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BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS A GUIDE TO THE MORE COMMON AMERICAN SPECIES by ROBERT T. MITCHELL and HERBERT S. ZIM Illustrated by ANDRE DURENCEAU

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NEW YORK


FOREWORD Thi s book pre s e n t s a n i n t rod uct i o n to A m e r i c a n b u tte r­ fl i e s a n d m oths . So n u m erous a re No r th Am e r i ca n s p ec i e s that o n l y a bo u t fo u r p e r c e n t have bee n in­ c l u ded, but the se were s e l ected to i n clu d e the most co m m o n , w i d e s prea d , i m po rta n t , o r u n u s u a l k i n d s . S p ec i a l a t te n t i o n ha s b e e n g i ve n t o i m m a t u re fo r m s a n d t o ra n g e m a ps. A n d re D u re n cea u d e se rves o u r s p ec i a l tha n ks for his m a g n i fice n t a r t, so pa i n sta k i n g l y d o n e. The tech­ n i ca l a s s i sta nce of W i l l i a m D. F i eld ha s a l so bee n i nva l u a b l e . The a u tho rs a re a l so gratefu l l y i n d e bted to other s p ec i a l i sts fo r m e r l y or c u r re n t l y of the S m i th­ son i a n I n st i t u t i o n , e s p ec i a l ly H. W. Cop p s , J. F. Ga tes C l a r ke, Do u g l a s Fe rg u so n , Ro n a l d Hod g e s , a n d E . L. Tod d . A m o n g n u m e ro u s othe rs w h o co n t r i b uted a re W. A. A n d e r so n , T. L. B i s se l l , J. H . Fa l e s , R. S . S i m m o n s , R i cha rd S m i th, a n d seve ra l ento m o l ogists of the U . S . Fo rest S e r v i c e . Thi s Revi sed Ed i t i o n in c l u d es rece n t cha n g e s i n s c i ­ e n t i fi c a n d co m m o n n a m e s a n d g eog ra phica l d i str i ­ b u t i o n s , a n d i t stresses conserva t i o n . Ro be rt Ro b b i n s o f the Un i te d States Na t i o n a l M u se u m g a ve va l u a b l e techn i ca l a s s i sta n ce i n the sect i o n o n b u t te r fl i e s . New a r two r k was d o n e by Ra y S k i b i n s k i . R. T. M . H. S . Z. Revised Edition, 1987 Copyright© 1987,1977,1964 renewed 1992,1963 renewed 1991, 1962 renewed 1990 Golden Books Publishing Company, Inc., New York, New York 10106. All rights

reserved. Produced in the U.S.A. No port ol this book m ay be copied or reproduced with o u t written permission from the publisher. library of Congress Catalog Cord Number: 64·24907. ISBN 0·307·24052·5. GOlDEN BOOKS'", GOlDEN'", A GOlDEN GUIDE", and G Design� ore trademarks

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of Golden Books Publishing Company, Inc.


CONTENTS

4

INTRODU C I N G L E P I DOPT E RA C l a s s i fi ca t i o n of Lepi doptera; l i f e h i stori es; eggs, l a rvae, p u pae , a d u l t s; e n e m i es , defen ses; conserva t i o n , rea r i n g , co l l ecti ng; other stud i e s , b i b l i og ra p h y

19

B U T T E RFLI E S 20 30 38

Swa l lowta i l s . S u l p h u r s a n d W h i tes . . B r u s h - footed B u tterf l i e s

61 62 63

Meta l m a r k s S n o u t B u t te rfl i e s . . Gossa mer W i n g s .

......... 74

S K I P P E RS

.............................. 81

MOT H S

Bagworm Mot h s C l e a r w i n g Mot h s S l u g Caterp i l l a r Mot h s P l u m e Mot h s . F l a n ne l Mot h s . Leaf Rol l ers . C a r p e n terwo r m s . S n o u t Mot h s Co se Bearers . Leaf M i ners . O l e t h r e u t i d Mot h s G e l e c h i i d Mot h s T i n e i d Mot h s . Other Mot h s

82 95 1 05 1 06 1 10 117 1 17 1 17 1 18 1 32 1 36 1 38 1 39 1 40

S p h i n x Mot h s G i a nt S i l k Mot h s Tr u e S i l k Mot h s Reg a l Mot h s T i g e r Mot h s . Cte n u c h a Mot h s Fo rester Mot h s . D i o p t i d Mot h s Noctu i d Mot h s . T h e Prom i n e n ts Tussock Mot h s . . l o s i oca m p i d s Za n o l i d s Geometers

1 44 1 44 1 45 1 46 1 46 1 46 1 47 1 48 150 1 50 151 1 52

153 153

S C I E N TI F I C NAMES INDEX

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157


INTRODUCING

LEPIDOPTERA

B utterflies a n d moths are most n u merous in the trop ics, but temperate a reas have a bou ntifu l supply of m a n y species. l i k e a l l i n sects, they have three m a i n body re­ g i o n s (head, thorax, a n d a bd o m e n ) , three pairs of joi nted legs, a n d one pair of a ntennae. Most have two pa i rs of wings. A few a re w i n g less. I n sects that possess certa i n basic stru ctures in c o m m o n a r e cla ssified i nto large g roups o r ord ers. Butterflies a n d m ot h s a re m e m bers of t h e o r d e r Lepidoptera , d e rived fro m the Greek lepidos for sca les a n d

ptera for w i n g s .

Thei r sca led w i n g s d i sti n g uish them as a g ro u p f r o m a l l

other i n sects. W h e n butterfl ies a n d moths a re h a n d led, the sca les rub off as colored powder. Under a micro­ scope, the c o lors a n d fo rms of the sca les ore a m a z i n g . Lepidoptera is the la rgest ord e r of i n sects n ext to Coleo ptera ( beet les) .

Beetles a re estim ated at a bout

280,000 species; Lepido ptera at 1 20,000, with a bout

10,000 species i n North America. Lepidoptera is usua l ly Jugatae, with a bout

divided i nto three su borders: first,

250 p ri m itive species that somewhat rese m b l e caddis­ fl i es; seco nd,

frenatae, m ost moths; a nd , t h i rd , Rhopalo­

cera, the butterfl ies and ski ppers.

The suborder Rhopa l o cera is divided i n to two s u per­ fa m i l ies: Papilionoidea, w h i c h i n c l udes

19 fa m i l ies of

b u tterfl ies, a n d Hesperioideo, two fa m i l ies of s k i p pers. B utterflies and s k i p pers a re easy to d isti n g u i s h by the shape a n d position of t h e i r a nt e n n a e ( p p . 1 9 a n d

74).

The suborder Frenatae i n c l udes a bout fifty fa m i l ies of N o rt h American m oths. No s i n g l e feature wi l l e n a b l e one to te l l a moth fro m a butterf l y o r s k i p pe r, b u t a fren u l u m ( p . 8 1 ) on t h e h i ndwing o f m ost m ot h s ext e n d s t o the fo rewing, holding the w i n g s together. The presence and position of simple eyes (ocel l i) a n d leg s p i n es, the nature 4


moth sca l es

S cover the ngs of a l l Lepidoptera i n overlapping rows. Moth scales are va riable, some路 times "hairy." Butterfly sca les are more uniform. Some1 on mal es, a re mod ified into scent sca les.

of the ante n n ae, and the shape and venat i o n of the w i n g s are u sed in moth i dentificat i o n . To m ake vei n s more v i s i b l e fo r study, moi sten the w i n g s w i th alcoho l . T h i s g u i d e empl oys the co m m on names o f bu tterfl i es and mot h s for ease of u se by beg i n ners. But the book cl osel y fo l l ows scientific c l ass ificati o n of Lep i d optera. The 6 fam ilies of No rth Amer i can b u tterf l i es as here i n named are those recog n i zed i n t h e coll ecti o n o f t h e U . S . Nat i onal Mu seu m . They are then broken down i n to genera (pl u ral of gen u s), w h ich i n t u r n co nta i n one o r more spec i es . To help you follow the organ i zat i o n , b u t颅 terf l y fam ily names appear i n red, b utterf l y genera and spec i es names i n b l ack. Becau se they are so n u mero u s, moths are d ea l t w i th mai n l y on the fam i l y and spec i es l eve l s . Each spec i es o f Lepidoptera bears a dou b l e scien t i f i c name, such a s Pieris rapae f o r t h e Cabbage Bu tterfly. Pieris is the name of the gen us; rapae is the speci es name. See pp. 154-157 for scientific names of speci es i l l u strated i n th i s book.

5


Ia Moth

Monarch Butte r f l y

E GGS OF BUTTE RFLIES AND MOTHS

LIFE HISTORIES Lep i doptera develop by a co m p l ete metamorphos i s, w h i ch i s characterized by fo u r d i sti nci g rowth stages, as shown for the Gypsy Moth on p. 136. The egg h atches i n to a larva, or caterpill ar, w h ich g rows and m o l ts (shed s i ts ski n ) several ti mes before trans足 for m i ng into a pupa from wh ich a w i nged ( u s u al l y) adult emerges later. E GGS of Lep i do ptera vary g reat l y i n s i ze and s h ape. Many are spherical but some k i n d s are fl attened, co n i 足 cal , s p i n d l e- or barrel-shaped . So me eg g s are s m ooth, but others are ornamented w i th r i bs, p i ts, or g rooves, or networks of f i n e r i dges. Each eg g has a s m a l l ho l e t h roug h w h ich i t i s fert i l ized. The ad u l t female m ay l ay egg s s i n g l y, in s m a l l c l u s足 ters, or i n one egg mass. Most often eg g s are depos i ted on a p l an t that w i l l serve os food for the l arvae. So me egg s are l a i d on the g rou nd, and the new l y hatched l arvae m u st seek thei r food p l ants. Egg s l a i d d u r i ng the 6


su m mer are u s ual l y th i n-coated; those that overw i nter before hatch i ng have a t h i cker outer coat and are so me足 ti mes covered by " h a i r" fro m the m oth . T h ey m ay a l so be covered w i th a foamy l ayer, as show n for the Tent Caterpi l lar o n p. 6. Most egg s hatch in a few days. The larva, w h ich can frequen t l y be seen i n s i de the egg just before hatch i n g, eats i ts way o u t and somet i mes a l so eats the egg s hel l . L AR VAE o f Lepidoptera are caterpi l l ars, t h o u g h some are known as worms, s l ugs, or borers. North Amer i can caterpi l lars range in length from 0.2 i nch to abo u t 6 i nches. L i ke the ad u l t, the caterpi l lar has th ree body reg i o n s-head, thorax, and abdo men . On each s i d e of the head are t i n y ocel l i , or s i mple eyes, u sual l y in a sem i -c i rc l e, and a tiny anten na. The mouthparts i nc l u de an upper lip ( l abru m), a pai r of strong jaws ( m and i b l es), two smal l sensory organs {pa l pi), and a l ower lip (lab i u m), w h i ch bears a pai r of spi n nerets, u sed for spi n n i ng s i l k th read s . On each o f the th ree seg ments o f the thorax i s a pai r of s h o rt jo i n ted leg s, en d i n g i n claws . On each s i de of the fi rst thoraci c segment is a spi racl e, an open i n g for breat h i n g . MOTH L ARVAE WITH STINGING SPINES O R HAIRS

7


The abdo men , u s u a l l y co mposed of ten seg ments , bears two t o five pai rs o f short, fleshy pro l eg s. Seg ment 10 bears the l argest pai r, the anal pro legs. Spi racles occu r on each s i de of the fi rst eight abdo m i nal seg ments. Most l arvae feed act ively th ro u g h o u t thei r l i ves. So me k i n d s m atu re in a few weeks , others in months. So me becom e dormant, or esti vate, d u r i n g the s u m mer; others h i be r n ate, ove r w i n te r i n g in n ew l y h atc h ed , part l y g row n , o r fu l l y g rown stag es. Most k i n d s feed o n leaves, but others feed on fl owers, fru i ts, and seed s , or bore i nto stems and wood. A few spec i es are scavengers and a small n u m ber prey on i n sects , especial l y plant l i ce. A few feed on an i m al prod ucts l i ke woo l , s i lk, or feathers. As a larva g rows, it s heds i ts ski n , or m o l ts, al l ow i n g for another g rowth per i od. Larvae i n stages between m o l ts are cal l ed i n stars. Ear l y i n stars may d i ffer from l ater ones in co l or, mark i n g s , and s h ape. Caterpi l l ars w i th horns and spi nes m ay appear treachero u s , b u t o n l y a few, such as the lo, Hag Mot h , P u s s Moth , Sad d l eback Caterp i l lar and rel ated " s l u g s , " have i r r i tati n g spi nes or h a i r s t o avo i d. PUPAE are the resti n g forms i n w h ich the l arvae trans足 form i n to ad u l ts. Most bu tterf l i es and moths in tem per足 ate reg i o n s spend the w i nter as pupae, tho u g h the pupal stage of so me spec i es l asts for o n l y a few days or weeks. In a prepupal stage the larva l oses i ts pro l eg s; l ater i ts mouthparts change fro m chew i ng mand i b l es to a long probosc i s ( i f present in the ad u l t), w i n g s devel op, and reproductive organs form. Exter nal facto rs such as temperatu re and moi stu re may tri gger the chan ges, but the actual transfor mation i s cau sed by hormon es. The butterfly larva, when m atu re, attaches i tself to a f i r m s u pport before chang i n g to a naked pupa, known

8


PUPAL STAGES

as a ch rysal i s. Larvae of swal l owtails, s u l ph u rs, and w h i tes def t l y s u pport thei rs w i th a strong s i lk th read. Most moth l arvae, when full g rown, b u r row i n to the g ro u n d and pupate there i n earthen cel l s . Others pupate am i d dead l eaves or deb r i s on the g rou n d , i n h o l low stems or decay i ng wood, someti mes w i th m aterial d raw n loose l y together w i t h s i lk. Hai ry spec i es u s uall y m i x thei r hai rs w i th s i l k, m ak i n g a fli m sy cocoo n. S i lk Moth l arvae spi n to u g h papery s i lken cocoons that h o u se thei r pupae. When emerg i ng fro m these t i g h t cocoo n s, moths secrete a fl u i d that softens the s i lk. Bag worm Moth s co n struct cocoo n s aro u n d thei r bod i es a s they g row. At matu r i t y they fasten the fi n i s hed cocoo n s to tw i g s w i t h s i l k. Wh ile butterfli es emerge eas i ly fro m ch rysal i ses, moths often exert g reat effort to break t h ro u g h cocoo n s or p u s h thei r way up t h rou g h t h e g ro u n d . Both emerge w i th soft s m all w i ngs w i th m i n i at u re w i n g patterns. As flu i d s are pu mped t h roug h the vei n s, the w i ng s expand. Later the vei n s harden, provi d i n g a r i g i d s u pport for the wing mem b rane. 9


male's claspers at end of abdomen

ADULT b u tte rfl i e s a n d moths ha ve a pa i r of seg m e n ted a nte n nae a n d a pa i r of l a rge, rou nded co m po u nd eyes o n the i r hea d s . M a n y moths a l so ha ve a pa i r of s i m p l e eyes. Butterfl i es a n d m a n y moths ha ve a co i led probos足 cis, which u n ro l l s i nto a long suck i ng t u be through which the a d u l t feeds on necta r a nd othe r fl u i d s . Thi s t u be may be a s lo ng a s the a d u lt's body. Each of the three seg me nts of the thora x bea rs a pa i r of fi ve-jo i nted l eg s . So me g rou ps of bu tterfli es ha ve the fi rst pa i r of legs red uced , a n d fe m a les of the Bagworm Moth ha ve no l eg s. A pair of mem bra no u s w i n g s a re a ttached to the 2 n d a n d 3rd thora c i c seg m e n ts of most butterfl i e s a n d moths but a few k i n d s a re w i n g l ess. The ve i n patte rn of w i n g s is u sed i n c l a ss i fi ca ti o n . At the e n d o f the te n-seg mented a bdomen a re the sex orga n s . They a re u sed in the accu rate i d e n t i f i ca t i o n of m a n y spec i e s . The fe m a l e's a bdomen is u s u a l l y l a rger tha n the m a l e's. The l atter ca n be d i st i ng u i shed by the c l a spers of the sex org a n s which p rotrude a s p l ate- l i ke struct u res at the e n d of the last seg m e n t .

10


NATURAL E NEMIES of Le p i dop­ tera a bou n d . Va r i o u s i n sects feed on t h e m . S o do s p i d e r s , b i rd s , rodents, rept i les, a m p h i b i a n s , a n d n i g ht p row l e rs l i ke s k u n ks a n d rac­ coo n s . Pa ra s i t i c i n sects la y eggs i n a n d o n cate rp i l l a rs , eggs, o r pu pae, w h i c h then beco m e food for the pa ra s i t i c l a rvae. Bacte r i a , f u ng i , protozoa , a n d v i r u ses ca u se d i s­ eases; u nfavora b l e wea t h e r a lso tokes its to l l . DEFE NSES a g a i nst s u c h a host of destruct i ve forces a re n ecessa ry for s u r v i va l . The ca pacity of fe m a l es to l a y h u nd reds of eg g s i s o n e . Ca mouflage, h i d i n g from preda­ tors, is a noth e r. Oth e r p rotect i ve fea tu res a re body m a r k i n g s that frig hten e n e m i es, a n d ha i rs, spi nes, or body ju i ces u n p l easa nt to the m .

MA N i s enemy no. 1. The destruc­ tion of favora b l e h a b i tat from l a nd development has l ed to a g reat dec l i ne in the i r n u m bers. Herbici des and pestici des k i l l the m . Floodlig hts at m a l l s , i nte rsections, and ath letic fi e l d s a re let h a l moth tra ps . Aga i n st m a n , they have no b u i l t- i n defenses. For the i r s u r v i va l , they are becom­ i ng more depe ndent on people who care, and so become i nvolved i n conservation .

Tobacco hornworm with cocoons of b raconid wasp larvae

11


CO NSER VATIO N i s o f g row i n g i m porta n c e . At l ea st two species of b u tter­ fl i es are now exti nct, a n d a n u m ber o f ot her Le p i ­ doptera have bee n l i sted as Threatened or Enda n­ gered. Here are so me ways that yo u ca n he l p.

extinct Xerces Blue (Gioucopsyche xerces)

JOI N a cons e r vati on-o r i ented o rga n i zati o n , per­ haps o n e of thos e li sted below. Some 40 states n ow have Natu ra l He r i tage P rogra m s t h at invento ry t h e i r p l ant and ani ma l l i fe a n d make proposa l s f o r spec i e s of spec i al co n ce r n . Co ntact yo u r state off i ce o r Natu r e Conse r v ancy t o l ea rn a bo u t loca l effo rts whe r e yo u can be he l pf u l . The Xerces Society, I 0 Southwest Ash St., Portland, OR 97204. Dedicated Ia the preservation of arthropods and their habitats and promoting annual counts of butterflies in areas throughout the country. The Lepidopterists' Society, c/o Julian P. Donahue, Asst. Sec., Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, 900 Exposition Blvd., Los Angeles, CA

90007. An international society of specialists that publishes o journal of research papers and on annual summary of field observations of Lepidop­ tera of Canada and the U.S. as reported by members. Notionollnslilute for Urban Wildlife, 10921 Trolling Ridge Way, Columbia, MD 21044. Focuses on conservation of urban and suburban areas. The Nature Conservancy, 1800 North Kent St., Arlington, VA 22209. An outstanding conservator and manager of valuable habitats of rare and endangered plants and wildlife throughout the notion.

CRE ATE A BUTTERFLY GARDE N P l a n t s u ch pere nni ­ a l s a s p u ssy w i l low, l i lac, b l ueberry, Clethra, phlox, butterf l y weed and b u tterfl y bu sh, l a nta n a , and such a n n u a l s a s zin n i a , Fre nch m a r i g o l d , a n d sing l e pet u n ia

12


i n you r ga rden to prov i d e butterfly food throughout the seaso n . Also p l a n t a pp ro p r i a te food for l a rvae of the bu tte rfli es tha t co me to feed as i n d i ca ted i n thi s boo k . RE AR butte rfl i e s a n d moths fro m eggs o r la rvae for re l ease. Watch the m g row a n d deve l o p . See how they move, how they feed , what they do. The n ret u r n the m to the i r prefe rred ha b i ta t . Fe m a l e moths co nfi ned i n paper ba g s w i l l ofte n l a y e g g s the re, but b u tterfl y e g g s a re ha rde r t o obta i n . Look fo r the m whe n you see a butterfly e x p l o r i n g the l ea ves ra the r tha n the b l osso m s of a pla nt. Chewed or m i ss i n g lea ves on a p l a n t a re c l ues to the prese n ce o f caterp i l l a rs nea rby tha t yo u m i ght co l l ect fo r rea r i n g . Egg s a n d s mall la rvae a t fi rst ca n b e kept i n t i g htly sea led, clea r polyethy lene sa ndwich bags, together w i th a few l eaves of the i r pla n t food . Keep each k i n d i n a sep足 a ra te ba g . Keep the bag s out of the s u n or excess i ve hea t. Re足 move the l a rva l d ropp i n g s every day or so . Reve rse the bag a n d a d d fresh l eaves whe n ever the old ones sta rt to ye l l ow or to d ry out. Use leaves of the sa m e s pe足 c i es of p l a nt, a n d do not bag the m whe n they a re wet. Tra n sfe r 2 - i n c h l a r v a e to l a rg e r c l ea r bag s or to t i g ht l y sea led ca n s , such a s l-Ib coffee ca n s . To wa tch deve l op m e n ts, the "bouquet" set-up ca n be used (see the i l l u stra t i o n ) .

\

"Bouquet" set-up for rearing

13


When a butte r f l y l a rva i s a l most f u l l g rown, put a st ick i n the ca n or bag to e n co u ra g e t h e l a r v a to form i ts c h rysa l i s on i t . la rge n u m bers o f l a te­ i n sta r l arvae of t h e sa m e species a n d a g e ca n be rea red in b i g freeze r bags conta i n i ng b ra nches of the food p l a nt, a s i l l u strated . To c l ea n o u t d ro p p i n g s, u nt i e a n d a l low t h e m to fa l l t h rou g h the o pe n i n g . Large plastic ba g set-up for r�oring la rge n u m bers o f l a r­ many larvae of the same speCies vae ca n be rea red o u t­ doors with l ess ca re by e n c l os i n g t h e m i n a strong net bag p u l led over the e n d of a grow i ng bra nch of a tree or b u s h a n d t i ed sec u re l y fa rther down the bra nch. Caterp i l l a rs t h a t m a ke cocoons, s u c h a s S i l k Moths a n d T i g e r Moth s, ca n be rea red l i ke those of b utterfl i e s . Howeve r, the l a rvae o f Reg a l Mot h s a n d most noct u i d s m u st b e g i ve n a few inches o f da m p (not wet) ste r i l e soil or peat moss i nto w h i c h to bu r row w h e n f u l l g row n . The res u l t i n g pu pae ca n be overw i n te red in sea led p l astic sa n d w i c h bags (a long w i th the da m p med i u m ) i n a refr i g erator. Kee p overw i n te r i n g cocoon s a n d ch rysa l ­ i ses outdoors, i n cages t o protect t h e m from predators. Ad u l ts e m erg i n g fro m p u pae i n the fo l l ow i ng sea so n s m u st b e g i ve n a m p l e roo m for sprea d i n g t h e i r w i ng s a n d a ro u g h surface for c l i m b i ng t o a perc h . Fo r ch rysa l ­ i ses a n d cocoon s o n l y, a scree ned cag e i s n eeded . I t ca n be made fro m a ro l l ed section of w i re scree n i ng or s m a ll­ mesh hard w a re c l oth; u se pa per plates for top a n d botto m . 14


A cylin d r i ca l ca rd boa rd ro l l ed足 oats box m a kes an i dea l e m e r足 g e n ce cage for cocoon s a n d ch rysa l 足 i ses. W h e n the ope n top is covered with a n y l o n stoc k i ng ( h e l d in place by tucking t h e leg a n d toe u nder a l oop of m a te r i a l nea r t h e r i m ) , the a d u l t ca n be captu red and b ro u g h t Homemade cage t o h a n d by extending the l eg a bove the ope n top a s t h e a d u l t flies i nto t h e l eg trying to escape . For pupa for m ed in soil , use topless rou n d ca n s w i t h a roug h (rusty) s u rface for c l i m bing , covered w i t h g a uze, nett i n g , o r a stock i n g . T h e n cover the ca n w i th a pi ece of c l ea r po l yet h y l e n e to keep the soil fro m d r y i n g o u t a n d t o l et you s e e a n y e m e rging mot h s . After yo u have co mpl eted you r observatio n s , ret u r n the a d u l ts t o t h eir prefe rred ha bita t. COLLECT SPARINGLY-a nd be s u re to fo l l ow l a w s co nce r n i n g e n d a ngered spec i e s . The c h i ef aims o f a co l l ecto r s h o u l d be to obta i n s u bjects for rea r i n g or for m a k i n g a study co l l ect i o n . Us ua l l y, a d u l ts a re co l l ected w h i l e feed i ng at fl owers o r ba i t . They are ra re l y ca u g h t on t h e w i n g . T h e specimen i s qu i c k l y tra n sferred t o a kil l i ng ja r. Later i t i s mou nted , sprea d , l a be l e d , a n d cata loged . To m a ke a n accepta ble study co l l ecti o n , some i te m s m u st be p u rcha sed from a b i o l og i ca l supp l y h o u se (see be low). Othe rs ca n be ho m e m a d e . American Biological Supply Co., 1330 Dillon Heights Ave., Baltimore, MD

21228 BioQuip Products, P.O. Box 61, Santo Monico, CA 90406 Carolina Biological Supply Co., 2700 York Rd., Burlington, NC 27215 Word's Natural Science Establishment, Inc., 5100 West Henrietta Rd., Rochester, NY 14692-9012

15


-�,_.__

COLLECTI N G N ETS s h o u l d be l i g h twe i g h t , w i t h r i m 1 2 to 1 5 i nche s i n d i a m eter. Strong n y l o n n e t b o g s h o u l d be 2 7 to 3 2 i nch es deep, rou g h l y f u n n e l- s h a ped b u t n o t s h a r p l y po i n ted a t t h e e n d .

collecting net

k i l ling jar

SPREADING BOARDS a re made of soft wood w i t h a center c h a n n e l i n w h i c h t h e b o d y of t h e spec i m e n f i t s . W h e n spec i m e n i s re l a x ed, i n s e r t i n s e c t p i n st r a i g h t d o w n t h r o u g h center o f t h o ra x , V<- i nch from hea d; then s t i ck pin i n to cen­ ter of c h a n n e l u n t i l w i n g s o re l evel w i t h upper s u rface of boa rd . If necessary, brace by i n sert i n g a p i n i n t h e c h a n n e l o n e a c h s i d e of spec i men's body at bose of h i nd­ w i n g s . S p read w i n g s g e n t l y w i t h foreceps and p i n s so e d g e s of forew i n g s ore a t r i g h t a n g l e s to body and h i n d w i n g s o re in a nor­ m a l pos i t i o n. P i n w i n g s in p l ace w i t h paper str i p s . Nea t l y pos i t i on a n te n na e . A l l ow severa l days for drying.

commercial spreading board

homemade spreading board

16

KI LLING JARS s h o u l d h a v e w i de m o u t h s a n d sea l t i g h t l y. P u t e n o u g h p a p e r towe l i ng i n t h e bot­ tom to a bsorb a teaspoon to a t a b l espoon of l i q u i d . To u se , odd enough e t h y l acetate o r carbon tetrachloride to satu rate the paper; pou r off a n y excess. Spec i m e n s too s t i ff for m o u n t i n g co n be r e l a xed by e n c l os i n g for a few h o u r s in a p l a s t i c food storage box on a s h eet of p l a st i c spread ove r water- s a t u ­ r a t e d paper towe l i n g .


INSECT PINS

ore made of spe­

cial rust-resistant steel and come in several sizes. Size 3 con be used lor all but small butterflies and

Rive!de�le 1S·IV-V14Md

moths.

LABELS

RTMi tchell ! Collector 1

should be placed on the

pin of each specimen when it is

_..,_...

removed from the spreading board. They should tell at least where, when, and by whom the specimen was taken. Labels should be neat and small. Sheets of typewritten labels con be

photographically

reduced to make small but read­ able labels. The species label, containing the scientific name of the specimen, is larger and is usually pinned to the bottom of the storage box by the specimen pin.

Supplement your

collection data with a notebook of observations and field records.

STORAGE AND DISPLAY BOXES ore of several kinds. The Schmitt box,

with cork bottom,

glozed paper lining, and tight-fit­ ting lid, is ideal lor housing a study collection. Supply houses also have less expensive boxes. The begin­ ner con get along with a tightly lidded box that has a 'Ia-inch Ioyer of polyethylene loom, soft compo­ sition board, or balsa wood fitted

stored on edge, specimens must be

into the bottom to keep the pins

protected from the crystals. Put

secure. All boxes must be{reated

crystals in a small (closed) enve­

periodically with porodichoroben­

lope inserted into a larger one (with

zine crystals to keep out destruc­

flop removed); glue to lid of box.

tive insect pests. If the box will be

Pests found in a box con be killed

stored horizontally, crystals can be

by putting the box into a freezer

scattered on the bottom. If box is

lor a lew days.

17


OTHER STUDIES Anyone watch i n g i n sects i n the field may d i scover new facts abo ut the m . The behav i or of so me speci es i s still li ttle know n, and a careful observer can make real co ntributions to our knowledge. Keep detailed and accurate records of your observations, bei n g sure t o provi de answers t o the quest i o n s: What, where, when, how, how many, and how l o ng . Beco me skilled i n close-up photography of the d i fferent stages of devel足 opment of butterfli es and moths, capturi ng the ir beauty and i nteresti ng behavior. Show i n g your pi ctures or sli des to the young and old i n yo ur co mmun i ty w i ll generate i n terest i n these fasci nati ng creatures among other peo足 ple and pro mote their co n servati o n . BOOKS offer the qu i ckest way t o extend yo u r kn owl足 edge about bu tterfli es and moths. Try the follow i ng: Cove l l , C h a r l e s V., J r., A Field Guide to the Moths of Eastern North America. Boston, Ho u g h t o n M i ffl i n Co . , 1 9 8 4 . E h r l i c h , Pa u l R. , a n d A n n e H . , How t o Know the Butterflies. D u b u q u e , l A, W m . C. Brown C o . , 1 96 1 . Ferg u so n , Dou g l o s C . , Bombycoideo (Soturniidoe, Silk and Regal Moths}, Fasc i c l e 2 0 , Ports 2A a n d 2 B , in The Moths of America North of Mexico Se r i es, ed i ted by R. B. Do m in i c k et a l . Lo n d o n , E. W. C l a ssey Ltd . & R. B. D. P u b l icat i o n s I nc., 1 9 7 1 / 7 2 . Hodg es, R . W . , Sphingoideo (Ho w k maths), Fasc i c l e 2 1 , i n The Moths of America North of Mexico Seri es, ed i ted by R. B. Do m i n i c k et a l . Lo n 足 d o n , E . W. C l a ssey L t d . & R . B . D. Pu b l i ca t i ons I n c., 1 9 7 1 . Ho l l a n d , W . J., The Moth Book. Ga rde n C i ty, NY, Do u b l ed a y & C o . , 1 9 0 8 . Repr i n ted N e w Yo rk, Dove r P u b l i ca t i o n s , 1 96 8 . Howe , W i l l i a m H., The Butterflies of North America. Ga rden C i ty, NY, Do u b l ed a y & Co., I n c., 1 9 75 . K l ots, A . B . , A Field Guide to the Butterflies of Eastern North America. Boston , Ho u g h t o n M i ff l i n Co., 1 9 7 7 . Py l e , Ro bert M . , The Audubon Society Field Guide t o North American Butterflies. New Yo rk, A l fred A. K n opf, 1 9 81. Te k u l s k y, M a t hew, Butterfly Gorden. Bosto n , MA, H a r v a rd C o m m o n Press, 1 9 85 .

18


BUTTERFLIES Butterfl i es

a bout

number

700 species in N o rth A m er足 ica n o rth of Mexi co. Recent resea rch shows that some long

considered

d isti nct

species a re m erely va rieties (sub-species) of others. A few of these a re i n c l uded i n this book. Butterfl i es usua l ly fly by day, a n d wings

rest with

erect.

their

Anten n a e

of

butterfl ies

are

c l u b l i ke,

e n d i n g in a swol l en ti p . Ski ppers ( p . 74) have s i m i l a r a nten nae t h a t ofte n t u r n back i n a hook . Ante n n a e of m oths

are

seldom

c l u b l ik e,

and

are

often

fea th ery.

Butterfl ies have a projection (the e n l a rged h u meral l obe) on each h i n dwing that u n d erla ps the front pa i r of wings a n d h o l d s the wings together. Most butterfl ies pu pate as an u n protected chrysa lis which

hangs

freely from a

p l a n t or other sup port. Only a few butterfl ies a re con足 sid ered destructive, but m a n y m oths a re p ests . butterfly antennae

19


SWALLOWTAILS a re the l a rgest a n d best known of o u r butterf l i e s . They a re fou nd the wor l d over, main l y i n the tro p i cs, a n d most a re b r i g ht l y co lored. The re are so m e two doze n s pec i es i n North Ame rica , most ha v i n g cha r足 acte r i st i c ta i l -l i ke project i o n s from the h i n d w i n g s , u s u 足 a l l y o n e b u t a l so two or three i n som e s pec i es . These ta i l s a re l a c k i n g in the p a r n a ss i us g ro u p {p. 29) a n d so me othe rs. In m a n y spec i e s , the fe m a les l oo k d i ffere n t from the ma les i n s i ze a n d m a r k i n g s . Most swa l l owta i l s l a y the i r sphe r i ca l eggs s i n g l y o n the food p l a nts, m a i n l y trees a nd shru bs. Late r, the la rvae m a y be fo u n d resti ng on a s i lken m a t i n a ro l l ed leaf. Most s pec i es ha ve an ora nge, fleshy, ho rn-l i ke org a n behi n d the hea d that e m e rges whe n the l a rva i s d i stu rbed a n d g i ves off a d i sag reea b l e odor. When a f u l l-g rown swa l l owta i l caterp i l l a r has se lected a p l ace to fo rm i ts chrysa l i s , it faste n s i ts h i n d most feet secu re l y w i th s i l k a n d loops a tough s i l k threa d behi n d i ts body, fa ste n i ng the e n d s t o the s u pport a s a k i n d of "safety be l t . " Soon the caterp i l l a r sheds i ts s k i n , becom足 i ng a ro ugh, a n g u l a r chrysa l i s, a n d u s u a l l y spends the w i nter i n thi s form. Ad u l ts a re ofte n seen at fl owers and a re attracted to wet soi l , p u d d l es, or po n d s .

P I P EVI N E

SWALLOWTA I L

la rva o r caterpillar feeding on pipevi ne. Ch rysalis to the right.

20


PIPEVINE SWALLOWTAIL, is more common in the southern part of its range. The female hos slightly larger whitish spots along the margin of the

front wings

ond less colorful hind wings. She lays orange eggs in clusters on pipevine and snakeroot, on which the larvae feed.

POL YDAMAS SWALLOWTAIL

o u r o n l y tai l less black species. The caterp i l la r and ch rysa l i s a re similar to those of the Pipevine is

Swa l l owta i l, but the caterp i l l a r h a s reddish tentacles. I t a lso feeds on pipevine. N ote the g reenish tint to the h i n d w i n g s .

21


called the Common Eastern, or Pa rsnip, Swa l l owta il, has vari­ able ma rkings. Some males h ave hardly any b l u e on the h indwing . The spots m a y be l a rger or may be orange instead of yellow. Oc­ casiona lly the two rows of spots on the forewing a re fused into l a rge triang u l a r a reas, o r the spots may be g reatly red uced . The h indwing in some forms is a l ­ most entirely yel l ow, tinged with orange. The Black Swa llowta i l i s found in o pen fields and woodland meadows. It freq uents clover and flower g a rdens, a lways flying nea r the g round. The yel l owish, ovoid eggs a re laid on wild and c u ltivated plants of the carrot fami ly, such as parsl ey, pa rsnip, celery, and carrot. When small, the larva, l ike that of most swa l­ lowta ils, i s dark brown with a white sad d l e m ark. It becomes g reen, as ill ustrated, as it ma· tures. There are two broods of Block Swa l l owta ils annually in the North and a t least three in the South.

22

very closely related to the Black Swa l lowta i l and is also ca l l ed the Western Black Swa l l owta i l . The males are simil a r, b u t there is some difference in the females, which have less yel l ow than the eastern species. This butterfly is variable; some a re q u ite yel low, some a l m ost entirely black. The cater p i l l a r feeds on sagebrush (Artemesia), and not on p lants of the ca rrot fa m i ly. There is one b rood annual ly.

ANISE SWAL LOWTAI L is probably the m ost common swa l ­ l owta i l west o f the Rocky Moun­ tains. The early stag es of the l a rva closely resemble those of the Black Swa l l owtail in form and color. The larva feeds mainly on anise o r Sweet Fennel of the carrot family. The a d u l t fem a l e l ooks very m uc h l ike the m a l e .


lndro

2 .0-3 .0"

I N D RA, o r M o unta in Swal l ow足 tail, con be d i sting uished from Ba ird's and Black by its s h o rt tail. Its light wing band is vari足 able in size. Another species, the Short-ta i l ed Swal l owta il, occurs in eastern Canada. 2.0-3.011

23


PALAM EDES S WAL L OW颅 TAIL rivals the Giant (p . 25) in

size. Common in the So uth, it p refers the m a rg i n s of swa mpy woods, where i n slow flight it sometimes rises to the tops of ta l l trees. T h e r e a re two or th ree

ALASKAN S WALL OWTAIL

is a smaller a n d yellower variety of the E u ropean, or O l d World, Swa l lowta il, common i n E u rope and Asia . Another variety of this

24

broods a year. Eggs a re l a id on food plants-bay, m a g n o l i a, and sassafras. The cate r p i l l a r resem路 bles that of the Spicebush (p. 26), but the reddish spot that a p pears on the third body seg ment is not so distinct and lacks the black r i n g .

Old World species is fou n d near H u d son Boy i n Canada. The cat路 erpillor resembles the B l ock Swo l路 lowta i l 's ( p . 22) and feeds on pla nts of the carrot family.


G I A N T SWALLOWTAI L cat路 erpillars are known as Ora n g e D o g s o r Orange P u ppies in the South, where they d o occasional damage to citrus trees, especia l l y i n young g roves. Four o r five h u nd red eggs may be laid by one female, deposited one at a time near tips of l eaves o r bra nches. T h e caterpil l a rs feed o n Prickly Ash and the Hop Tree in a d d ition to citrus. The Giant Swa l l owta il is more

common in the southern part of its range, where it is l ikely to have three i n stead of two broods. Fi rst-brood a d u lts emerge from c h rysalids i n May. The Gia nt Swa l l owta il has a leisurely flig ht, sometimes sa i l i n g with o u t路 stretched wings, w h ich then show the bright yellow u n d e rside i n contrast to the b r o w n u p perside. The Giant freq u ents open fields a n d g a rdens, sipping nectar from flowers and moisture from m u d .


S P I C E B U S H SWALLOWTA I L i s som etimes called t h e Green­ clouded Swa ll owtail because the m a l e's hindwing h a s a pro­ n o u nced g reenish tone. This spe­ cies has a red-ora n g e spot on the u p p e r ma rgin of the hind­ wing a bove. These swa l lowtails freq uent l ow, damp woods, visiting open fields less often than m a n y other swa l l owtails. They a re active, steady fliers a n d seldom alig ht. N u m bers of them often gather at p u d d l es on wood land roads o r at oth e r w e t places. This butter­ fly has several geogra phic forms, same with larger yellow spots and other va riations.

There are two broods i n the North, three in the South. Butter­ flies of the first brood, which emerge from c h rysa l i d s in late April or early May, after spend­ ing the winter in the pupal stage, are smaller th a n those which emerge from later broods i n the summer. The larva feeds o n Spicebush, Sassafras, Sweet Bay, a n d Prickly Ash. like other swa l l owta i l cater­ pil lars it forms a mat of silk on the upper s u rface of a leaf; then it d raws the leaf togethe r a n d hides when not feed i n g . As i t grows t h e l a rva con structs new and la rger shelters until it is ready to pu pate.


EASTE RN TIGER SWAL­ LOWTA I L s hows difference in color betwee n sexes. Females ore dimorphic (show two color forms); some o re yellow a n d oth­ e rs d a rk brow n . The d a rk form is uncommon i n the N orth. The l a rva of the Eastern Tiger Swa l­ l owtail feeds mostly o n Wild C herry and Tuliptrees.

WEST E R N TIGER SWAL­ LOWTA I L is not dimorphic. I t differs f r o m t h e Easter n Swa l l ow­ tail in having the s pots o n the underside of the forewing merge to form a b a n d (see below). T h e caterpil l a r is like that of the East­ ern Tig er Swa ll owtail but feeds o n willow, poplar, and hops, pla nts of m oist weste rn a reas.

U nderside of forewing: Easter n Tige r Weste rn Tige r spotted banded

27


SWAL LOWTWO-TA I L E D TA I L , our largest b utte rfly, oc足 c u rs from British Col u m bia to Calif. a n d eastward to weste rn Texas a n d Monta n a . The cater-

p i l l a r feeds o n c h erry, hoptree, ash, privet, and shadbush. Prob足 ably breeds twice each year. The smaller Th ree-tailed Swa l lowtail occu rs in Arizo n a a n d Mexico.

PAL E SWALLOWTA I L occu rs a l l along the West Coast to the eastern slope of the Rockies and is q u ite common local ly. la rva feeds c h iefly on b u ckthorn. At least two broods occu r a n n ual ly.

Z E B RA SWA L LOWTA I L , a n eastern species more common i n t h e South, varies i n m a rking a n d size. S p r i n g f o r m s are sma l lest; later brood s l a rger with longer tails. La rva feeds o n pawpaw.


PA R NA S S I U S is a more prim itive g e n u s t h a n Papilio,

the true swa l lowta ils. The la rva sh ows m a ny h a bits of

skippers (pp. 74-80) a n d , like them, is covered with short h a i rs. It lacks the scent horns of swa l lowta i ls. The pupa is not like those of swa l lowta i ls eith e r, but, like t h ose of skippers, is sm ooth a n d brownish, a n d is fo rmed in a leafy she lter on t h e g r o u n d or in g rass. The a d u lt p a r n a ssius is not like swa l lowta i l s in shape or coloration b u t is p a l e wh ite o r yel lowish, w i t h m a rkings that va ry g reatly. Pa r­ nassi a n s o c c u r m ostly in the mounta i n s, w h e re a d u lts a re on the wi n g by midsu mmer. Fema le bodies lack the hairi­ ness of the m a le. C L O D I U S, a v a r i a b l e species, is d i sting u ished from Smintheus by its black a n ten n a e . I t lacks the red spots often found on the forew i n g s of S m i n t h e u s.

SM I N T H E U S diffe rs from other pa rnassia n s i n havi n g wh ite an· te n n ae with block r i n g s. The l a rva feeds on stonecrop (Sedum) a n d saxifrage (Saxifraga).


S U L PHU R S A N D WHI T E S fo rm a world-wide fami ly of severa l h u n d red species, i n c l u d i n g ma n y species in temperate pa rts of the N o rthern H emis p h e re. T h ey are amo n g t h e first butterfl ies to a p pea r in spri n g . N e a rly a l l a r e yel low, o range, o r wh ite. Fema les differ from ma les in pattern a n d ofte n i n color. The butter-ye l low color of E u ropea n s u l p h u rs p roba bly sugg ested t h e name

butterfly. Some a re often seen a ro u n d t h e edges of

pudd les. Eggs a re spi n d le-sha ped, sc u l ptu red with fine ridges and pits. The la rva, usua lly l o n g , g reen, a n d slen­ d e r with little h a i r, feeds ma i n ly o n leg umes and mus­ tards. Some a re crop pests. The pupa, often comp ressed a n d tria n g u l a r, is held in place by a s i l k g i r d l e . Most species h a ve more t h a n one brood a year, especia l ly i n t h e South, where th ree o r even more m a y occur. A L FA L FA B U T T E R F LY, a lso cal led the Orange S u l p h u r, oc­ cu rs in many hybrid forms, cross· in g with the Cloud ed S u l p h u r. It can be disti n g u ished from the C l ouded S u l p h u r by the ora nge

of the u p p e rsides. The u nder­ sides of both are sim i l a r. Some females are white. The la rva is a pest of a lfalfa. Several b roods each year. The b utterfly ranges from C a n a d a to Mexico.


CLOUDED SULPHUR, a l so called the Common S u l p h u r, ranges through most of N o rth America but i s most common in the E a st. I t is the " p u d d l e butter足 fly" that swa rms i n moist places and over clover fields. Like the Alfalfa B u tterfly, some females are w h i t e , b u t g e n e ra l l y t h e C l o u d ed female h a s less black o n the m a r g i n o f t h e wings. The la rva is more common on clove r than on alfalfa a n d cannot be distin g u ished from that of the Al足 falfa Butte rfly. There are seve ral broods yea rly.

P I N K- E D G E D S U L PH U R can be d isti n g u ished from other s u l 足 ph u rs by the p i n k wing e d g e s and the p i n k-edged si lver s p o t o n the u n derside o f each hindwing.

T

31


Sara Orange Tip

1.0-1 .3"

female

,J

SARA ORANGE TIP is va r i a b l e . T h e u nderside of t h e h i nd w i ngs h a s o n i r reg u l a r "mossy" a p peara n ce from t h e gree n i s h m a r b l i n g . T h e a m o u nt of m a r b l i n g i s red uced i n t h e seco n d of t h e two o n n uo l g e n 足 e ra t i o n s. L a r v a feeds on w i l d m u sta rds .

OLYMPIA MARBLE, na med for the prono u n ced g ree n m a r b l i ng on the u nd e r s i d e of the h i n d w i n g , i s c l ose l y r e l a ted to t h e ora n g e li p s . T h e I a rvo feed s most I y o n Hedge M u s t a rd. The O l y m p i a M a r b l e produces on l y o n e brood a yea r, i n the spring .

Falcate Orange Tip

1 .6 - 1 .7"

1.3-1.5"

32

FALCATE ORANGE TIP is a mong the fi rst b u t t e r f l i e s to e m erge in s p r i n g . It f r e q u e n t s m o s t l y t h e marg i n s o f d a m p wood s , f l y i n g nea r t he g ro u n d . I t i s n a med for t h e s i c k l e - s h a p e d a p e x of t h e fore w i ng. Larvae feed o n p l a nt s of the m u stard fa m i l y.


... ORANGE-BARRED SULPH U R is com m o n a l o n g the G u l f of Mexico, occasio n a l l y straying into mid d l e Atl antic a n d midwestern slates. The larva, yel lowish-g reen, with black and y e l l ow bands a n d s m a l l b lack s pi nes, feeds a n Cas足 sia a n d on oth e r closely related pla nts of the pea family. At least two broods each year.

C L O U D L E S S S U L P H U R, also known as the Gia n t S u l p h u r, is a b u n d a n t in the tropics and com足 mon in our southern states. H u g e flocks d u ring mig ration a re a n impressive sig ht. Breeding i s c o n 足 tin uous in the tro pics, b u t t o the north there a re two broods with a d u lts overwi nterin g . Wild Senna is its chief food .

...


CALIFORNIA DOG-FACE can

be d i sti n g u i shed from the South足 ern Dog-face by the lack of d a rk marg i n s on the upperside af the hindw i n g . It sometimes strays eastwa rd from its normal range.

The l a rva feeds o n False I ndigo. Two broods d eve l o p yearly; the a d u lts are o n the win g in s pring and mid s u m mer. The name dog足 face comes from t h e "pood l e face" marking o n t h e forewing. SOUTHERN

D O G - F ACE,

noted for its rapid flig ht, is more common i n the southern p a rt of its range. like the C a l ifornia Dog-face, it is d o u b l e-brooded. The l a rvae, highly variable in markings, feed o n Wild I n d igo a n d a l so on various cl overs.

.._ L ITTL E S U L P H U R is common east of the Rockies. The l a rva feeds an Senna, Pa rtridg e Pea, and other legu mes. There are two o r three broods a year. This spe足 cies m ig rates i n large flocks.

34


SLEEPY O RANGE i s so no med beca u s e i t is s l ower i n f l i g h t t h a n other s u l p h u r s . I t i s v e r y co m m on in t h e S o u t h , w h e r e it b r e e d s t h r o u g h o u t most o f t h e yea r. M a l e s freq u e n t l y cong regate i n l a rge n u m bers a t p u d d l e s . The v e l vety g reen l a rva with a ye l low i s h str i pe on e a c h s i d e f e e d s m a i n l y o n Se n n a .

ďż˝ DAI NTY SULPH U R occ u r s from Ga. to so. Ca l i f . and up t h e M i s s . Va l l ey t o t h e G r e a t La kes. Fe m a l e s are h ea v i l y m a rked w i t h b l a c k . I t i s dou b l e - b rooded .

... M U STA R D W H I T E has a cir­ c u m p o l a r ra nge. The veins o n the u n d e rsid e are outlined with d a rk sca les. The l a rva, green with g reenish-yellow stripes, feeds on various m u stards.

1.0-1 .3"

... FA I RY Y E L LOW, a lso known as Barred S u l p h u r, h a s a g ra y bar in the forewing of males a n d some females. It ranges from Florida a n d Texas so uthward, feeding on Joint Vetc h and other l e g u mes.


P I N E W H I T E , a pest of pines a n d Balsa m Fir in the West, has one brood a n d overwinters as eggs. The fem a l e has more black m a rkings than the male.

G R EAT S O U T H E R N W H I T E o f t h e G u lf Coast a n d Miss. Val足 ley, sometimes mig rates. I f so, a dark phase is i nvolve d . The l a rva feed s mostly on m ustards.

G I A N T W H I T E is common i n the tro pics a n d b r e e d s to south足 ern Texas, straying northwa rd. 揃Like the G reat Southern White it a l so has a d a rk phase.

FLO R I D A W H I T E is a wide足 spread butterfly that strays n orth from Fla. and Tex. All have orange on the u n d e rsid es; m ost fem a l es a l so have d a rk m a rks.


C H E C K E R E D W H I T E , or Com足 m o n Wh ite, occurs all over tem足 perate N.A. I t was more common before the Cabbage Butterfly a r足 rived a n d spread. Larva feeds o n cabbage a n d other m usta rds. A d u lts occu r early i n spring a n d prod uce at l east three b roods.

C A B B A G E B U TTE RFLY, i nt r o 足 d uced from Eu rope a bout 1 8 6 0 , has spread ac ross N . A . a nd beco m e a pest of cabbage , brocco l i , k o l e , ca u l i fl ower, a nd ot h e r m u stards ond of t h e ga rden na st u r t i u m . I t is one of the first bu tterfl ies to e merge in spring .


BRUSH-FOOTED BUTTERFLIES ore na med for their t i n y fore l eg s , u s e l ess for wa l k i n g , ha i r y i n m a l es. MILKWEED BUTTERFLIES, chi efly tro p i ca l , n u m be r o n l y t w o spec i es i n No rth America , both co m m o n .

T H E MONARC H , o n e o f t h e best known b u tterfl i e s , is noted for i t s m i g ra to r y h a b i t s . I n fa l l , f l ocks o f Mo n a rc h s move south wa rd t o Ca l 足 iforn i a a nd Mexico. Rest i n g m i g ra n ts o r w i n ter res i d e n ts m a y cover e n t i re trees . I n s p r i n g t h e y ret u r n n o r t h w a r d t o t h e i r breed i n g a rea s , s o m e a s far a s s o u t h e r n Ca n a d a . T h ree o r fo u r broods m a y b e produced i n o n e year. T h e m o l e sce n t g l a n d s o re m a rked by a spot of dark sca les in t h e center of the h i n d w i n g s; t h i s s pot is not fou n d

38

o n t h e fe m a l e . Fe m a l e s d i ffer a l so in h a v i n g broo d e r b l o c k ve i n l i n e s . The l a r va feed s o n m i l kweeds a n d re l a ted p l a nts, t h e j u i ces of w h i c h ca use t h e Mona rch's u n p a l a ta b i l 足 i t y t o m a n y b i rd s . T h e M o n a rch's deve l o p m e n t tokes a bout a m o n t h f r o m con ica l eggs- l a i d s i n g l y o n l e a v e s o r b l o s s o m s- t o a d u l t , w h i c h emerges from a s h i n y g ree n , g o l d-speck led h a n g i n g c h r y sa l i s . T h e l a r va , stri ped w i t h ye l l ow, b l o c k , a n d w h i te , is a bo u t 2 i n . l o n g w h e n fu liy g row n .


THE QUEEN resembles the M o n a rc h but is sma l l e r a n d d a rker brow n . T h e brownish l a rva with brown a n d yel low transverse stripes fee d s an mil k­ weeds. There are th ree broods yearly . A su bspe­ cies cal led Bates' Quee n h a s the veins of the u p · pe rsid e of the hindwing edged with g rayish white . Bates' Queen is fo u n d in so u t h e r n A rizo n a , N e w Mexico, a n d Texas.

39


SATYRS are butterfl i es of rather d u ll color, u s ua l l y brown or gray w i th eyespots on both upper a n d u n der sides. Most prefer woods or wood s marg i n s. Satyr larvae ha ve forked ta ils, feed at n i g ht on gra sses, a n d overwinter a s t i n y l arvae. EYED BROWN has a weak d a n c i n g f l i g h t . It freq u e n ts da m p meadows w i t h ta l l g rasses a n d

a lso t h e marg i ns a f waads . Loca l co l o n i es a r e f o u n d e a s t of t h e

<IIIII CREOLE

PEARLY EYE i s fou n d loca l ly i n t h e M i dwest a n d Sou t h 足 eas t . St reaks af ra ised da rk sca l es ma rk t h e ma l e f o r e w i n g . T h e fe m a l e's fore w i n g has f i ve eye足 s pats u nd e r n ea t h .

<IIIII PEARLY E Y E occ u rs

loca l ly i n t h e Eas t . Ma l e d i ffers f r o m C reo l e i n l a ck i ng r a i s e d d a rk s ca l es o n forew i n g . Fe m a l e's forew i n g usu足 a l ly has 4 eyes pots b e l o w.

NORTHERN PEARLY E Y E ranges fro m Q u e bec so. t h r u Ap pa la足 c h i a ns to n . Ga ., a n d s o . from Mo n i -

40

toba to Ark . a n d M iss . D i ffers from Pea r ly Eye by hav i n g ora n g e , not b lack , a n t e n na I k n o bs .


1 . 5 ''

L I TT L E W O O D SATYR prefers open woods and meadows ove r足 g rown with s h r u b bery. Occ urs east of the Rockies.

a prominent viol et-g ray pale u n d e r its hindwing . Virginia to I l l inois, south to Fla. and Mex.

CARO L I N A SATY R is m o u se足 g ray above, without eyespots. Occurs from N .J. to Fla., west to Texas, a n d up the Miss. Valley.

GEORGIA SATY R m a rshy a reas or open pine woods. Distribution is simil a r t h a t o f t h e C a rolina Satyr .

.A.

.A.

PLAIN RINGLET r a n g e s t h ro u g h Canada south to Con n . a n d the northern M i dwest. T h e u n ders i d e of t h e h i n d w i n g h a s an i so l a ted lig h t-co l o red patch.

C A L I F O R N I A R I N G L ET is very common west of t h e Rockies. It is nea r-white above, d a rker be足 l ow, with a n a n g u l a r w hite patch o n its h indwin g .


R I D I N G ' S SATY R at rest is the color of mossy rock and thus is wel l camouflaged i n its environ足 ment. P u pa forms underground.

COM M O N A L P I N E i s common i n spring i n the mou ntains from New Mexico to Wash . and Alaska. Larva feeds o n g rasses. COM M O N W O O D N Y M P H varies s o i n color a n d patter n i n its nation-wide range that d iffer足 ent forms are hard to recog nize. The northeaste r n form is i l l us足 trated . Southeastern form is larger, and the l ower eyespot o n the forewing is smal ler. I n t h e West it is darker and smaller, and does not have the l ig h t band o n the forewing. N EVADA ARCTI C is also cal l ed the Greater Arctic. The female lacks the dark shad i n g on the male's forewing. Othe r spe足 cies of arctics, mostly smal l e r and some without eyespots, occu r in Canada, the Rackies, and alpine New England.


HELI CO NIANS a re pecu l i a r to the A m e r i ca n tro p i c s . They a re reputed t o b e p rotected aga i n st p reda t i o n b y the i r u n sa vory ta ste a nd odor. So me a re m i m icked b y othe r butterfl i e s . The forew i n g s a re tw i ce a s long a s w i d e . The eggs a re rou n ded, a n d a bo u t tw i ce a s l o n g a s w i d e . The l a rvae, w i th rows o f l o n g b ra nched s p i nes, feed on l eaves of the Pa s s i o n F l ower. The p u pae a re u n u s u a l l y a n g u l a r.

GULF FRITI LLARY ranges t h rough South Ame r i ca to New J e rsey and Iowa . I n co l o r a nd w i ng s h a pe it resem b l e s t h e g reater f r i t i l l a r i e s (p. 44-46}. JU LIA, na t i v e t o South a nd Centra l America, is a f l i e r. Occa s i o na l l y a p p e a r s i n l a rge swa rms southern Te x a s or F l o r i d a . T h e fema l e i s m u c h l i g hter a nd d u l l e r t h a n t h e ma l e . T h e c h ry足 sa l i s l a c k s t h e s p ines of t h e Zebra . ZEBRA, fou nd in or nea r wood s , i s a wea k f l y e r a nd moves a b o u t s l ow l y. Z e b r a s g a t h e r i n colonies a t n i g h t . Males a re a t tracted to c h rysa l i d s of fema l e s j u st before t h e l a t t e r e m e rg e . S t r a y s f r o m tropica l Ame r i ca t o South C a ro l i na and Kansa s .


GRE ATER FRITILL ARIES are com mon i n tem perate reg i o n s. Caterp i l l a rs feed at n i g ht, most l y o n v i o lets . Most spec i es are s i n g l e-brooded , overw i n ter i n g a s t i n y l arvae. VA R I E G AT E D F R ITILLARY ra nges over m o s t o f t h e U . S . except the P o c i f i c N o r t h wes t. I t l a cks the t y p i ca l s i l ver spots o n t h e u n de r­ s i d e o f t h e w i ng s . The Mex i c a n F r i t­ i l l a r y, s i m i l o r i n fo r m b u t w i t h p l a i n er h i n d w i n g s , i s fo u n d from so u t h e r n Te x a s t o so u t h e r n Ca l i fo r n i a .

REGAL F R I TILLARY f r e q u e n t s roa d s i d e s o n d w e t m e a d o w s , feed i n g o n m i lkweeds a n d t h i s­ t l e s . Both rows of s pots on t h e h i n d w i n g o f t h e fe m o l e o re w h i te b u t o n l y t h e i n ne r row of t h e m a l e i s w h i te . Larva i s l ike Great Spa n ­ g l ed, b u t b l a ck , mottle d w i t h ye l­ l o w . F o r m e r l y fa i r l y c o m m o n t h r o u g h o u t t h e N o r t h e a s t a s far we st a s N e b r a ska a n d M i ssou r i , t h i s s t r ik i n g spec i e s now a ppea rs to be d i m i n i s h i ng a l a r m i n g l y i n n u m be r s .


G R EAT S P A N G L E D F R I T I L路 L A RY is sing l e-brooded in the N o rth a n d d o u b le-brooded i n the South. La rva hibernates soon after hatching a n d the fol l owing spring feeds a t night o n vio l ets . The a d u lts, in typical fritil l a ry fashion, p refer m a rshes a n d d a m p meadows. This i s o n e o f t h e best known friti l l a ries. A P H R O D I T E , s i m i l a r to G r e a t Spa ng l e d , is s m a l l e r a n d h a s a na rrower, ye l l owish m a rg i n a l band u n der the h i nd w i n g . It prefers h i g h e l ev a t i ons from s o . C o n. t o G a . w.

to the Roc k i es . A n o t h e r s p ec i es , At l a n t i s , is l i ke A p h rod i te , b u t i ts fore w i n g has a d a r k m a rg i n . It occ u rs from C a n . so. t h r u m t n s . to V i rg i n i a.


male

3.7-3.8"

... D I A N A is an u n usual fritillary beca use the sexes d iffer so i n color and markings a n d beca u se it prefers wood lands ta open

cou ntry and is more attracted to m a n u re piles than to flowers. It ranges from the southern Ap足 palachian Mts. west to I l l i nois.

N EVADA FRITI L LA RY is q u ite common i n sections of the Rockies and foothills of the Sierra Ne足 vadas. Greenish u nderside of hindwing is a good identifying cha racteristic.

E U RY N O M E rese m b l es the Ne足 vada Friti llary, but the g reenish tint covers o n ly top third of u n derside of the hindwing. Oc足 c u rs i n the Rockies from N. Mex. to Can., west to Cascades.


LESSER FR ITILLARIES rese m b l e greater fri ti l l aries but are s m a l l er, a n d most l a c k the s i l ver s pots u nder the hi n d w i n g. The l a rvae of most spec i es feed o n v i o l ets.

.. .

underside

... S I LV E R - B O R D E R E D F R I T I L ­ LARY appears i n m a n y vari­ eties. Some are also found in E u rope. All have the heavil y sil­ vered u nderside of the hindwing.

... EAST E R N M EADOW F R I T I L ­ LARY h a s o uter marg i n angled near apex, not c u rved as i n other fritil laries. I t lacks the dark outer marg in, but has b lack spots.

� WESTERN M EA D OW F R I T I L­ LARY resembles the Silver­ bordered in shape but is d iffer­ ent beneath . Those i n the North are darker above than those i n t h e South. They are com mon i n mou n ta i n val l eys o f the West, rang i n g from Colo­ rado to Cal iforn ia a n d north to British C o l u m bia.

47


THE CHE C K E R S POTS, sma l l - to med i um-sized, lay their eggs i n g ro u ps. The spiny caterpi l l a rs feed togeth e r f o r a w h i l e . T h e free- h a n g i n g p u p a is w h itish with d a r k blotches. 1 1 ) THE BALT I M O R E , though widespread, is local, seld o m found far f r o m i t s w e t meadow food plant, T u rtlehea d . Ma ny variations occ u r . Severa l species a re found i n the West.

S I LVERY C H EC K E R颅 S POT is s i m i l a r to H a rris' on the u p pe r su rface. Found a l o n g roads, la kes, a n d open meadows from Maine to North Carolina a n d west to the Rockies. 13) HARRIS' C H E CKER路 S POT is a l so variable a n d very loca l . I t prefers d a m p fields a n d u nderbrush. Ran ges f r o m Nova Scotia west to Ma n itoba a n d south t o I l l i n ois a n d W. Va . 1 4 ) C H A L C E D O N C H E C K路 E R S POT is q u ite variable i n color a n d patte r n . I t is common along the Pacific i n the lower mountain levels and feeds o n pla nts of the fi g wort fami ly.


T H E C R ES C E N T S a re c l osely a l lied to checkerspots but a re sma l l er. Named for pa l e crescent o n outer mar足 gin of the h i ndwing, beneath . The la rva e stay together but d o not make webs. Summer brood w i n t e r brood . 1 1 I M Y L I TTA C R E S C E N T, a b u n d a n t on the West Coast, va ries g reatly. I t generally shows a pale cresce nt both above a n d beneath. La rva feeds on thistles.

1 2 1 F I E L D C R E S C E N T is com足 mon in California a n d occurs from Arizona to Alaska, with both spring a n d fall broods, in damp meadows and along strea ms. La rva feeds on asters. 1 3 1 P H A O N C R E S C E N T is easy to tell from othe r crescents by its u n d e rsid e. The forewing a bove has a ba n d of wh ite to yel足 l owish spots. G u l f slates to C a l if. 1 4 1 P E A R L C R E S C E N T , one of the most common butterflies, is found a ro u n d p u d d l es and flow足 ers. I t ranges over a l l North Ame rica south of H udson Bay, except for the Pacific Coast.

ler than the


A N G LE W I N G S a re n a m ed for t h e s h a rp, a n g u l a r m a r­ g i n s of t h e i r wings. T h e u n d e rsides of t h e wings c losely rese m b l e dead leaves o r bark, camoufl a g i n g a n g le w i n g s in their wood land h a u n ts. E g g s som eti m es occur i n a h a n g i n g c h a i n . The la rva is spiny; t h e a n g u la r pupa hangs free. L i ke crescents, angle wings have light and d a r k seaso n a l fo rms. They h i bernate as a d u lts.

Q U E S T I O N M A RK, the a n g l e wing, is n a med for the sil very mark o n the u n d erside of its hindwing. The p u rplish margin of the wings is a lso d i stinctive. The l a rva feed s mainly on e l m . SATY R l a c k s t h e broad, dark 11>­ hindwing margin of Comma. Un· l i ke the Zephyr, it is brown be· neath, a n d lacks the g reenish l u ster a bove of the Fawn. La rva feeds mostly in nettles.

1 .8·2 .0"'

50


hindwing of d ark form COM M A is a common o n g l e wing o f moist open wood l a n d . Lo rvo feeds o n n ettle o n d hops. As in a l l a n g l e wings, the Comma has a d a r k summer form, shown i n the hindwing deta i l .

... FAW N , or Green Comma, has a g reen ish tint to its wings. Found i n the m o u ntains from easter n C a n a d a a n d C a r o l i n a s to t h e N .W. states. La rva l ives on birch and a l der, feed i n g o n the u n der足 sides of leaves.

... Z E P H Y R, l i ke the Satyr, lacks dark margin o n hindwing but is g ray beneath. Seen from May to Sept. La rva feeds on elm a n d c u r足 rant. The d a rker form below was once considered a sepa rate species-si/en us.


BU CKE YES a re b r i g h t l y co lored b u tterfl i es , a l l of w h ich have a l a rge eyespot on the u ppers i d e of both the h i n d a n d t h e fore w i n g s. The re a re some fifty spec i es thro ughout the wor l d , but on l y one of the m i s com mon i n North A m e r i ca .

TH E B U C KEYE, a variable â&#x20AC;˘pedes, overwi nters as a n a d u lt. la rva feeds mai ! . ly a n p l a ntai n and Gera rdia. I n its deve lopment, l a rva ( 1 ) attaches itse lf to a sup port ( 2 ) a n d becomes a p u pa (3). Adult develops i n the pupa (4) a n d eme rges with soft wings (5) which soon expa n d (6) and d ry (7).

52


THI S T L E B U TT E R F L I ES a re a widespread g ro u p . O n e species, t h e Pai nted lady, ranges t h r o u g h a l l temperdte and some tropica l a reas. Th ese butterflies freq u e n t fl ow­ ers, especia l l y thistles. A d u lts h i be r n ate. Some species m i ­ g rate. T h e l a rva e a re s p i n y .

PA I N T E D L A D Y is called t h e Cosmopolit a n because o f its wide range. I t is also n oted for its mi· g rations. The l a rva b uilds a webbed n est on the food pla nt, usually thistl e . A d u lts prefer open pl aces. There are usually two broods a year in the North.

WEST COAST L A D Y ranges from the Rockies westwa rd and south to Argentina. I t differs from the Painted Lady in lacking the white bar o n the u p per s u r· face of the forewi n g . It is easily captured w h i l e feeding o n flow· ers. The la rva feeds o n mal lows.

53


... R E D A D M I RAL is fo u n d world足 wide i n n o rth tem perate reg ions. It is a swift e rratic flier seen in open wood l a nd a n d a ro u n d But足 terfly Bush. The l a rva l ives a n d feeds s i n g l y o n leaves o f nettles, the edges of w h ic h i t d raws to-

gether with silk. nate. The Red Admiral is d o u ble足 brooded; the secon d b rood is l a rger a n d d a rker than one shown here. The ranges of the Red Admiral and American Painted lady a re a l most a l ike .

u nderside

A M E R I CA N PA I N T E D LADY, o r H u nter's Butterfly, has two l a rg e eyespots on the u n d e rside of the hindwing. Painted and West Coast lad ies have 5 small spots each. Greenish eggs are laid o n eve rlasting a n d b u rd ock. la rva is black with yellow stripes.


T O R TO I S E S H E L LS i n c l ude butterfl ies that rese m b l e a n g le wings, b u t the i n n e r m a r g i n of t h e forewi ng i s stra i g h t i n stead of concave. Adu lts h i bern ate a n d m a y be seen very early i n sp ri n g . Eggs a re l a i d i n c l u sters. Tortoise s h e l l s a re a circumpolar g ro u p w h i c h is wide足 spread i n the N o rthern H e m i sphere . C O M PTO N T O RT O I S E S H E L L fre q uents open wood足 l e n d s, where its u n d e rsides pro足 vide excel lent camouflage.

C ompton Tortoise She l l

M I L B E RT ' S T O RT O I S E S H E L L is a northern species of open a reas a n d m o u ntain mead足 ows. la rva feeds on n ettle. M O U R N I N G C L O A K occ u rs t h r o u g h o u t t e m p e rate N .A . Ad u lts that have h i bern ated moy be seen s u n n i n g i n early spring with open wings. Eggs are l a id in m asses a r o u n d the twigs of elm, wil low a n d poplar. la rvae may become pests. Mourning C l oak

larva

55


A D M I RA L S A N D S I ST E R S tot a l six species i n N.A. The l a rva, n ot a s spi ny as th ose of other brush -footed butterfl ies, feed s o n a va ri ety of trees. These species a re most ly d o u b l e- b rooded, a n d the tiny l a rva h i b e r n a tes i n s i l k e n she lters o n the food pla nt. W H I T E A D M I RAL, or Banded P u rp l e, l ives in upland ha rdwood fo rests and on mou ntain slopes, where its la rva feeds m ostly o n birch, willow, a n d poplar. T h e a d u lt is readily attracted by putrid rd odo rs.

V I C E ROY, red-b rown i n color, m o m ocs the reputed l y distasteful M o n a rc h But路 terfly (p. 38). It is f o u n d in open places, where the l a rva feed s o n wil low a n d poplar. La rva hi bernates a n d d evelops as shown above.

56


A D M I RAL W E I D E M EY E R ' S has wh ite spots a l o n g the margin of the forewing. F o u n d o n m o u ntain s l o p e s a n d w e t pl aces where aspen and wil low g row.

LORQ U I N ' S A D M I RAL has a n orange t i p t o forewi n g a n d a wh ite band on both win gs. F o u n d i n river botto m l a n d . la rva feeds o n cherry, wil low, and poplar.

R E D-S POTT E D P U R P L E , considered . ' b y some t o be a su bspecies o f t h e White Admiral, prefers l ower altitudes and a warmer climate t h a n that species. It a lso"' ,.,,";.路, prefers more open a reas, where the l a rva feeds mostly o n Wild C h erry.

57


CAL I FO R N I A S I ST E R is sim足 ilar to Lorq u i n 's A d m i ral but has b l u e l i n es o n u n d ersides of wings. It is a common C a l ifornia butter-

fly, freq u e n ti n g t h e u p p e r branches o f l ive oaks, o n which the l a rva feeds. The b u tterfly rarely sips n ectar from flowers.

LEAFW I N G B U TTE R F L I ES a re a t r o p i c a l g r o u p i n w h i c h the u n d e rsides o f t h e wings rese m b l e dead leaves. Color and wing shape va ry g reatly. Two seaso n a l forms occur-a wet a n d a d ry. The forewi ngs of the d ry-season form are l ess c u rved . la rva h ides by day i n a ro l l ed leaf. The g o a tweeds a re the only N o rth America n species.

G O A TW E E D B U TT E R F L Y ranges from G a . a n d Tex. u p the Miss. Val ley. Its d ry-season form is l ig hter i n color. Female i s l i ke Morrison 's, but light spots o n wings f o r m a conti n u o u s b a n d .

58

MORRISON'S GOATW E E D has a tropical range but e nters Texas. Mal e is q uite si m i l a r to Goatweed B utterfly but is more b r i l l ia nt. Female ( i l l ustrated) d if足 fers in color and pattern.


E M P E R O R , OR HAC K B E R RY, B U TT E R F L I E S a re fo u n d n e a r Hackberry trees, on w h i c h the la rva feed s i n colon ies. The striped caterpi l la r ta pers toward both e n d s a n d bears two "horns" beh i n d the h e a d . I t h i bernates when pa rtly g row n . Ad u lts show much geogra p h i c varia足 tio n . The fema les a re larger than the ma les and are a l so lig hter i n color.

J

H AC K B E RRY BUTTE RFLY range widely i n open wood l a nds. I n d ivid ual often have a choice perch o n which the) repeated ly l a n d . Some varieties of this butterfly have an incomp lete eyespot, or one or two dark eyespots i n addition to the typica l spot o n the forew i n g . Some a re m uch lighter than normal. TAW NY E M P E R O R is more common i n the South, though it ranges north to New England. Lacks dark eyespots o n the forewin g . La rva similar to Hackberry Butterfly's but has branched head spines.

59


P U R P L E W I N G S a re tropica l butte rflies, usua l ly d u l l p u r p l i s h a bove a n d we l l marked o n t h e u n dersides. Two species occur in southern F lorida a n d Texas .

DAGG E R W I N G S a re ma i n ly tropica l b utterfl ies, with pro l onged tips to their forewi n g s, resemb l i n g sma l l swa l­ l owta i ls. One species breeds in the U n ited States. FLO R I DA P U R PL E W I N G oc­ c u rs i n d e nse h o rdwood hom­ mocks. Dingy P u rple Wing (not shown) is slightly s m a l l e r a n d lacks most o f t h e p u rple shee n

R U D DY DAG G E R W I N G of southern F l a . and Texas, may stray northwa rd. The o r n ate fila­ ment-bearing l a rva feeds o n fi g a n d A nacardium.

T R O P I C Q U E E N S a re tropica l butterfl ies n oted for their bea uty a n d the fema les' trait of mimi c k i n g mi l kweed b utterfl ies (p. 38) . The Mimi c i s a species that was prob­ a b ly i ntroduced i nto the America n tro pics from the Old Wor l d a long time ago. The Mimic occurs in the W e st I n dies a n d loca l l y i n F l o r i d a .


M ETA L M A R KS are sma l l butterfl ies usua l l y h a v i n g meta l l i c spots, from w h i c h the commo n n ame i s d e rived . Ma n y of t h e fifteen p la i n ly co lo red species occu rri n g n o rth of Mexico a re d i ffi c u l t t o disti n g u i s h . I n the tropics, meta lma rks a re common and occur i n ma ny different bright color p a tterns. Males have four w a l k i n g legs, fe­ m a les six. They rest with wings O)J tstretched. The l a rv a e resem b l e t h ose of h a i rstrea ks. 1he pupa is h a i ry, s u s ­ pended b y a stem, a n d s u p p o rted by a si l k t h re a d .

0.9- 1 .0" little Metal mark

•'

Northern Meta lmark

L I T T L E M ETA L M A R K is more common in t h e southern part of its range. I t occurs in open g rassy a reas, where it is d isting uished by its small size and its u ncheck­ ered wing m a rgins. N O RT H E R N M ETALM A R K is r e l a tively r a r e a n d h a s b e e n confused with simil a r species. T h e win g s are d a r k e r t h a n those of t h e litt l e a n d t h e Swa m p a n d hove a n irreg u l a r d a rk b a n d . The Northern prefers d ry hilly ter rain and open woods.

SWA M P M ET A L M A R K l acks the i n n e r d a rk irreg u la r b a n d af the N o rth e r n , a n d wing margins are slig htly checkered. I t occu rs in wet meadows and swa m p s in s u m m e r . O v e r wi n t e r s a s l a rva that feeds o n swa m p thistl e. . P

61


M O R M O N M ETALM ARK, a desert species, occ u rs through the Southwest. I ts wing spots are white rather than meta l l ic. A m o unts of gray o r brown o n hindwing va ry as shown.

NAIS M ETAL M A R K occurs from Colorado to Mexico. I ts wing fringes a re checkered, but i n overa l l a ppearance it is not d istinctly l i ke other meta l m a rks. The l a rva feeds on Wild P l u m .

S N O U T B UTTE R F L I ES a re easily recog n i zed b y t h e long

p rojecti n g

m o uth

pa rts

(pa lpi)

which

rese m b l e

sno uts. like t h e m eta l m a rks, m a les h a ve f o u r wa l k i n g l e g s a n d the fema les s i x . The C o m m o n Snout Butte rfly is the o n ly

snout butterfly reg u la r l y occu rri n g n o rth of

Mexico. T h e l a rva, which g rows very rapid ly, feeds o n H a c k berry.

62


GOSSAME R WI N GS a re small- to med i u m-s i zed b u t­ te rfl ies, ofte n w i th ha i r l i ke ta i ls on the h i n d w i n g s . They a re u s u a l l y b l ue, coppery, g ray, or d u l l b row n a bove.

HAI RSTREAKS, about 70 species n o rth of Mexico, have

a swift, d a rt i n g

flight

and

are

re a d i l y attracted to

flowers .

... G RAY or C O M M O N H A I R­ S T R E A K is also cal led the Cot­ ton S q u a re Borer or the Bean Lyca enid beca u se of d a m a g e it sometimes does to crops. I t over­ winters i n the p u pa l stag e a n d emerges early i n the s p r i n g .

... GREAT PURPLE HAI RSTREAK fema l es have two ta i l s on each h i nd w i ng , a s d o s o m e m a l e s . T h e fe m a l e l a c k s s e x - p a d s- b l a c k spots o n forew i n g . T h e l a rva feeds on m i s t l etoe. D o u b l e - brood ed .

� COLORADO H A I R ST R E A K i s 1 .5"

actu a l l y more p u r p l e i n color than the Great P u rple. The u n ­ derside has a typical b a n d e d pattern . This species is common ly fou n d around scr u b oaks.

63


White-M Hairstreak 1 .2"·

64

Red-banded

Hoi rstreak 1 .0"

Coral Hoi rstreak 1 .3"

W H I TE-M H A I RSTREAK, a southeaste r n species, is n a med for the i nve rted wh ite M o n the u n d erside of the h i n d w i n g . The upper s u rface of the wing i s b l u e .

E DWAR D S ' H A I RSTREAK h a s ova l spots t h a t form b ro k e n transve rse l i n e s. I t frequents thickets of Sc r u b Oak, on w h ich the I a rva feeds.

ACA D I A N H A I RSTREAK h a s widely sepa rated spots i n stead o f tra nsverse l i nes. The l a rva feeds o n w i l l ow. A d u lts a re found in wet a reas where willows g row.

SOUTH ERN HAI RSTREAK h a s orange patches o n the u pper­ sides of both w i n g s, l a rg e r on the h i ndwing. I t i s s i n g l e-brood e d . The l a rva f e e d s on o a k .

R E D - B A N D E D H A I RSTREAK occurs from Florida a n d Mexico to New York and Michigan, but is com moner i n the South. Male up· perside i s brown; female, b l u ish .

CORAL H A I R ST R E A K is tail­ less. Coral red spots on u n d e r­ side may form a solid b a n d . I t overwi nters i n the egg stage. Ad u lts appear by midsummer.


Banded Hairstreok

1 .0 - 1 .2"

California Hairstreak

1 . 1 - 1 .3"

Hedgerow Hairstreak

1 .2"

Sylvan Hoirstreak

1 .0"

CA L I FO R N I A H A I RSTREAK is sing le-brooded, a ppearing o n the wing i n m i d s u m m e r i n t h e foothi l l s. La rva feeds on Cea­ nothus and, probably, on oak.

BAN D E D H A I R S TRE A K occ u r s i n l ate s p r i n g a n d early s u m mer, usually i n o r near wood l a n d s . I t overwinters i n the egg stage. The l a rva feeds o n oak and hickory.

H E D G E ROW H A I R STREAK, reddish brown above, is common i n the Rockies a n d west to the Pacific coast i n s u m m e r. Feeds on Cercocarpus and Ceanoth us.

STR I P E D H A I R ST R E A K is d is­ tinctly striped u n d e r neath. It is widely d istrib uted east of the Rockies. The l a rva feeds o n m a n y p l a nts, i n c l u d i n g oak a n d w i l l ow.

O L I V E H A I R ST R E A K , d o u ble­ b rooded, overwinters a s a p u pa . T h e a d u lts occ u r i n s p r i n g a n d m idsummer, u s u a l l y n e a r r e d ce­ dars, the l a rval food pla nts.

SYLVAN H A I R S T R E A K re­ sembles C a l ifornia H a i rstrea k but is lighter beneath a n d has o n l y one small red spot. The l a rva feed s o n w i l l ow.

65


Western Banded E l fi n

1 .2"

u nd e r s i de

ELFI NS are s m al l- to med i u m-s ized b row n bu tterfl i es; fe males are l arg e r and l ess d ra b than m a l e s . Elfi ns overw i n ter as p u pae and have o n l y a s i n g le b rood yearly. They are among the fi rst bu tterfli es to o ppear i n s p r i ng . T h e m a les of a l l elf i n s b u t He n ry's have a "sex足 spot" o n the u pper s i de of the forew i n g s . W E S T E R N B A N D E D E LF I N rese m bles the Bonded E l f i n , but the bo nd ( m i d d l e of forew i n g , u nder足 s i de) is l e s s i rreg u l a r. la rva feeds

BAN D E D E LF I N , a l so ca l l e d Pine E l f i n , is u s u a l l y f o u n d in open p i n e sta n d s . T h e l a rva feeds p r i m a r i l y o n t h e seed l i n g s of both h a rd a n d soft p i nes, o n w h i c h i t i s we l l camouflaged. BROWN E LFI N, redd i s h brown o n the u n d e r s i d e , i s fo u n d in a n d a l o n g t h e edges o f o p e n woods w h e re its food p l a nts, b l u eberry and She e p la u re l , g row.

66


Western E lfin

0.9- 1 .0"

W E ST E R N E L F I N is obscurely ma rked beneath . I t occu rs i n both lowla n d s a n d m o u ntains, often freq uenting Ceanoth us bl ossoms. The l a rva feeds o n sed u m .

H OA RY E L F I N g ets its n a m e f r o m the g ra y color o n the u n d e r足 side. It occ u rs in open, d ry, heath-covered a reas. The l a rva feeds o n bearbe rry.

H E N RY ' S E L F I N o f o p e n woods is l ess g ray o n the u n derside a n d is dark b r o w n ot the b a s e of t h e sca l l o ped h i n d wi n g . The l arva feeds on b l u e berry.

FROST E D E L F I N male has a sex-spot on the u p perside of fore足 wing. Hindwing has more sca l足 loped border a n d less color con足 trast than that of H e n ry's Elfin.

67


C O P P E R S o c c u r c h i efl y in the N o rth e r n H e m i s p h ere,

with a bo u t sixteen species i n the U n ited Sta tes and C a n 足

a d a . Most a re reddish o r b r o w n a n d have a coppery l u ster, but o n e , the B l u e Copper, is b r i g h t b l u e . Most spe足 cies freq u e nt o p e n a reas a n d roa dsides. A M E R I CAN C OP P E R occurs from spring to fa l l i n fields where Sheep Sorre l , food plant of the l a rva, g rows. Overwinters i n the p u p a l stage. Ad u lts i n spring are brig hter a n d l ess spotted .

G R EAT C O P P E R is one of the la rgest of the coppers. Males h ave fewer b l a c k dots and less orange on the wing margins. The females feed o n dock. Ad u lts emerge i n s u m m e r . R U D D Y C O P P E R S have white m a rg i n s on the wings a n d fewer b l ack spots on t h e u n d e rside of the h i n dwing than othe r coppers. The female resembles the Ameri足 ca n Copper b u t i s larger and not a s b rightly colored. Feeds on Arnica.

68


P U R P L I S H C O P P E R is common from spring to fall, mostly in moist meadows. The u n d erside of the h i ndwing i s marked with a faint red l i n e . The l a rva feeds mostly o n dock and k n otweeds. B RO N Z E C O P P E R frequ ents wet mead ows. I t is d o u b le足 brooded a n d h i bern ates i n the egg stage. The m a r g i n of the u nderside of the h i n dwing has a broad ora nge band. The l a rva feeds mostly o n seve ral species of dock and knotweed.

GO RGO N C O P P E R h a s o n l y a midsummer b rood. Its u n derside is typica l of the coppers. The fe足 m a le rese m b l es that of the P u r足 plish C o p p e r but is less bright. The larva feeds on friog o n u m .


THE HAR VESTER occurs o n l y i n North Amer i ca, b u t a few c l ose re l a t i ves are fou nd i n Africa a n d Ori e nta l tropics. The l a rva feeds on woo l l y a p h i d s tha t l i ve on a l der, beech, and w i tch haze l , and beco mes fu l l grown i n a s l i tt l e a s ten days. There are severa l g e n era t i o n s a year. W i n ter i s pa ssed i n the p u pa l sta g e . The mark i n g s o f the p u pa rese m b l e a mon key's face . B L U E S a re sma l l a n d usua l ly b l u e a bove. T h e l a rvae of some species secrete " h o n eydew" a n d a re atte nded by a nts for this l i q u i d . There is much seaso n a l variati o n i n color. T h e sexes d iffer; fema les usua l ly a re d a rker, with wider dark borders o n the upperside of the wings.

underside

"

0.9- 1 . 1 "

EAST E R N TA I L E D B L U E, very common a l l through its range, occu rs from early spring to fa l l, with several g e n e rations yearly. I t overwinters a s a ful l-grown l a rva, which feeds m ostly on flowers of leg u m es. M a l es i n spring h a v e na rrower dark bor足 ders a bove. Spring females a re d a rker; some a r e brown above.


Pygmy B l ue 0.5-0.7"

u nderside Common Blue 0 . 8 - 1 .3"

Dwarf Blue 0.5-0.7" Common Blue

f) ,,

;:. ·: (,,� I .

r

Western Tai led Blue 0.9- 1 . 1 "

ma le-summer

,.

ma le-spri n g

/1

BIJ a re the small est of a l l N o rth American butterflies. The Pygmy i s common i n its range. Its larva is well camouflaged on Lamb's Ton g u e, its food plant. DWARF B L U E is s i m i l a r but lacks t h e white spot and fringe o n the upperside of the forew i n g .

C O M M O N B L U E, o r S p r i n g Azure, occ u rring throughout N orth America, is a n ot h e r e a r l y spring b utte rfly. Spring forms a r e d a rker than s u m m e r forms, w i t h spots o n t h e u n d ersides s o m e ­ t i m e s f u sed . The u n d erside m a r k­ i n g s of s u m m e r forms a re u s u a l l y pale. The s l u g - l i ke l a rva f e e d s o n flowers a n d excretes a sweet liq­ u i d called h o n eyd ew, for which i t i s followed by a n ts. WESTE RN TAI L E D BLU E is m ost easi l y d i st i ng u i s h e d from Easte r n b y i ts l e s s-spotted u nd e rs i d e . I n some a reas t h e Ea ste r n a n d West­ e r n Ta i l ed B l u e s occ u r tog e t h e r.

71


(2)

underside

( 1 , 2, 3 ) M A R I N E B L U E ap足 pears l ater i n spring t h a n ather b l ues. La rva feeds mostly an buds and b l ossoms of wiste ria, alfalfa, locoweed, and other legumes.

! 4 , 5 ) A C M O N B L U E occurs early spring to fall. The female is brownish or b l u is h . The broad orange b a n d with black spots o n h indwing is d isti n ctive.

! 6 ) R E A K I RT'S B L U E is easily d isti n g u ished by the w hite-ringed black spots on the u n dersid e of the forewing. Mesq u ite is o n e of its food plants.

! 7, 8, 9 ) O RAN G E- B O R足 D E R E D B L U E, or Mel issa Blue, is d o u b l e-brood e d . la rva feeds o n leg u mes. Note orange spots on u p per h i ndwing of female.


C l l S I L V E RY B L U E l a cks the black s pots along the margin of u n d e rside of h i ndwing. The up足 perside resem b les the l ig h t forms of the Saepiol u s Blue.

1 2, 3, 4 1 S A E P I O L U S B L U E is va riable; some forms i n the West are d a r k . The row of tiny orange spots o n the u n d erside of hind足 w i n g i s d i sti n ctive.

1 5, 6 , 71 S O N O RA B L U E a p足 pears very early in s p r i n g . It is fou n d n e a r sto necrop (Sedum) and other succ u lent p l a nts. La rva feeds in the thick p l a n t tissues.

(8,

9, 1 0) SQ U ARE-SPOTTED BLUE occu rs in J u n e or J uly

where its food, Eriogo n um, g rows. Black spots on u n derside a re sq uarish. Resem bles Acmon B l u e .

73


S KIP PER S Ski ppers (more tha n 3, 000 ki nds) a re d i st i ng u i shed from true butterfli es by the a nten nae, which a re fa rther a pa rt at the ba se a n d e n d i n po i nted , cu rved clu bs. S k i ppers a re na med for the i r s k i p p i n g fl i ght. Most a re drab. Ma n y a re d i ffi c u l t t o d i st i ng u i sh. The i r bod i e s a re rob u st a n d moth- l i ke . The l a rvae, d i st i nct l y n a r rowed behi nd the head , rest d u ring the day between l ea ves p u l l ed loose l y togethe r by s ilk stra nds. The smooth p u pae a re for m ed i n s i m i l a r shelte rs, ofte n on the g ro u nd.

D G E D , o r Frosted, r occu rs from southern E n g l a n d to Fla. and west to a n d I owa . U n d e rside resembles Silver-spotte d . La rva feeds mostly o n tick trefo i l s. S I LVER-S POTT E D S K I P P E R, common throughout the warm seasons from so. Canada through C e n . Amer., has d istinctive silve r patch o n the h i n d w i n g . T h e l a rva feeds o n locusts and w i steria.


N O R T H E R N C L O U DY W I N G is d ifficult t o tell from Southern Cloudy Wing. The s pots on the forewing a re u s u a l l y smaller a n d t h e wing fringes are d a rker. I t i s d o u b le揃b rooded i n the North, may have th ree o r more broods i n the South, and overwinters in the p u p a l stage. The g reen l a rva, which l ives i n a s i J k. J i ned nest, feeds on cl over a n d other her足 baceo u s legumes.

L O N G TA I L E D S K I P P E R is a lso c a l l ed the Bean leaf Rol ler beca use of the way the l a rva at足 tacks c u ltivated beans. C o m m o n i n the Southeast. It overwi nters as a pupa.

G O L D EN - B A N D E D S K I P PER is genera l l y u ncommon a n d un足 u s u a l l y s l u g g i s h . I t occurs i n wet wood l a n d s from N .Y. south and west to Arizo n a . The l a rva is l ight g reen with yellow d ots.

SOUTHERN C L O U D Y W I N G p refers woods m a r g i n s, especia l l y near clover a n d other l e g u m e s on w h i c h t h e b rown larva feed s. Note the larger wh ite s pots on the forewings.


S L E E PY D U S KY-WI NG, u n like most other d usky-wings, hos n o clear spats on the forewi n g . F o u n d f r o m southern C a n a d a to the G u l f a n d west to the Rockies.

D U S KY-W I N G J U V E N A L'S occurs i n woods margins i n Sleepy's r a n g e i n spri n g . H i n d ­ wing h a s two d i stinct white spots below. Female is paler tha n male.

D R EAMY D U S KY-W I N G i s s m a l l e r than Sleepy Dusky-wing; a lso has n o clear spots o n the forewing. like the Sleepy, it oc­ c u rs i n early s p r i n g .

MOT T L E D D U S KY- W I N G h a s w h i te ma rks of upperside repeated bel ow. Fe m a l e is l i g hter t h a n t h e m a l e. Ad u l ts occ u r i n l a te Ma y a nd m i d -J u l y.

M O U R N F U L D U S KY-W I N G of the West Coast has w hite dashes o n the u nderside next to the white � fringe on the h i ndwing. F U N E R E A L D U S K Y- W I N G , found so u t h west from C o l o . a nd Te x . , h a s w h i t e f r i ng e s an t h e h indw ings. Larva fee d s o n a l f a l fa.

T

76


C H E C K E R E D S K I P P E R , a com­ m o n species, varies g reatly i n the a m o u n t of g ray. Fl ies fast with­ o u t the characteristic skip p i n g motion. La rva feeds o n m a l lows.

(or Larger C a n n a Leaf Rol ler) ranges from Argenti n a n o rth to Tex., So. Cor., a n d occasio n a l l y northward. La rva feeds o n opening l eaves be d estructive.

G R IZZL E D S K I P P E R rese m b les Checkered Skipper, but the fore­ wing spots are somewhat sq u a re a n d separate; its u nderside is d a rker. Also feeds o n m a l lows .

...

Common Sool)(.:._"'' inl�ilo w i t h larva and pupa

1 .0 · 1 .2"

curs throughout North America. I t overwinters as a l a rva o n the food p l an t, p igweed, between leaves that have been rolled to­ gether with silk.

S O UT H E R N S OOTY-W I N G i s l i ke the Common, but wings have faint dark bands. Occ u rs from P o . to Nebr. a n d the S . E . La rva feeds on Lamb's Q u a rte rs.

77


A

A L EAST S K I P P E R, common east of the Rockies from spring to fa l l , flies close t o the g ro u n d , u s u a l l y i n m a rshy a reas. It v a r i e s i n t h e a m o u n t of orange a bove.

U N CAS S K I P P E R of the Great Plains can be recog n ized by the dark patches around the white spots on the u nderside of the hindwing.

C O BW E B S K I P P E R occurs in early spring from Wisconsin a n d Texas eastward. I t a n d the I nd i a n S k i p p e r resem b l e U ncas Skipper.

J U BA S K I P P E R i s fo u n d i n s a g e b r u s h r e g i o n s from the P a 足 c i fi c coasta l states e a s t to Colo足 rado. See n in both spring, fall.

I N D I AN S K I P P E R a p pears in early spring i n eastern U n ited States a n d C a n a d a . La rva feeds o n Panic Grass. L E O N A R D ' S S K I P P E R , a l ate s u m m e r, easte r n species, fre足 q uents wet mead ows and open regions. The l a rva feeds on g rass and overwi nters when sma l l .

G O L D E N S K I P P E R o f the a rid Southwest occ u rs from April to Septe m ber. The u n d e rside is p l a i n yellow. La rva feeds o n Ber足 m u d a Grass (Cynodon dactylon).

T

0.7-1 .0"


B R O K E N DASH is named for the dash mark o n u p p e rside of ma le's forew i n g . U n l ike Peck's, it is broken i nto a long u p per m a r k a n d a l o w e r d o t . Both sexes l a c k Peck's yel low patches o n u n d er足 sides. Found east of Rockies.

L O N G DASH has a n i rreg u l a r, da rk, o b l i q u e m a r k on forewing of male. Yellow a reas, less d is足 tinct than in Peck1s, occ u r o n u n d ersides i n b o t h sexes. Long Dash occ urs from Virg i n ia a n d I l l inois north into C a n a d a .

V E R N A L S K I P P E R, o r Little G lassy Wing, is a midsummer species found east of the Rockies. Female resembles male. The l a rva feed s on g rass.

P E C K ' S S K I P P E R occ u rs from so. Canada and New Eng. south to Fla. a n d west to Ka ns. and Ariz. U n d ersides of both sexes have d istinct yellow patches.

F I E RY S K I P P E R has cha racter足 istic short antennae and varies i n color patter n . The female is dark brown with a few l i g ht spots a bove.

F I E L D S K I P P E R , or Sachem, oc足 c u rs i n the South in s p r i n g . By midsummer it ranges to N .Y., N . Oak., a n d S a n Francisco. L a rva feeds on Be r m u d a Grass.


from Ko nsas to southern Canada. Female h a s two color forms, o n e like the m a l e a n d the other, o r "Poca hontas," being q u ite d a r k a n d d ifferent a bove.

... ZA B U LO N S K I P P E R is found from Massachusetts to Texas. Male rese m bles Hobomok and fe­ male looks l i k e the Pocahontas form of Hobomok. Z a b u l o n a n d Hobomok both feed o n g rasses.

ROA D S I D E S K I P P E R has hind­ wings without markings. Wing fringes a re stro n g ly checkered. I t occurs f r o m southeast C a n a d a t o F l o r i d a a n d west t o C a l iforn ia. The p u pa winters o n g rass.

OCOLA S K I P P E R ranges as far n orth a s N.Y., and is common from Virg i n i a and Arkansas south to Florida and Texas. The markings of its forewings a re repeated on the u n derside.

80

YU CCA S K I P P E R occu rs i n semi-arid reg ions f r o m the Ca ro­ linas to Florida and west to C a l i­ forn ia. Females are l a rger than males, with a row of fo u r yel low spots on the h i ndwing. Both h ave broad wings a n d stout bod ies. La rva feeds on yucca stalks.


M OT H S The

8,000 o r so species of

moths which occur in N o rth

A m erica north of Mexico have bod ies more p l u m p a n d fu rry tha n

those o f

butterfl ies. A t rest, moths usua l ly hold their wings flat o r fold t h e m roof- l i ke over their

backs.

Their a nten ­

n a e , often feathery, vary in structure but usua l ly l a c k t h e term i n a l

c l u b typi ca l

of butterfl ies. Most moths have a fre n u l u m , a c u rved

occu rs throughout eastern North Amer­ ica. The lo rvo, active ot nig ht, feeds on the Trum pet Vine. See pp. 82-94 for other sphinxes.

spi n e o r g r o u p of bristles o n the i n ner (h u m era l ) a n g l e o f t h e h i n d wi n g . This h e l p s t o h o l d t h e fore a n d h i n d ­ wings together i n flig ht. Most moths fly at ni g h t a n d a r e a Hra cted to l i g hts. A few female m oths d o n o t fly a t a l l . la rva e o f moths spi n silken cocoons o r p u pate o n t h e g r o u n d or i n u ndergro u n d cells. I n this secti o n , moths a re treated as c o m m o n ly recog­ n ized groups which

usua l ly, but n ot a lways, i n c l u d e

c losely related species. Below: Types of moth a nten nae. Right: Un­ d e rwing Mot h : u n derside of wings showing fre n u l u m .

'­ '


S P H I NX M OT H S , a b o u t 1 00 N . A. species, h a v e l a rge, sto ut l a rv a e t h a t h o l d t h e body erect, i n a s p h i nx - l i k e positi o n . Most l a rvae have a h o r n at t h e rea r of t h e b o d y . A d u lts a re powerfu l f l i e rs; they often have a l o n g p roboscis, u s e d to s u c k n e cta r. Some a re c a l l e d h awk足 moths for t h e i r swooping f l i g ht; othe rs, h u m m i n g b i rd moths because they h over w h i l e fee d i n g . P I N K - S P O TT E D H AW K 足 M OTH ranges throughout most of the Weste r n Hem isphere. The l a rva, o r Sweetpotato Hornworm, feeds o n Sweet Potato vines and c l osely related p l a n ts. This hawk揃 moth is a stro n g flier and has been seen far a t sea.

read ily told from the F ive-spotted Hawkmoth by the p a rtial fusion of the two middle black stripes o n the hindwin g . The l a rva, or Tobacco Hornworm, feeds o n to4 bacco and tomatoes throughout the U.S. The p u pa, formed under足 ground, has a l o n g e r tongue case than the Tomato Hornworm's.


R U ST I C S P H I NX, or Six-spotted Sphinx, is common in southern states. On the sides of the body are three p a i rs of yel low spots. la rva re足 sembles Tobacco and Tomato Hornworms, but the skin is rough i nstead of smooth where揃 the m a r k i n g s a p pear. Feed s m a i n l y o n the F r i n g e T r e e a n d jasm i n e .

M OTH, u n l i ke C a rol i n a Sphinx, has the black stripes o n the h i n d足 wing sepa rated . la rva, the To足 mato H o rnworm, commo n ly feeds on t o b a c c o . W h i te a b d o m i n a l marks form a n a n g l e i n stead of a single o b l i q u e l i n e as on the Tobacco Hornworm. Widespread i n tempe rate N . A .

83


.... WAV E D S P H I N X resembles the Ca足 talpa Sphinx but is brig hter, with more wh ite scales on the forewings. The l a rva, which feeds mostly o n ash but also on privet and lilac, is g reen a n d smooth. It has the oblique ma rks typical of sphinx larvae and often has pink legs, horn, a n d face.

is the d estructive Catal paworm, which when n u merous strips ca足 talpa trees of all foliage. The moths lay masses of w h ite eggs o n the undersides of the leaves. The velvety larvae occ u r i n two color forms, as shown. There are commonly two broods each yea r. The larvae are so h i g h l y su bject to attac k by a parasitic wasp that few of them survive to become p u pae and moths.


FOU R- H OR N E D S P H I NX, or E l m Sph inx, occu rs from C a n a d a to Florida, a n d west thro u g h the Miss. Valley . Adu lt has p a l e r col o r on front margin of fore­ wing than Catalpa and Waved sphinxes. The l a rva, which feeds on e l m o r birch, has fo u r g reen o r b rown rough p rojec­ tions o n the thoracic seg ments.

H E R M I T S P H I N X l a rva, which feeds o n m i n ts, has a n abrupt hump near its front e n d . Herm it­ l i ke S p h i nx, of the Southwest, is similar but is light g ray a n d lacks the long black stri pe down the middle of its a bdomen . PAWPAW S P H I N X is brown of varying shades, with sma l l wh ite spots o n each side o f the center abdominal stripe. The la rva feeds o n leaves of Pawpaw � a n d Black Alder.

85


E L EGANT S P H I N X is m uch like the Great Ash Sphinx but is a darker g ray. These m oths are fre q uently seen at eve n i n g prim足 rose flowers. The l a rva is some足 times a pest of a pple and p l u m

Great Ash Sphinx l a rva

G R EAT A S H S P H I N X, o r Pen足 marked S p h inx, g ets the latter name from the black wavy streaks o n the forewings. I ts thorax is lig hter than that of the A p p l e S p h i n x o r Wild C h erry Sphinx and lacks the w hite streaks on the sides. The larva feed s mostly on ash trees but also on lilac a n d privet. I t is doubl e-brooded i n some a reas, but i n others it occurs i n a l l stages from spring t o fa l l .

86


L A U R E L S P H I NX, in spite of its n am e, feeds mostly on the leaves of lilac a n d Fringe Trees. I t closely resembles the Apple a n d Wild C herry Sphinx Moths i n form but has a d istinct brown color.

A P P L E S P H I NX resembles the Wild C herry Sphinx but lacks both the white shading along the front edge of the forewing and the black band d own the side of the abdomen. I t occu rs i n mid足 summer. The l arva is bright g reen a n d has seven sla nted white l ines edged with pink. I t feeds mainly o n apple, ash, wild rose, Myrtle a n d Sweet Fern. WILD C H E RRY S PH I NX looks much like Apple Sphinx but has a lateral black band on the ab足 domen. The larva feeds on cherry, p l um, a n d apple. U n l ike most other hawkmoth larvae, it hides d u ring the day. I t is d a rker than the larva of Great Ash Sphinx and has violet body stripes. I n the Apple Sphinx these are p i n kish; i n the La u re l Sphinx they a re often b l u ish ma rked with black.

87


E LLO S P H I N X i s co m m o n from t h e Gu l f states to t h e t ropics a n d often strays nort hwa rd . Fe m a l es l a c k t h e d a r k strea ks i n t h e fore足 w i ngs. The l a rva feeds most l y on po i nset t i a a n d

ABBOT'S P I N E SPH I N X is some足 what v a r i a b l e in ca l o r pattern a n d rese m b les N o r t h e r n , a s does t h e l a rva . T h e l a rva feeds on p i nes a n d , l i ke the Northern l a r va , may beco m e destruct i ve .

88

Abbot 's P i n e te n d t o i n tergrade w h e re ra nges ove r l ap. T h e l a r v a , w i t h t r i a ng u l a r h e a d a n d no typi 足 ca l ca u d a l h o r n , feeds on w h i te , p i tc h , a n d j a c k p i nes.


B i g Pop lar Sphinx

3.5-5.5"

i n b o t h a pale a n d form. The larva has g ra n u l a r skin a n d a n short caudal horn. I t poplars a n d w i l lows.

occu r s a d a rker a rough, u n us u a l l y feeds o n

A B BOT'S S PH I N X has two forms of matu re l a rva, one shown above and a n other bright g reen with brown spots. Young l a rvae are like that i l l ustrated. La rvae feed o n grape and wood bine.

S E Cj) U O I A S P H I N X was fi rst found resting o n a Seq uoia tree and was so n a m e d . It freq uents the blossoms of Wild C h e rry a n d buckeye. T h e l a rva feeds o n Wild C h erry leaves.

89


ONE-EYED SPH I N X is d a r k e r a n d more c o m m o n i n t h e western part of its range. Larva (an w i l low) rese m b l e s t h e S m a l l -eyed Sph i n x b u l l o c k s red spats a n d h a s a p i n k , v i o l et, or b l u e ho r n. ... 2.0-2.5"

H U C KLEBE RRY SPH I N X m a y be c o n f u s e d w i t h S m a l l - e y e d Sph i n x , but t h e o u t e r e d g e of t h e forew i n g is stra i g h t i n stead of co n 足 cave. T h e l a rva feed s o n b l u e berry and h u c k l e berry.

SMALL-EYED SPHINX a n d other eye- spoiled sph i n xes rest w i t h a l o be of t he h i n d w i n g exten ded before the forew i n g a n d , in the case of the m a l e , w i t h the a b d o m e n cu rved upwa rd. Spots on l a rva v a r y o r a re a b se n t . Prefers W i l d C h erry b u t a l so feed s o n b i rc h a n d other trees. Occ u r s from sou t h e r n Ca n 足 a d a t o F l o r i d a a n d west t o t h e Roc k i e s.


TWIN-SPOTTED SPHINX gets it s name fr o m the b l u e ba r across eac h eyespat o n t h e h i n d w i n g . L arva ca n not be to l d from t h a t of O n e 足 ey e d S p h i n x . I t f e e d s o n W i l d C h e rry, b i rc h , a n d w i l low. WALNUT SPHINX is a re l a t i v e l y co m m o n s p h i n x mo th fo u n d from New E n g l a n d s o u t h to F l o r i d a a n d west t o Ma n i toba a n d Tex a s . T h e act i ve l a rva feeds o n l y o n wa l n u t, Buttern u t , peca n , a n d h ickory, a n d i s somet i m e s co m mo n i n peca n o rc h a r d s . T h e m o t h s v a r y con s i d 足 era b l y i n co l or. T h e l a r vae v a r y i n co lo r a l so, f r o m g reen t o redd i s h .

BLI N D E D S P H I N X es t h e Sma l l -eyed, but its forew i n g s have sca l l o ped m a rg i n s . The l a rva a l so looks l i ke that of S m a l l -eyed . It feeds o n a v a r i ety of trees but pre足 fers b i rc h , w i l l ow, and cherry.


N E S S U S S P H I N X fl ies at early d usk. The l a rva resembles that of the Hog Sphinx but has a s horter horn and more o b l i q u e ma rks on the side of the body. I t feeds on grape and Virg i n i a C reeper. AZALEA S P H I N X resembles the Hog S p h i n x a l so, but the forewi n g i s brown i nstead of g reenish and the h i n dwings are entirely orange-brown. The larva feeds o n v i b u r n u m a n d azalea. H O G S P H I N X, o r Virg i n ia­ Creeper S p h i nx, shown a t rest, has h i ndwings a l most entirely bright orange-brown. I t is com­ m o n a n d sometimes becomes a pest in vineyards. U n l i ke most hawkmoth l a rvae that b u r row i n the g ro u n d t o p u pate, a Hog Sphinx l a rva forms a loose co­ coon of sil k among dead leaves on the g ro u n d .

92

H Y D RA N G EA S P H I N X occurs i n much the sa m e range a s Hog Sphinx. At rest it assumes the po­ sition shown for Hog Sphinx. The l a rva feeds on Hydrangea, But­ ton bu sh, a n d Swa m p loosestrife.


AC H E M O N S P H I N X l a r v a rese m b l e s t h a t o f P a n d o r u s S p h i n x except t h o t t h e spots o n t h e s i d es of t h e body a re long and a n g u l a r i nstead o f ova l . T h i s s p ec i e s feeds on g r a pe a n d V i rg i n i a C reeper.

& PAN DORUS SPHINX, w h e n a n a l most h a l f-grown l a rv a , loses i t s h o r n a n d acq u i res a g l a ssy eye足 spot i n i t s p l ace. The l a rva , g reen or redd i s h brow n , feeds o n g ra pe a n d V i rg i n i a C reeper. LESSER V I N E SPHINX, a trop i 足 ca l spec i e s , stra y s i n to New E n g . La rva fee d s on g ra pe a n d Va . C reeper. It i s m a rked w i t h b l a c k , w h i te , a n d r e d , a n d h a s a n eye足 spot i n p l ace of a h o r n .


Common C learwing, va ries in color with season a n d race. The ''clear" wing appears as scales weor off soe:>n afte r the moth emerges. Feeds at flowers by day. S N OW B E R R Y C L E A R W I N G a l so h a s seaso n a l a n d rac i a l for m s . I t d i ffers from t h e H u m m i ng b i rd Moth i n h a v i n g o n u n sea l ed ce l l o n t h e f r o n t e d g e of t h e fore w i n g n e a r the body.

W H I T E - L I N E D S PH I N X, or Striped Morn ing Sphinx, often flies by day. The larva is some足 times g reen with a series of yel足 low spots. When a b u n dant it is a pest, feed ing on many broadplants from southern Can足 ada i nto Centra l America. G A L I U M S PH I NX is from the Old World. The l a rva, like that of the White-l ined Sphi nx, has two color forms. In E u rope it feeds on bedstraw (Galium) b u t in Amer足 ica mainly on Epilobium and other plants.

94


CYNTH I A M OT H , i ntrod uced from C h i n a, is fou n d in cities from Boston to Sava n n a h and west足 ward to I nd i a n a _ The l a rva, which

feeds on Ailanthus, resembles the Cecropia l a rva, but all t u be rcles a re b l u e _ The cocoon s h a n g l i ke those of the Promethea Moth_

G IA N T S I L K M O T H S , most of w h i c h a re l a rg e and at足 tra ctive, n u m be r a bout

42 species n o rth of Mexi co. S o m e

h ave c l e a r spots, o r "wi n d ows," i n their w i n g s . I n s o m e the sexes d i ff e r i n s i z e a n d c o l o r, but m a les c a n a lways be told by their m o re feathery a nte n n a e . The proboscis is barely d eve loped, i n d i cati n g that a d u lts d o not feed . The h i n d w i n g h a s no fre n u l u m _ T h e l a rva, w h i c h feed s m ostly on leaves of trees a n d s h r u bs, is o r n ately a rmed with tubercles a n d spines_ The cocoo n , l o n g a n d ova l , is m a d e of si l k a n d i s atta ched t o t h e food p l a nts. Easily spotted i n winter_ T h ese n i g ht-flyi n g moths c o m e to lig hts, a n d u n mated fe m a les attra ct d i sta nt m a les. You can o b足 ta i n speci m e n s a n d study m ati n g , egg layi n g , a nd g rowth by p l a c i n g a newly e m e rged fem a l e in an o ut-of-d oors cage and wa iti n g for the m a les to rea c h the cage.

95


CECROP I A M OTH is sing le足

brooded. The female lays 200 to 300 wh itish ova l eggs, a few at a

time, usually on the u nde rsides of l eaves. The l a rva feeds o n a va足 riety of trees and s h r u bs but m a i n l y o n c h e r ry, p l u m, elder足 berry, a p ple, box-e lder, maple, wa l n ut, b i rch, a n d willow. The overwinte r i n g cocoon does not h a n g but is attached len gthwi se to a twig of the p l a n t on which the l a rva has fed .

96


G L OV ER'S S IL K M OTH re足 se m b l e s Cecropia in early stages, but ma t u re l a rva has yel low i n 足 stead o f red t h o racic tu bercles. Feed s a n che rry, wil low, alder, wild cu rra nt, a n d other p l a nts. C EANOTHUS S IL K MOTH i s s i n g le-b rooded . la rva resembles that of G l over's, b u t its yellow thoracic tu bercles a re ringed with black at the m i d d l e . Prefers buck足 bush (Ce a nothus) l eaves.

97


2.0-3.3" COLUMBIA S I LK MOTH l a rva h a s red thoracic t u be r c l e s l i ke t h a t o f Cecrop i a , b u t t h e y a re r i nged with black a t t h e base . T h e cocoo n , attached l e n g t h w i se , h a s s i l v e r y strea k s . A d u l t rese m b l e s a s m a l l Cecro p i a Moth b u t l ac k s redd i s h m a rg i n s t o t h e w h i te w i n g ba n d s .

PAN DO RA MOTH, a pest o f p i ne forests, h a s a two-yea r l i fe cyc l e . The f i r s t w i nter i s s p e n t a s a pa r t l y g rown l a rva o n trees a n d t he sec足 ond a s a p u pa in the g ro u n d . No cocoon is s p u n .

98


POLYPH E M U S M O T H , per足 haps the commonest giant silk moth, was named after the one足 eyed g i a n t Polyphemus of Greek mythology because of the large eyespots on its h i ndwings. I n the South it has two broods. The accordi!>n-shaped l a rva feeds on a variety of trees a n d shrubs, especially o n oak, hickory, elm, m a ple, a n d birch. The rounded, tough, parchment-l ike cocoon is found h a n g i n g o n the food plant.

99


P R O M E T H E A M OT H , a l so called the Spicebush Si l k Moth, was once considere d a s a pos颅 sible basis for deve lopmen t of a n American si l k i n d u stry. Males fly i n the late afternoon-an u n usual habit. Spicebush, Sassafras, T u l i p路 tree, a n d W i l d C h e rry are pre路 !erred foods of the l a rva. The cocoon is a lways s u s p e n d ed on the food p l a n t, where it can eas路 ily be seen in winter. There a re two brood s yearly in the South.

1 00


cocoon

T U L I P -T R E E S I L K M OT H l a rva feeds mostly o n t u l i p trees. I t rese m b l e s the Prometheo l a rva but has fewer and shorte r tu. bercles. The cocoon i s not fas路 tened to the food plant a s with most other l a r g e silk moths. The male looks more l i k e its mote than does the m o l e P rometheo. The T u l i p -tree Silk Moth flies o n l y at n ig ht. L i k e Prometheo, it i s d o u b l e-brooded i n the S o u t h , but it is not a s common a s Promethe a .

101


seaso n a l f o r m s where it i s d o u b le-broode d . The summer form has y e l l o w wing margi ns, whereas the spring form h o s p i n k to p u rple w i n g marg i n s. La rva feeds m a i n l y on Sweet Gum, hicko ry, w a l n u t, birch, a n d o a k . Pupa is active i n i t s papery cocoon, usually s p u n on the g ro u n d .

1 02


mole 2.0·3.0"

-

1 0 M OT H , n a med for a mythi­ cal G reek maiden, has conspicu­ o u s eyespots o n the h i ndwings. Egg s a re laid i n c l u sters. The l a rvae, which have i rritati n g s p i n es, stay to g ether a n d move i n l o n g train s. T h e y feed o n a wide variety of p l a n ts, i n c l u d i n g corn a n d roses. The l a rvae spi n thin, papery cocoon s o n the g ro u n d . SHEEP MOTH eggs, laid i n masses a r o u n d twigs, h atch i n the sprin g _ The l a rva feed s m a i n ly on p l ants of the rose family. When mature it is b rownish-black with tan a n d black spines, red spots d own the midd le, and a red l i n e o n e a c h s i d e . P u pates early. T h e m o t h emerges i n the summer, some in the second summer.


B U C K M OTH flies by day. I n fal l, females lay eggs i n c l u sters around a twig, usually oak. The eggs h atch i n spring. Like those of the lo, B uck l a rvae feed to足 g ether and have sti n g i n g spines. la rvae d o not spin cocoons but b u rrow into the ground a n d pu揃 pate. Most moths emerge i n fal l , s o m e the n ext s p r i n g o r the fol足 lowing fa l l .

the Buck Moth i n most respects. The l a rva i s greenish instead of g ray and has b rown spots on each side of the back a n d along the sides of the body. The spi足 racles are yell ow, edged with b rown . The larva feeds o n wil low and poplar. Moths are found from September to Nove mber.

1 04


RAN G E CAT E R P I LLAR, a riaus range pest in the South­ west, feeds o n g rasses a n d some­ times attacks corn a n d other crops. Moths occ u r i n the fa l l a n d , although d ay-flying, a r e at­ tracted to lig hts at nig ht- The eggs are laid in masses around plant stems. The cocoon is of loosely joined plant fragments.

T R U E S I LK M OT H S a re not native to N o rth A m erica . T h e si l kworm that produces the si l k used for th read comes from Asia, w h e re the C h i n ese fi rst learned to u n ravel the si l k from cocoons so m e

5,000 years a g o . I n c o m m e rcia l

si l k p rod ucti o n the moths a re i n d uced to lay eggs o n cards. T h e eggs hatch i n a bo ut

1 0 days, a n d t h e "wo rms"

a re fed m u l be rry leaves. T h ey eat stead i l y u nti l i n a bout a m o nth t h e si l kworm becomes f u l l - g row n . Soon every la rva is ready to spi n a cocoo n . A few cocoons a re a l­ lowed to develop i nto m oths, but m ost a re p l a ced i n boi l­ i n g water so t h ey ca n be u n raveled easily. T h e si n g l e

500 1 ,300 yards l o n g . Stra n d s a re com b i n ed to make a

stra n d o f si l k t h a t m a kes e a c h cocoon m a y be from to

th read not yet d u p l i cated by a n y synthetic fiber.


R EGAL, O R R OYAL , M OT H S a re medi u m - to l a rge­ si zed . There a re fewer tha n twe n ty sp ecies in A m e ri c a n o rth of Mexico. Caterpi l l a rs, genera l ly spi ny, f e e d o n m a n y k i n d s of trees. la rva e o f so m e species a re destruc­ tive to forests and shade planti n g s . The caterpi l l a rs d o n ot spi n cocoons b u t bu rrow i nto the g r o u n d , where the p u pa i s fo rmed. At rest, Rega l Moths usua l ly fold their wings roof- l i k e over their bodies. like si l k m oths they a re n ot attracted to bait but a re attra cted to lig hts.

M OT H varies i n the color o f its wings a n d in the presence or a bsence of forewi ng markings. The la rva feeds on Honey Locust a n d Ken­ tucky Coffee Tree. This m oth is d o u b le·brooded. I t ove rwinters a s a p u pa i n the g r o u n d . RO SY M A P L E M OTH l a rva, called the Green·striped Maple Worm, overwinters a s a pupa. Like oakworms (p. 1 07) they feed i n large colonies and sometimes strip Red and Silver m a ples of their leaves. There a re two broods yearly.


OAKWO R M M O T H S a re easier to te l l a p a rt as l a rva e th a n as a d u lts. La rva e feed in colon ies, someti m es so populous as to co m p l etely strip forests. F e m a l es a re l a rg e r t h a n m a l es, with t h i n n e r a nte n n a e a n d sto uter bodies. O R A N G E-ST R I P E D WORM The male

OAK路

of the fem a l e are thinner a n d less speckled than those o f the female Spiny Oakworm.

S P I N Y OAKWORM is the la rgest of the species i l l u strated. The male resembles the female more closely than i n the other Oakworm species.

P I N K - ST R I P E D OAKWORM Male has na rrower, more tria n g u路 lor forewings, thinner beyond the spot than other species. Fe路 male lacks spotting o n

-y


ROYAL WALN UT MOTH or Reg o l Mot h , o s a l a r v a , i s ca l l ed t h e H i ckory Hor ned Dev i l f o r i t s sca ry a p pea rance a n d i ts food p l a nt足 h i c kory. l t a l so eats wa l n u t, peca n , sweet g u m , a n d s u m a c . T h e mot h , seen i n m i d s u m m e r, h a s o n l y o n e brood a yea r. The p u pa l stage of a few moths may l a s t for two w i n t e r s .

1 08


IMPERIAL M O T H is dimorph ic, the female being much larger a n d yellower t h a n the male. A t rest thei r wings a re p a rtly spread, as show n . The l a rva, usually g reen but someti mes tan o r dark brown, feeds m a i n ly o n oak, maple, p i n e, sycamore, Sweet G u m, and Sasso路 fras. I t i s sing le颅 brooded .

1 09


T I G E R M OT H S a re sma l l to m ed i u m i n size a n d g e n e r颅 a l ly light i n color. Ma ny have conspicuous spots or stripes. O n ly a few of some

200 species n o rth of Mexico h a ve

f u n ction a l m o uth parts. Adu lts, especia l ly m a les, c o m e rea d i ly to lig hts. Most l a rvae a re covered w i t h a dense coat of h a i rs, which a re shed a n d mixed with si l k when the cocoon i s made. Most cate rpi l l a rs m ove a bo u t ra pi d l y a n d a re a ctive by d a y . They com m o n ly r o l l i nto a ba l l disturbed . G R EAT L E O P A R D M OTH is well named far its wing spots. The hairs on the cate r p i l l a r a re very stiff, a n d crimson rings be路 tween seg ments show d istinctly when the la rva rolls i nto a ba l l . Feeds o n plantain. Cocoon i s s p u n i n spr i n g . La rva overwinters .

.'


ACREA M OTH larva, called the Salt Marsh Caterpillar, feeds on herbaceous pla nts. It is double-brooded. The larvae are often abundant i n fall and over足 winter as pupae in cocoons. Ad u l t w i n g s are profusely spotted. T h e f e m a l e has white h i ndwings.

ISABELLA MOTH i s not as we l l known a s its caterp i l l a r, the Banded Woo l l y Bea r. The a m o u n t of b l a c k o n each e n d of i t s b o d y d o e s not, of course, pred i ct t h e co l d n e s s of the co m i ng w i n te r. T h e re a re two broods yea r l y ; cocoo n s a re formed i n spring a nd s u m m e r.

cocoon

111


G A R D E N T I G E R M OTH is so vo rioble thot its forms look like different species. The hindwings may be yellow with d a r k spots, a n d the forewings may bear very broad white ba nds. FA L L W E BW O R M is a lso vari足 able. Some moths have heavily spotted wings. Others have anly a few black d ots. The bodies of some a re yel l ow with b lack d ots on the sides, while others a re p l a i n white. The social l a rvae ex足 tend their webs ove r the foliage of the m a n y deciduous trees on which they feed . The webs may soon cover l a rge branches. These webs a re sometimes confused with those of tent caterpil l a rs (p. 1 38). Large n u m bers of eggs a re laid i n ma sses, u s u a l l y on the undersides of leaves. P u pae overwinter i n cocoons.


... CLY M E N E is a H a plaa Tiger Moth, of which there are five species north of Mexico. In some the hindwings are white or buff. Clymene hos one brood. The moths occ u r i n m idsummer. A P A N T E S I S TIGER MOTHS i n c l u d e some 30 species, often varyi n g g reatly in color. In gen· eral their forewi n g s ore jet black with i r reg u l a r w h ite strea ks, a n d t h e i r h i n dwings a re yel l ow or red with black spots or bands. The h a i ry caterpi l l a rs l ive over the winter and feed mostly o n herba­ ceous p l a nts. Males are common­ ly captu red at lig hts. ARGE is d o u b l e·brooded, with moths occurring J u ne and Sept. VI RGO has a typical Apa ntesis color patte r n . I t is sing le­ brooded, with m oths on the wing mainly i n J u ly.

Vi rgo Tiger Moth

1 .8·3.0"

1 13


HIC KORY TU SSOCK MOTH is a forest pest of h i ckory, wa l n u t, a n d other trees. T h e m o t h i s fo u n d i n m i d s u m m e r. E g g s a r e l a i d i n m a s ses, a n d t h e l a rvae feed i n co l o n i es b u t d o not m a ke webs. They m a y be com mo n i n l a te s u m 足 mer a nd fa l l .

ca l l ed t h e B a n ded Tussock Mot h . T h e l a rva, f r o m ye l l o w i s h t o g ray, feeds on a v a r iety of trees. L i fe h i story i s l i ke t h e Spotted . It over足 w i nters in a soft, h a i r y cocoo n . A Syca more Tussock Moth is very s i m i l a r.

1 14


YELLOW WOOLLY BEAR l a rvae are seen more commonly than the a d u lts. They vary from pale yellow to reddish a n d a re confused with Acree Moth la rvae (p. 1 1 1 ), but have black heads. There a re two broods.

1 .0 - 1 .8"

RA N C H M A N ' S T I G E R M OTH � is one of the la rgest a n d m ost attractive mem bers of this g r o u p . Another com m o n f o r m of this moth has yellow hindwings a n d a yellow

D O G B A N E T I G E R M OT H � varies in the a m o u n t of yellow on the front edge of the fore· wing. I t is probably double­ brooded. The caterpil l a r, with a n u n usually l i g ht hairlike covering, feeds a l most entirely on dog­ bane. May be very common.

1 .3-1 .8"

1 15


S H OWY H O L O M E L I N A is the brightest of the eight or so holo足 melina moths of North America. Others a re mainly yellowish, g ray, or d u l l red. The l a rva, l i ke that of the Dog bane Moth, has a soft, h a i rlike covering. The co足 coon is very thin, with few hairs. MILKW E E D TU SSOCK MOTH i s bette r k n o w n b y i t s l a r v a , w h i c h i s fo u n d i n l a te s u m m e r feed i n g i n co l o n i es o n m i l kweed . W h e n d i s足 tu rbed it freq u e n t l y rol l s i n to a ba l l a n d d rops from the p l a n t . The pupa ove r w i nters i n a cocoo n w h i c h i s very h a i r y.

BELLA M OT H , o r Ra!!lebox Moth, is loca l ly common but is re足 stricted to the vici n ity of its food pla nt, Rattlebox, and othe r kinds of Crota/aria. The la rva lacks the hairs typical of tiger moths. The pupa, which is u n usually o rnate, overwinters.

1 16


CTE N U C H A M O T H S , dayti m e fl iers, look like wasps when feed i n g at fl owers. La rva e feed on ma rsh g ra sses. H a i ry cocoons and larvae rese m b l e those of so m e c losely related ti g e r moths. A m o u nts of yel low a nd black h a i rs va ry i n Virginia Cte n u c h a la rvae. S m a l ler, n a rrower­ winged Brown Cte n u ch a Moth has a more south e r n ra n g e .

FO R E S T E R MOTH S M o r e than two d o z e n American species a re known. They differ from m ost noctuid m oths (p. 1 1 8) in having the ends of the a n te n n a e thickened. The Eig ht-spotted Forester is below. Its d o u b l e - b rood ed larva feeds o n g r a pe and wood b i n e .

DIOPTID MOTHS a re represehted by o n l y o n e species in N orth Am erica n orth of Mexico, the C a l ifornia Oak­

worm Mot h . It is a pest of live oaks i n C a l ifornia, some­ times stri p p i n g these trees. The C a lifornia Oakworm, brown with

n ea r l y tra nsparent wings, is

double-brooded. It ove rwi nters as eggs o r ti n y l a rvae. The fem a l e Cali­ fornia Oa kworm Moth lacks the yel­ lowish patch n ea r t h e m id-forewi n g . C a lifornia Oakworn:t larva


NOCTUI D MOTHS (pp. 1 1 8- 1 3 1 ) n u m ber over 2,600

kinds in America n orth of Mexico. Many are serious pests of farm a n d garden c rops a n d forest a n d shade trees. Among these are the we l l- k n own a rmyworms, c utworms, and Corn Earworm . N octu ids va ry g reatly in habits, but m ost a d u l ts fl y at night and feed on the n ectar of fl owers. Most n octu ids are attracted to lig hts and to ba its contain足 i n g sugar. Some overwinter as p u pae i n the ground or i n t h i n cocoons above g r o u n d . Oth ers overwi nter a s la rvae and a few as eggs or adu lts. They are someti mes cal led owlet m oths, from the way their eyes shine i n the dark when a l i g ht strikes them. B L A C K W I T C H , o r Giant Noctu id, is the la rgest of the family within our range. I t is a tropical species, sometimes straying n orthward i nto Canada in the f a l l . Its shade af b rown varies. The wings of the fema les come to a less sharp point at the a pex. La rva feeds on acacia and similar pla nts. Conside red a pest i n Hawa i i .

3 .5-6.0"

1 18


AM E � C A N DAGG E R M OTH is the l a rgest o f the daggers. The la rva feeds on a variety of trees. Winter is passed as a p u pa, often in an old stu m p . The cocoon in­ cludes the hair of the l a rva .

DAGG E R M O T H S (so m e 70 kinds) a re so n a m ed for

the dagger-like mark n e a r the forewi n g o uter m a rg i n .

Ad u lts a re s i m i l a r but m a n y o f the l a rvae a re q uite differ­ ent. Some a re h a i ry, with cha racteristic tufts of l o n g e r h a i r ca l led pencils. Oth e r la rvae lack h a i r a n d may be spi n y . Dagger moths overw i n te r a s p u pa e .

S M E A R E D DAG G E R M OT H occurs more commonly i n wet� l a nds, where the la rva feeds o n willow, sma rtweed, a lder, Button­ bush, a n d catta i l . Overwi nterin g cocoon is thin but stro n g .

COTTO N W O O D DAGGER M OTH varies g reatly i n m a r k· i n g s. la rva has soft yellow h a i r l ike America n Dagger but has five hair pencils on its abdomen. I t feeds o n poplars a n d willows.

1 19


C U TWO R M M OT H S a re n o ctuids w h ose l a rvae, o r

c u tworms, cut o ff y o u n g p l a nts j u st a bove t h e g ro u n d . S o m e c u tworms d r a g c ut-off porti o n s of p l a n ts i nto a h o l e . S o m e a re c l i m bers, feed i n g o n fo l i a g e of b u s h e s a n d trees. A l l feed at n i g h t. C e rta i n species o c c u r o n l y i n sp ri n g , others o n l y i n fa l l ; m a n y have severa l broods e a c h yea r. S o m e f u l l - g rown la rva e re m a i n at rest with o u t feed­ ing from spri n g to late s u m m er, when t h ey p u pate.

BLACK C U TW O R M , a l so called the G reasy C utworm, oc­ c u rs throughout the U.S. and southe r n Canada. Larva is a b u r­ rower, found mostly in low spots. Overwi nters a s a p u p a .

S POTT E D C U TW O R M i s one of the most d a m a g i n g , feed ing o n a wide va riety of pla nts a n d often c l i m b i n g t h e m . It over­ wi nters a s a nearly mature l a rva. May have th ree broods yearly.

W-M A R K E D C U TWORM i s a c l i m ber, feed i n g on a wide va­ riety of trees, s h r u bs, and her­ baceous pla nts. I t overwinters a s a larva a n d , i n m ost a reas, has two breeds each year.

PALE-S I D E D C U TW O R M l ives m ostly i n a t u n n e l i nto which it d rags p ieces of cut-off pla nts for food . There may be four broods yearly. The winter i s passed in the pupal sta ge.


PALE W E ST E R N C U TWORM moths occ u r i n A u g . a n d Sept. and lay eggs o n newly c u ltivated l a n d . Overwintering may be as eggs or yo u n g l a rvae. Pla nts a re attacked below the soil s u rface.

1 .3· 1 .5"

C U T· GARDEN ST R I P E D WO R M is sing le-b rood ed. The moth occu rs throughout most of U.S. in s u m m e r . L a rvae rest ex­ posed on food p l a nts. They ma­ ture and p u pate i n f a l l .

G LASSY C U TW O R M occu rs from C a n a d a to N . J . a n d west to the Pacific. It feeds o n roots and lower ste ms of g rasses. I t is sing le-brooded a n d overwi nters os partly g rown l a rv a .

larva

larva

1 .3 - 1 .5"

S POTT E D - S I D E D C U TWO R M h a s one g e n eration. The moth occ urs from Al berta a n d Texas eastward i n the fa l l . F u l l -g rown l a rvae a p pea r o n dock and c h ick­ weed i n early s p r i n g .

121


DARK- S I D E D C U TWORM is a clim ber, sometimes very d e足 structive to orchards a n d shrubs. Eggs hatch d u ring winter and la rvae become f u l l-g rown by J u n e. There i s o n e brood.

STRI P E D CUTWORM closely resembles Dark-sided C u tworm but d iffers m uc h i n life history. Eggs hatch i n the fa ll and partly g rown larvae h ibernate in the soil, feed ing again in spring.

B R O N Z E D C U TWORM prefers g rasses and cerea ls. Moths occur i n Sept. a n d Oct. a n d eggs hatch d u ring winter. By April or May the larvae are f u ll-g rown, but they d o not p u pate until J u ly.

WHITE C U TWORM sometimes damages the buds and young l eaves of grapes a n d fruit trees. I ts life h istory i s l i ke that of the Striped Cutworm . Head and spir足 acles of la rva vary in color.

1 22


D I N G Y C U TW O R M wi nters a s immature l a rva, matu ring i n late spring. I t l ies i nactive (estivates) until A u g ust, when it p u pates, emerg i n g a s a math i n a month or so.

B R I STLY C U TW O R M often oc­ c u rs i n clover with the Dingy C ut­ worm. It is d o u b l e-brooded. La rva com pletes g rowth i n the spring like that D i n g y C ut­ worm but d oes n n1fl �>d;,,nt..

C U TWO R M , probably t h e mast d estructive cutworm, attacks m a n y d iffe rent cra ps. I t overwi nters as a p u p a a n d may h a v e four broods. Oc­ curs throughout North America .

ARMY· WO R M , also cal led Cotton C u t­ worm beca use it bores i n to cotto n bolls, is com mon in the South. Feeds on many plants. Winter is passed as a p u pa.

1 23


FALL A R M YWORM by mid­ summer spreads north from the Gulf states b u t d ies out by win­ ter. In the South there may be three broods. Prefers g ra sses a n d often attacks c o r n .

ARMYWORM has t w o or m o re broods. The spring o n e is m ost destructive, especia l ly to oats and s m a l l g ra i ns. Natural ene­ m ies red uce later broods. It over­ winters as m oth, p u pa, o r l a rva.

A R M YWO R M M OT H S a re n octuid m oths wh ose l a r­ vae tend to m i g rate i n "a rmies" to n ew feed i n g a reas after d estroy i n g vegetati o n in fields where t h e i r eggs were l a i d . Active a t n i g h t a nd h i d i n g by day, the l a rvae feed m ostly o n g ra sses a n d sma l l g ra i n s . B E ET A R M YWORM is a com­ mon pest of s u g a r beets i n the West. la rva resembles that of Fall Armyworm, but the pale cen­ tral line along the back is less d isti nct. Overwinters a s p u pa .

1 24

W H EAT H EAD A R M YWORM feeds mainly o n tim othy a n d wheat h e a d s , attacking at n ight. F u l l-g rown l a rva is about one inch l o n g with n a rrow pale stri pes. Ove rwinters a s a pupa.


occ u rs in vast n u mbers a n d trav­ e l s i n huge a rmies. Moths emerge i n late summer a n d lay eggs in the so i l . Y o u n g l a rva ove rwinters. Two a d u l t forms shown : ( 1 ) , (2) .

on a wide variety of g a rd e n a n d fi e l d cro ps. T h e r e are u s u a l l y two b roods each year, moths occu r­ ring in May a n d Aug ust. Over­ winters i n p u p a l stag e .

COTTON L E A FWORM is a slender, l o o p i n g l a rva that feeds only o n cotto n . Spines at end of the moth's t o n g u e sometimes i n ­ j u r e r i p e f r u it. T h i s tropical spe­ cies ca n n ot su rvive U .S. w i n ters.

G R E E N C L O V E RWO R M , a looping la rva, feeds on clover, a lfalfa, and other legu mes. W i n ­ ter is usually p assed a s a n a d u lt but some may w i nter as p u pa e . T h e r e are t w o to four broods.

1 25


ALFALFA LOO P E R , in spite of its n a me, feeds on a wide va· r iety of pla nts, i n c l u d i n g cereals. Winte r is passed i n pupal a n d a d u l t stages. There are two b roods, the secon d in J u ly.

CABBAGE L O O P E R , a com­ m o n species, feed s mostly o n cab­ bage and other members of the cabbage fa mily. Two b roods oc­ c u r i n the North. H ibernates as p u pa i n loosely woven cocoon.

LOO P E R S is a n a m e m ost c o m m o n l y used for l a rvae of geom eter moths ( p. 1 40), but l a rvae of some n octu id m oths are a lso ca l led loo pers beca use they h u m p their backs when craw l i n g . The noctuid l a rvae have fewer t h a n t h e n o r m a l fou r pa i rs of prolegs a n d claspers. C E L E RY LOO P E R i n the l a rva l stage c losely resem bles the Cab­ bage Looper. There a re at least two b roods. The summer form is b rown, as i l lustrated. A spring form is g ray.

1 26

B I LO B E D LOO P E R feeds o n a l ­ falfa, clover, a n d m a n y other pla nts. Larva resem b les Cabbage Leaper's but has stripes a n the sides of its head. I t hibernates as a p u pa i n a thin cocoon .


FORAG E LOO P E R is some­ times d estructive to clover. Mark­ ings of forewings a re m uc h less d istinct in females. Three broods occ u r from spring to fal l . P u p a overwinters o n l eaves.

LU NATE ZALE often has I o rg e g reen patc h e s o n t h e w i ng m a r­ g i n s . P u pa ove r w i nters in soi l . T h e l a rva v a r i e s g re a t l y i n co l o r a n d looks l i ke those of t h e u n d e rw i n g moths ( p . 1 2 8 ) .

G R E E N FRU I TW O R M eats i n ­ to y o u n g a p ples, pea rs, cherries, and other fruit i n spring. Moths emerge in the fal l and overwinte r . T h e l a rva resembles t h a t of C o p ­ p e r U n derwi ng (p. 1 30).

D R I E D L EA F M OTH , o r Litte r Moth, l a rva feeds on l ichens a n d d e a d leaves. T h e d evelopment from tiny eggs is very slow. The moths a re o n the wing i n mid­ summer a n d a re sing l e-brooded.

1 27


W I DOW U N D E RW I N G is one of some seventeen cotoca l a moths with plain dark brown under足 wings. This caterpi l l a r feed s m ostly on w a l n u t a n d h ickory.

U N D E RW I N G , OR CATOCALA, M OT H S (about 1 00 kinds i n A m e rica n o rth of Mexi co) rea d i l y c o m e to

l i g h t and bait. Oth e rwise they would rarely be see n , fo r in d a y l i g h t they rest we l l c a m o ufl a ged on tree t r u n k s with t h e i r u n de rw i n g s h i d d e n . la rvae a lso rest by day on t r u n k s o r l i m bs, o r u n d e r debris o n the g ro u n d where the th i n cocoons a re a lso fo u n d . They have one b rood a n d overwinter a s eggs o n ba rk of trees.

W H I T E U N D E RW I N G varies g reatly i n the fo rewi ng patte r n . The cate r p i l l a r closely resemb les that of the Widow U n d erwing but feeds o n willow and poplar.

1 28


A H O L I BAH U N D E RW I N G is hard to tell from several other catocala moths. Note its large size, with a wingspread occasion-

a l ly exceed i n g th ree i n ches. Lar足 va feeds o n oak. I t lacks the striped sadd l e patch of the Wi足 d ow U n derwing l a rva.

T I N Y N Y M P H U N D E RW I N G i s o n e o f several species of small catocalas with similar yellow un足 derwings. The forewi ngs vary g reatly i n patte r n . The l a rva feeds on oak.

P E N I T E N T U N D E RW I N G flies from July to October. La rva lacks the fringe of hairs a n d swol l e n sadd l e patch of the W i d o w U n 足 derwi ng cate r p i l l a r larva. Feeds o n wa l n ut and h ickory.


C O P P E R U N D E RW I N G occurs from midsummer to fall but hides i n cracks d u ring the d ay. In the spring, l a rva feeds o n many pla nts, including Wood bine. It, too, is not a catocal a u nderwi n g .

1 30

P E A R LY is o n e of th ree wood nymphs. Bea u 足 tiful Wood Nymph is l a r g e r a n d has a d a r k m a r g i n o n t h e hind足 wing. Calif. Wood Nymph has a black dot on hindwing.


White-vei ned Dagger

1 .0 - 1 .8"

W H ITE-VE I N E D DAG G E R re­ sembles the Smeared Dagger ( p . 1 1 9) i n the l a rval stag e b u t has finer h a i r. Feeds o n marsh pla nts, especially catta il. Cocoon is made in folded leaves.

STA L K B O R E R , a pest of corn, feeds i n the stal ks of many pla nts, especia lly Giant Ragweed . Eggs laid i n fall h a tc h very early i n spring. Bright b o d y stripes are lost a s the l a rva matu res i n sum­ mer. There i s only o n e genera­ tion a n n u a l ly.

C O R N EA RWO R M , the famil­ i a r worm i n e a rs of corn, is also called Tomato Fru itworm and Bollworm. la rvae are often found i n the fruit of m a n y pla nts. Win­ ter is passed as a p u pa i n the soil. There may be several broods each year.

131


T H E P RO M I N E N T S , n u m bering a bo u t 1 00 species n o rth of Mexico, rese m b l e noctuids. Rea d i ly a ttra cted to lights. Many of them ca n be told by their h a i ry legs w h e n a t rest. la rva e of m ost species l i v e o n t r e e leaves. Ma n y species l a c k a n a l p r o l e g s a n d h o l d their rea r e n d s erect. 1 .0-1 .8"

T E N T足 on poplar a n d willow. la rva resem b les that of the Poplar Te ntmaker. I t over足 winters as p u pa, often in its tent. POPLAR T E N T M A K E R is one of seven tentmakers. A l l tent足 maker l a rvae a r e g regarious. They l ive i n a s i l k-lined tent made by d rawing l eaf edges together. This d o u bl e-b rooded species feeds o n willow and poplar. T E N TAC L E D P RO M I N E N T occ urs from Q u e . a n d I l l . south to Fla. and Tex. S i m i l a r species occ u r throughout the U.S. la rva feeds on aspen a n d wil low a n d waves vivid tentacles when a l a rmed. The p u p a overwi nters

1 32


Y E LLOW- N E C K E D CATE R足 P I L L A R feeds o n m a n y kinds of trees, p refe rring apple. U n like most hand-maid moths, it has a sca l l oped outer m a r g i n on the forewi n g .

H A N D - MA I D M OT H S n u m be r 1 2 s p e c i e s that re足 se m b le one a n oth e r c losely. The la rvae feed i n colonies a n d m a y be n u merous e n o u g h to strip trees. W h e n dis足 turbed they h o l d both e n d s of their bodies erect. Most species a re s i n g le- brooded, ove rwi nteri n g as p u p a e i n the g ro u n d . The Wa l n ut Caterpi l l a r feeds o n wa l n ut a n d h i ckory. T h e S u m a c Caterpi l l a r feed s o n ly o n s u m a c . T h e outer m a r g i n s of the forewi n g s o f th ese two moths a re straig ht. T h e moth of the Wa l n ut Caterpi l l a r is d a r k .

1 33


S A D D L E D PROM I N E N T is so named for the sad d l e m a r k o n the back of the g reen, pointed足 tailed l a rva, which feeds m a i n ly on leaves of beech a n d maple. The moth resembles that of the Va riable Oak Leaf Cate r p i l l a r. V A R I A B L E O A K L EA F CAT足 E R P I LLAR, found i n late s u m 足 mer and fall, m a y lay 500 e g g s singly, on oak. La rva overwinters i n the soil and p u pates i n spri n g .

A N G U I N A M OTH is commonly recog nized by its u n usual cater足 pillar, which feeds o n va rious legumes, especi a l l y locust. The Anguina Moth is d o u b l e-brooded . E L M LEAF CATE R P I L L A R is well camouflaged on e l m foliage. Moths occu r in J u ne a n d August. P u pae spe n d winter i n cocoons o n the g ro u n d .

1 34


is d o u b l e-brooded. The moth lays eggs i n masses on the u n d e rsides of a p ple, cherry, and other leaves. The l a rvae are g re足 garious. Cocoons overwinter on the g r o u n d ; p u pate i n spring.

U N I CO R N CAT E R P I LLAR has a life h istory similar to the Red足 h u m ped Caterpilla r's, but it is not g regarious and feeds mostly o n Wild C herry and willow.

ROU G H P RO M I N E N T d o u b l e-brooded only i n northern pa rt o f its range. T h e la rva, w h i c h feed s mostly on oaks, p u pates i n the soil. R E D - H U M P E D OAKWORM is g regarious only a s young l a rva. I t feeds on varieties of oaks a n d i s d o u b l e-brooded i n t h e South. The cocoon is spun on the g r o u n d .

1 35


MOTH is E u rasia n . F o u n d i n Mass. a n d B r . Columbia i n 1 920, it has spread through N . E . a n d N.W. U.S. a n d Canada. I n J u l y eggs a re laid i n masses. La rva prefers poplar and wil low. I t hibernates when partly g rown.

, num

a bout 30 sp eci es, get

their n a m e from the brightly colored tufts of h a i r on the l a rvae. Hairs of some species are i rritati n g . Ad u lt legs a re h a i ry. Some fe ma les a re a l m ost w i n g less. T h e a n 足 te n n a e o f ma les a re feath ery. Tussock moths h a v e n o to n g u e . Severa l tusso c k m o t h s , i n c l ud i n g t h e S a t i n a n d Gypsy Moths, a re pests o f forest a n d s h a d e trees. G Y P S Y M OT H , a cc i d e n t a l l y introd uced from E u rope a bout 1 868 i n to M a ss . , now occ u r s from Co n . t o N . C . w . t o M i c h . a n d I l l . I t over足 w i n ters a s eggs. Larvae feed g re足 g a r i o u s l y o n m a n y k i n d s of trees, espec i a l l y oa k s . They becom e f u l l g rown i n J u l y. larva

1 36


WH I T E - M A R K E D T U S S O C K M OTH is a serious pest of m a n y decid uous trees. I t is d o u ble足 brooded. The w i n g l ess female l ays eggs, w h ic h overwinter, o n her cocoon. The p u pa l stage lasts about 2 weeks. W ESTERN T U S S O C K M OT H i s s i n g l e-brooded, overwinters a s eggs o n the cocoon . Lo rva feeds o n many trees and sometimes damages a pp l es. Except for black heads and crimson prolegs, it resembles l a rva of White足 m a rked Tussock Moth. RU STY TUSSOCK M OTH m a l e is r ust b rown i n color. U n 足 l ike the t w o a bove species, e g g s are not covered w i t h h a i r from the female. La rva h a s black head a n d black hair pencils on sides of abdomen. P I N E TUSSOCK MOTH is a pest of J ack, Pitch, a n d Red p i n es, spruce, and sometimes fir. I t is s i n g l e-brooded, overwinters a s h a ir-covered eggs. Male fore足 wings are relatively wel l-marked.

1 37


LAS I OCAM P I DS a re a fa m i ly of some thi rty N o rth America n m oths of m e d i u m size with sto ut h a i ry bodies. T h ey a re rea d i ly attra cted to lights. Females a re like the m a les but larger. T h e m ost fa m i liar species a re t h e tent caterp i l l a rs, pests of fo rest, shade, and orch a rd trees. EAST E R N TENT CAT E R P I L足 LAR overwinters in "va r n ish揃 coated" egg masses a ro u n d twigs. The la rvae h a t c h i n e a rly spring, form ing silky tents i n crotches o f limbs. T h e y f e e d out足 side their te nts, using them only for resting, u n l ike F a l l Web足 worms which feed o n the l eaves enclosed withi n their silken webs. Apple a n d cherry are the most common food pla nts.

WESTERN TENT CATERPI LLAR has a l i fe h i stor y s i m i l a r to the E a s t e r n Te n t C a t e r p i l l a r ' s , b u t u n l i ke t h a t spec i e s , i t i n c l udes oa k a mo n g i t s m a n y food p l a n t s .

1 38


LAR feeds on a va riety of de足 cid uous trees. The l a rvae d o not make tents but spin silken mats on tru nks o r limbs where they rest a n d molt. The egg masses ove rwi nter. There is one brood .

ZAN O L I D S a re c l osely related to t h e pro m i n e nts (pp.

1 32- 1 35). There a re o n ly th ree species in N o rth America, a l l occurri n g east of the Rockies. Eggs a re fl a t a n d wafer足 like. T h e densely h a i ry l a rvae feed si n g ly o n leaves of trees and bush es. They m a ke n o cocoon but pu pate in the g r o u n d and overwinter there.

man

in

some y e a rs .

The

l a rva,

w i t h d e n se, long, shaggy ca n a ry足 y e l l ow h a i r, feeds m a i n l y on W i l d C he r ry . T h e W i l d

C h e rry

Moth

h a s one b rood a n n u a l l y.

1 39


G E O M E T E R , m e a n i n g ea rth m e a s u rer, refers to t h e way the cra w l i n g l a rvae of th ese species draw the rea r of the body up to the front l e g s, form i n g a loop, and t h e n exte n d the body a g a i n . T h e cra w l i n g pattern is a ssociated with only two o r t h ree p a i rs of a b d o m i n a l l egs. Geom eters are a l so ca l l ed l o o pers, i n chworms, m e a s u r i n g worms, a n d spa nworms. Most geometer m oths h a v e t h i n b o d i e s a n d relative l y b road, de l icate w i n g s . T h e fe m a l es of some species a re w i n g l ess. More t h a n 1 ,000 species of geome颅 ters l ive i n N o rth America; som e a re serious pests. fema le and eggs

FALL C A N K E RW O R M feeds o n many kinds of trees but pre路 fers a p p l e and e l m . The moths emerge late i n fall when the wingless females lay eggs i n masses o n tree t r u n ks. T h e eggs hatch i n spring. SPRING C A N K E RW O R M l a rvae differ from F a l l C a n ker. worm1s i n having two rathe r than th ree abdominal p rolegs, but, l i ke them, p u p ate in the soi l . The moths occ u r mostly i n spring. B R U C E S PA N W O R M occurs from N.J. to Quebec, and west to Al berta. The moth occ u rs i n fa l l o n Sugar Maple, poplar, beech, and other trees. The fem a l e is wingless. The l a rva resembles Spring C a n kerworm's i n form but has six n a r row wh ite stripes.

0.9路1 .4"'

1 40


S P E A R- M A R K E D B L A C M OTH h a s variable amou nts of black and wh ite. I t has two b roods per year. Larvae live to揃 g ether i n nests of leaves, mostly b i rch and willow. Pupae over足 winte r in soi l . C H E RRY SCALLOP-SH E L L M OTH i s commonly seen i n the l a rval stag e i n n ests of wild che rry l eaves. D o u bl e-brood ed. The p u p a overwinters i n the soi l . C U RRANT S P A N WORM is a pest of c u rrant a n d g ooseberry. Eggs a re l a id i n early sum mer but d o not hatch u ntil the next spring. La rva p u pates i n the soil i n May or early J u ne.

occ u r i n early spring. The fe足 m a les are w i n g l ess. La rva feeds mainly on Live Oak but also at足 tacks Engl ish Wa l n u t a n d othe r f r u i t trees. Single-brooded.


<IIIII

L I N D E N LOO P E R moths occ u r i n fa l l . T h e f e m a l e is wingless. Eggs are laid singly or i n small grou ps. They hatch in spring. La rva feeds o n m a n y kinds of l eaves besides linden.

P E P P E R-AN D-SALT occurs in late spring a n d early s u m m er. Both sexes a re winged. The l a rva, cal led C l eft-headed Spa nworm, feeds on many decid足 uous trees. Pupa overwinters.

Snow-wh ite Linden is Moth. Groups of eggs are laid i n J uly o n bark of trees, pass the winter th ere, a n d hatc h i n spring. La rva feeds o n m a n y trees be足 sides e l m .

1 . 1 - 1 .5"

1 42

H E M LOCK LOO P E R feeds mostly o n hemlock and Balsam Fir. Moths occu r i n late summer. Their eggs, w h ich hatch the fol足 lowing spring, a re laid singly ar i n small g r o u ps a n bark a r need les.


CHAI N -SPOTTE D G E O M ­ ETER moths occu r from Aug. to Oct. Eggs ove rwinter, hatching late i n spring. larva feeds mostly on shrubs a n d sma l l trees. P u pae form on leaves i n loose cocoons.

ll;l�a�r;v�a -

...___

..,.....

T H R E E-S POTT E D F I L L I P is single-broode d . Moths occ u r in early summer. larva is green with n arrow, broken, white l ines and a yellow stripe on each side of the back. I t feeds o n maple. C ROC U S G E O M ETER, or Cranberry looper, feeds o n m a n y l ow-g row i n g pla nts. Moths occ u r in early summer. They vary g reatly in a m o u n t of wing spotting. Females are often spotless. P u pa overwinters.

LARGE M A P L E SPANWORM prefers maple a n d oak to its many other food plants. The l a rva � resembles a twig . There a re two b roods. Moths occ u r lhroug h the summer. P u pa overwinters.

1 43


BAGWO R M , or Evergreen Bog足 worm, is common from Moss. and Kans. south to Fla. and Tex. Feeds mainly on evergreens as well as locust, syca more, a n d wil足 l ow. Eggs overwinter i n bag. Moths emerge i n fal l .

BAGWO R M M OT H S o re n a med for t h e si lken bag which the la rva covers with bits of the food plant. W h e n f u l l - g rown, it faste ns the b a g to a twi g a n d c h a nges to a p u p a . The fe m a l e moth is wing less a n d leg less. S h e lays her eggs i n side the bag . There o re a bout 20 species of bagworm m oths in N o rth America .

CLEARW I N G M O T H S , with tra n spa rent wings, re足 se m b le bees and wasps. T h ey fly in the dayti m e and feed at fl owers. la rvae o re borers i n bark, ste m s, o r roots of trees, or in stem s or roots of s m a l l e r p l a nts. A few of the

1 25 N o rth American species a re pests. PEACH T R E E BORER attacks stone fruit trees near the g round. I t occurs i n southern Canada and the U n ited Stoles. Color pattern varies throughout its range. It is sing le-brood ed.

1 44

SCj)UASH V I N E B O R E R occ u rs in most of North America except along the Pacific coast. La rva feed s in squash stems a n d is a serious pest. It overwinters in the ground; p u pates i n the spring.


CAT E R P I LSA D D L E BAC K L A R , named for the ova l brown spot o n its back, has d isti nctive stinging spines. I t feeds o n vari­ ous p l a nts, i n c l u d ing corn, rose, cherry, and Pawpaw.

S P I N Y OAK-S L U G a lso h a s sti n g i n g spines. Besides oak, it feed s o n pea r, w i l l ow, che.rry, and other trees. The moth occurs i n J u ne. The n u m be r of g reen spots o n the forewing varies.

S L U G CAT E R P I L LA R M OT H S n u m be r ove r 40 N o rt h A m e r i ca n species. The l a rvae c r a w l l i ke s l ugs; t h e i r t h o ­ racic l egs a r e sma l l a n d i nstead of prol egs t h e y h a v e suck­ i n g d i scs. T h e ova l to s p h e rical cocoo n , m a d e of dark b rown sil k, h a s a l i d a t o n e e n d w h i c h the emerging moth pushes aside. la rva e overwinter i n t h e cocoo ns. HAG M OTH feeds mostly o n shrubs. The l a rva, sometimes called Mon key Slug, has projec­ tions bea ring sti n g i n g h a i rs along its sides. These hairs are woven i nto the cocoon .

S K I F F M OT H occurs i n mid­ summer. Eggs a re foot a n d wafer­ l i ke. la rva, without h a i r or sti ng­ ing spines, p refers oak, Wild C herry, a n d syca more. H a s dis­ tinct races varying in color.

1 45


Ragweed Plume Moth

0.4-0.5"

P LU M E M OT H S are n a med for the p l u m e - l i k e divisions of their wings. The forewi n g m a y be sepa rated i nto two pa rts, the h i ndwing into t h ree. Ragweed P l u m e Moth o c c u rs widely i n the U .S. la rva and p u pa are h a i ry. There a re over l 00 species i n N o rth America .

FLAN N E L M O T H S a re n a m ed for the text u re of t h e wings. The la rva, a bo ut a n i n c h l o n g w h e n f u l l - g row n , i s s l u g - l i k e a n d bea rs sti n g i n g h a i rs. It h a s seven pa i rs o f p ro l e g s . The P u s s Caterpi l l a r of eastern U . S . is w h ite w h e n yo u n g . It overwi nters i n the cocoo n .

LEAF R O L L E R S m a ke u p a very large fa m i ly, i n c l u d i n g m a n y serious pests. The larva ro lls a l e a f or leaves to足 get h e r a n d l ives i n side t h e m . Cocoo n s a re m a d e of t h i n , soft s i l k o n o r near the food pla nt. S P R U C E B U DWO R M , one of o u r worst forest pests, feeds mainly on fi rs and spruces. It oc足 c u rs i n Canada, northern U .S., and Colorado. Eggs a re laid in midsummer. La rvae overwinter.

FRU I T T R E E L E A F ROLL E R occu r s i n a p p le-growing a reas o f t h e U . S . a n d C a n a d a . E g g s are laid i n m asses on tree l imbs, where they overwi nter. They hatch early in spring.


LEOPA R D MOTH, accidenta l l y i n t ro d u c e d f r o m E u r o p e a b o u t 1 8 79, i s a pest, m a i n l y o f e l m s a n d m a p l e s . O n e moth ca n l a y a bo u t 8 0 0 egg s . L a r v a e m a t u re i n a bo u t t w o yea r s .

CAR PE NTER WOR MS a re g r u b- l i ke l a rvae that bore in trees, even in sol i d wood . They p u p a te w i t h i n the bored t u n ne l s . W h e n e m e rg i ng , mot h s , w h i c h l oo k l i ke Sph i n x Mot h s ( p . 8 2) , shed the p u pa l s k i n at the t u n n e l e x i t . They l a y egg s o n ba r k or i n tu n n e l s from w h i c h t h e y ca m e . S o m e 4 0 spec i e s occ u r n o r t h o f Mex i co. CARPENTERWORM MOTH i s a pest of m a n y h a rd wood s , m a i n l y a s h , oa k , e l m , l o cus t, a n d m a p l e . E g g s a re l a i d o n ba r k , often n e a r wou n d s . T h i s m o t h h a s a l i fe cyc l e of f r o m t h ree t o fo u r yea r s .


G R A P E L EAF FOL D E R is com­ m o n from Mexico i n to southern Conodo. Female hos two white spots o n h i n d w i n g . I t is d o uble­ brooded. P u pa overwinters in folded g r a pe o r wood bine l eaves.

Z I M M E R M A N P I N E M OT H occ u rs in no. U . S . a n d s o . C a n ­ ada, attacking p i n es. la rvae often feed a n d p u pate on twigs infested by a n other i nsect. Eggs or l a rvae overwinter.

S N O U T M OTHS make u p a l a rg e fa m i ly of nearly 1 ,000 species n o rth of Mexico . Mostly medium- to s m a l l ­

sized m oths, t h e y va ry g reatly i n a ppea ra n c e . T h e m a i n co m m o n feature is the s n o ut- l i k e p rojection i n f r o n t o f the h e a d , com posed o f mouthparts c a l led p a lp i . Ma ny snout moths a re i m porta nt pests of c ro ps and stored g ra i n . T h e l a rvae usua l ly live i n t h e ste m s o r ro l l ed leaves o f the food p l a nt. Most k i n d s make t h i n cocoo ns. E U ROPEAN CORN BORER occ u rs in corn-growing a reas o f No rth America. La rva bo res i n to sta l k s a n d e a rs of corn . It also feeds on about 200 other p l a n ts, i n c l u d i n g dock, m i l let, pigweed, sorg h u m , a n d d a h l i a . Matu ri n g in about a month, the la rva over­ winters in its tun nel and p u pates there in spring .

fema le


S O U T H E R N C O R N STA L K B O R E R occ u rs from Md. a n d K a n s . south t o Flo. a n d M e x . a n d west to A r i z . lorvo hibernates i n c o r n sta l ks j u st above the roots. The species is d o u b le-brooded.

G R EAT E R WAX M OTH is a nation-wide pest of beeh ives. Eggs are laid o n o r near the comb, o n w h ich the la rva feed s. There are 3 broods. Winter i s passed a s a p u pa .

C E L E RY L E A F T I E R is widely d istributed. I t s u rvives cold win足 ters only i n greenhouses. Besides celery, it is a pest of many g a r足 d e n a n d g re e n house p l a nts, feed i n g and p u pating in leaves.

GA R D E N W E B W O R M , a pest of alfalfa and other crops, ranges from S. America to so. Canada . Webbing is conspicuous in b a d l y i n fested fields. Several broods occ ur. P u p a passes winter i n soi l .


I N D I A N - M EAL M OT H feeds on many kinds of stored foods. The l a rva webs the materials to足 gether, making a thin cocoo n . I n d oors it breeds conti n u o u sly. M EAL MOTH is com m o n and widespread. The d i rty-wh ite l a rva l ives in a silken tube. It feeds most commonly o n cereals a n d cereal prod u cts. M E D I T E RRAN E A N FLO U R M OTH feeds o n whole grains a n d cereals but p refers fl o u r, which the pinkish l a rvae web a r o u n d them i n m a sses. Since 1 890 it has spread across a l l of North America.

CAS E B EA R E R la rva lives i n a thin, to u g h sa c . W h e n

full-g row n , it u s e s the c a s e a s a cocoo n . Of m o re t h a n

1 00 species, t w o of the m ost co m m o n , t h e C i g a r a n d Pistol Case Bea rers, a re p ests of apple and oth e r fruit trees.

LEA F M I N E RS d a m a g e leaves. The tiny, flat la rvae

feed on the i n n e r ti ssu e . Most of the m o r e tha n 200 N o rth

A m e r i c a n species h ave s h i n i n g scales a n d p l u m es . O n e of the best k n o w n i s the Solita ry Oak Leaf M i n e r . 0.2-0 .3" Pistol C a se Bearer


,.1 t t,

,

,: �

....

-

. �

.i1· f I ' � "

'

0.6·0.8"

Ia rva i n seed

occurs from the Atla n tic west to Colo., I d a ho, a n d so. C a n a d a . I t hibern ates as a l a rva i n a cocoo n . The l a rva feed s i n folded leaves. There are 2 to 3 g e nerations.

M EX I C A N J U M P I N G B E A N S a r e seeds, u s u a l ly o f a species of croton from Mexico, that contain a n active l a rva of a relative of the Codling Mot h . la rvae over­ winter i n the seeds.

O L ETH R E U T I D M O T H S c l osely rese m b l e leaf R o l ­

l ers (p. 1 46) a n d G e l e c h i i d s (p . 1 52). T h e re a re o v e r 700 N o rth A m e r i c a n species, w h i c h may d iffe r g reatly in their h a b its. Ma n y a re serio us pests of farm a n d forest. O R I E N TA L F R U I T M OT H , of the East a n d Southwest, chiefly attacks peaches. The la rva bores d i rectly into the twig s early in the spring; later g e n e ratio n s enter t h e fru it. La rva winters i n a thin cocoon .

C O D L I N G M OT H o cc u rs where a p p le s g row. After winter­ i n g as l a rvae i n cocoo n S1 moths emerge i n early s p r i n g . The l a rvae infest pears and other fruits of the apple family, a lso E n g l ish Wa l n uts.

.


P I N E S H OOT M OT H , a serious pest of Red, Scotch, Austrian, a n d M u g h o Pines, l a y s eggs i n e a r l y s u m m e r near the t w i g t i p s . La rva feeds i n n eedles at fi rst, l a t e r e nters buds. Pitch forms over thei r b u rrows. Larva overwinters in b uds.

TWI G M OTH emerges i n late May and J u n e . Eggs are l a id on the twigs of Virg i n i a a n d other h a rd pines i n t o w h i c h the l a rva bores. Pitch m asses form where the l a rva t u n nels. The p a rtly g rown la rva overwinters i n twig s and feeds i n spri n g .

G E L E C H I I D M O T H S (below) n u m be r more tha n 400 species in N o rth Am erica . Many of these sm a l l m oths a re

pests. Some la rva e feed i n stems. Oth e rs feed i n rol led leaves o r i n leaves tied togeth er. A few m i n e needles. Fo rewi n g s a r e n a rrow, h i ndwi n g s somewhat a n g u la r . G O L D E N RO D S P I N D L E GALL mig ht be confused with the round g a l l of a fly. Before p u pati ng i n the g a l l , the l a rva m a kes a n exit hole. Moths emerg e through it i n the foi l .

A N G O U M O I S G RA I N M OT H i s a serious pest o f stored, whole路 kernel g ra ins, especia l l y wheat a n d corn, throughout the U n ited States. Some g ra i n is attacked i n the field at ha rvest time.

0 .3 -0.8"

1 52


ebbing Clothes Moth

0.3 -0.6"

Case-ma king Carpet Moth

Clothes Moth

0.3-0.6"

0.3 -0.6"

T I N E I D M O T H S i n c l u d e more t h a n 1 25 N o rth American species. Some eat leaves, some f u n g us, and some wool fa bric o r fur. T h e Carpet Moths a n d C loth es Moths belong to t h i s fa mi ly. T h e Webbi n g Clothes Moth i s m ost com m o n . T h e Case- m a k i n g C lothes Moth is da rker. I t s la rva lives i n a movable, o p e n -ended case.

OTH E R M OT H S

The m oths and butterfl ies o n t h e pre足

vious pages rep rese n t t h i rty-six fa m i lies of Lepidoptera . Some t h i rty m o re fa m i lies exist i n N o rth A m e rica, i n c l u d 足 i n g m a n y i n conspicuous moths. The fol low i n g two moths ore exceptio n s . M I M O S A W E BWORM occurs o n m imosa a n d Honey Locust i n the East. I t ties leaves togethe r a n d feeds within t h e webbin g . D o u ble-brood ed, it overwinters as a pupa i n a soft, white cocoon .

Y U CCA M OT H is essential for the Yucca's reprod uction. The fem o l e moth ca rries pol len to the stig ma, fertil izing the eggs which form seeds. La rva feeds i n t h e seeds, p u pates i n spring.


SCIENTIFIC NAMES

Red-spotted Purple, Limenitis orthemis astyonax 21 Pipevine: Bottus philenor Polydomos, B. polydamas 22 Block, Papilio polyxenes Bo ird's, P. bairdii Anise: P. zelicaon 23 lndra, P. indro 24 Polomedes, P. polamedes Alaskan: P. machaon oliaska �� �: �;�ffu�ontes 27 Eastern, P. glaucus Western: P. rutulus 28 Two-toile& P. multicaudata Pole, P. eurymedon Zebra: Eurytides marcellus 29 Clodius: Porno!isius clodius Smintheus: P. phoebus smintheus 30 Colias eurytheme 31 Clouded, C. philodice Pink: C. interior 32 Sora, Anthocharis sara Fa lcote, A. midea Olympia' Euchloe olr.mpia 33 gr��JI:� ;h����;� eo , s 34 Coli!., Zerene eurydice Southern: Z. cesonio little: Euremo lisa 35 Sleepy, E. nicippe Fairy, E. daira Dainty: Nothalis iole Mustard: Pieris nopi 36 Pine: Neophosio menapio Great: Ascio monuste phileto Giant: Gonyra ;osephino Florida: Appios drusilla neumoegenii 37 Checkered: Pieris protodice Cabbage, P. rapoe 38 Donaus plexippus 39 D. gilippus berenice 40 Eyed, Lethe eurydice Creole, L. creola Pearly, L. portlandia 41 little, Megisto cyme/a Gemme& Cyllopsis gemma Carolina: Hermeuptychio hermes Georgia: Neonympha oreolotus Plain: Coenonympho inornota Calif.: C. california 42 Riding's: Neominois ridingsii Common: frehio epipsodeo Common Wood: Cercyonis pegola Nevada: Oeneis nevodensis 43 Gu If, Agraulis vanillae Julio: Dryas ;ulio Zebra: Heliconius choritonius 44 Variegated: fuptoieta claudio Rego I, Speyeria idalia 45 Great, S. cybele Aphrodite, S. aphrodite 46 Diona: S. diana Nevada: S. collippe nevodensis 19

1 54

47

Eurynome: S. mormonio eurynome e n ina

u��� t':JJ' ���t:-/n��B.�r!epithore Western:

Baltimore, Euphydryas phaeton Silvery, Charidryas nycteis Harris': C. horrisii Cholcedon, Occidryas chalcedono 49 Mylitta, Phyciodes mylitta Field, P. campestris n ���rl� rtttt,�� 50 Question Mark, Polygonia interrogationis Satyr, P. satyrus 5 1 Comma: P. comma Fawn: P. faunus Zephyr, P. zephyrus 52 Junonia coenia 53 Painted: Vanessa cardui West Coast, V. corye 54 Red Ad m i ro I, V. atalanta American: V. virginiensis 55 Compton, Nympha/is j-album Mil bert's, N. milberti i n 56 �hy;; Li�e� it� ���hemis arthemis Viceroy: L. archippus 57 Weidemeyer's: L. weidemeyerii lorquin's: L. lorquini Red-spotted: L. orthemis astyanax 58 Calif., Adelpha bredowii Goatweed: Anoea andria Morrison's: A. aideo morrisonii 59 Hackberry, Asterocampo celtis · 60 ��;rJ� =1 u�r:��atilista tatilista Ruddy, Morpesia petreus Mimic: Hypolimnos misippus 61 little: Liephelisca virginiensis Swamp: L. muticum Northern: L. borealis 62 No is: Apodemia nais Mormon Dark: A. mormo mormo Mormon light: A. mormo mejiconus Snout: Libytheona bachmanii s s 63 n g ���; : ���de� �:��� Colorado: Hypourotis chrysolus 64 White-M: Parrhasius m-olbum Edward's: Satyrium edwardsii Acadian: S. acodico Southern: S. favonius Red-bonded, Calycopis cecrops Coral: Harkenclenus titus 65 Calif.: Satyrium californicum Bonded: S. calanus falacer Hedgerow: S. saepium Striped, S. liporops Sylvan: S. silvinum Olive: Mitoura gryneus 66 West: lncisalia eryphon Bonded, I . niphon Brown: I. augustus 48


67

68 69 70 71

72

73

74 75

76

77

78

79

80

81 82 83

Western: I. iroides Hoaryo I. polios Henry's: I. henrici Frosted: I. irus American: Lycaena hypophlaeos Great: L. xonthoides Ruddy, L rubidus Purplish, L helloides gon �,�,;'�e� }· t�� Harvester: Feniseco torquinius �;��;�� E c ntas : f��� ��b Pygm : Brephid;um f"Xilis { g;����·: ��f'a����;k,don Marine: leptotes marino Reokirt's: Hemiorgus isola Acmon: Plebejus acmon Orange: P. melissa Soepiolus: P. soepio/us Silveryo G/oucopsyche lygdamus Sonora: Phifotes sonorensis Square-spotted, P. bottoides Hoaryo Acholorus lyciades Silver: Epor yreus cfarus Northern, T�orybes plyades Southern, T. bothyllus Golden, Autochton eel/us long-tailed: Urbonus proteus Sleepy: E nnis brizo Dreamy: (. ice/us Juvenal's: E. ;uvenalis Mottled: f. martialis Mournful : E. tristis Funereal: f. funeralis Checkered: Pyrgus communis Grizzled: P. centaureae Broz., Calpodes ethlius Common: Pholisora catullus Southern, Staphylus hayhurstii least: Ancyloxypha numitor e i cas ��b�� � :{��t� : u /�� n��. ':ssacus leonard's: H. leonordus Golden: Co eodes ourontioca Broken Das�: ·wallengrenia otho long Dash: Polites mystic Vernal: Pompeius verna Peck's: Polites coras Fiery, Hylephila phyleus Field: Ata/o es campestris Hobomoko � oanes hobomok Zebulon: P. zobulon Roadside: Amblyscirtes vialis Ocala: Panoquino ocola Yucca: M othymus yuccoe Porotreo pj!ebe;o u ��r�l��; ���':fuj����ta Rustic: Monduca rustico Five-spotted: M. quinquemaculata

Waved: Cerotomio unduloso Catal a' C. catalpoe Four- �orned: C. omyntor Hermit: Sphinx eremitus Pawpaw, Dolbo hyloeus 86 Elegant, Sphinx pere/egans Great Ash, S. chersis 87 laurel, S. kalmiae leo S. gordius �i kd Cherry: S. drupiferarum 88 Ella, Erinnyis ello Abbot's: Lapora coniferarum Northern, L bombycoides i 89 h esta ! g:C,�P.�"s�t::,��� �'b'bo"::f Sequoia: Sphinx sequoioe 90 One-eyed: Smerinthus cerisyi Huckleberry: Poonias ostylus Small-eyed, P. myops 9 1 Blinded: P. excoecatus Twin-spot: Smerinthus jamaicensis Walnut, loothae i londis 92 Nessus: Amphion ';Pc oridensis Hydrangea: Dorapsa versicolor Azoleoo D. pholus Hog, D. myron 93 Achemon: Eumorpha achemon Pandorus: E. satelfitia lesser: E. fasciata 94 Hummingbird, Hemoris thysbe Snowberryo H. diffinis White-line& H /es lineota Galium: H. galrii 95 Samia cynthia 96 H alophora cecropia 97 Gtover's: H. gloveri Ceanothus: H. euryalus 98 Columbia: H. columbia Pandora: Colorodio pandora 99 Antheraeo polyphemus 1 00 Co//osomio prometheo 1 0 1 C. ongulifero 1 02 Actios luna 1 03 Ia: Automeris io Sheep: Hemileuca eglanterina 1 04 Buck: H. maio Nevada: H. nevadensis 1 05 Range: H. oliviae Silk, Bomb x mori 1 06 Honey: Sphingicampo bicolor Rosy: Dryocompo rubicundo 1 07 Orange: Anisate senatoria Spiny: A. stigma Pink: A. virginiensis 1 08 Citheronio regalis 1 09 fades imperio/is 1 1 0 Ecpontheria scribonia 1 1 1 Acreo: E stigmene ocreo I so bello, Pyrrhorctia isabel/a 1 1 2 Gorden: A retia ca;a Folio Hyphantria cuneo 1 1 3 Clymene, Hoploa clymene Arge: Apontesis orge Virgo: A. virgo 84

85

1 55


1 14 1 15 1 16 1 17

1 18 1 19 1 20

121

1 22

1 23

1 24

1 25

1 26

1 27

1 28 1 29 1 30 131 1 32

1 56

Hickory: Lophocampo caryoe Spotted, l. moculoto Pole, Halisidota tessellaris Yellow: Spilosomo virginica Ranchmon's: Platyprepia guttato Dogbane: Cycnio tenero Showy: Holomelina ostenta Milkweed, Euchaetes egle Bello, Utetheisa bella Brown: Ctenucha brunneo Vir inio: C. virginica Eig� t-s otted, Alypio octomoculoto Calif. : �hrygonidio colifornico Ascolopho odoroto American: Acronicto americana Smeared, A. oblinita Cottonwood: A. le usculina Black: Agrotis ipsifoon Pole-sided, A. malefida Spotted, Xestio dolosa W-morkedo Spoelotis clandestine Pole: A rotis orthogonio SpolteJ.-sided' Xestia bodinodis Glossy, Crymodes devastator o 5��k��d�d� r�:! ����� Striped, E. tessellate Bronzed: Prorello emmedonia White: Pleonectapodo scondens Dingy, Feltia subgothica Bristly: Lacin lia renigero Variegated: �eridroma saucia Yellow, Spodoptera ornithagalli fall, S. frugiperda Armyworm: Pseudoletio unipundo Beet, Spodoptero exiguo Wheat, Thurberiphaga diffuse Army: Chorizo rotis ouxiliaris Zebra: Melone�ro picto Cotton: A/ahoma orgillaceo Green: Plathypeno scobro ha californica l ' ut �i l���d , 1 b/f�tf:, Cabbage, Trichoplusia ni Celery, Anagrapha falcifera Forage: Caenurgino erechteo lunate: Za/e lunata Green: Lithophone ontennoto Dried: ldio lubricalis Widow: Cotocalo viduo White: C. relicto Aholibah, C. aholiboh Tiny: C. micranympho Penitent: C. piotrix locust: Euporthenos nubilis Copper, Amphipyra pyramidoides Pearly: Eudryas unio White-veined: Simyro henrici Stalk, Popoipemo nebris Corn: Heliothis zeo White-marked: Clastero albosigmo Poplar: C. inclusa Tentacled: Ceruro scitiscripto multiscripto

1 33 1 34

1 35

1 36 1 37

1 38 1 39 1 40 141

1 42

1 43

1 44

1 45

1 46

1 47 1 48

1 49

Yellow: Dotano ministro Walnut: D. integerrima Sumac: D. perspicua Saddled, Heterocompo guttivitta Variable: Lochmaeus manteo ina ��L��'r �:fc�b��"��r: Red-humped Caterpillar, Schizuro concinno Unicorn: S. unicornis Rough, Nadata gibbosa Red-humped Ookworm, Symmeristo olbifrons Satin: leucoma salicis psy: Lymantria dispar �hite-marked: Orgyia leucostigmo Western: 0. vetusta Rusty: 0 . antiquo i s �����;:,� M����/s�� ��ericanum Western: M. californicum Forest: M. disstria Wild Cherry, Apotelodes torrefacta Fall, Alsophila pometorio Spring: Poleocrito vernota Bruce: Operophtero bruceota S ear-marked: Rheumoptero hostato C� erry, Hydric undulate Currant: /tame ribeorio Walnut: Phigolia plumogerorio linden: fronnis tilioria Pepper-and-salt: Biston cognotorio Elm: fnnomos subsignorius Hemlock: Lambdina fiscellaria Chain-spotted: Cingilio cotenoria Lorge Maple, Prochoerodes transversato Three-spotted, Heterophleps triguttorio Crocus: Xonthot sospeta Bagwarm: Th c.';ifo::. apteryx ephemerae rarmis Peach Tree: Sanninoideo exitiosa Squash: Melittio curcurbitae Soddlebock, Sibine stimuleo � iny, Euclea delphinii h s�ff: ��������� ��';; Ragweed: Adoino ombrosioe Puss: M olopygo operculoris Spruce: dhoristaneuro fumiferono Fruit Tree: Archips orgyraspilus leapa rd: Zeuzero yrino Carpenterwarm: p,rionoxystus robinioe Grope leaf: Desmio funerolis Zimmerman: Dioryctrio zimmermoni n: b ���h:�n : ������ ��a�b��oides Greater: Galleria mellonella Celery, Udea rubigalis Garden: Achyro rantolis


1 50 I nd i a n - m ea l : Plodia interpunctella Mea I : Pyrolis farina lis Med i terra n ea n : Anogasto kuhniello C i g a r : Coleophora cerasivorella Pisto l : C . malivorella So l i ta r y , Cameraria hamadryadella 1 5 1 Stra wberry : Ancylis comptana Mexica n : Cydio deshaisiona Ori e n ta l : Gropholitha molesto Cod l i n g , Cydia pomonella

1 52 E u ropea n : Rhyocionia buoliano P i tc h : Petrovo comstockiono Go l d e n rod: Gnorimoschemo galloesolidoginis 1ella r i ; e 1 53 Carpet, richophaga tapetzel/a Case-ma k i n g , Tinea pellionella M i mosa : Homadoulo anisocentro Yucca : Tegeticula yuccasella

�b'b�;f� T ����� �� JH�Ua

INDEX

Aste r i s k s ( * ) d e n ote p a g e s o n w h i c h i l l u s t r a t i o n s a p pe a r . Abbot's P i n e S p h i n x , 8 8 * B e l l a M o th , 1 1 6 * Abbot's S p h i n x , 8 9 * B i g P o p l ar, 8 9 * Aca d i a n H a i r strea k , 6 4 * B i l o bed looper, 1 2 6 * Achemon S p h i n x , 9 3 * B l a c k C u two r m , 1 2 0 * Acmon B l u e , 7 2 * B l a ck Swa l l owta i l , 2 2 * Acrea Math, 1 1 1 * Black Witch, 1 1 8 * B l i nded S p h i n x , 9 1 * Admirals, 56*-57* Ah o l i ba h U n d e rwi n g , B l u e C o pper, 6 8 1 29 * B l u es, 7 0 * - 7 3 * A l a s k a n Swa l l owta i l , 2 4 * B ra z i l i a n S k i pper, 7 7 * B r i s t l y Cutworm, 1 23 * A l f a l fa B u t t e r fl y, 3 0 * A l f a l fa looper, 1 2 6 • Broken D a s h , 7 9 * B r o n ze C o p p e r , 6 9 * Amer. C o p per, 8 * , 6 8 * A m e r . Dogger M o t h , 1 1 9 * Bronzed C u two r m , 1 2 2 * Amer. P a i nted l a d y, 54 • Brown C t e n u c h a Math , Angle Wings, 50* -5 1 * 1 1 7* A n g o u m o i s G ra i n , 1 5 2 * Brown E l fi n , 6 6 * A n g v i n a Moth, 1 3 4 * Bruce Spanworm , 1 40 * A n i se Swa l l owta i l , 2 2 , 2 3 * B ru s h - footed Bu t t erf lies, Apante s i s T i ger, 1 1 3 * 3 8 * -60* Buckeyes, 5 2 * Aphrod i t e , 4 5 * B u c k Moth , 1 04 * Apple Sphinx, 87* Arge T i g e r M ot h, 1 1 3 * B u t ter f l i e s , 1 9 * - 7 3 * A r m y C u two r m , 1 2 5 * A r m yworm Moths, 1 2 4 * - Cabbage B u t te r f l y, 3 7 * 1 25 * Cabbage looper, 1 2 6 * Catalpa Sphinx, 84* Atlantis, 4 5 C a l i f o r n i a Dog-face, 3 4 * A z a l ea S p h i n x , 9 2 * C a l i f . H a i r strea k , 6 5 * C a l i f . Oakworm Moth, Bagworm Moths, 1 44 • B a i rd's Swa l l owta i l , 2 2 , 1 1 7* C a l i f o r n i a R i ng l e t , 4 1 * 23* B a l t i more C h e c k e r s p o t , C a l i f o r n i a S i ster, 5 8 * C a l i f . Wood N y m p h , 1 3 0 48* C a r o l i n a Sa tyr, 4 1 * Banded E l fi n , 6 6* C a ro l i n a S p h i n x , 8 2 * Banded H a i r strea k , 65 * Banded Woo l l y Bear, 1 1 1 * C a r penterworm Moths, Beautiful Wood N y m p h , 1 47 * C a rpet Moth, 1 5 3 * 1 30 Case Bearers, 1 50 * Beet Armywo r m , 1 2 4 *

C a se - m a k i n g C l othes Mo t h, 1 5 3 * Catalpa Sphinx, 8 4• C a t a l pawo r m , 8 4 * Catoc a l a s , 1 2 8 * - 1 3 1 * C e a n o t h u s S i l k Ma t h, 9 7 * C e c r o p i a Moth, 9 6 * C e l e r y leaf T i e r, 1 4 9 * C e l e r y looper, 1 2 6 • C h a i n -spot ted Geometer, 1 4 3 * C h a l c e d o n C heckerspot, 48* C heckered S k i pper, 7 7 * Checkered W h i t e , 3 7 * Checkerspots, 4 8 * Cherry Scal lop-she l l , 141* C i g a r C a se Bearer, 1 5 0 * C l ea r w i n g Moths, 1 44 * C l e f t - h eaded S p a n worm, 1 42 * Cladius, 2 9 * C l o u d e d S u l p h u r, 3 1 • C l o u d l e s s S u l p hur, 33 • Clymene, 1 1 3 * C o bweb S k i pper, 7 8 * Cod l i n g M o t h , 1 5 1 * C o l o r a d o H a i rstrea k , 63 * C o l u m b i a S i l k Moth, 9 8 * Comma, 6*, 5 1 * Common Alpine, 42* Common Blue, 7 1 * C o m m o n H a i rstrea k , 6 3 * C o m m o n S n o u t , 62 * C o m m o n Sooty-w i n g , 7 7 * C o m m o n S u l p h u r, 3 1 • Common White, 37* C o m m o n Wood N y m p h , 42 *

1 57


C o m pton To r t o i se She l l ,

55*

Coppers, 68* -69* Copper U n d e rw i n g , 1 30 * C o r a l H a i rstreak, 64 * Corn E a rw o r m , 1 3 1 * Cotton lea/wo r m , 1 25 * Cottonwood Dagger,

1 1 9*

Creole Pea r l y Eye, 40* Crescents, 4 9 * Crocus Geometer, 1 4 3 * Ctenucha Moths, 1 1 7* C u r r a n t Spanwo r m , 1 4 1 C u t w o r m Moths, 1 20 * -

....

1 23 *

Cynthia Moth,

r-

u

0

"' J: �

� w

;(

(!) "' Z Qi! :::> "' <( w

*

95 *

Dagger Moths, 1 1 9 * Dogger W i n g s , 60* D a i n t y S u l p h u r, 3 5 * Dark- sided Cutworm,

1 22*

Diana, 46* D i n g y Cutworm, 1 23 * D i n g y P u r p l e W i n g , 60 Di o p ti d Moths, 1 1 7 * Dogbane T i g e r Moth,

1 1 5*

Dreamy Dusky-w i n g , 76* Dried leaf Moth, 1 27 * Dwa r f B l u e , 71 * Eastern Meadow F r i t i l l o r y, 47* Eastern To i l e d B l u e Butterll y, 6 * , 70 * Ea stern Tent Cate r p i l lar,

1 38 *

F a i r y Ye l l ow S u l phur, 3 5 * Great P u r p l e H a i r strea k , 6 3 * Fal cate Orange T i p , 3 2 * F a l l Armywo r m , 1 24 * Great Southern W h i t e , F a l l Cankerwo r m , 1 40* 36* F a l l Webwor m , 1 1 2 * , Great Spang led F r i t i l 1 38 l o r y, 8 * , 1 1 * , 4 5 * Green C l overwo r m , 1 25 * fawn, 5 1 * Green F r u i tworm, 1 2 7* Field C rescent , 49* Green-stri ped Maple F i e l d S k i p per, 7 9 * Wor m , 1 06 * F i e r y S k i p per, 79* F ive-spotted Hawkmoth, G r i z z led S k i pper, 77* G u l f F r i t i l l a r y, 43 * 9* ' 83* Gypsy Mot h , 1 36 * F l a n n e l Moths, 1 46 * F l a . P u r p l e W i n g , 60* H a c k berry, 5 9 * F l a . Wh it e, 3 6 * Forage looper, 1 27 * H a g Mo t h , 7 * , 8, 1 45 * H a i rstrea k s , 63* -65* Forester Mot h s , 1 1 7 * F o r e s t Tent Caterp i l l a r, H o n d - m o i d Moths,

1 39 *

Four-hor ned S p h i n x , 85* F r i t i l l o r i e s , 4 4 * -47* Frosted E l fi n , 67* Fruit Tree leal R o l ler,

1 46*

Funereal Dusky-w i n g ,

76*

G a l i u m S p h i n x , 94 * Garden Tiger Moth, 1 1 2 * Garden Webworm, 1 49 * Gelec h i i d Mot h s , 1 52 * Gemmed Satyr, 4 1 * Geometer, 1 40 * - 1 43 * Georg i a Satyr, 41 * G i a n t S i l k M o t h s , 95 *-

1 04 *

G i a n t Swa l l owta i l , 25 * G i a n t White, 3 6 * G l assy C utwo r m , 1 2 1 * G l over's S i l k Moth, 9 7 * Goatweed , 5 8 * Golden- banded S k i p per,

Eastern T i g e r Swa l l owta i l , 2 7 * Edwards' H a i rstrea k , 64 * 75* E i g h t - spotted Forester, Goldenrod S p i n d l e G a l l ,

1 1 7*

E l egant S p h i n x , 86* E l li n s , 66*-67* E l l a S p h i n x , 88* El m leal Caterpi l l a r,

1 34*

E l m Spanworm, 1 42 * E m peror B u t terflies, 59* Eur. C or n Borer, 1 48 * E u r . P i ne Shoot, 1 52 * E u ry n o me , 4 6 * Eyed B rown , 40*

1 58

1 52 *

G o r g o n Copper, 69* G o s s a m e r W i n g s , 63 *-

7 3*

Grape lea/ Fol der, 1 48 * Gray H a i rstrea k , 63 * Great A s h S p h i n x , 8 6 * G r e a t C opper, 68* Greater F r i t i l l a r i e s , 4 4 * -

1 33 * - 1 3 5 *

H a p l o a T i g e r Mot h , 1 1 3 H a r r i s ' C heckerspot, 48* Ha rvester, 70* Howkmoths, 82* - 8 3 * Hedge row H a i rstreok,

65*

Heliconians, 43* H e m l o c k loo per, 1 42 * Henry's E l fi n , 67* Herm i t - l i ke Sph i n x , 8 5 Hermit Sphinx, 85* H i c k o r y H orned Dev i l ,

1 08 *

H i c k o r y Tussock Mot h ,

1 1 4*

Ho ary-edged S k i p per,

74*

H o a r y E l fi n , 6 7 * Hobomok S k i pper, 80* H o g Sphinx, 9 2 * Honey-locust, 1 0 6 * Hu c k leberry S p h i n x , 90* H u m m i ng b i rd Moth, 94 * Hydrangea Sph i n x , 92* I m p e r i a l Moth, 1 09* I n d i a n - meal Mot h , 1 50 * I n d i a n S k i p per, 7 8* l ndra , 2 3 * lo m o t h , 6 * , 7 * , 8, 1 03 * I s a be l l a Moth, 9 * , 1 1 1 *

J u b a S k i pper, 7 8 * 46* Julia, 43* Greater W a x M o t h , 1 49 * Juve n o l 's Dusky-wing , G r e a t leopa r d , 1 1 0 * 76*


large Maple Spanworm, 1 43 * lasioca m p i d s , 1 3 8 * 1 39* laurel Sph i n x , 8 7 * leaf M i n e r s , 1 50 * leaf R o l l e r s , 1 46 * leafw i n g Butterflies, 5 8 * least S k i pper, 7 8 * leonard's S k i p per, 7 8 * leopard Moth, 1 4 7 * lesser F r i t i l l a r i e s , 4 7 * lesser V i n e S p h i n x , 9 3 * linden looper, 1 4 2 * l i t t l e Meta l m a r k , 6 1 * l i t t l e S u l p h ur, 34 * l i t t l e Wood Satyr, 4 1 • locust Underw i n g , 1 3 0 * long D a s h , 79 * long Ta i l ed S k i pper, 7 5 * looper s , 1 2 6 * - 1 2 7 * lorq u i n's Ad m i r a l , 5 7 * luna Moth, 1 0 2 * lunate Z a l e , 1 2 7 *

Noctu i d s , 1 1 8 * - 1 3 1 * P l u m e Moths, 1 46 * " P o c a h o n ta s , " 8 0 * N o r t h e r n C l oudy W i n g , P o l yd a m a s Swa l l owta i l , 2 1 * 75* N o r thern Metal m a r k , 6 1 • P o l y p h e m u s , 6 • , 9 9 * N o r t hern P e a r l y E y e , 40 P o p l a r Te ntma ker, 1 3 2 * N o r thern P i n e S p h i n x , B B * P r o methea M o t h , 9 * , 1 0 0 * P r o m i n ents, 1 3 2 * O a k w o r m Mot h s , 1 0 7 * P u r p l e W i n g s , 60* 1 09 * P u r p l i s h C o p per, 69 * Ocola S k i pper, 8 0 * P u s s Cate rp i l lar, 7 * , 8 , Olethreutids, 1 5 1 • 1 46 * O l ive H a i rstrea k , 6 5 * Pygmy B l u e , 7 1 * Olympia Marble, 32* One-eyed S p h i n x , 9 0 * Qu e e n, 3 9 * Orange -barred S u l p h u r, Question Mark, 5 0 * 33* Orange-bordered B l u e , Ragweed P l u m e Moth, 1 46 * 72* R a n c h m a n 's T i ger, 1 1 5 * Orange S u l phur, 3 0 * R a n g e C a t e rp i l l a r, 1 05 • Oriental F r u i t , 1 5 1 * Rea k i r t's B l u e , 7 2 * Red Admiral, 54* R e d- banded H a i rstrea k , P a i nted lady, 5 3 * P a l a medes Swa l l owta i l , 64* 24• Red - h u m ped C a ter p i l lar, P a l e - s i d e d Cutwo r m , 1 2 0 * 1 35 * P a l e Swa l l owta i l , 2 8 * Red - h u m ped Oakwo r m , Marine B l u e , 7 2 * P a l e Tu ssock Moth, 1 1 4 * 1 35 * Meal M o t h , 1 50 * Med i i . F l o u r M o t h , 1 50 * P a l e W . C u two r m , 1 2 1 * Red-spotted P u r p l e , 1 9* , 57* Pandora M o t h , 9 8 * Meta l ma r k s , 6 1 * - 6 2 * Pandorus S p h i n x , 9 3 * Mex i c a n Fri t i l l a ry, 4 4 Regal F r i t i l l a r y, 4 4 * Parnass i u s , 2 0 , 2 9 * R e g a l M o t h s , 1 06 * M i l bert's To r t o i s e Sh e l l , 55* Pawpaw S p h i n x , 8 5 * R i d i ng 's Satyr, 4 2 * P e a c h Tree Borer, 1 44 * R o a d s i d e S k i p per, 8 0 * M i l kweed Butterfl i e s , 38* -39* P e a r l C rescent, 4 9 * Rosy Maple Moth, 1 06 * R o u g h P r o m i ne nt , 1 3 5 * Pearly Eye, 4 0 * M i l kweed Tu ssock Moth, R o y al Mo ths , 1 0 6 * Pearly Wood N y m p h , 1 1 6* R o y a l Wa l n u t , 1 0 8 * 1 30 * Mimic, 60* R u d d y C o p per, 6 8 * Mimosa Webwo r m , 1 5 3 * Peck's S k i p per, 7 9 * Mona r c h , 6 * , 3 8 * , 3 9 P e n i te nt U nderw i n g , 1 2 9 * R u d d y Dagger Wing, 60 * Rustic Sphinx, 8 3 * Mormon Meta l m a r k , 6 2 * Pepper-a nd-sa l t , 1 42 * Mor r i s o n 's Gootweed, 5 8 * P h a o n C r escent, 4 9 * R u s t y Tu ssock, 1 3 7 * P i n e E l fi n , 66* Mot h s , 8 1 * - 1 5 2 * Mot tled Dusky-wi n g , 7 6 * P i n e Tu ssock Moth, 1 3 7 * Saddleback, 7 * , 8, 1 45 * Mounta i n Swa l l owta i l , P i n e White, 3 6 * Saddled Prominent, 1 34 * 23* P i n k -edged S u l p h u r, 3 1 * Sae p i o l u s B l u e , 73 * Mournful Dusky-wi ng, 76* P i n k - spotted Hawk m o t h , S a l t Mars h Cater p i l l a r, 1 1 1 * Mou r n i n g C l o a k , 5 5 * 82* Mustard Whi t e, 3 5 * P i nk-str i ped Oa kwo r m , Sara Orange T i p , 3 2 * 1 07* Satin Moth, 1 36 * My l i tta Cresce n t , 4 9 * P i pevine Swa l l owta i l , Satyr A n g l e W i n g , 5 0 * Nais Metolmork , 6 2 * Satyrs, 4 0 * - 4 2 * 9 * , 1 9 * , 20 * , 2 1 * Nessus Sph i n x , 9 2 * P i stol C a s e Bearer, 1 50 * Seq u o i a Sph i n x , 8 9 * P i tch Tw i g m o t h , 1 5 2 * N evada Arct i c , 4 2 * Sheep Moth, 1 03* N evada B u c k , 1 04 * P l a i n R i n g let, 4 1 • S h o r t - t a i l e d Swa l l owNevada F r i t i l l a r y, 4 6 * Plebeian Sphinx, 8 1 * ta i l , 23

1 59


;;) "'

o. �

S howy H o l o m e l i n a , 1 1 6 * S i l k Mot h s , 1 0 5 * S i lvered -borde red f r i t i l ­ lary, 4 7 * S i lvery C heckerspot, 4 8 * S i lver-s potted S k i pper, 74* S i lvery B l u e , 7 3 * S i sters, 5 6 , 5 8 * S k i ff Moth, 1 45 * S k i ppers, 74 * - 8 0 * S l eepy D u s k y - w i n g , 7 6 * S l eepy Or a n g e , 3 5 * S l u g Cate r p i l l a r, 1 45 * S m a l l -eyed S p h i n x , 9 0 * S me a red D a g g e r , I 1 9 * S m i nthe u s , 2 9 * Snout B utterfl i e s, 6 2 * Snout Moths, 1 4 8 * - 1 50 * Snowberry C l earwi n g , 94* * - h i n . 1 50 * Sonora B l u e , 73 * Southern C l oudy W i n g , 75 * Southern Cor nsta l k Borer, 1 49 * Southern Dog-face, 34 * · Southern H a i rstrea k , 6 4 * Southern Sooty-w i n g , 77* Spanworms, 1 40 * - 1 4 3 * Spear -m a r ke d B l ack­ moth , 1 4 1 * S p h i n x Moths, 8 2 * - 9 4 * S p i cebush Swa l l owta i l , 26*

Stri ped Ga rden Cut­ worm, 1 2 1 * Stri ped H a i rstreak, 65 * S u l ph u r s and W h i tes, 30* -37* Sumac Cater p i l lar, 1 3 3 * Swa l l owta i l s , 2 0 * - 2 8 * Swamp Meta l m a r k , 6 1 * Sweetpotato H o r nwor m , 82 Sycamore Tu ssock Mo t h , 1 14 Sylvan H a i rstrea k , 6 5 *

Wa l n u t S p h i n x , 9 1 * Waved S p h i n x , 8 4 * Web b i n g C l othes Moth, 1 53 * We idemeyer's Adm i r a l , 57* West C o a s t lady, 5 3 * We stern Banded E lfi n , 6 6 Western E lfi n , 6 7 * Western Meadow F r i t i l lary, 47* Western Ta i l ed B l u e , 7 1 * Western Tent Cater p i l ­ lar, 1 3 B * We stern Ti ger Swa l l owTawny E m peror, 5 9 * Te ntacled P r o m i nent, ta i l , 2 7 * We stern Tu sso c k , 1 3 7 * 1 32 * Tent Cater p i l l a r s , 6 * , Wheat Head Armywo r m , 1 38 * - 1 39* 1 24 * Thistle Butterfl i e s , 53 * White A d m i ra l , 5 6 * W h i te C utwo r m , 1 2 2 * 54* Three-spotted f i l l i p , 1 4 3 * W h i te- l i ned S p h i n x , 9 4 * Three- ta i l ed Swal lowWhite-ma rked Tentmaker, 1 3 2 * ta i l , 28 Ti ger Moths, 1 1 0 * - 1 1 6 * White-ma rked Tu ssock Tineid Mot h s , 1 5 3 * Mot h , 1 3 7 * Ti ny N ymph U nderwi n g , W h i te-M H a i rstrea k , 6 4 ' W h i tes a n d S u l p h u r s , 1 29 * Tobacco H ornworm, 8 2 * 30*-37* Tomato Hornworm, 8 3 * W h i te U n derw i n g , 1 2 8 * Wh ite-veined Dagger, Tor t o i se S h e l l s , 5 5 * 131 * Tro pi c Queens, 60* W i d ow Un d erw i n g , 1 2 8 ' True S i l k Moths, 1 05 * W i l d Ch erry Mo t h , 1 3 9 * Tu l i p - tree S i l k , 1 0 1 * Tu ssock Moths, 1 3 6 * W i l d Cherry S p h i n x , 8 7 * W-Marked C utwo r m , 1 2< 1 37 * Tw i n -spot ted S p h i n x , 91 * Two -ta i led Swa l l owta i l , Xerces B l ue, 1 2 * 28* Ye l l ow-necked Caterp i i S p i n y O a k - s l u g , 1 45 * S p i n y Oakworm, 1 07 * U nc as Ski pper, 7 8 * lar, 1 3 3 * S potted Cutworm, 1 2 0 * Underw i n g s , 1 2 8 * - 1 3 1 * Ye l l ow-striped ArmySpotted - s ided Cutwo r m , U n i corn Cater p i l lar, 1 3 5 * wo r m , 1 2 3 * Ye l l ow Woo l l y B e a r, 1 1 5 * 121 * Yucca Moth, 1 5 3 * Va r i a b l e O ak leo/ CatSpot ted Tu ssock Moth, Yucca S k i pper, 8 0 * erpi l l a r, 1 3 4 * 1 14* S p r i n g C a nkerwo r m , Va r i egated Cutwo r m , 1 2 3 * Va r i egated f r i t i l l a r y, 4 4 * Z e b u l o n S k i pper, 8 0 * 1 40 * Ver n a l Ski pper, 7 9 * S p ruce Budworm, 1 46 * Zano l i d s , 1 3 9 * Zebra, 4 3 * Square-spotted B l ue, 7 3 * Vice roy, 9 * , 5 6 * Squash V i n e Borer, 1 44 * V i r g i n i a Ctenucha, 1 1 7 * Zebra C a te r p i l lar, 1 2 5 * Virgo Tiger Mot h , 1 1 3 * Sta l k Borer, 1 3 1 * Zebra Swa l l owta i l , 2 8 * Strawberry leaf R o l ler, Zephyr, 5 1 * Wa l n ut Cater p i l l a r, 1 3 3 * Z i mmerman P i n e Moth , 151 * Stri ped Cutworm, 1 2 2 * Wa l n u t Spanwo r m , 1 4 1 * 1 48 *

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BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS

a. � C3uu:k® HERBERT S. ZIM, Ph . D. , Sc. D. , an originator and former editor of the Golden Guide Series, was also an author for many years. Author of some ninety books and editor of about as many, he is now Adjunct Professor at the Uni­ versity of Miami and Educational Consultant to the Amer­ ican Friends Service Committee and other organizations. He works on educational, population and environmental problems.

ROBERT T. MITCHELL, Wildlife Biologist (retired), Pa­ tuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland. A graduate of Ohio State University in applied entomology (M . Sc. , 1940), he was associated with Federal agencies for over 30 years, conducting research on insects and birds, especially in relation to agriculture and wildlife areas. His knowledge of butterflies and moths stems mainly from a hobby started in his youth and from subsequent special­ ized avocational studies on parasites of Lepidoptera. 0

ANDRE DURENCEAU is a well-known painter of mu­ rals as well as a book and magazine illustrator. He ren­ dered the illustrations for this book from specimens sup­ plied by the Smithsonian I n s titution, United States National Museum, as well as from color photographs taken by the author of Lepidoptera eggs, larvae, and adults raised in his laboratory. The artist a lso did paint­ ings for the Golden Press special edition for young read­ ers of Oliver La Farge's The American Indian . Durenceau received his art training in France.


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BUTTERFLIES and MOTHS - A Golden Guide  

BUTTERFLIES and MOTHS - A Golden Guide  

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