p a c e is u s u a l l y s m ooth a n d fa i r l y fl a t , t h e rear edge rou g h l y toothed. The ca rapace of the Florida and Ala b a m a S l i ders a rches h i g h er than t h e c a r a p a ce of others. The o l ive-brown shel l s and skins of S l i d ers are s p l otc hed with red and yel low. The Elegant S l i d e r has a d i st i n ctive d a s h of red b e h i n d t h e eye. The m a l es, much d a rker tha n fema les, were once m i staken for d if足 ferent s pe c i e s . With t h e e xtra-l o n g toe n a i l s on their fr o n t feet they s e e m t o ti c k l e o r g e nt l y s c r a t c h the fema l e ' s head d u ri n g courts h i p . The fem a l e l ater digs

S LID ERS

28


a h o l e n e a r t h e s h ore a n d de posits a bo u t 1 0 e g g s, which s h e covers with d i rt. All S l iders p refer the q u iet waters of rivers and pond s . O n w a r m d a ys they may be fou n d s u n n i n g on logs or d e b r i s . They a re one of the com mon est turtles of the Mi ssis s i p p i and its tri butaries. Of a l l you n g tu r足 tl es sol d in pet shops, S l i d e rs are com monest. They m a ke good pets, live l o n g , a n d g row to a bout 1 ft. Pai nti n g their s h e l l s deform s and may fin a l l y k i l l them.


i s a l s o c a l l e d t h e H i e ro足 g lyphic Turtle because the markings on its shell and s kin rese m b l e a nc i e n t writi n g . I t i s a typ i c a l S l i d e r with a d a rk, flattened c a r a p a ce, 1 0 to 1 2 i n . lon g , m a rked with yel low. The plastron is yellow with dark markings. Like oth e r Sliders th i s one fee d s on s m a l l wa ter a n i m a l s , i n s ects, a nd eve n d e a d f i s h ; it a l s o e a t s s o me water pla nts. I n the various pa rts of the South, S l i ders a r e prized for their flavor.

S A W - TOOTH E D S LI D ER

30


CHI C K EN TURTL E i s s o c a l l e d beca u s e it i s l o c a l ly e aten des pite its s i z e ( 5 to 8 i n . ). The brow n i s h c a ra足 pace has s h a l l o w fu rrows, a s m ooth rea r e d g e , and thin yellow lines. It is higher and narrower than that of S l iders. T h e pl astron i s yel low, a s a re t h e u n d e rs ides of head and l i m bs, which have th in, dark stri p e s . C h i c k e n T u rt l e s have very long necks. They prefer d itches a n d p o n d s to rivers. More p u g na足 c i o u s t h a n S l i d e r s , they d o not m a ke a s good pets.

31


PA I NT E D TUR T L ES a r e p e r h a ps t h e most c o m mon a n d wi de s prea d of turtl es. They are fo u n d whe rever th ere a re p o n d s , s wa m ps , d i t c h e s , o r s l o w stre a ms . T h e s e s m a l l ( 5 to 6 i n . ) t u rtles spend much of their time in or near water, feeding on water plants, insects, and other small a n i mals. They are a l so scavengers. I n sum足 m e r, P a i nted T u rtl e s gather together, and i f one ap足 proaches q u ietly, they may be seen s u n n i n g on logs, rocks, o r even floati ng water p l a nts. Ma les are similar

MISSISSIPPI PAINTED TURTLf

32

WESTERN PAINTED TURTLE


to the fe males but smal ler, with the same long nails on t h e i r forefeet that S l i d e rs have. F e m a l es l a y 6 to 1 2 w h ite e g g s i n a h o l e t h a t they h ave d u g l a b o ri o u sly with their hind legs i n the s o i l . The eggs m a y hatch in two or th ree months, thou g h some you n g do not e m erge ti l l t h e fol l o wi n g s p r i ng. P a i n ted T u rtles may b e e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d by t h e i r b r o a d , d a r k , f l a ttened, s m ooth-edged shel l s . The ma rgin of the cara pace is ma rked with red; so is the yellow-strea ked skin, espe足 cially on head and l i mbs. The plastron is yellow, some足 ti mes bei n g ti nted with red . In all fo u r s u b s pecies of Pai nted T u rtles the u p per j a w is notched in front. The n otch has a s m a l l projection on each side. Markings and deta i l s of c a r a p a c e and p l a stron d i ffe r f r o m s u b s pe足 cies to s u b s p e c i e s . P a i nted Tu rtles a re shy and a re not easily ca ptu red . They m ake g oo d pets b u t m u st be fed in water. You n g Pai nted Tu rtles w i l l a ttac k fi s h if they a re put in an a q u a ri u m with th e m . 33


FALSE MAP TURTLE

a re aq uatic turtles often found in l a rge n u m be rs in p o n d s , s w a m p s , a n d q u i et strea m s . They a re even more ti m i d than Painted Tu rtles. Dozens may be s u n n i n g on a log, but at the least d i st u r b i n g noise they i n sta ntly d ro p back i nto the water. like S l i d ers, thes e turtles a re c a ptu red and s o l d for foo d . Of the five s pe c i e s , the F a l s e Ma p Tu rtle i s r e p o rted better eati n g . The yo u n g of both make fa i r pets, feed i n g on c ho pped m eat and earthworms. At full g rowth they a re 9 to 1 2 i n . l o n g . Ad u l ts, havi n g stro n g jaws, feed on MA P TURTLES

34


s n a i l s , c l a m s , i n sects, a n d oth e r water a n i m a l s . The female, com i n g a s h o re briefly in early s u m m e r to lay 1 0 to 1 6 white e g g s , retu r n s to the water a s soon as t h e eggs a re b u r i e d . Map t u rtl e s a re n a m e d fo r the fai nt, yel l o w p a tte r n o n t h e c a r a p a c e . T h e lin e s a re brighter on the head and l i m bs. The keeled carapace and its roughly �--... toothed rear edge a re identification m a r k s . M a l e s , s m a l l er t h a n feCommon males, may be weaker, more ti mid. h)

{;,;

�-- - - --w; ..

-,�er

35


with its hinged plastron some足 w h a t r e s e m bl e s the Box T u rtl e , but c a n n ot c l o s e i ts s h e l l tightly. It h a s webbed feet a n d lacks the hooked b i l l of the Box T u rtl e . The p l a stron is notc h e d at the b a c k . B l a n d i n g Turtle, 7 to 8 i n . l o n g , prefers water, but it also lives in m a rs h es, where it feeds o n i n sects, w o r m s , a nd various pla nts. This shy tu rtle tames easily and will make a good pet if k e pt in a l a r g e , s h a l l o w pan of water.

B LA N DING TURTLE

36


often c a l l ed Diamondback beca use of the a n g u l a r r i n g s o n the c a ra pace pl ate, is the best足 k n o w n eati n g tu rtl e . It is r a i s e d on t u rtle f a r m s , a nd 8 - i n . s pecimens sell for as h i g h as $1 0. You n g are pro足 tected by law in Maryl a n d a n d N orth Carol i n a . These t u rtles of b r a c k i s h water a n d tidewater strea m s h a v e we b b e d fe et. The carapace is d u l l o l i ve , the plas足 tron yellow. Marki n g s va ry. Females a re l a rger. Food : s m a l l s h e l l fish, cra bs, worms, p l a nts. 37 TERRA PIN,


EASTERN BOX TURTLE

a re land species, occasionally fou n d in o r near water, th o u g h they a re w e l l a d a pted fo r l ife o n l a n d . T h e y prefer m o i st, o p e n woods or s w a m ps a n d feed o n i n sects, ea rth w o r m s , s n a i l s , f r u i ts , a nd berries. Box Tu rtles have a h i n ged plastron which they p u l l tight again st the carapace for complete p rotection w h e n they a r e fri g h te n e d . T h e c a r a p a c e , 4 to 5 i n . l o n g , i s h i g h l y a r c h e d . Of the two species of Box Tur足 tles, E a stern a n d Western, the for m e r is d i v i d e d i n to severa l s u bspecies, d isti n g uished by the s h a pe and markings on the shells and by the number of toes BOX TURTLES

EASTERN BOX TURTLE


(three or fou r ) on the h i n d feet. The plastron of the fe­ m a l e is u s u a l l y fl at; that of the m a l e , c u rved i n w a rd . M a l e s h a v e l o n g e r ta i l s , a n d t h e e y e of t h e m a l e i s u s u a l l y bri g ht r e d . T h e fe m a l e h a s d a r k r e d d i s h o r brown eyes. I n early summer the fe male buries fou r or five round, w h i te eggs i n a s u n n y s pot. These h atch i n a bout three m o n t h s . The yo u n g m a y h i bern ate s o o n after, with o u t feed i n g . Yo u n g Box Turtl e s g ro w 1 /2 to 3/.i i n . yea rly for five or s i x years; then they g row slower-about 1/4 i n . a yea r. At 5 yea rs they mate and lay eggs; at 20 they are fu ll-grown, and they may l ive to be as old as 80. Box Turtles have been reported l iv­ i n g 25 yea rs a n d m o r e in c a ptivity. T h e y m ake fine pets a n d m a y be kept i n a fenced o ut door p e n o r a l l o w e d to roam a r o u n d t h e ho u s e . I n c a ptivity, they eat meat a n d a va ri ety of fruits and g reens.

£_ , ·

39


is a smal l ( 3 to 5 i n . ) common tu rtle with round ora nge or yellow spots o n its smooth, black carapace. The head is colored s i m i l a rly. living i n q u iet fresh water, t h i s t u rtle feed s o n a q uatic i n s ects, tad­ poles, a n d dead fi s h , but eats o n l y when in water. It ma kes an exce l l ent, long-l ived pet. Feed i t meat, fis h , and bits of l ett u c e . Th e t a i l of t h e m a l e is a bout twice a s long a s that of the fem a l e .

S POnED TURTLE

7··- - - - - - �­ \-40


PACIFIC TURTLE is related a n d similar to the Eastern S potted T u rtl e , b u t is l a r g e r - 6 to 7 i n . T h e y e l l ow dots a n d streaks on the ca rapace a re faint. The plas­ tron, concave on the male, i s yel low with dark patches at the edges. This i s the o n l y fresh-water tu rtle of the far West. Livi n g i n mo u nta i n l a kes a n d in s l o w stretc h e s of streams, Pacific Turtles feed on s m a l l water life, i n c l u d i n g some plants. They m a ke good pets .

�1


i s q u i c k l y i d e ntified b y t h e l a rge ora nge spot o n each side of the head. The dark carapace is short (3 to 4 in.) and narrow, ma rked with c o n c e n t r i c ri n g s . T h i s t u rt l e is sem i - a q u atic , l ivin g i n swamps but returning to water when i n danger and sometimes to feed. The male has a longer tai l . Once popular as an exc e l l e nt pet s peci es, i t is n ow federa l l y p rotected throughout its range; state regu lations also l i mit possession without a permit.

MUHLENB ERG TUR T L E

r - - - - - - - - �­ \-42


i s recog n i ze d e a s i l y by its b r i g ht, orange- red skin and its heavy, keeled carapace with deep concentric g rooves. Adu lts a re 7 to 9 in. long. They prefer moist woods, though they move into open land to feed and, when it is d ry, to swamps and into ponds and slow streams. They make _ �� ______________ ....__ fine pets (check state regulations), ·"(If and wi l l take fruit, berries and bits of meat from your hand. Male has heavier, longer claws, and l a rger plates on its forelimbs. 43

WOOD T U RTLE

····- . __ ,

::!


.,_IIQiifA LI ZA RDS are more l ike ancient repti les than either s n a kes or a l l i g ators a re . Bones of fossil l izards have been found in rocks formed d u ri n g the period when the d i nosa u rs were common . L i z a r d s a re fo u n d m a i n l y i n the wa rmer pa rts of the wo rld, tho u g h a few s pecies l i ve as far n orth as C a n a d a a n d F i n l a n d . Over 2 , 5 0 0 species are k n o w n . T h e s e h a ve b e e n g r o u p e d i nto a bo u t 20 fa m i l i e s , 9 of w h i c h occ u r in the U n ited States . About 350 species are fou n d i n North America; 9 0 of these occ u r with i n the boundaries of the United States. A few species of l izards ( pp. 6 7-6 8 ) are sna ke-like in a p peara n ce; they have l o n g bodies a n d have l ost a l l traces of legs. In all other characteristics, however, they resemble other normal l i zards, and close observa足 tion easily d i sti n g u i s hes them from s n a kes. Lizards are typically fou r-legged, with five toes on each foot. They have scaly skins. On the u n derside the sca l e s form sev足 eral or m a n y rows, in contrast to s n a kes, which have o n l y a s i n g l e row of scal es. Salama n ders ( pp. 1 37- 1 5 3 ) a re someti mes mistaken for lizards. S a l a m a nders have smooth s k i n s , l i ve in moist places, have less than five toes on the front feet. Lizards u s u a l l y have mova ble eyelid s ( s n a kes have not) a n d an ear ope n i n g on the s i de of the h e a d . Most

Belly Scales-LIZARDS

44

Belly Scales-SNAKES


l a y e g g s , t h o u g h in a few cases the eggs deve l o p i n s i d e the moth e r ' s body a nd the you n g a re born a l ive. T h e m al es and fe males a re a l i ke i n many species; in oth er species they a re d iffere n t i n size and color. Many l i z a rds feed o n i n s e cts a n d oth e r small a n i m a l s , such as those i l l u strated on this page, but a few s pecies feed on plant materia l . They recognize their prey by its movement and gr a sp it with l i g h tn i n g- l i ke speed . lizards can ru n ra pidly-the fastest has been clocked at about 1 5 miles per hour. Most can swi m . Some desert species move throu g h the sand j u st below the s u rface with a swi m m i n g move m ent. lizards a re not easily caught, but those that are m a ke rea sonably good pets . They can be kept in terra ria o r wi re cages. Cover the botto m of the cage with a heavy layer of sand; set a dish of water and a few rocks i n it. Feed l i z a rds meal足 worms, fli es, small earthworms, or other l ive food . Anoles and Horned li z a rd s are c o m m on pets; others m a y eat better, however. leave the venamous G i l a-mon ster ( p. 69) alone, even thou g h it may not be so dangerous as poisonous snakes.

CENTIPEDE

FLY


GECKOS

are unusually attractive lizards, recognized

by their large, often lidless eyes with vertical pupils. The skin, usually covered with fine, beaded scales, is almost transparent. Most have enlarged, padded toes. Geckos live around houses or on trees, feeding on small insects. They are nocturnal. Geckos lay two to three or more small white ·eggs with brittle shells dur­ ing summer. Some tropical species have become nat­ uralized in Florida. Geckos are docile and rarely bite. Their tails break off easily. Tubercular and Ground Geckos are our only native species. The Least Gecko probably came to Florida from the West Indies, while the Turkish Gecko originally came from North Africa.


( 2 s i m i l a r species) are western l i zards (4 to 5 i n . l o n g). Ta i l s are a bout h a l f the body l e n gth but have u s u a l l y broken and regrown s h o rter. G r o u n d G e c k o s l i v e in r o c k y o r s a n d y d e s e rts a nd l ower mounta i n slopes. They come out at n i g h t to feed on s m a l l i n sects a n d , i n tu�n, a re ;;; eaten by s n a ke s a n d l a rger l i zards. � t,: They h i bern ate fro m Oct. to May {S'if' b u t are c o m m o n oth e r months. Other ·.<;;r�und T h ey never bite, ta m e q ui c k l y and d o well i n ca ptivity. 1���.

GROUND GECKOS

�·- - - -· "" ·

Geckos

47

,


or AMERICAN CHA MELEON, common and attractive, can change color, ofte n match i n g its back­ g r o u n d of l eaves o r b r a n c h e s , where i t feasts o n in­ s e cts. T h i s is the "c h a m e l e o n " s o l d a t fai rs a n d cir­ cuses. Kept as a pet, it needs l ive food . Anoles wi l l lap u p water sprinkled on plants. Ma les h a ve a fl a p of s k i n o n thei � th roat. E g g s ( t w o o r t h r e e ) , l a i d i n s u m­ m e r.u n d e r m o i s t d e b r i s , h at c h i n a b out s i x wee k s . True c h a m eleons a re Old World l i z a rds.

ANOLE

48


( 1 6 i n . l o n g ) is, next to the Gila­ monster (p. 69), o u r l a rgest l i z a rd . It feeds o n flowers a n d fruit of cactus a n d tender pa rts of desert p l a nts, a n d u s u a l l y eats w e l l in c a ptivity. C h u c k w a l l a s s un themselves on rocks but, when disturbed, d a rt i nto crevices, w h e re t h e y i nf l a te t h e i r � bodies and a re d ifficult to remove. � I n d i a n s used to eat the m . The '(5� yo u n g h a v e b a n d s a c r o s s b o dy a n d tai l ; the a d u lts h ave tai l ba nds o n l y. 49 CHUCKWA L LA

·-- ------------

A _.

·


DESERT IGUANA

or

CRESTED LIZARD, a

handsome·

spotted species of open deserts, lives in burrows under sparse shrubs. Entirely vegetarian, it feeds on tender desert plants. Desert Iguana is fairly large

(12

to

15

in. ), but its tail is almost twice its body length. It runs ·-·-- - -- --

�/{; ?

- --

'{5�

rapidly, is wary and hard to catch. Each has its own territory for feeding; here the female lays her eggs. Males have a reddish patch on each side of the tail.

50


SPINY

and

TRUE IGUANA,

representing two groups

of large American lizards, are not found in the United States, but come to within

1 00 miles of our border. They 1 0 or 1 1 species of Spiny

are often seen in zoos. About or False Iguana

(1

to 4ft. long) live on the ground in

lower California, Mexic;o, and farther south into Cen足 tral America. The True Iguana (4to 6ft. long) lives in tropical trees. Both are favorite foods of the Indians. Both Spiny and True Iguanas are herbivorous. Other Iguanas live in the Galapagos Islands and West Indies.

51


The black col足 l a r m a r k s the C o l l a re d L i z a rd; s o d o e s its l o n g ta i l, pl u mp body, t h i n neck, a n d relatively l a rge head . Males are more bri g htly colored, with a ti n g e of o r a n g e a n d y e l l o w . The body is 4 to 5 i n . l o n g ; the tail twice that. C o l l a red Lizards, fa irly c o m m o n in rocky a reas, feed o n i n sects a n d small lizards. Wa ry, they can ru n swiftly on their hind leg s . Collared Lizards bite when captu red a n d do not l ive wel l when caged . A s pec i e s of t h e l o w e r R i o G r a n d e v a l l ey, n ot well known, lacks the black collar. The Leopard Lizard, CO L LA RED and L EOPARD LIZARD

52


s omewhat l i ke the Collared Liza rd i n form a n d s i ze, is m o re spotted a n d has a n a rrower head and body. It p r efers fl a t, s a n d y a r e a s with s o m e v e g etati o n . As fo od it ta k e s i n s e cts a n d l i z a rd s , a n d o fte n e a ts its own kind. Oddly, fe males develop a deep s a l m o n color o n the i r u n dersides at the c l ose of the breed i n g season. They lay 2 to 4eggs, which hatch in a month or so. Beca u s e Leopa rd L i z a rd s a re vicious, they do not make satisfac足 tory pets. 53


CLIMBING and GROUND UTAS a re related g roups. The former prefer trees and rocks, where thei r dull col足 o r gives protecti o n . Their i r re g u l a r-sized scales a re a field cha racteri stic. Males a re pale blue on the u nder足 s i d e n e a r the back l e g s ; fe m a l es l a c k t h i s c o l o r . The a d u lts a re s m a l l (5 to 6 i n .). G r o u n d Utas are s m a l l stri ped o r speckled l i z a rds l i vi n g i n rocky p l aces and feed i n g on s m a l l i n sects. These very co m m o n l i z a rds vary somewhat with the i r s u rrou n d i n g s . Both C l i mbing and Ground Utas a re relatively easy to catch at night, when they a re l ess active than in the dayti me.


EARLESS SAND LIZARD

i n c l u d e five med i u m-sized (6 to 8 i n . ) l i z a rd s a l l p referri n g s a n d y terra i n . T w o of the s pecies i l l u strated a re at t h e i r best i n the sand d u nes of the Cal ifo r n i a and Arizona d eserts. All h a ve a skin fold across the u nderside, i n front of the forelegs. Legs and toes a re l o n g . T a i l s a re a bout body l e n gth a n d a re often �i�"b;;:,:·------- .... tailed m a rked with b l ack b a rs u n der­ '() "[7 ,.} Earless n eath . Sand Lizards a re active a nd ,.} � not easily caught. They a l l feed on s ma l l i nsects . 55

S A N D LIZARDS

�A


for m a l a rge g r o u p of c o m m o n liz a r d s , in足 c l u d i n g F e n c e , S pi n y, a n d S c a l y l i z a r d s . S o m e 30 forms ( s pecies and subs pecies ) live in the U nited States, a l most t h ree times as many farther south . The la rgest have bodies about 5 in. long, ta i l s slightly l o nger. All a re a ctive in d a ylig ht, s pe n d i n g the n i g ht i n c r a c ks, c revices, or on branches. Some s pecies l a y eggs; o t h e r s b e a r 6 to 12 yo u n g a live. H e a d , b o d y , a nd l i m b forms a re g uides to the entire Swift group, once you learn the m . These lizards lack the skin fold across

SWIFTS

56


the throat that S a n d liz a r d s ( p . 5 5 ) a n d s i mil a r s pe­ cies h a v e . S o m e S wifts a re b l u e o r b l ue-patc h e d on the u ndersi des; this is more prono u n ced in m a l e s . De­ tai l ed identificatio n may be d i ffic u lt. Swifts, g ood climbers, a re often fou n d in trees, o n boulders, a mong rocks. True to their name, they a re � p h a rd to catch . Their food is main ly ·--------------�>-�J'( s m a l l i nsects . They do well in cap'{5� . tivity if given live food but are not es peci a l l y g ood pets . 57

,


DESERT HORNED LIZARD

HORNED LIZARDS

are unique. These odd, flattened

creatures are found o nly in the West and in Mexico. The o nly other lizard like them is one in Australia. Most have various-sized spines on the head which give the group its name. Eight species are fou nd in dry, sandy areas, where they lie on rocks or half buried in the sand. When an insect appears, a quick s nap of the lizard's tongue takes care of it. Some species lay

20

to

30

eggs; in others up to a doz e n you ng are

born alive. In one species eggs hatch in o nly a few hours; others take several weeks. These unusual liz路

58


TEXAS HORNED LIZARD

ards may squirt a thin stream of blood from the corn­ ers of their eyes when frightened. Some puff up when angered; others flatten themselves out even more. They are easily captured, can be safely handled, and become tame. In captivity they will do well if given live insects and moist leaves from �_ w hic h they can lap up the water they need. Ants are among their favorite foods. These lizards must be kept warm {at least 70 degrees) or they will not eat.

59


OIIA NnE NIGHT LIZAID

J

a re mottled, med i u m-sized l i za rds. B oth body a n d tail a r e a b o u t 3 i n . l o n g . They live in a reas of g ra nite, behind the loose-scaled fla kes of rock or under fa l le n sta l ks of yucca. N ote the ve rtica l pupil i n the eye and lack of eye-lids . Horizontal rows of p l ates cross t h e b e l l y . T h e fou r kinds a re nocturnal, s pending the d a y in s h e ltered croc k s . Yo ung (two o r three a t a ti m e ) o r e born olive. The food i s beetles and other s m a l l insects.

NIGHT LIZARDS

60


SKINKS Some 20 species of Skinks are fou n d i n the U nited States; n o other l i z a rd s have so wide a range. They a re the only lizards North have ever seen . All are small to moderate s i z e . The body l e n gth is not u s u a l l y m o r e th a n 5 i n t h e tai l n o t m u c h over 6 i n . Most S k i n k s a r e s m a l ler. Skinks can be reco g n i z e d by the i r s mooth, flat scales, which prod uce a g lossy, s i l ky a ppearance. Most have s hort legs, and i n one ( p . 64) the legs a re degenerate, but most a re swift runners. A l l burrow occasional ly, for S ki n ks, i n g e n e r a l , a re g r o u n d l i z a rd s . Active d u ring warm days, S ki n ks f e e d m a i n l y o n i n sects, s p i d e rs, worms, and perhaps s m a l l vertebrates. They h ibernate a l l wi nter i n the g r o u n d or under logs. The most com足 mon Skink m ates d u r i n g May. Eggs, 6 to 1 8 , a re laid a bout s i x weeks l ater. The mother spends the next six o r seven w e e k s b r o o d i n g her e g g s ti l l they h atch, s o m eth i n g u n u s u a l fo r l i z a rd s . T h e yo u n g a r e o n ly a bout a n i n c h l o n g . Skinks c a n be roughly identified b y the m a rkings o n th e i r b a c k s . Most c o m m o n i n t h e E a s t a r e t h e fi ve足 l i n e d S k i n ks , whi c h have five l i g h t l i nes fro m head to ta i l . Lines a re clearer in younger ani mals. In the West, fo u r- l i n e d S ki n ks a re c o m m o n . Other Ski n ks h ave eight l i n es , two l i n es , o r n o l i n e s at a l l . They a re n o t e a s i l y caught but will d o wel l in c a pti vity if l i ve food足 m e a l w o r m s , a nt l a rvae, o r beetle g r u b s - a re a va i l a bl e . Keep in a terrari u m with rocks u n d e r which they can h i d e .

61


GREATER FIVE-LINED SKINK


are s i m i l a r to th e other s k i n ks j ust noted. The Brown Ski n k (2 i n . long, with l o n g e r ta i l ) has a transparent d i s k in the eye l i d . Nota ble a l so a re the s m ooth, flat scales and the broa d , brown b a n d s down the s i d e s . This s ki n k prefers wooded moist p l a ces; it l ays its e g g s i n h u m u s or rotted wood . It is a n active l i zard, most commonly fou n d on the g round, often h i d i n g under l eaves. The Sand Skink is a bu rrow足 i n g lizard about 2 i n . long, with legs small and degen足 erate, especi a l l y the forelegs. N o other l izard has legs q u i te l i ke it. It i s fo u n d i n pine woods, i n d ry o r sa ndy soils.

BRO WN and SAN D S KIN K S

r- - - - 足 \ 64

SAND SKINK


SIX-LINED WHIPTAIL LIZARD

WHIPTAIL LIZA RDS or Racerunners, a very d iverse group, give the experts trouble. One of the most com足 mon and wides pread i s the 6-l i ned species, somewhat s k i n k- l i ke i n a p pearance. Its body l e ngth i s a bout 3 i n . ; ta i l at l east twi ce a s l o n g . These l i zards a re fo u n d in many d ry local ities, feedi n g during the d a y o n i nsects, worms, a nd s n a i l s . Oth er Wh i ptai l s are c heck足 ered or s potte d . They a re more common i n the West.


n a m e d for th e i r s h a pe and h eavy s c a l e s , a re s l ow, d u l l -c o l o r e d , s o l ita ry, with a b a n d e d o r s p e c k l e d b a c k . T h e y a r e fa i r l y l a r g e ( 1 0 i n . ) . Some species lay eggs; i n others the 2 to 1 5 young a re born a l ive. They feed o n i n sects a n d s p id e rs and, in turn, a re the food of l a rger rep足 ti les, m a m m a l s , and b i r d s . A l l i ga 足 t o r lizards do well i n ca ptivity, b u t t h e y fi g h t w h e n s e v e r a l a r e i n a cage together. Males m a y bite p a i n fu l l y .

ALLIGATOR LIZARDS,


are of three c l o s e l y s i m ilar s pecies - l i m b l ess, somewhat s n a k e l i ke, 2 to 3 ft. long. Ear o p e n i n g s , eyelids, and many rows of belly s c a les procl a i m t h e m to be true lizards. The very l o n g tai l breaks o ff m o r e e a s i l y t h a n that o f othe r l i z a rd s . It may brea k off when the a n i m a l i s cap足 tu red or rou g h l y h a n d l e d . The tail, of co u rse, c a n not rej o i n the body, but a new, shorter tai l grows in its place. These l i zards feed on i nsects . They may bite when h a n d l e d . 67 GLASS -S N A K E LIZARDS


WORM and FOOTLESS LIZARDS a r e two s m a l l b u r­ rowing species. The former ( u p to 1 0 i n . long, o n l y 1/4 i n . thick), found i n sa n d y s o i l of pi n e w o o d s , h a s d i sti n ct rings which make it look much l i ke a large e a rthworm. It is l i m bless, ea rless, and blind. The Footless lizard of Ca l i fornia, which i s even s m a l ler ( 6 i n . ), has s m a l l eyes b ut i s e a r ­ less and l i m bless. Two forms occu r, ess one of w h i c h is s i l very , t h e other b l a c k . T h e s e l i z a r d s d e p e n d on s m a l l i n sects fo r their food . _ _ _ _ ___ ___

.,

68

.._� ·


our o n l y poisonous l i z a rd , g rows u p t o 2 ft. l o n g . The poison, fro m modified s a l i va ry g l a nds i n the l o we r j a w, i s not i nj ected and m a y n ot e nter the wound when the l i z a rd bites . U s u a l l y slow and c l u msy, G i l a - m o n sters c a n twi st t h e i r h e a d s , bite s w i ftly, a nd h a n g o n str o n g l y . L e a v e t h e m to � 6 t h e e x p e rt s . G i l a - m o n sters l i ve � ·-·-······----/ under rocks a n d i n b u rrows by day. '{)� � They feed o n eggs, m ice, a n d other l i z a rd s . T h e 6 to 1 2 eggs h a tch i n ' a bout a m o n th . 69

GILA -MONSTER,

(


Skull of Non-poisonous Snake­ Eastern Racer

Skull of Poisonous Snake­ Cottonmouth

SNA K ES a r e t h e best- k n o w n re pti l e s . Of s o m e 2 50 species a n d s u bs pecies fou n d i n the U . S . , 3 6 p roduce poi son which can harm man. I n few places a re poison­ o u s s n a kes co m m o n , a n d death fro m s n a k e bite is a rarity. Al l s n a kes e xcept Bl i n d S n a kes have l a rge scales a cross the belly. Besides lacki n g l i m bs, they also lack e a r o p e n i n g s and eye l i ds that move. Each side of the s n a ke ' s lower jaw moves separately, enabl i n g it to swa l­ low prey l a rg e r th a n its normal mo uth s i z e . Teeth are small a n d hooked. The larger fa ngs of poisonous s pecies a re g rooved or hollow. The s n a k e ' s l o n g , forked tongue is h a r m l ess. It s e rves a s a s i m pl e ki n d of feel er and " s m e l l e r . " The ton g u e can not s m e l l but does b ri n g odorous p a rticles i nto the mouth a n d i nto co ntact with smel l-sensiti ve o r g a n s there. These s u pplem ent the sensa­ tions the s n a ke receives

Head of Scarlet King Snake (showing tongue attachment and teeth)

70


Copperhead at Birth Eggs of Red King Snake

through its nostri l s . Sna kes do not hear as we d o; their e nti re b o d y picks u p v i b ra足 tions th rou g h the g ro u n d . The eyesight of s n a kes is fai rl y good, though thei r eyes are not as wel l adjusted for distance as ours. Some can see very wel l at n i g ht. Snakes feed on l ive a n i m a l s: i nsects, worms, frogs, mice, rats, and rabbits - mostly a n i mals harmful to man. Some s n a kes lay eggs; the young of others a re born al ive. S n a kes may h ave a bout a dozen you n g at a ti m e a n d occasional l y a s many as 99. The mother gives them n o ca re a fter bi rth; the you n g fend for t h e m s e l ves a n d grow ra pidly. Most of them double thei r size i n one year and a re full g rown i n two or th ree years. I n growi ng, s n a kes shed thei r ski n s at l east once a n d often several ti mes a year. Although s n a kes a re kept a s pets by some people, they a re not very i ntel l i g e nt. They are u n u s u a l , attractive-even bea utifu l . S o m e s pe足 cies are easy to ta m e a n d n ever attem pt to bite. Only a few wi l l eat wel l in ca ptivity. live food is u s u a l l y needed.

71


sometimes cal led Worm S n a kes be足 c a u s e of t h e i r c o l o r a n d s i z e ( 8 to 1 2 i n .), a r e truly blind. They may come to the su rface at n ight. Most are found under stones or i n d i g g i n g . They eat worms and i n s ect l a rv a e . C a ptive s p eci m e n s never bite. They bur足 r o w ra p i d l y w h e n s a n d o r s o i l is put i n the cage. The three similar s p e c i e s a r e the o n l y A m e ri c a n s n a kes with out l a r g e bel l y s c a l es. Blind Snakes lay eggs. They are rel atives of the Boa s .

B LIND SNA K ES,

72


are n ot a l l l a rg e tro p i c a l s n a ke s . Two s pecies l i ve n o rth of M e x i c o . The Rosy o r C a l i fo r n i a Boa, a n attractive, docile, s m a l l-sca led constrictor, m a kes a fine p et. It l i ve s in d ry, rocky footh i l ls, feed i n g m a i n l y on rodents . The grayish Rubber Boa, also heavy-bodied, has a short, blunt ta i l which it dis­ 111; ./ pl ays l i ke a head while its real ,:"" " ·· � h ead i s p rotected by the coi l s of its / u):\� '{) '15 body. It g rows up to 2 ft. l o n g ; the Rosy Boa is larger ( 3 ft. ). Both bear l i ve yo u n g .

BOA S

. . . . . . . . . ...

A. .: ·

73


i s a h a n d so m e s pe c i e s . Stri pes v a ry from ora n g e to red . The underside i s red with a d o u b l e row of b l a c k s pots . This s n a k e of swa m p y re足 g i o n s ofte n b u rrows a n d i s not co m m o n l y s ee n . It is s m a l l e r (40 i n . ) t h a n t h e c l o s e l y r e l a te d Mud S n a ke ( p . 75 ) a n d l i ke it has a sharp " s p i n e " at the e n d of its ta i l . li ttle is known of its l ife h istory and feed足 i n g h a bits. The f e m a l e l a ys 20 or m o re e g g s , w h i c h h a t c h i n a b out 60 days.

RAINBOW SNA K E

74


(two s i m i l a r forms) a re the s u bject of m a ny s u p e rstiti o n s . The s p i k e o r sti n g e r o n the ta i l is s a i d to be p o i s o n o u s . T h i s s n a ke , a l s o c a l l ed H oop S n a ke, i s s u p p o s e d to g r a s p its ta i l i n its m o uth and roll down the roa d . Such ta les a bout the h a r m l ess, at足 tractive, s m a l l-headed Mud Snakes a re u ntrue . These bu rrowi ng swamp s n a kes feed o n fish and frogs, espe足 c i a l l y o n S i r e n s a n d C o n g o-eels ( p p . 1 3 9 - 1 4 0 ) . Length, 4 to 6 ft.; lays 20 to 80 o r more eggs. MUD SNA K E S

75


. .

'

Northern

:

� .. /

' �"'

,

�-

J

t

:

.

Southern

Mississi ppi

Pra

(three species) a re s m a l l ( 1 2 to 1 8 i n . ), common, attractive snakes living in moist w o o d s u n d e r rocks or fa l l e n logs, w h e r e t h e y feed on s m a l l i n se cts and worms. They lay eggs w h i c h hatch i n a bout two m o n t h s . Recog nize these s n a kes by t h e i r sl ate­ gray color and the yellow-to-ora nge ri n g behind the head. The u n derside is yellow, o range, o r red, sometimes s potted . They may secrete a s melly fl ui d when captured, but soon tame. Ca ptives eat poorly.

RING-N E C K ED SNA KES


slender and harm less, l ive in g reen­ ery w h e re they a re h a r d to see. The s m a l l e r s p e c ies ( 1 5 to 1 8 i n . ) with s m ooth sca les prefers open g rassy p l a ce s . The other, w h i c h g rows twice as l o n g , has a rough a ppearance due to a ridge or keel on each scale. Often fo u n d i n bushes and vi n es, th i s o n e fee d s o n i n sects. E g g s of both species hatch i nto dark young which g rad u a l l y turn green . Green S n a kes a re d o c i l e, but a s n either eats wel l , they l a n g u i s h in ca ptivity.

GREEN SNA K ES,

�·- - - · · ..

77


CONE-NOSED SNAKE

( Text

78

0n

page 80)


�·

BLACK SWAMP SNAKE

� -- .

__ _ _

_ _ __ _

_ _ ....

f. · /' ( ---------------"'-� '(5 '-y

Sharptailed

Striped Swamp

STRIPED SWAMP SNAKE

( Text

on

page 80)


S M A L L E R , L E S S C O M M O N , H A R M L E S S S N A K ES ( Illustrations on Pages 78 and 79 ) CON E - NOS ED SNA K ES ( 1 0 to 1 2 i n . ) a re two wood­

l a n d s p e c i e s a l s o c a l l ed G r o u n d S n a k e s . B r o w n i s h or g ra y a bove; s o m e with s m a l l b l a c k dots. Food : s m a l l in sects a n d wo rms. You ng a re b o r n a l ive. S HORT-TAILED SNA K E ( 1 8 to 24 i n . ) is l i ke a small Red Ki n g S n a ke. An agg ressive, b u rrowi n g , upland s n a ke, it kills small prey, often other s n a kes, by con­ strictio n . Ta i l i s very short. GROUN D SNA K ES ( 1 0 to 1 5 i n . ) are two s m a l l ba nded s pecies of vari a b l e color a n d pattern, s i m i l a r b u t · not related to Sha rp-ta i led . Food : i nsects, s p iders, etc. SHO V EL - NOS ED SNA K E ( 1 2 to 1 6 i n . ) i s a g round snake ( two species) s l i g htly l a rger than Grou n d S na kes a n d related to th e m . S n out proj ecti n g but fl a tte n ed . A yellowish, e g g - l a y i n g sand b u rrowe r. BLA C K SWAM P S NA K E ( 1 2 to 1 6 i n . ) i s thick­ bod ied, red-bel li ed , swa m p-lovi n g . Bl ack b a r o n each bel l y scale. Young born a l ive. Food : probably fi sh, frogs. STRI PED S WA M P S N A K E ( 1 8 to 24 i n . ) i s a q u atic, living i n holes and tunnels a l on g d itches and in swamps. Food : m a i n l y crayfish and frogs . Young are born alive. S H A R P - TAIL ED S N A K E ( 1 2 to 1 6 i n . ) i s so mewhat sto ut. Little i s known of its ha bits. N ote t h e l i g ht yel­ low stri pe on sides, black bands on yel low belly scales. SAND S NA K E I 1 0 to 1 4 i n . ) i s a bu rrower i n d esert s a n d s . Crawls j ust below the s u rface, aided by a broad , hea vy s n o ut. Y e l l o w to red, with d a r k b a n d s a l m ost e n c i rcl i n g bo d y . S c a l e s s m a l l a n d s h i n y . Life h i story l a rgely u n known . Said to eat ant l a rvae. 80


HOG-NOSED SNA K E is unique a n d a m u s i n g . W h e n m o l ested, it h i sses, s p re a d s , a n d stri kes, as though to a p p e a r d a n gerous, but it never bites. I f th reats fa i l , it rolls over and plays d e a d . B ec a u s e of its ferocious puffi n g , this h a r m l ess snake is sometimes c a l l e d Puff Ad d e r . The h a rd , turned-up nose h e l p s i n bu rrowi n g after toads, w h i c h a re t h e preferred food of these sna kes, often m a k i n g up their enti re diet. The H o g - n osed S n a k e l a ys a b o ut two d o z e n e g g s in s u m足 m e r . They a re g e n t l e s n a ke s a nd d o w e l l i n c a pti vity, i f to a d s a re a v a i l a b l e a s food . Three si milar species, a l l h eavi ly bui lt. Common Hog-nosed S n a ke, 2 to 3 ft. long, is the la rgest. 81


FANGED NIGHT SNAKE

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Western Hook·nosed Fa ng ed Night

82

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BLACK­ STRIPED SNAKE

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. , Texas Ho,ok-r\osed . .,.,, "'

83


OTH E R L ESS COMMON SNAKES ( I ll ustrations on Pages 8 2 - 8 3 )

(to 4 ft. o r m ore) i s a b u s h-dwel l e r of s e m i - a r i d r e g i o n s , very slender. Longer, na rrower h e a d t h a n other A m e r i c a n s n a kes. Red d i s h- b r o w n ; wh ite l i n e down bel ly. Food: l i za rds. VINE SNA K E *

is a blotched, egg-laying burrower resembling a m i n iatu re H o g-nosed S n a ke ( 1 0 to 1 2 i n . ) but i s not kin. WESTERN HOOK- NOS ED SNA K E

(to 3 0 i n . ), w i d e- h e a ded, s l e n d e r, i s a n egg-l ayer. It feeds on both i nv e rtebrates a n d s m a l l vertebrates. Ofte n found in trees a n d bushes.

FANG ED NIGHT SNA K E *

( 1 2 to 1 4 i n . ) are a l a rge g ro u p of secretive or bu rrowi n g , e g g - l a yi n g s pecies. All but one have a black head ca p .

FLAT-HEAD E D SNA K ES *

( 1 2 t o 1 6 i n . ) has a yellow u p pe r l i p . B a c k reddish-brown, b el l y yel l o w . An egg足 l a ye r of s wa m ps, fou n d under logs and d e b r i s . Food: frogs, toads, i n sects. Y ELLOW-LIPPED SNAKE

( 1 0 to 1 2 i n . ), re足 lated to the Western, is su b-trop i c a l , with a l a rger s h ovel-snout than the Western but with s i m i l a r ha bits. Ashy g ray with g ray and black cross bands.

T E XAS HOO K-NOS ED S NA K E

( 1 0 to 1 3 i n . ), widely occurri n g , is a b u rrower, rarely seen. Shi ny, smooth scales. An egg足 layer; feeds on ea rthworms. Found i n wood s .

WORM SNA KE

BLA C K -STRI P E D SNA K E * ( 1 6 to 2 0 i n . ) i s a n ight s n a ke . Feeds on frogs, toads, l i z a r d s . A n eg g - l ayer and g ro u nd-dwell er. Rare; more c o m m o n in tropical America. * Species with weak venom and smal l , fixed, grooved fan g s i n rear of

up per jaw.

84


a re a g g ressive a n d gra cefu l . E a ste r n forms, avera g i n g 4 ft. , a re s mooth, bl ue-bl ack, with wh ite chin and throat. Western fo rm, s m a l l er, i s g ree n i s h o r yel­ lowish brown, belly and chi n lig hter. Both a re very ac­ tive, at h o m e in b u s h e s and trees. Food : s m a l l m a m ­ mals, b i r d s , i n sects, frogs, l i zards, other sna kes. Tropic Racer, speckled, occurs only i n southern t i p of Texas. RACERS

- 1\ �------··w. ;r B l ue _,

.:lack

85


a re c l o s e l y re足 lated to the Racers, but thinner and longer. Those i l l us足 trated represent two g ro u ps-one typical of the East, o n e of t h e West. T h e for m e r a r e a v a ri a b l e b r o wn (some a re red or p i n ki s h ) , darker at the head, becom足 ing lig hter toward the ta i l . Coachwh i p is the l a rgest of th e g ro u p; s o m e over 7 ft. l o n g h ave been reported . Western species a re u s u a l l y 4 to 5 ft. l o n g . These are ty p i c a l l y stri ped with ye l l o w o n t h e s i d es a g a i nst a dark back; the bel ly is usually l i ghter. Severa l of these are desert forms, but all are active d u ring the day. C OA CHWHI P and WHI PSNA K ES

86


All are a l ert a n d fast. They feed on m ice, l i z a rd s , and s m a l l s nakes, movi n g r a p i d l y over sand o r through brush after thei r prey. They d o not k i l l by constriction, a s · some people bel i eve. Too swift to be ca u g ht easi ly, when they a re c a u g h t these s n a kes wi l l stri ke a n d wil l th rash their t h i n , l o n g ta i l s r a p i dly. � p, They n ever ta m e e n o u g h to m a ke -------�>/'( ·--g o o d pets. E i g ht t o 1 2 e g g s a re � a kes '{5 'il l a i d i n early s u m mer, each a bout 1 by 1 1h i n . F o u r s pecies of these s n a kes l ive in t h i s c o u ntry. 87 ___


PA TC H -NO S E D SNA K E S, relatives (th ree species) of Racers ( p . 8 5 ), are as fast and active. O n the move day or n i g h t, t h e y like any terra i n . T h e b l u n t s h i e l d over the nose p l u s the ye l l ow a n d brown stripes down the s n a ke ' s back g ive positive identificati o n . Adu lts are a bout 3 ft. l o n g . lizards a n d other s m a l l desert l i fe are eate n . Fe males lay eggs. The nose may help i n burrowi n g i n s a n d . Rear t e e t h are e n l a rged but venom seems a bsent.

88


s m a l l relatives of the Patch­ n os e s , h a v e an eve n m o re e x a g g e rated n o s e p i ece. Once considered very rare, they are fa i rly c o m m on in the deserts a t n i g ht. T h e two s pecies a re m a rked by dark blotches. Both a re moderately stout, 1 2 to 1 5 i n . l o n g . They a re pugnacious, coi ling � a nd stri k i n g when c a u g ht, but are harmless. They a re egg-layers, and a re reported to feed o n d e sert l i z­ a r d s o r l i z a rd e g g s . L EAF-NOSED SNA KES,

·

89


i n c l u d e five l a rge species, common and w i d e l y d i stri b uted i n the E a st and M i d d l e West. The colors d i ffer from s pecies to species, m a k i n g i d entifica足 ti on e a s i e r . A l l a re fast, active sna kes. W h e n c a ught t h e y m a y bite fre e l y and excrete a fou l - s m el l i n g fl u id from g l a n d s at the base of the tai l . They te nd to ta me down i n ca ptivity and m a k e fa i r pets . All rat s n a kes a re con strictors. Me mbers of this g ro u p have been known by d iverse common names which a re often m is足 lead i n g . N a mes u sed here a re true r to the s n a kes. The B l a c k Rat S n a ke, a l s o known a s the P i l ot B l a c k

RAT SNA K ES


S n a ke, m a y be m i staken for the B l a c k Racer ( p . 85). The Black Rat Snake has some scales tipped with white - re m a i n s of a p a tte rn of b l otches seen m o re c l e a rly i n the young of all m e m bers of this g ro u p . The scales a re s l i g htly keeled; those of the B l a c k Racer a re not. The Gray Rat Sna ke, a more southern form, has bl otches of gray or brown a g a i nst a l ighter background. The Yel low Rat S n a ke (Stri ped Chicken S n a ke) av足 erages 4 to 5 ft. l o n g a n d may someti mes reach 7 ft. It is d u l l -or ol ive yel l o w with fo u r black l i nes down its back. Often fou n d a r o u n d barns a n d sta b l es, it is l ook足 ing for rats more often than for fowl .

91


CORN and FOX SNA KES are more colorful members of the rat snake g ro u p . Corn Snake ( ofte n found in corn fields) i s better known a s Red Rat Snake beca use of the reddish-brown or c r i m s o n blotches a g ai nst the l i g hter backgroun d . A very s i m i l a r western form lacks the red c o l or. Red Rat S n a k e does not grow as l a rge as Yel足 low Rat Snake but it exhi bits (as do the others) a pat足 ter n of hissing a n d vi brati ng its sharp tai l when cor足 n e red or molested. The Fox Snake has the s a m e build a s the other rat sna kes but is somewhat heavier. It av-

92


e rages 3 to 4 ft. long, with brow n i s h b l otc h e s a g a inst a straw-ye l l o w base color. Found in woods and o pen c o u ntry, it i s less of a cl i m be r t h a n oth e r rat s n a kes. All rat sna kes l a y eggs, often i n rotted logs or stu mps. The yo u n g , b l otc h e d in color, may d iffer m u c h from a d u lts . Red Rat S n a k e and Fox P,. Snake a re reported to ta m e better, VJ to feed better i n ca ptivity, a n d to • m a ke bette r pets th a n other m e mbers of the g r o u p .

�··-·F-o·xSn- -· ""-· t -�<>.'-�

93


8 ft. l o n g h a ve b e e n r e p o rted. Thus they a re a mong the l a rgest North American s n a kes. Rel ated South American forms are even la rger. This heavy, h a n d s o m e , shiny, m i d n i g ht- b l u e , fast racer feeds on s m a l l m a m m a l s and oth er snakes. I t is often fo u n d i n b u r r o w s of g o p h e rs or r a b b i t s . T h e I n d i g o S n a ke ta mes easily i n ca ptivity, and does well if it can be made to eat. This i s the harml ess s n a ke that " s na k e c h a rm足 ers" at the circus ofte n h a n d l e .

INDI GO SNA K ES

94


or FA DED SNA K E i s related a n d s o mewhat s i m i l a r to the B u l l S n a kes (p. 96). It has s mooth scales, while B u l l S n a kes a re keeled. These s m ooth , shiny scales a re respons i b l e fo r the Glossy S n a ke ' s common name. B lotched , s potted, and g ray-brown , these snakes a re slender, with n a rrow heads. ďż˝ _ T h e y a re c o n st r i c t o r s , f e e d i n g on l i z a rd s , ro d e n t s , a n d ot h e r s m a l l a n i m a l s . They l a y e g g s a n d a re noctu rna l . Ad u l ts avera ge 30 to 36 in. long .

GLOSSY

95


PINE SNAKE

are fo u n d from coast to coast. These large, heavy s n a kes avera g e 5 ft. long and grow u p t o 7 ft. They a re the most co mmon constrictors, widely known a s d estroyers of rodents. B u l l S n a k e s h ave a heavy nose plate , ada pted for b urrowi n g . All hiss very l o u d l y when a n gered a n d w i l l strike to defe n d them足 selves. But they ta me down when ca ptured ( especia lly the western forms), a n d some m a ke excel lent pets . The Pine Snake i s an eastern form of the Bull Snake, named for its favorite ha bitat-southern pine woods . It is rela足 tively l i g ht-c o l o re d with l a r g e b l a c k p a tc h e s on the back. Its food i s s m a l l rabbits, s q u irrels, rats, a nd mice. BULL SNA K ES


F a rt h e r west, t h e B u l l S n a k e i s m o re c o m m o n . It is m o re yellowish than the P i n e S n a ke and h a s a l a rger n u m be r of dark blotc h e s . I t often enters b u rrows to kill a n d feed o n pocket gophers a n d g r o u n d s q u i rrel s . The Pacific Coast forms, known a s Gopher Snakes are similar to the B u l l S n a k e but s m a l l er 6. a n d with m o re blotc h e s . A l l s n a kes � /'( i n t h i s g ro u p s h o u l d be p r otected �h a g a i nst wa nton k i l l i n g . There i s no doubt of the i r value a s one agent m rodent contro l . 97 ---

......... ·� �

.


KING S N A K ES a re a g ro u p of m e d i u m-s i z e d s n a kes of normal proporti ons. They include some seven s pecies, r a n g i n g fro m southern C a n ada thro u g h m u c h of the U. S. All are constrictors and some a re at least pa rtia lly i m m u n e to the poison of o u r venom� .... o u s s n a kes. Ki n g S n a ke s fe ed on oth e r s n a k e s , b u t also eat m a ny kin d s of rodents. Red Ki n g o r M i l k Sna ke ( 3 0 i n . ) i s a common eastern K i n g S n a ke with red s p l otches bor98 · · · · · - . . . . . . ...

.


dered with black; the belly is pale, with black patches. I t feeds m a i n l y o n rode nts and n ot, a s fa b l e s tel l , by m i lking cows. Common Ki n g Snake i s a s h i ny black with bands of yellow cross i n g i n a chain l i ke pattern . It i s l a rger ( 3 V2 to 4 ft. ) t h a n Red Ki n g S n a ke a n d i s more common i n open cou ntry. The s m a l l Scarlet Ki n g S nake ( 1 8 i n . ) may b e confused with Coral S n a ke (p. 1 08), but note that each yellow b a n d i s bordered by black. Cal ifornia King Snake ( 3 ft. ) is black with white bands; some have a wh ite stripe down the back. Another m id足 western form i s peppered with yellow or white dots on most of its sca l e s .


SCARLO SNAKE, unfortu nately ra re, is attractive and docile. It is a b urrower, 1 6 to 2 4 in., occasionally found under rottin g logs or on the g round at n i g ht. Its food a ppears to be s m a l l l izards a n d m ice, which a re kil led by constriction. Eggs a re laid. The markings have much of the sa m e pattern as on the � r ·· -- -- -- --- -- -� Sca rlet King Snake-yellow bands bordered by n a rrow black bands. '{) 'i:J But the bands d o n ot e n c i rc l e the belly. Coral S n a ke ( p . 1 0 8 ) has black b a n d s bordered by yell ow. _,

\ 1 00


( 2 to 3 ft. ) does not h a ve a l o n g nose. P ro b a b l y a b u rrower, it m a y be a i d e d by its sma l l , na rrow hea d . Most have been caught at n i g ht. It is s a i d to feed on l i zards, s n a k e s , a n d s m a l l m a m m a l s . D a r k p a t c h e s o n the b a c k a re b r o k e n by b a n d s of r e d , w h i t e , or y e l l o w. Genera l l y speck l e d , the color is v a r i a b l e; b e l l y l i g hter with a few dark spots. T h i s i s the o n l y ha rm足 less snake with a s i n g l e row of scales u n d e r the ta i l . 1 01 LON G -NOS ED SNA K E


WATER SNA K ES are chiefly eastern s pecies ( n i ne ) of l a ke s a n d rivers . They s h o w l i ttl e exte r n a l a d a ptation to water l ife but a re act u a l l y fi n e s u rface a n d u n d er足 water swi m mers. They seek water when mol ested and t h e re fi n d t h e i r foo d , m a i n l y fi s h and frog s . H e avily b u i lt, with s h o rt, n a rrow ta i l s , they a re h a r m l e s s and s h o u l d not be c o n f u s e d with t h e v e n o m o u s s o u t h ern Cotto n m o u t h . H owever, Water S n a kes are u s ua l ly vicious; they d o not ta m e o r beco m e g ood pets . The r e a r o f the c o m m o n Wa ter S n a k e ( 3 0 i n . ) is c r oss足 b a n d e d , with red d i s h - b rown . Towa rd the head th ese 1 02


DIAMOND-BACKED WATER SNAKE

bands become l a rg e blotches. Diamond-backed Water Snake is l a rger ( 3 1h to 5 ft. ) and da rker. Its dark blotches are reduced to d i a monds over the backbone. Pai nted Water S n a ke ( 3 to 5 1h ft. ) i s d a rk a bove, with a yel l o w or red d i s h b e l l y . Green Wate r S n a ke (3 to 5 1h ft. ) is a d u l l ol ive green with a vag u e, ba rred p atte r n . Color and Common patt e r n a re c l e a rest i n y o u ng Water S n a ke s . All species get _?lher d a r k e r as t h e y g ro w o l d e r . As many as 99 you n g a re born al ive. 1 03

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PLAINS GARTER SNAKE

and their kin are perhaps more common and better known than any other snake. These 1 1 s m a l l ( 1 8 to 44 i n . ), stri ped s pecies with keeled scales, related to Water Sna kes, have s i m i l a r h a bits. l i k e W a t e r S n a kes t h e y ej ect a n u n p l e a s a nt , fl u i d fro m vent g l a n d s w h e n c a p足 tured . G a rter S n a k e s fe e d on fro g s , toa d s , e a rth w o r m s . Y o u n g are b o r n a l ive i n s u m m e r - 2 0 o r m o r e a t a ti m e . M o s t G a rter

GARTER SNA K ES

1 04


S nakes, fa i r l y d oci le, do well i n ca ptivity. Com mon Ga rter Snake, more aggressive than others, i s marked by th ree yel lowish stri pes; the dark area between is s potte d . S o m e G a rter S n a kes have o n l y two stri pes. The center stripe of Plains Garter Snake i s often a rich ora n ge; the bel l y is darker than i n co m m o n Ga rter Snake. The western species, with central stri pe brighter tha n the side ones, is da rker, but with light scales near the m o u t h . Ri b b o n S n a ke i s t h i n ner, s m a l l er, with yel足 low o r red stri p e s a g a i n st brown scal e s . Its ta i l is nea rly a th ird of the body l e n gth


a r e c o m m o n but i n con­ spicuous. Lined S n a ke ( 1 2 to 20 in.) is a m i n iature G a rter S n a ke with a yellow stri pe down its back, black d ots o n the belly. The next two a re rel ated to Water S n a ke s . D e K a y S n a ke ( 1 0 to 1 6 i n . ) i s a b r o w n i sh , secretive, b u rrowi ng species, com. . . . . . ! '!:d-bellied m o n even near cities. The b e l l y is ined ..-.. � yellow to p i n k , with b l a c k dots at '-sides. Red-bell ied Snake ( 1 0 to 1 4 , , i n . ) i s s i m i l a r, b u t with r e d b e l l y � ay DeK a n d ye l l ow spots at back of head . \::. 1 06 S MALL STRI P E D SNA K ES

·

·

·'


a re m i l d l y p o i s o n o u s . T h e fo r m e r ( 1 5 i n . ) h a s e n l a r g ed teeth i n t h e r e a r of its j a w s , not true fa n g s . W h e n it b i tes l i z a r d s , its s a l iva s e e m s p o i s o n o u s . Lyre S n a ke ( 3 ft. ) is a rea r-fa n g e d poisonous s n a ke (three s p ecies) with g rooved fa n g s . Its poison seems � J , h a r m l ess to m a n . The rel atively l a rge h e a d a n d t h i n neck a re char- Fang less Night ts 'il acteristic o f t h i s s n a ke. Lyre Snakes Lyre typi c a l l y freq u e n t rocky areas and ·. �L feed o n l i zards . I,J J{' V 1 07

FANGLESS NIGHT SNA K E and L Y R E SNA K E

· · · - . . . . . . . . .. .

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C ORA L SNA KES, rel ated to Cobras, a re h i ghly poisonous. O u r two s pecies h ave red , ye l l ow, and black ri n g s , the l a tter bordered by yellow. C o m mon C o ra l S n a ke ( 3 0 t o 39 i n . ) h a s b l a c k , y e l l o w , a nd b l a c k from nose to back of h e a d . Secretive a n d burrowi n g , it feeds m a i n l y on l i z a rds a n d other s n a kes. Western Cora l S n a ke, s m a l ler ( 1 8 i n . ), of l i m ited range but s i m i l a r h a bits, h a s black, yellow, a n d red s uccessively on head and neck.


poisonous pit vi pers, d i ffer l ittle from rattl ers. Pits between eye and n ostri l , sen sitive to h eat, help them f i n d a n d stri ke at warm-blooded prey. C o p pe r h e a d s ( 30 to 5 0 i n . ) are u p l a n d s n a kes, with c o p p e ry head a n d " h o u r g l ass" b o d y p a t c h e s . C otto n m o u t h or Water Mocc a s i n (40 to 58 i n . ), l a r ger, heavi er, a n d more vici ous, i s a swa m p s n a ke feed i n g o n fish and fro g s . I t is d a r k , not stro n g l y m a r k e d . B o t h bear l i ve yo u n g . 1 09

CO PPERHEAD and COTTONMOUTH,


very simi­ lar to t h e i r l a rg e r relatives, d o not have s m a l l sca les on the top o f the h e a d . T h e y a re s m a l l , h e n c e rela­ tively less dangerous. The Massasauga (2 to J V2 ft. ), a swa m p Rattl er, does not stri ke u n less m uch a n noyed . The southern Pig m y Rattlers, a l so . . . . ...... ...._ c a l l e d Ground Rattlers, are smaller ( 1 8 to 2 4 i n . ) and p refe r u p l a nd Massasa a . . terra m . T h o u g h s m a l l er , t h e y a re P 1gmy � atfler n ot m i l d-te m pered, but ratt l e a n d stri ke when a pproached. 1 10 MA SSA SA UGA and PIGMY RATTLERS,


Cross Section of RaHie

Button

Young

Older

Adult

Old Adult

Rattlers ( 1 3 s p e c i e s ) a re t y p i c a l ly America n . Most ki n d s are found i n the West, two i n the E a st. Ti m ber Rattl e r ( 3 1f2 to 6 ft. ) i s a wood l a n d s pe­ ci es, y e l l o wi s h with d a r k , ¥-s h a ped b a n d s a n d d ark ta i l . E a stern D i a m o n d back, or Florida Rattl er, n a med for the dorsa l pattern, i s o u r l a rgest poisonous s n a ke, a vera g i n g 5 ft. ( record n e a r l y 9 ft. ) . Westwa rd is P r a i r i e R a ttl e r, varyi n g in s i z e ( 2 1f2 to 5 ft. ) a n d col or, typi c a l l y g r e e n i s h yel l o w with d a rker b l otch e s . West­ ern Diamond back, or Texas Rattler, s m a l l e r (4112 to l lf2 ft. ), of rocky h i l l si d e s a n d open deserts, i s b rown with a l i g hter border, g e n e ra l c o l o r bei n g g ra y . Red Rattl er, s i m i l a r to Texas, h a s red d i s h g ro u n d color. Stro n g est i s S i dewi nder ( 1 8 to 30 � i n . ), with erect, h o r n y sca l e s over J) "f9 Praorie att e t he eyes, strong I y k ee I e d sea I es, a nd a ra pid, sidewise moti o n over T i m ber s a n d . The Rattl e r ' s rattl e, a horny s;��S\., Rattler structure, g a i ns a s e g m e n t each �\ ti m e the s n a k e s h eds; it h e l ps tel l �/p age . Rattl e rs a re nervo u s, a g g re s'tl � sive, l i ve poorly i n ca ptivity. Food: rabbits, g o p h e rs, rats, m i ce, other s m a l l m a m m a l s . Yo u n g a re born Re "w stern East t a l ive; l i tters of 1 2 are co m m on . 111

RATTLESNA K ES

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RED RATTLER

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form a d istinct g ro u p of reptiles of anci ent l i neage. Once co m m on in southern swamps, a l l i g ators have been reduced in n u mber and ra nge by h u nters. Large specimens, 1 0 ft. a nd over, a re now rare . They a re not especi a l l y long足 l i ved; a 1 0-footer is 20 or 2 5 years o l d . Alligators are n ot usually d a n gerous. Reports of " m an-eaters " usually refer to crocod i l e s of Africa or southern Asi a . Young a l l i g ators, h a rd to feed, do n ot m a ke good pets. American C rocodile is s m a l l e r, thi n ner, more a g i l e than ALLIGATORS and CRO CODILES

114


the a l l i g ator; its s n o u t is poi nted, n a rrower. S o m e of the teeth p rotrude, b u l l d og-fa s h i o n , fro m the s i d es of its jaw. A l l i g ators and croco d i l e s feed o n fish, t u rtles, bi rds, c r a yfi s h , c r a b s , a n d oth e r water l ife. Both l a y eggs, hatched by heat of the s u n a n d of decaying vegetati o n . C rocod i l es prefer salt �>-�/-{< m a rs h e s a n d e v e n s w i m o u t i n to l the ocea n . A l l i g ators p r efer fresh '{) � water. Both a l l i g ators a n d c rocoA l l •gator d .1 1 es a re now protecte d b y I aw. ,

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w e r e t h e a n i m a l s w h i c h , eons ago, fi rst ventured out of water to live o n l a n d . T h o s e t h a t su rvive toda y a re sti l l poorly ada pted to terrestia l life . Most s pend at least pa rt of their lives i n water o r i n m o i st surro u n d i n g s . Am phib足 ians v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y in a p pe a r a n c e , b ut all d iffer from re pti l e s i n never having c l a we d feet or true sca ly skins. Of three groups, two a re com足 m o n . The s a l a m a n d e rs and their kin a re ta i l e d a m p h i b足 i a n s . The fro g s a n d toads are tai l l ess w h e n mature and often have hind legs better developed . Amphibians lay j elly-covered eggs s i n g ly, i n c l u mps, o r i n stri n g s in q u i et water o r on moist leaf m o l d . These e g g s hatch i nto l a rvae or ta d pol es, w h i c h u s ually breathe by means of g i l l s and spend much o r all of their l ife in water. Tadpoles feed on m icroscopic pla nts a n d have mouth a n d d i g estive p a rts a d a pted for this d i et. Larvae bec o m e a i r -breath i n g a d u lts w h i c h may l ive in water, or which l ater ret u r n to the water to mate an d l a y e g g s . Ad u l t s feed l a r g e l y on i n sects. I n the A M P HI B IA N S

116

Forefoot


N orth they h i bernate d u ri n g wi nter u ndergro u nd or in m u d at the botto m of ponds. Frogs are divided i nto five ma jor grou ps, as i l lustrated on page 6. The Tai led Toads (p. 1 20) represent the fi rst. The Fire-be l l ied Toads occur i n Mexico and South America . The Spadefoots ( p. 1 2 1 ) are the next group, fo l l owed by a large diverse group ( pp. 1 22- 1 3 1 ) which i ncludes toads, Tree Frogs, and C horus, Robber, a nd Whistling Frogs. True Frog s a nd Na rrow- mouthed Frogs (pp. 1 32- 1 36) belong to the last grou p, which is almost as large as the toad grou p. The five m a jor groups of sa lama nders a re redivided into e i g h t fa m i l ies, of which seven occ u r in the United States . The g r o u p represe nted by the Slimy Sa l a man足 ders a n d newts i n c l u des by fa r the l a rgest n u m ber of s pecies. The Tiger Salama nders and kin ( p p . 1 4 4 - 1 4 5) a re the o n l y others that spend ti m e on l a n d . The Cae足 cil i a n s-tro p i c a l , burrowin g species-are l i v i n g fossils, more closely rel ated to s a l a m a n d ers than to frogs .


F ROGS and TOADS

Toad Calling

Toad Extends Tongue

2

Toad Catches Fly

c a n not be clearly d i s ti n g u i s hed, t h o u g h toad s u s u a l l y h ove rou g h or wa rty s k i n s a n d l i ve m a i n l y o n l a n d . F r o g s h ave s m ooth er s k i n s a n d l i ve in water o r wet p l a c e s . Toads a re p l u m p, broad, a n d less strea m l i ned t h a n fro g s . They a re s l o we r a n d c a n n ot j u mp a s wel l . Thei r eyes a re l a rg 足 er, t o o . Some fro g s hove s u c h varied m a r k i n g s that i d e ntifi cati o n is d i ffi c u lt. Added to this, the s k i n color a n d m a rki n g s of s o m e s pe足 cies change with thei r sur足 r o u n d i n g s . Most m o l e frogs a n d toads can i nfl ate a sac in their throat w h e n they m a ke their characteristic s o u n d s . There a re a bo u t 99 s pecies a n d s u bs pecies of ta i l l ess a m ph i b i a n s i n this c o u ntry. These fit i nto seven fa m i l i es, the largest of which a re t h e tree fro g s , t h e true toads, a nd the frogs.


TAD POLES are the i m matu re o r l a rval stage of frogs and toa d s . T h e R o b ber Frogs ( p . 1 30 ) are the only native frogs which d o not h ave free-swi m m i n g tad­ poles. Tadpoles a re d ifficult to identify. The pictures may h e l p you name some s peci es. ( See p. 1 33 for the B u l l frog tad­ pol e . ) C o l l ect frogs' e g g s o r small tad­ poles a l on g the shores of ponds and d i tches in spri ng; p l a ce t h e m in an a q u a r i u m conta i n i ng pond water a n d water p l a nts. D o not oversto c k . As tad­ poles hatch a n d be­ gin to g row they will feed off bits of l et­ tuce, which partly rots in the water. As yo u r tad poles c h a n g e i nto frogs, provid e a wooden float on w h i c h they can c l i m b a n d rest.


or B EL L TOA D is p ri mitive. T h e m a l e has a d i stinct " ta i l . " After breed i n g i n l ate s p ri n g o r ea rly s u m mer, stri n g s of l a r g e eggs are fo u n d attac h e d to rocks i n m o u ntain strea ms. Tad poles c l i n g to the rocks by m e a n s of a l a rge s u c k i n g d i sc a r o u n d t h e mouth. These sma l l toads, 1 to 2 i n . long, vary g rea tl y in c o l o r, fro m g r ay and black to p i n k a n d brow n . N ote the webbed feet a n d the s h o rt, wide head with a l i g h t l i ne s o me足 t i mes across it.

TAIL E D

1 20


( fo u r species) h a v e fl e s hy, webbed feet with l a rge, ho rny, spade- l i ke wa rts. In bur足 rowi n g , the toad corkscrews backward a n d d ow n wa rd into the s o i l . It is fo u n d u n d e r l o g s or rocks, i n s h a l l ow h o les, co m i n g o u t at n i g h t or after heavy ra i n s to feed. Med i u m-sized ( 1 V2 to 3 in. l o n g ), it has relative l y s m ooth s k i n . Eyes a re la rge , with vertical pupils. Breedi ng is i n l ate s p r i n g a n d early s u m mer. E g g s a re a tt a c h e d to p l a nts at the wate r ' s edge.

S PA D E F O OT T OA DS

1 21


TOADS, a m u c h - m a l i g n ed g roup of a m p h i b i a ns, were once credited with causi ng wo rts . T h o u g h c l u msy, they ore w e l l a d o pted to life on l a n d , feed i n g m a i n l y on in足 sects a n d s l u g s . They protect themselves by b u rrowi ng, p l a y i n g d e a d , i n f l a ti n g their bodi es, a n d e x u d i ng thro u g h th e i r s k i n a wh ite f l u i d which, i n co ntact with eyes or mo uth, is very poiso nous. In b reedi n g season and especially w h e n it i s rai n i n g , moles m a ke a very chara cteristic tri l l i n g ca l l . Toa d s t a m e e a s i l y a n d m a k e un足 usual pets; feed them m e o l worms.


The American Toad ( 1 3 species i n U . S . ) i s the common e astern s pecies, 2 to 4 in. long. Males have a darker t h roat. Fowl e r 's Toad (the eastern race of Wood house T oa d s ) is more g re e n i s h a nd s m a l l e r , u s u a l l y with s m a l l er, more n u merous wa rts and with a w hite l i ne d own the back. The Western Toad ( 2 to 5 i n . ) is very wa rty; the belly is mottled a nd the head more poi nted than in eastern toads. The Great Plains Toad, com足 mon a l o n g irri gation ditches and strea m s , i s g r a y o r brow n i s h and somewhat varied i n pattern.


a re seven species of s m a l l a m phib­ i a n s u s u a l l y l e s s than 2 i n . l on g . They a re loca l l y called Tree Frogs (though they ra rely c l i m b ) and Cricket Frogs - na m es which cause confusion . All Chorus Frogs have s l e n d e r bodies a n d poi nted s n o uts. They breed early i n s p ri n g , atta c h i n g s m a l l m a s s e s of e g g s to l e aves a nd stems in water. They a re common at th is time but l a te r s e e m to d i s a p p e a r e n ti re l y, so thei r h a bits are n ot wel l know n . They s e l d o m c l i m b more t h a n a few i n c h e s a bove t h e g ro u n d; s o m e c a n not c l i m b at a l l . The Stri ped C horus F r o g s a r e s m a l l ( 3/.o� t o 1 V2 i n . ) , b rownish o r ol ive-colored, w i t h d isti nct dark stripes o n C H OR U S FR OGS


ORNATE CHORUS FROG

t h e b o c k . T h e c l o s e l y related S wa m p C h o r u s F rog i s c o m m o n i n southern ditches a n d swa m ps . It i s slend�r, o l ive green, with o n even, g r a n u l a r ski n . S pots o n the b o c k ore i r re g u l a r . The O r n ate C h or u s F r o g , a s m a l l edition of t h e W o o d F r o g ( p. 1 3 5 ) , c o m pletely locks toe pods. I t i s c h estnut brown with a d ar k mask and with d a rk s pots o n the sides; length 1 to 1 1/4 i n . Strecker C h o r u s Frog, fo u n d fa rt h e r west, is a m o re stocky species ( 1 to 3/4 i n . ), usually g ray or g reenish with d a rker spots a nd blotc h e s on b o c k a n d l i m bs.

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CANYON TREE FROG

PINE TREE FROG

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or HYLAS, a l a rge fa m i l y of a m ph i b i a n s , are rel ated to the toads but s m a l l e r ( most are 3.1.1 to 2 i n . ) . Li g htly b u i lt, they l ive i n trees a nd s h r u bs, c l i n g i n g with t h e sti c ky pads on the i r toes. The s ki n , often s l i g htly wa rty or ro u g h , is u s u a lly brown or gree n i s h . The ca l l , heard i n early s p r i n g , i s l o u d , c l e a r, m u s i cal. The frogs vary m uch in col or a n d pat­ tern, a n d can to a deg ree c h a n g e col­ o r with their s u rrou nd i ngs. Common Tree Frog, with orange or brown thighs, back spotted or mottled g ray or brown, s k i n s l i g htly r o u g h , is h e a r d in m i d s u m m e r in wood s n ear wate r. G reen Tree Frog, most attrac­ tive, 1 1h to 2 1h i n . , with s m ooth green SPRING PEEPER s k i n, slender a n d long-legged, has a penetrati ng honki ng c a l l . Canyon Tree Frog can change its color from brown o r black to pale p i n ki s h g ray. The skin i s rough. Eggs a re laid singly, in water . Pine Tree Frog, legs brown i s h with s m a l l orange s pots, i r re g u l a r cross o n b a c k , r a n g e s fro m g re e n i s h g ray t o reddish brown; found only i n pi ne woods. Squir­ rel Tree F r o g , g re e n to b r o w n , u s u a l l y s p otte d , s ki n s mooth, h a s l i ght str i p e f r o m eye t o fore l e g s . Pacifi c Tree Frog is g ra y, brown, or green; attractive; back someti mes s potted; brown V between eyes; 1 to 2 in. Spri n g Peeper, best-known eastern Tree Frog, 3/.o� to 1 1/.o� i n . , c o m mon i n woo d l a n d swa m ps, i s l i g ht brown or g ray with dark diagonal cross on back. Whistl i n g Tree Frog, d u sky-col ored, with green i s h t hi g h a n d th ree rows of s pots or a c ross on back, utters a u n i que whistle.

TR E E FROGS

1 28


CRICK ET FROGS a re rea l l y s m a l l ( 3/.o� to 1 112 i n . ) tree frogs without toe pads . H ence they c a n n ot cl i m b. Color va r i e s fro m b r o w n to g r a y a n d g re e n , with d a r ke r m a r k i n g s t h a t m a y be b r o w n or e v e n red d i s h . A d a r k tri a n g l e i s u s u a l l y p r e s e n t ato p the h e a d . T h e s k i n i s s l i g htly rou g h . Cricket F r o g s , c o m mon thro u g h o u t the Ea st, get their � n a m e fro m t h e i r c a l l - a s h a rp, r '{5 '1:1 ra p i d m eta l l i c c l i c k i n g . E g g s a re l a i d s i n g l y, att a c h e d to p l a nts in ponds a n d poo l s . Two species. 1 29

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sometimes called Barki n g F rogs, a re West I n d i a n species, i ntrod u ced a n d beco m i n g com足 mon in the South, a l o n g the Gulf and i n F l o r i d a . Our s i n g l e native species l ives in l i mestone ledges or caves. Eggs a r e l a i d i n moisture-fi l l e d crevices. T h e ta d poles do n ot h atch b u t re m a i n with i n the egg ti l l they h ave d ev e l o p e d i nto ti n y fro g s . R o b b e r F r o g s a re s h o rt, squat, with wide, flat heads. The tiny Florida species is o n l y 3Js to 1 Vs i n . l o n g . The l a rger Texas species (2 to 3 1h i n . ) has a ca l l like a barking dog. All three species a re u s u a l ly d a rk i n color.

ROB BER FROGS,

Tadpole in Egg ( magnified

1 30

3 times)


a re rea l l y M e x i c a n species. T h e fi rst i s a m ed i u m-sized, s m ooth­ s k i n n ed frog ( 1 V2 to 2 i n . ), m a rked a s its n a m e i ndi­ cates . I t l a y s e g g s in a frothy mass a t the e d g e of pon d s . Whistl i n g Frog (two s pecies) is s m a l l e r, with more poi nted � ose a n d g r a n u l a � s k i n . Its p� , e g g s, l a i d o n l a n d , hatch m to l eg. . . . .. . ... �/'( '{) 'ii ged frog s . T h e re a re n o free-swim-

WHITE-LIPPED and WHISTLING FROGS

ming tad poles. T h i s d u l l g � ay-g r� en . frog m a kes a f a _m t w h i stl m g c h i rp.

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1 31


i ntrodvce the " tr u e " frog g ro u p - 1 6 c o m m o n s p e c i e s that h ave s mooth , na rrow bodies and l o n g h i n d l e g s . The Gopher Frog ( 2 1/2 to 4 1/2 i n . ), g ray with s m a l l black spots, lives in th e b u rrows of Gopher T u rtles or crayfi s h . Though fa i r l y c o m m o n , t h e y are r a r ely seen. T h e large Red-l e g g e d F r og of the West ( 2 to 5 i n . ) is a n even d a r k b r o w n or o l i v e a b ove, a nd c o l o r e d b e l o w a s its n a m e i n di 足 cates. It i s a frog of moist forests, breed i n g in J u n e o r J u l y .

GOPH E R and RED- LEGG ED F ROGS


The Bullfrog i s larg­ est of our frogs (4 to 7112 i n . ). The male has very large " ea r s " (ty m pa n i ) beh i n d the eyes; the fe m a le ' s ears are s m a l l e r. The color i s usua l l y d ra b g reen . I n the North, the large tadpole does not mature till the sec­ ond year. The Green Frog is s m a l l e r (2 to 4 i n . ), with a y e l l o w i s h th r o at, e s p e ci a l l y i n � the m a l e s . Both of these com mon fro g s l i v e in p o n d s a n d s wa m ps. B ot h are s o l itary, l a yi n g e g g s in s p r ea d i n g s u rface m a s s e s .

BULLFRO G and GREEN FROG


PICK ER E L and L EO PARD FROGS a re com mon, at足 tractive, a n d so meti mes confu s i n g . The fo r m e r has s q u a re o r recta n g u l a r s pots o n the back and reddish si des; legs a re orange or redd ish. Leopa rd or Meadow F rog has m o re rounded spots and g ree n is h s i des; legs a re g ree n i s h . It a l so h a s a pa i r of li ght l i n e s r u n n i n g from the eye back a l o n g the sides. Both frogs a re slender, s mooth-skinned, and a bout 2 to 4 in. long. Both a re often found in moi st, g rassy m e a dows . 1 34


and S POTTED FROGS The fi rst is one of the most attractive common frogs: its fawn-brown skin i s set off by a d a r k m a s k over the eyes . I t prefers moist woods, bree d s from May to J u l y in woo d l a n d pools. Eggs are l a i d near s h ore in rou n d e d m a s s , 2 to 4 i n . across, conta i n i n g 2 000 t o 3 0 0 0 i n d i v i d u a l e g gs .

WOOD

length: 1 v, to 3 i n . The S potted Frog ( 3 to 4 i n . ) is a weste rn s pe足 cies typical of mou nta i n a reas. It is d a r k brown, s o m eti m es s potted with s ki n s l i g h tl y ro u g h en e d . A l i g ht strea k m a rks the e d g e of the u pper j a w .


NARROW-MOUTH E D FROGS have s m a l l , wedge­ s h a ped heads with a fol d of s k i n cros s i n g the head just back of the eyes. They are dark or mottled; u n d e rsides l i g hter. N octurnal frogs with ti ny voices, they often h i d e u n d e r logs and roc ks . The Sheep Frog, a related s pe c i e s , h a s .., n a r r o w h e a d but l oose, d a r k s k i n , with a n arrow yellow or o r a n g e stri pe down the back. It breeds ( Ma rch-September) i n s h a l l o w p o n d s o r l a r g e rain­ �arrow·mouthed %· water pools.

\- -· - · �� 1 36

Sheep


SA LAMA N D ERS a re ta i l ed a m p h i bi a n s . A bo u t 1 35 kinds, i n seven fa m i l ies, are found in this country. They d i ffer from l i zards ( p p . 4.4-.45 ) i n lacki n g a s c a l y skin and c l a ws . S a l a m a n d ers never h a ve m o r e than four toes on the front feet; l i z a rds u s u a l l y have five . Many s a l a m a nd e rs a re noct u r n a l ; a l l avo i d d i rect sun. D u ri n g t h e b reed i n g season they move a b o u t m o r e and hence a re m o r e l i ke l y to be s e e n . S o m e s p e n d t h e i r enti re l i ves i n water; others live on moist l a n d , ret u r n i n g to w at er o n l y to m ate a n d l a y e g g s . T h e e g g s, w i t h a j e l l y- l i ke c o a ti n g , a re l a i d s i n g l y o r i n s m a l l c l u m ps . S o m e terrestri a l s a l a m a n ders h a v e no Eggs of l a rval stage . S a l a m a nders may be kept Hellbender in t e r r a r i a l i ke f r o g s a n d t o a d s . F eed t h e m m e a l w o r m s or oth e r l i v e i n s ects. Most s p e c i e s a re too s m a l l a n d u n at足 tractive for pets. Eggs of Four-toed Salamander

Eggs of Spotted Salamander


M U D P U P P Y or WATE R D O G ( 1 2 i n . ) is a l a rge a q u atic s a l a m a n d e r of rivers and l a kes. The color varies -often d a rk brown a bove, p a l e r o n bel l y wit h d a rk s pots . A la rva throu g h o ut l ife, it h a s b u s h y red g i l ls . E g g s a r e l a i d i n l ate s p r i n g atta c h e d to roc ks u n der water. The eggs hatch in 40 to 60 ďż˝-------------days. Hatc h l i n g s , stri ped o n their 1 back and sides, a re a bout a n inch long; they mature in a bout five yea rs. Th ree s pecies occ u r in the U n ited States.

\" 1 38


CONGO - E E L and H E L LB END.ER are l a rg e a q uatic salamanders. The former (two species), s mooth and eel­ l i ke , g rows 30 to 3 6 i n . l o n g , with fo u r t i n y, u s e l ess, o ne- to three-toed feet. It i s often fo u n d in d itc hes, in b u rrows, o r u n d e r d e b r i s . The fe m a l e l a ys a mass of e g g s under mud or rotted l eaves . She m a y r e ma i n near to g u a rd the m . The H e l l bender ( 1 6 to 20 i n . ) is shorter a n d broa d e r, a n d l i ves farther p north . Its wrin kled s k i n ma kes i den· ---� · ··-----/>. /'( \5 � tifi c a ti o n e a s y . T h e c o l o r v a r i es Hel l bender f rom s potte d ye I I owis h to re d an d ---. c b ro w n . Eggs a re laid under rocks i n s h a l l ow water.

· · -- ....

,


are southern salamanders of rivers, swa m ps, a n d ponds. Both have external g i l ls a n d both h a ve o n l y front l e g s . T h e S i re n s a re l a rger ( a bout 30 i n . ), g ray, ol ive g reen or blackish with spots a n d blotc h e s . T h e M u d S i re n s (two species), 5 to 8 i n . l o n g , h a ve s m a l ler g i l l s a n d l e g s . T h e y o cc u r in s o u t h e rn stre a m s a n d waterways. li g h t stripes down the back and sides a re a char足 acteristic m a r k i n g . Both feed on i nsects, worms, l a rvae, a n d other s m a l l water animals.

SIRENS and MUD SIRENS

MUD SIREN


OLYMPIC SALAMANDER

GIANT and O L Y M PI C SALA MAN DERS a r e t wo northwestern species. The fi rst, the l a rgest western s a l a m a n de r (9 to 1 2 i n . ), i s o u r l a rgest l a n d s pecies. It is fou n d o n moist s l o pes u nder rocks and logs. la rvae l i ve i n n e a r b y strea m s . The back color varies- u s u a l ly m ottl e d ; l e g s d a rker. O l y m pic �. -' -. - �- - - - - - - - - :·· ..... Sala ma n der, smal ler ( J V2 i n . ), pre"' OlympiC fers the h u m i d coastal c o n i ferous '\....- G. 1 forests, w h e re it is u s u a l l y fo u nd (redl i n or a l o n g clear strea ms. ·· ··\

�· �

IOn

·

·

141


N E WTS are attractive, interesti ng salamanders. Of the fi ve species, the eastern (3 i n . l o n g ) is perhaps the b e s t k n o w n . Its e g g s , l a i d i n s p ri n g , on ste m s a nd l eaves of water plants, hatch i n to l a rvae. After 3 or 4 months i n the water these u s u a l l y leave to spend 2 or 3 y e a rs o n l a n d a s an u n u s u a l fo r m , k n o w n as the Red Eft. W h e n the Efts return p e r m a n en tl y to water, they change color and develop a broad swi m m i n g ta i l . Some newts skip t h e eft sta ge. N ewts feed o n worms, i n sect l a rvae and s m a l l aquatic a n i m a l s . They are per1 42


h ap s the best sa l a m a nders to keep a s pets . Red Efts, fed on l i ve i n sects, do wel l in terra ria. Ad u lts th rive in a q u a ri a , fee d i n g on s m a l l bits of l i ver or other meat. The Weste rn N ewt is about twice the size of the eastern s pecies a n d differs in a p peara nce too. Adults are l a n d- d w e l l e r s , retu r n i n g to water only to breed . They are red d i s h or dark brown, be lly much lig hter yel足 low o r o ra n g e . F o u n d in m oist woods and mou nta i n ponds.


S POTTED S A L AMANDER

( 7 i n . ) h a s la rge, rou n d , yel­ l o w , or o r a n g e s p ots on a black s k i n . Like others i n this g ro u p ( 1 1 s p e c i e s ) it has vertical g rooves on its s i d e s . It is fou n d in m o i st woods; breeds i n ponds and t e m p orary poo l s . A d u lts m i g ra te considerably, retu r n i n g to water to breed . T h ey feed on worms, g ru bs, a n d i nsects. (8 i n . ) is l i ke the S p otted, but the s pots, w h e n present, are l a r ger, m o r e i rr e g u l ar, and extend down the si d es a n d onto the b e l l y . Some l a rvae do not deve l o p i nto the l a n d form; they s pend their entire l i fe i n water, where they eventually breed. Tiger S a l a m a n ders a re known to l i ve ove r 1 0 years.

TIGER SALAMANDER

(4 i n . ) i s s m a l ler than othe rs i n this g ro u p , but l i ke most i s a stout, t h i c k-set creatu re . Variable markings on the black s k i n , white on m a l es , g r a y i s h o n females, in i rre g u l a r f u s e d b a nds. The l a rvae o re a mottl ed b rown . J EFF ERSON SA LAMAND ER is �- -----�."'- Spotted • s l e n d e r ( 6 1f2 i n . ); a l s o c a l l e d B l ue­ s potte d , for the m a r k i n g s o n its Tiger b r o w n i s h s ki n . It l i ve s i n woods Te a l o n g s wa m ps and stre a m s . T r u n k a n d ta i l h a v e vertic a l g rooves.

MARBLED SALAMANDER

( S 1f2 i n . ) i s fo u n d i n va ryi n g h a b i tats from swampy lowlands to upland woods. It is a b u rrower beneath logs a nd rocks near strea m s . T h e color i s a f a i n t l y b l otc h e d s l a t e g r a y or brown , l i g hter b e n e a t h .

T E X AS SA LAMANDER

1 44


comprise n i n e s pecies of average-sized ( 3 1h i n . ), i ncon spicuous salamande rs with h i g h l y vari a b l e color a n d patte r n . T h e i r d a r k , m ottled s ki n s bl e n d wi t h rocks a n d m o s s a l o n g stre a m s where they live. The sides a re g rooved verti c a l l y . N ote a small l i g ht b a r fro m eye to j a w . T h e AIlegheny Mountain a n d Shovel-nosed � '{) '1;? species d i ffer from the common east­ e r n i n h a vi n g a l i g ht, i r re g u l a rl y -spotted band down the back.

D US KY SA LAMAND ERS

- - - - - - - -- -

1 46


and S LI M Y SA LA MA N D E R S a re l a n d s pe c i e s of o u r l a r g est g ro u p ( 1 9 s p e c i e s ) . Often f o u n d i n l e a f m o l d a n d u n d e r rotted l o g s , both b reed on l a n d a n d l a y e g g s in m oi st n e sts i n rott e d b a r k or logs. Red-backed (3 in. long) has two co lor phases; only one has the red stripe down the R e d- backed . back. S l i m y S a l a m a nder, l a rger (6 R � l �; �d - __ ___ ,__ / i n . ), h a s b l u e - b l a c k s ki n with small, speCies i r r e g u l a r l i g ht s p ots on b a c k, a n d grayish belly. R E D - BA C K ED


a re western species. The s i n g l e species of Pai nted va ries from black to red, u s u a l l y with red or yellow ora n g e bl otches. These m e d i u m-si zed s a l a m a nders (4 to 5 i n . ) occur in the mountains, i n o a k a n d evergreen forests . They ex足 hi bit an unusual a n d complex courtship pattern. The Worm S a l a m a n d e r (4 i n . ) is, a s its n a m e i m pl i es, thin and wo rmli ke, with a very long tai l . The color i s da rk, often s potted or strea ked . The salamander is found un足 d e r rotted l o g s or l e a ves where it lays its e g g s , from w h i c h tiny m i n iatu res of the a d u l ts e m e r g e . PAINTED and WORM SALAMANDERS

WORM SALAMANDER

1 48


4 i n . l o n g ( fi ve s pe c i e s ) , l i ve o n o p posite s i d e s of t h e c o u ntry. G reen S a l a m a n d e r i s fo u n d on the rocky h i l l s ides of the Appa­ l a c h i a n s , u nder l o g s or in crevices of roc ks. It i s da rk, with gree n i s h b l otches. The Tree S a l a m a n d e r of the Pacific Coast freq u e n tl y l ives in water-soaked caviti es of trees. Sometimes a whole colony is fou n d in one of these holes , where e g g s are l a i d , a l so . Tree S a l a man­ ders a l s o l ive o n the g r o u n d , u n d e r l o g s , rocks, a n d bark.Their c o l o r i s l i g ht b rown, paler below w i t h f e w i f any ma rki n g s . GR E E N and TR E E SA LA MA ND ERS,

· · ·- - ·b.� · Green e

-- ·

GREEN SALAMANDER

1 49


are u n u s u a l a n i m a l s found only i n deep wel l s a n d u nderground strea ms of caves. They are a pale yellowish in color, with eyes reduced in s i z e or co m p l etely u n d evel o p e d . T h e l a rvae of the Ozark B l i n d Sa la m a n d er ( a d u lts 3 3/.; i n . ), fou n d in open strea ms, have da rk-col o red skins a n d normal eyes . The you n g of the ---------- "-�/ Texas species ( a d u lts 4 i n . ) resem'{) � Oza rk ble the pale adu lts. Another rare B l i n d S a l a m a n d e r h a s been f o u nd --'!;e!a' ��, -V \J i n Georg i a . 1 50 BLIND SALAMANDERS

t '(

-


P URP L E and RE D SA LA MAN D ERS often belie thei r na mes. T h e P u r p l e ( 5 i n . l o n g ; three species) i s actually brownish or red d i s h brown, with vag u e spots or blotches. Y o u n g a d ults, newly tran sfor m e d fro m l a rvae, ore b ri g h t e r re d . T h i s i s a l s o t r u e of t h e Red S a l a m a n der ( 5 i n . ; two s p e � i e s ) . Y o u n g a d u lts "'Pur [e a re b n_ g h t red w1th s m a l l dark spots; o l d e r o n e s , d u l l a n d d a rk e r . B oth of these s a l a m a n d e rs a re common,"\ Red�( est i n h i l l y or m o u nta i n areas along strea m s o r nea r ponds. � \) 1 51

� - -

-

- - - - - - - - -- -

- - __

_

��,

-


TWO - LINED, LONG -TAILED and C A V E S A LA­

represent a common but i ncons picuous g r o u p ( ei g ht s pe c i e s ) . Two- l i n e d (3 i n . ) i s s o m a r k ed, with a broken row of d a rk d ots between the l i nes on its sides. long-ta i led ( a bout 5 i n . ) is thi n , yel low to orange, mottled or s potte d . Both prefer moist s ites u n d e r l ogs a n d roc k s , t h o u g h the Two-l i n e d a l s o prefers b rook, sides. The Cave Salamander ( 5 i n . ) �':'�:.1 .'"ed > _: is seen n e a r the entrances of caves a n d u n de r moist, ove r h a n g i ng Cave � rocks. Color i s variable, u s u a l ly � ng-tailed ._.,. yel low to orange with scattered black s pots . � MANDERS

- - - - - - -. •

1 52

·


is so c a l l e d because both front a n d hind feet are fou r-toed . I t i s one of the s ma l l est s a l a m a nders ( 2 V2 i n . ), fa i r l y c o m m o n in wooded areas, swa m ps, a n d bogs. The dull red-brown back is mottl ed with darker patches; the bel l y is l i g ht­ er, with brown s pots . Males are s m a l l e r than females and have l o n g e r tai l s . The fe m a l e lays her eggs in a mossy cavity a n d stays with them p ti l l they hatch, i n a bout two m � nth� . . ·--�,/'( · r-toed '1:::! Fou '{5 The l a rvae leave the water m stx Margi � ;,-'d-,. weeks to c o m p l ete t h e i r d evel op"·P."Ya rf "' ment on l a n d . They m a t u re in Fou r:)oed a bout two yea rs. \

FOUR-TO ED SALA MAND E R

\

. . . . . . . ...

,

1 53


BOO KS FOR FURTHER STUDY B i s h o p , S h e r m a n C . , H A N D B O O K OF SALAMA N D E R S , C o m stock P u b . C o . , Itha ca , N . Y . , 1 96 7 . A n excel l e n t refere nce a n d a c o m pa n i o n t a the v o l u m e s by Carr and S m i t h , l i sted b e l o w .

Carr, A rc h i e , H A N D BO O K O F T U RTLES, C o m stock P u b . C a . , I t h a c a , N . Y . ,

1 95 2 .

T h e best a n d most c o m p l ete g u i d e to A m e r i c a n t u r t l e s , with

ample data o n l ife h i stories a n d i d e ntificati o n . D i t m a rs, R a y m o n d , R E PT IL E S O F N o RTH AME R I CA, D o u b l e d a y a n d C o . , G a r d e n C i ty, N . Y . , 1 94 9 . A general, nan-tec h n i c a l refe rence t o the m a j o r N o rth A m e r i c a n species. I l l u strated with p h o to g r a p h s .

P o p e , C l i ffo r d H . , SNAKES A liVE AND How THEY li VE, V i k i n g Press, N e w

York, 1 937. A very rea d a b l e account of s n a kes a n d t h e i r h a bits, b y a tap authority.

S c h m i dt, K a r l P . , a n d D a v i s , D . D., f i E L D B O O K O F SNAKES O F T H E U . S . A N D CANADA, G . P . Put n a m ' s S o n s , N e w York,

1 94 1 .

A c o m p a ct,

deta i led g u i d e ta i d entification of species and s u bspecies. Of s pecial va l u e to the mare a d v a n c e d a m ate u r . S m i t h , H o b a rt M . , H A N D B O O K O F L I Z A R D S , C o mstock P u b . C o . , I t h a c a , N.Y.,

1 9 46.

A defi n itive reference t o the m o s t c o m m o n repti les,

with full i nformation on i d e n tification and how they l ive. Wright, A . , a n d W r i g ht, A., A H A N D B O O K O F fROGS A N D TOADS, Com足 stock P u b . Co., Ithaca, N.Y.,

1 949.

A n excellent, deta i led fi e l d guide

to these a m p h i b i a n s; n o n -tec h n i c a l and we l l i l l ustrate d .

ZOOS, MUSEUMS, AND STUDY COLLECTIONS Here are s o m e well-known p l aces where repti les a n d a m p h i b i a n s c a n be stu d i ed a l ive o r a s p a rt of p e r m a n e n t e x h i bits o r collections: Wa s h i n gton, D . C.: U.S. N a tion a l Museum, N a ti o n a l Z o o l o g i c a l Park N e w Y o r k C i t y : A m e r i c a n Museum of Natural H i story, Staten I s l a n d Z o o , Bro n x P a r k Zoo C h i c a g o , I l l . : N a t u r a l H i story M u s e u m , Brookfield Zaa, l i n c o l n Park Zoo Bosto n , M a s s . : H a rvard M u s e u m of C o m p a rative Z o o l o g y P h i l a d e l p h i a , Pa . : P h i l a d e l p h i a Zaalag i c a l P a r k las A n g e l e s , C a l i f . : las A n g e l e s Cou nty M u s e u m A n n Arbor, M i c h . : U n i v . of M i c h . M u s e u m of Zoo l o g y S a n Antonia, T e x a s : S a n A n to n i o Zoo San Diego, C a l i f . : Zoo l o g i c a l Park S i lver Springs, F l a . : Ross A l l en ' s Repti l e I n stitute M i a m i , Fla . : Serpentari u m . Berkeley, C a l i f . : U n i v . o f C a l if. M u s . of Vert. Z oo l o g y

1 54


SCIENTIFIC NAMES The scientific n a mes af

i l l u strated

reptiles a n d

a m p h i b i a n s fo llow.

H eavy type i n d icates pages w h e re they a p p e a r . T h e g e n u s name i s f i rst, t h e n the species. A t h i rd n a m e is the s u bspecies. If the g e n u s n a m e i s a b b reviated, it i s t h e s a m e a s t h e g e n u s n a m e g ive n

20

leatherback: a ceo. Hawksbi l l :

21 22 23

Dermochelys cori-

E retmochelys

i m bri-

cota . log gerhead: Ca retta ca retta. Gree n : C h e l o n i a mydos. Sternotherus odoratus. C o m m o n : K i nosternon s u brubrum s u b r u b ru m . Yellow-necked: K. fl avescens.

24 Chelydro serpenti n e . 25 Mocroclemys tem m i n c k i . 26 A m y d a ferox . 27 Gopherus polyph e m u s . 28-29 Pseudemys scripta elegans. 30 P s e u d e m y s florida n o hieroglyph31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 40 41 42 43 46

52 53 54 55

56

Mississippi: C. picto dorsalis. Weste r n : C . picta bel l i . Chrysemys picta m a r g i n ate. Graptemys

pseudogeographica

kohni. Gra ptemys geographica. Emydoidea blandi n g i . Molaclemys terra p i n .

57 58 59 60 61 62

Eastern: Terra pene carolina.

Clemmys m a rmorate. Clemmys m u h l e n b e r g i . Clemmys i n sc u l pta. Tu bercu lar: P h y l l odactylus tuber-

Coleonyx variegatus. Anole: Anolis caro l i n e n s i s . C h a m e l e o n : Chomeleo vulgaris.

(juv.) S p i n y : Ctenosaura pecti n ato (juv. ) Crotaphytus collaris. Gambelia wislizeni. C l i m b i n g : U r o s a u r u s ornatus. G rou n d : Uta sta n s b u r i a n a . Earless: H o l b ro o k i a m a c u l ate. Zebra-ta i l e d : C a l l i s a u r u s d racoFringe-foote d : U m a n otate. Texas Spiny: Sceloporus ol ivaceus. Western fence: S . occidentalis.

Desert Spiny: S . m a g i ster. Sceloporus u n d u l atus. Desert: Phrynosomo platyrhinos. Short-ho r n e d : P . d o u g l a s s i . P h rynosoma cornutu m . G ra n ite: Xantusia h e n s h a w i . Arizona: X. a ri z o n a e . E u m eces obsoletus. Gr. Five-lined: Eu meces laticeps. Common Weste r n : E . s kiltonia n u s . G reater Wester n : E . g i l berti .

63 64 65

culatus. Turkish: H e m i d a ctyl us turcicus.

T r u e : I g u a n a i g u a n a r h i nolopha

Desert Scaly: S . poinsetti.

Weste r n : T. o rnata. Clemmys g u ttate.

Sauromalus obesus. Dipsosa u r u s dorsal i s .

Ground: S . g raciosus.

Oeirochelys reti c u l a ria. Eastern: C h rysemys picta picta.

before it.

noides.

ica.

Least: Sphoerodactyl u s cinereus.

47 48

49 50 51

j ust

Sonora n : E. obsoletus. E u m eces fasciatus. Brown: S c i n c e l l a laterale. S a n d : Neoseps reynoldsi. Six-lined: C n e m i d o p h o r u s sexlineatus. Tiger: C . tigris.

66

T e x a s : Gerrhonotus l i ocephalus.

67 68

O p h i s a u r u s ventra l i s .

Western : E l g a ri a m u l ticarinatu s . W o r m : R h i n e u ra fl o r i d a n o . Footless: A n n i e l l a p u l c h r a .

1 55


SCIENTIFIC NAMES (Continued )

69 72 73

Heloderma suspectu m .

74 75 76

Aba stor erythro g ra m m u s . F a r a n d a abacura.

77

K e e l e d , Opheodrys aestivus.

7&

l eptotyphlops. Rubber: C h a r i n a bottae. Rosy: Lichonura roseofusca.

92 93 94 9S 96

Elaphe guttate g u ttate. Elaphe v u l p i n e . D rymarchon cora i s . Arizona elegans. Pituophis m e l a n o l e u c u s melano­ leucus.

97 98

Eastern, Diadophis punctatus. Weste r n : D. a m o b i l i s .

Pituoph is melanoleucus sayi. Scarlet, la m p ropeltis triangulum elapsoides.

S mooth-sca l e d , 0 . vernal i s .

Red: L. tri a n g u l u m tria n g u lum.

Cone-nosed : Virginia striatulo.

Common' l. getulus getulus.

Groun d : Sonora semiannulata. Short-t a i l e d ,

Sti l o s a m a

e xten u ­

99

atum. Shovel-nosed:

Chionactis

occipi­

talis.

79

B lack Swamp, Semi natrix pygaea . Striped Swa m p ' l iodytes alieni.

1 00 101 1 02

Speckled,

C a l i f . , l . getu l u s c a l iforniae.

Sha rp·la i l e d , Conlia tenuis.

80 81 82

C h i l o m e n i scus cinctus.

1 03

Weste r n : Heterodon nasicus. C o m m o n , H . platyrhinos. Vine' Oxybe l i s aeneus. Western Hook-nosed, Gyalapian Fanged N i g ht, leptodeira a n nu· lata septentri o n o l i s .

1 04 1 05 1 06

F lat-headed , Tanti l l o coronale. Yel l ow·l o p p e d , R h a d i n a e a flavi­ lata. Texas H o o k - n o s e d : F i c i m i o streck­

1 07

eri. Worm: C a r p h o p h i s a m o e n a . B l a c k-stri ped,

Coniophanes

im·

Easte r n : Coluber constrictor con :

86 87 88 89 90

Masticophis fl a g e l l u m fl agellum.

1 56

1 08

periolis.

85

91

stridor.

Rhinochei l u s lecontei. Common: Natrix sipedon sipe· don.

Mosticophis toeniatus taeniatu s . Salvadore l i n eata. Phyllorhynchus browni . G ray' E l a p h e obsolete spi loides. Yellow' E. obsolete quadrivittata.

throgaster. Gree n , Natrix cyclopion. D i a m o n d·backed ,

N.

rhombi­

fera. Plains, Tha m n o p h i s radix. Weste rn' T. elega n s . Ribbo n ' Tha mnophis s a u ritus. C o m m o n : T. ordinatus. L i n e d : Tropidoclonion l i n eatu m . D e K a y , Storeria d e k a y i . Red·bellied, S. occipitomaculata . Fang less N i g ht, H y p s i g l e n a och· rorhyncha. lyre, Trimorphodon l a m bda. Common: Micrurus fulvius. Western: Micruroides euryxan· thus.

1 09

Weste r n : C . constrictor mormon.

Elaphe obsolete obsolete.

Cemophora doliala.

Painted, N . eryth rogaster e ry·

S a n d : Chilomeniscus c i n ctus.

canum.

83

l a m propeltis getulus

holbrooki.

Copperhead, A g k i strodon con· tortrix. Cottonmouth: A. piscivorus.

1 1'0 112

Pigmy: Sistrurus m i l i o r i u s . Mossasou g o : S. cotenotus. Timber, Crota l u s horrid us. Ea stern D i a m o n d b a c k , C. a da· m a nteus . Prairie: C. v i r i d i s .


SCIENTIFIC NAMES (Continued ) 1 13 1 14 1 15 118 1 20 1 21 1 22 1 23 1 24 1 25 1 26

Sidewinder: Crota l u s cerastes. Western D i a mondback: C . atrox. Red: C . ruber. A l l i gator m i ssissippiensis. Crocod i l u s acutus. Bufo a merican u s . Ascaphus truei . Weste r n : S pea h a m m o n d i . Eastern : Scaphiopus hol brooki. American : Bufo omerican u s . Fowler 's: B. woodhousei fowleri . Western: Bufo boreas . Great P l a i n s : B. cognatus. Swamp: Pseudacris n i grita ni­ grita. Stri ped: P . n i g rita triseri ata. Ornate: Pseudacris ornata.

1 38 1 39 1 40

131 1 32

leghaniensis. Siren: Siren lacerti n o . M u d S i ren : Pseudobranchus stri­ atu s . G i a n t : D i c a m ptodon ensatus.

1 42

Notophth a l m u s v i r i d e scens viri­

1 43

Easte r n : Notophth a l m u s virides­

1 45

Olympic: Rhyacotriton olympi­ cus. descen s. cens viridescens. Western: Taricha torose. Spotted : A m bystom o m a c u l a tum. T i g e r : A . tigri n u m .

Strecker: P . streckeri. Common: H y l a versicolor.

Marbled : A . opacum.

G reen : H . cinerea.

Jefferson: A . jefferson i a n u m .

P i n e : H . fem o r a l is. Squirrel: H y l a squirella. Pacifi c : H . reg i l l a . S p r i n g Peeper: H . crucifer.

1 29 1 30

Congo-ee l : Amphiuma means. Hellbender: C ryptobranchus a l ­

141

Canyon: H. a renicolor.

1 27

Nectu rus maculosus.

1 46 1 47

Whistl i n g : H. avivoca. Acris crepitan s . Texas: Eleutherodactylus latrans.

1 48

Ricard: E . ricordi p l a n i rostris.

Whistl i n g : S y r r h o p h u s marnocki. Gopher: Rona a reolota. Red-le g g e d : R. a u rora .

1 33

Green : Rona clamitans.

1 34

Pickerel: R o n a pal ustri s .

Bul lfro g : R. catesbe i a n a . leopard: R . p i p i e n s .

1 35

W o o d : Rona sylvati c a . Spotted: R . preti o s a .

1 36

Western: Microhyla olivacea. Eastern: M. carolinensis.

Common: Desmognathus fuscus . Allegheny: D. ochrophaeus. Red-backed: Plethodon ci nere u s c i n ereu s . Slimy: P. g l utinosus. Pai nte d : a . En sati n a eschscholtz i esch scholtz i . b . E . eschscholtzi klauberi.

White-lipped: leptodoctylus lab­ iolis.

T e x a s : A. texa n u m .

1 49 1 50 1 51 1 52 1 53

Worm: Batrachoseps ottenuatus. Tree: Aneides l u g u br i s . G r e e n : A. aeneus. Ozark: Typ h lotriton spelaeus. Texas : Typ h l o m o l g e rath b u n i . Red: Pseud otriton ruber. P u r p l e : Gyri n o p h i l u s porphyriti­ cus. Two-lined: E u rycea b i s l i neata . long-ta i l e d : E. l o n g i c a u d a . Cave: E. lucifuga. Hemidacty l i u m scutatu m .

Sheep: Hypopachus c u n eus.

1 57


IND E X

An a sterisk ( * ) desig nates pages that are i l l ustrated; bold type denotes pages conta i n i n g more extensive i n formati o n .

N

0

o-

0)

,... ...

Alligator, * 1 1 4- 1 1 5 A l ligator lizards, *66 A l ligator S n apper, * 2 5 American Toad, *119 (tadpole), * 1 2 2 - 1 2 3 Amphibians, 1 1 6- 1 5 3 as pets, 1 4 family tree, * 6 - * 7 .,. general, * 1 1 6- * 1 1 7 : Anole, *48 ..

Barking Frog, * 1 30 � Bell Toad, * 1 20 u B l a c k-striped S n a k e, * 8 3 , 84 � c B l a c k S w a m p S n o k e , * 79, 80 ::; � B l a n d i n g Turtle, * 3 6 � B l i n d S a l a m a n ders, * 1 50 � B l i n d S n a kes, * 7 2 i B l ue-spotted S a l a m a nder, 1 44-* 1 45 z = Boas, * 7 3 � Books, reference, 1 54 � B o x T u rtles, * 1 8 , * 3 8-

DeKay S n a ke, * 1 06 Desert I g u a n a , * 5 0 D u s k y Salamanders, * 1 46

Frogs ( cont. ) : S p r i n g Peeper, * 1 1 9 (tadpole), * 1 27, * 1 28 tadpoles, * 1 1 9 Tree (Hylas), * 1 26* 1 27, 1 2 8 Whistl i n g , * 1 3 1 White-lipped, * 1 3 1 Wood, * 1 1 9 (tadpole), * 1 35

G a rter S n a kes, * 1 04* 1 05 Geckos, * 4 6 - * 4 7 G i a n t S a l a m a nder, * 1 4 1 G i a n t Tortoises, 2 7 Faded S n a ke, * 95 G i l a-monster, * 6 9 False I g u a n a , * 5 1 Glass-snake Lizard, * 6 7 Fi rst aid, sna kebite, * 1 5 Glossy S n o ke, * 9 5 Flat-headed S n a ke, * 8 3 , Gopher Frog, * 1 3 2 84 Gopher Sna ke, 97 Footless Lizard, *68 Gopher Turtles, * 2 7 Four-toed S a l a m a nder, G reat P l a i n s Toad, * 1 23 * 1 3 7 (eggs), * 1 5 3 Green Frog, * 1 1 9 (tadFowler"s Toad, ' 1 22- 1 2 3 pole), * 1 3 3 "' *39 F o x Snake, 92- • 93 Green S a l a m a n der, * 1 49 Frogs, * 1 1 6- * 1 1 9 ( g enB u l lfrog, * 1 3 3 Green Snakes, * 77 era l ) , 1 1 6- 1 36 ;;; Bull Snakes , 96-* 97: Green Turtle, * 1 9, * 2 1 :> Barking, * 1 30 G r o u n d Geckos, • 4 7 Bul lfrog, * 1 3 3 Cages a n d tanks, * 1 2-* 1 3 Grou n d S n o ke , * 7 8 , 8 0 Chorus, * 1 1 9 (tadpole), lE Carapace, 1 8 Ground Uta, • 5 4 * 1 24- 1 25 Cave S a l a m a n der, * 1 5 2 Cricket, * 1 1 9 (tadpole), Hawksbill Turtle, * 20-2 1 Chameleons, * 4 8 * 1 29 Chicken Turtle, * 3 1 H ellbender, * 1 3 7 (eggs), Gopher, * 1 3 2 Chorus frogs, * 1 1 9 * 1 39 Green, * 1 1 9 (tadpole), H i be r n a t i o n , 1 6- 1 7, 1 9, (tadpole), * 1 24* 1 33 * 1 25 39, 6 1 Leopard, * 1 1 6, * 1 1 9, H i eroglyphic Turtle, * 30 Chuckwalla, *49 * 1 34 Climbing Uta, *54 Hog-n o sed S n a k e , • 8 1 Meadow, * 1 3 4 Coachwhip Sna ke, * 8 6-87 Hook-nosed S n a kes, * 82Narrow-mouthed, * 1 36 C o l l a red L i z a rd, * 5 2-53 * 8 3, 8 4 Pickerel, * 1 1 9 (tadCollectin g , 1 1 - 1 4 H oop S n a k e , * 75 pole), * 1 34 Common S n a pper, * 2 4 Horned lizards, • 5 8 · * 59 Red-legged, * 1 32 Cone-nosed S n a k e , * 78, Hylas, * 1 2 6 - * 1 2 7 , 1 2 8 Robber, * 1 30 80 Sheep, * 1 36 C o n g o-eel, * 1 3 9 I g u a n a s , * 50-* 5 1 Spotted , * 1 35 Copperhead, * 1 09 I n d i g o Snake, * 9 4

..,. E

N

Coral S n a kes, * 1 08 Corn S n a ke, * 9 2-93 Cotton mouth, * 1 09 Crested lizard, • 50 Cricket Frogs, * 1 1 9 (tadpole), * 1 29 Crocodile, 1 1 4- * 1 1 5

1 58

Efts, * 1 4 2- 1 4 3


INDEX

(Continued)

J efferson S a l a m a nder, 1 44-* 1 45 K i n g S n a kes, * 9 8 - * 9 9 Leaf-nosed Snakes, * 8 9 Leatherback T u rtle, * 1 9, * 20- 2 1 * 1 1 6, Frog, Leopard * 1 1 9 * 1 34 Leopard Li ard, 52-* 5 3 L i n e d S n a k e , * 1 06 L i zards, *44-*45 (genera l ) , 44-69 A l l igator, *66 Anole, * 4 8 Chameleon, • 4 8 Chuckwalla, * 49 Collared, *52-53 Crested, *50 Footless, *68 Geckos, • 46- • 47 G i la-monster, *69 Glass-snake, * 6 7 Horned, * 58-* 5 9 Iguanas, *50- * 5 1 Leopard, 52-* 5 3 N i ght, *60 Rocerunners, *65 Sand, * 5 5 Skinks, * 6 1 -*64 Swifts, * 56 - * 5 7 Utas, *54 Whipta i l s , *65 Worm, *68 Loggerhead Turtle, * 2 1 Long-nosed Snake, * 1 0 1 Long-to i l e d S a l a m a nder, * 1 52 Lyre Snake, * 1 07

Map Turtles, * 1 9, * 34*35 Marbled S a l a m a n der, 1 44-* 1 45 Mossasouga, * 1 1 0 Meadow Frog, * 1 3 4 Milk Snake, * 98-99 Moccasin, Water, * 1 09 Mudpu ppy, * 1 3 8 Mud S i ren, * 1 40 Mud Snoke, *75 Mud Turtles, * 1 9, * 23 Muhlenberg Turtle, * 4 2 M u s k Turtles, * 2 2

Na rrow- m o uthed Frogs, * 1 36 Newts, * 1 42-* 1 43 Night lizards, * 60 Night Sna kes, * 8 2 , 84, * 1 07 Olym pic Sa l a ma n der, *141 Pacific Turtle, * 4 1 Pai nted S a l a m a n d e r s , * 1 48 Painted Tu rtles, * 3 2- * 3 3 Patch-nosed Snake, * 8 8 Pickerel Frog, * 1 1 9, * 1 34 Pilot Black Sna ke, * 90*91 Pine Snake, *96-97 Puff Adder, 8 1 Purple Salamander, * 1 5 1 Racers, * 8 5 Roceru n n ers, * 6 5 Rainbow Snake, * 74 Rat Snakes, *90- * 9 3 Rattl esnakes, * 1 1 0- * 1 1 3 Red-backed S a l a m a n der, * 1 47 Red-bellied Snake, * 1 06 Red Eft, * 1 42- 1 43 Red-legged Frog, � 1 3 2 Red Salamander, * 1 5 1 Reference books, 1 54 Repti les, 1 6- 1 1 5 as pet, 1 4 fa m i l y tree, * 4-*5 general, * 1 6- * 1 7 Ribbon Snake, * 1 05 Ring-necked Snakes, * 76 Robber Frogs, * 1 30 S a l a m a nders, * 1 3 7 ( genera l ) , 1 37- 1 5 3 Blind, * 1 50 Blue-spotted, 1 44-* 1 45 Cave, * 1 5 2 Congo-ee l, * 1 39 Dusky, * 1 46 Fou r-toed, * 1 37, * 1 5 3 Giant, * 1 4 1 Green, "' 1 4 9 Hellbender, * 1 3 7 (eggs), * I 3 9 Jefferson, 1 44-* 1 45

Sala manders (cont. ) : Long-ta i led, * 1 52 Marbled, 1 44- * 1 45 Mudpu ppy, * 1 3 8 M u d S i rens, * 1 40 N ewts, * 1 4 2-* 1 4 3 Olympic, * 1 4 1 P o i nted, "' 1 48 Purple, * 1 5 1 Red, * 1 5 1 Red-backed, * 1 47 Red Eft, * 1 42- 1 43 Sirens, * 1 40 S l i m y, * 1 47 S potted , * 1 3 7 ( e g gs), 1 44-* 1 45 Texas, 1 44-* 1 45 (eggs), *1 17 Tiger, 1 44-* 1 45 Tree, * 1 49 Two-lined, * 1 52 Waterdog, * 1 3 8 Worm, * 1 48 Sand Lizards, *55 Sand Snake, * 79, 80 Saw-toothed Slider, *30 Scarlet Snake, *1 00 Sea T u rtles, * 20- * 2 1 S h a r p-ta i l e d S n a ke, * 79, 80 Sheep Frog, *1 36 Short-ta i l e d Snake, *78, 80 Shovel-nosed S n o ke, * 78, 80 Sidewi nder, 1 1 1 , * 1 1 3 S i rens, * 1 40 Skinks, 6 1 (genera l ) Brown, * 6 4 Common Western, *62 F ive-l i ned, 61 , • 63 Greater Five-lined, *62 Greater Western, *62 Sand, *64 Sonoran, * 62 S l iders, * 1 B , * 2 8 -* 3 0 S l i m y Salama nder, * 1 47 Snake bite, * 1 5 S n a k e s , * 7 0- * 7 1 ( general), 70- 1 1 3 Black-striped, * 8 3 , 84 Black Swamp, *79, 80 Blind, *72 B o a s , *73 B u l l , 96-*97 Coachwhi p, * 86-87

1 59


INDEX

( Continued )

"' Snakes (cont. ) , Cone-nosed, * 7 8 , 80 Copperhead, *1 09 Coral, * 1 08 Corn, *92-93 Cotto nmouth, *1 09 DeKay, * 1 06 Faded , * 9 5 F a n g e d Night, * 8 2 , 8 4 Fangless N i g ht, * 1 0 7 .,. Flat-headed, * 8 3 , 84 Fox, 9 2 - * 9 3 Garter, * 1 04- * 1 0 5 Glossy, *95 Gopher, 9 7 Green, * 7 7 G r o u n d , * 78 , 80 Hog-nosed, • 8 1 � Hoop, * 7 5 z h o w to hold, * 1 4 .., � Indigo, *94 0 King, *98-*99 leaf-nosed, * 8 9 M � l i n e d , * 1 06 � long-nosed, * 1 0 1 !! lyre, * 1 07 Milk, * 98-99 !:: Mud, *75 Patch-nosed, * 8 8 Pilot black, * 90-9 1 ., Pine, * 96- 9 7 ::» Racers, * 85 ; Rainbow, * 7 4 z R a t , * 90- * 9 3 Rattlesnakes, * 1 1 0 *i 1 3 Red-bel lied, * 1 06 Ribbon, * 1 05 Ring-necked, *76 Sand, * 79, 80 Scarlet, * 1 00 Sharp-tailed, *79, 80 Short-tailed, *78, 80 Shovel-nosed, *78, 80 Sidewinder, 1 1 1 , * 1 1 3 Striped C h i c ken, *9091 Striped Swamp, * 79, 80 Texas Hook-nosed, * 8 2 , 84 Vine, *82, 84 Water, * 1 0 2 - * 1 0 3

N;

1 60

Snakes (cont. ) , Water Moccasin, * 1 0 9 Western Hook-nosed, * 8 2 , 84 Whip·, 86- * 8 7 Worm, *72, * 8 3-84 Yellow-li pped, * 8 3-84 S n a p p i n g Turtles, * 1 9, * 24- * 2 5 Soft-sh e l l e d Turtles, * 1 9, * 26 S podefoot Toads, * 1 2 1 (tadpole), * 1 1 9 Spiny I guano, • 5 1 Spotted Frog, * 1 35 Spotted S a l a m a n der, * 1 37, 1 44- * 1 45 Spotted Tu rtle, * 40 Spring Peeper, * 1 1 9, * 1 2 7 * 1 28 Striped s omp Sn oke, *79, 80 Swifts, • 56- * 57

:.V

Tadpoles, * 1 1 9 Tailed Toad, * 1 20 Terrapin, * 37 Terrarium, 1 3, * 1 4 Texas Rattler, * 1 1 1 Texas Salamander, 1 44* 1 45 Tiger Salamander, * 1 1 7 ( e g g s ) , 1 44 · * 1 4 5 Timber Rattler, 1 1 1 , * 1 1 2 Toads, * 1 1 6- * 1 1 9 (gen­ era l ), 1 1 6- 1 2 3 American, * I 1 9 (tadpole), * 1 22 - 1 2 3 B e l l , * 1 20 Fowler, * 1 2 2- 1 2 3 G reat Plains, * 1 2 3 Spadefoot, * 1 1 9 (tadpole), * 1 2 1 tadpoles, * 1 1 9 Toiled, * 1 20 Western, * 1 2 3 Tortoise, "' 2 7 Tortoise shell, 2 1 Tree Frogs, * 1 26-* 1 27, 1 28 Tree Salamander, * 1 4 9 True Iguana, * 5 1 Turtles, 1 8-43 A l l igator Sna pper, * 2 5

T u rtles (cont. ) , Blanding, • 3 6 B o x , * 1 8, * 3 8 - * 39 Chicken, * 3 1 Diamondback, * 3 7 Gopher, * 2 7 Green, * 1 9, * 2 1 H o w ksbi l l , ' 2 0· 2 1 Hieroglyphic, * 30 leatherback, * 1 9, * 20· 21 loggerhead, * 2 1 Mop, * 1 9, * 34- * 3 5 M u d , * 1 9, * 23 Muhlenberg, • 4 2 Musk, * 2 2 Pacific, *4 1 Poi n ted, * 3 2 - * 3 3 Sea, * 20- * 2 1 Sliders, * 1 8, * 2 8 - * 3 0 S n a p pers, * 1 9, * 24*25 S oft-shelled, * 1 9, * 26 Spotted, * 40 Terrapin, * 3 7 Tortoise, * 2 7 Wood, * 4 3 Two-l n S a l a m a n der, 2

� tt

Utas, *54 Vine Snake, * 8 2 , 84 Waterdog, * 1 3 8 Water Moccasin, * 1 09 Water Snakes, * 1 02-* 1 OJ Western Toad, * 1 2 3 Whipsnake, 86- * 8 7 Whipto i l lizards, * 65 Whistl i n g Frog, *1 3 1 Wh ite-l i pped Frog, * 1 3 1 Wood Frog, * 1 1 9 (tad· pole), * 1 35 Wood Turtle, * 4 3 W o r m L i z a r d , *68 Worm Salamander, * 1 4 8 Worm S n o k e , * 7 2 , * 83 84 Yellow-lipped S n ake, * 83, 84

VV WW XX YY ZZ


REPTI LES AND AMPH IBIANS A GOLDEN GUIDE

®

HERBERT S. ZIM, P h . D . , S c . D . , an o r i g i nator a n d for­

mer e d i t o r of the G o l d e n G u i d e Series, was a l so an a u t h o r fo r many years. A u t h o r of some n i n ety books and e d i t o r of about as m a ny, h e is now Adj u n ct P ro­

fessor at the U n iversity of M i a m i and E d u ca t i o n a l Con s u l t a n t to t h e A m e r i c a n F r i e n d s S e rv i ce Com m it­ tee and o t h e r o rga n izat i o n s . H e works o n ed uca­ t i o n a l , p o p u l a t i o n and e n v i ro n m e ntal p ro b l e m s.

HOBART M. SMITH, P h . D . , of t h e U n i ve r s i ty of Colo­

rado, at B o u l d er, i s a past pres i d e n t of t h e H e rpeto l o ­

g i sts' Leag u e a n d t h e a u t h o r of Amph ibians of North A m erica, a G o l d e n F i e l d G u i d e . H e is one of th e wo r l d ' s

l e ad i n g a u t h o r i t i e s o n rept i l es a n d a m p h i b i a n s .

JAMES G O R D O N I RVI NG has exh i b i ted p a i nti ngs a t t h e A m e r i c a n M u s e u m of N a t u r a l H i story a n d t h e N a t i o n a l A u d u bo n Soci ety. I n t h e G o l d e n G u i d e S e r i e s h e h a s i l l u st rated Mam m a ls, Birds, Insects, Rep­ tiles a n d A m p h ibians, Stars, Fishes, and Gamebirds.

GOLDEN PRESS

NEW YORK


24495-1

A GOLDEN G U I DE

®

REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS REPTI LES A N D AMPH I BIANS, a guide t o the most fam i l iar American species, separates fact from fable, differentiates between rep l i les and amphibians, aids i n the identification of 21 2 species, and acquai nts the reader with the places where they may be found. I l l u s­

trated in fu l l color; maps show approximate ranges.

0

I S B N 0-307-24495·-4

REPTILES and AMPHIBIANS - A Golden Guide  
REPTILES and AMPHIBIANS - A Golden Guide  
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