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Guatemalan Writers

Enrique Gómez Carrillo He was a Guatemalan literary critic, writer, journalist and diplomat, and the second husband of the Salvadoran-French writer and artist Consuelo Suncin de SandovalCardenas, later Consuelo Suncin, comtesse de Saint Exupéry.

Biography He was born in February 27, 1873 in Guatemala City. In 1891 Gómez Carrillo won a scholarship to study in Spain. Before moving there, he went to Paris, where he met several writers, such as Paul Verlaine, Moréas and Leconte de Lisle. He subsequently moved to France in 1892, becoming a journalist for a Spanish newspaper and becoming acquainted with many Parisian literary figures such as James Joyce, Oscar Wilde and Émile Zola. The following year he published his first book, Esquisses, which includes profiles of several writers of the time, and contributed to several publications. In 1898 he was appointed consul of Guatemala in Paris by the dictator Manuel Estrada Cabrera. Years later, the Argentine president Hipólito Yrigoyen also appoints him as a representative of Argentina. In 1895 he became a member of the Royal Spanish Academy. In France, he was awarded several times for his literary work: in 1906 he won the Montyon of the Académie Française for the French translation of his book The Japanese Soul. In 1916 he was made a Knight of the Legion of Honor, and later promoted to Commander in the same order. Carrillo's second wife was the popular singer and vaudevillian Raquel Meller, whom he divorced in 1922. He then met Consuelo, also in France, and they married in 1926. Maurice Maeterlinck described Gómez Carrillo as a "true Renaissance man", living his life to the extreme as a traveler and correspondent. He died on November 29, 1927, likely a suicide, and is buried in Paris's Père Lachaise Cemetery alongside his third wife Consuelo.

Literary works G贸mez Carrillo became the author of nearly eighty books of various genres, and is known primarily for his chronicles, characterized by modernist prose. He contributed to numerous publications in Spain, France and Latin America. he wrote numerous chronicles that collected his impressions of the places he visited: the enchanting Par铆s (1902), La Rusia actual (1906) etc. He was also the author of several essays, autobiographies and literary criticisms on Art Sensation (1893) Foreign Literature (1895) etc. As for his narrative, immoral novels include Of love, of pain and vice (1898), Bohemia sentimental (1899), Wonderland (1899, 1922) and The Gospel of Love (1922). Erotic themes predominates.

Augusto Nonterroso Augusto Monterroso is one of the best writers of Guatemala. His rigorous style and demanding literary quality stand not only as a lesson but as an awesome goal for writers of the younger generation.

Biography Monterroso was born in Tegucigalpa, Honduras to a Honduran mother and Guatemalan father. In 1936 his family settled definitively in Guatemala City, where he would remain until early adulthood. Here he published his first short stories and began his clandestine work against the dictatorship of Jorge Ubico. To this end he founded the newspaper El Espectador with a group of other writers. He was detained and exiled to Mexico City in 1944 for his opposition to the dictatorial regime. Shortly after his arrival in Mexico, the revolutionary government of Jacobo Arbenz triumphed in Guatemala, and Monterroso was assigned to a minor post in the Guatemalan embassy in Mexico. In 1953 he moved briefly to Bolivia upon being named Guatemalan consul in La Paz. He relocated to Santiago de Chile in 1954, when Arbenz's government was toppled with help from a North American intervention. In 1956 he returned definitively to Mexico City, where he would occupy various academic and editorial posts and continue his work as a writer for the rest of his life.[1] In 1988, Augusto Monterroso received the highest honor the Mexican government can bestow on foreign dignitaries, the Águila Azteca. He was also awarded the Spanish Prince of Asturias Award, in 2000. In 1997, Monterroso was awarded the Guatemala National Prize in Literature for his body of work. He died of heart problems at the age of 81, in Mexico City.

Literary Works Obras completas (Y otros cuentos); 1959 (trans. Complete Works and Other Stories), La oveja negra y demás fábulas; 1969 (trans. The Black Sheep and Other Fables), Movimiento perpetuo; 1972 (trans. Perpetual Motion), Lo demás es silencio (La vida y obra de Eduardo Torres); 1978, Viaje al centro de la fábula; 1981, La palabra mágica; 1983, La letra e (Fragmentos de un diario); 1987, Esa Fauna; 1992 (Drawings), Los buscadores de oro; 1993, La vaca; 1998 y El Eclipse.

Inventors and Inventions

History of Hershey's Chocolate & Nilton Hershey Hershey's Chocolate - Milton Hershey He was born on September 13, 1857, in a farmhouse near the Central Pennsylvania village of Derry Church. Milton was in the fourth grade when his Mennonite father, Henry Hershey, found his son a position as an printer's apprentice in Gap, Pennsylvania. Milton later became an apprentice to a candy-maker in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, and candy-making became a passion which Milton grew to love. In 1876, when Milton was only eighteen-years old, he opened his own candy shop in Philadelphia. However, the shop was closed after six years and Milton moved to Denver, Colorado, where he worked with a caramel manufacturer and learned caramel-making. In 1886, Milton Hershey moved back to Lancaster, Pennsylvania and started the successful Lancaster Caramel Company.

The Hershey Chocolate Company has made or currently owns many famous Hershey chocolate candies including: Almond Joy and Mounds candy bars, Cadbury Creme Eggs candy, Hershey's Cookies 'n' Creme candy bar, Hershey's milk chocolate and milk chocolate with almonds bars, Hershey's Nuggets chocolates, Hershey's Kisses and Hershey's Hugs chocolates, Kit Kat wafer bar, Reese's crunchy cookie cups, Reese's NutRageous candy bar, Reese's Peanut Butter Cups, Sweet Escapes candy bars, TasteTations candy, Twizzlers candy, Whoppers malted milk balls, and York Peppermint Patties. The Hershey's Chocolate company helps us in a big way on special dates like: Valentine's Day, Christmas, birthday parties because you can give them like presents to little kids, your girlfriend or boyfriend, or to your grandparents. You can also use all the types of products that Hershey's offers you to complement desserts or just eating them like snacks when you're at a party or with your friends!

YouTube & Steve Chen, Chad Hurley and Jawed Karim YouTube Inventor - Steve Chen Steve Chen was born in 1978 in Taiwan and immigrated to the United States when he was 15. He was educated at the University of Illinois and after graduation found employment at PayPal, where he met his fellow YouTube co-inventors inventors and co cofounders Chad Hurley and Jawed Karim. Currently, Steve Chen serves as tthe Chief Technology Officer at YouTube. YouTube Inventor - Chad Hurley Born in 1977, Chad Hurley received a Bachelors degree in Fine Art from the University of Pennsylvania and was later employed eBay’s PayPal division. Currently, Chad Hurley serves as the Chief Executive Officer at YouTube and is considered a whiz at user interface design. YouTube Inventor - Jawed Karim Jawed Karim also worked at Paypal, where he meet his future corporate cohorts. However, Karim has also pursued an advanced degree at Stan Stanford ford University and is considered the elusive member of the threesome. He wanted to invent YouTube so he could find videos in an easy way. YouTube was invented by Steve Chen, Chad Hurley and Jawed Karim out of a garage in Menlo Park. The inventors became millionaires when they sold their invention for 1.65 billion dollars to the search engine Google. According to their fact sheet, YouTube was founded in February 2005, as a destination to watch and share original videos worldwide through the Web. Users can upload and share video clips on and YouTube enables video embedding that allows YouTube videos to be placed on non non-YouTube YouTube pages.

Important Religious People

Pope John Paul II He was born Karol J贸zef Wojtyla on May 18, 1920, in Wadowice, Poland. He was ordained in 1946, became the bishop of Ombi in 1958, and became the archbishop of Krakow in 1964. He was made a cardinal by Pope Paul VI in 1967, and in 1978 became the first non-Italian pope in more than 400 years. He was a vocal advocate for human rights and used his influence to effect political change. Born Karol J贸zef Wojtyla on May 18, 1920, in Wadowice, Poland, Pope John Paul II's early life was marked by great loss. His mother died when he was 9 years old, and his older brother Edmund died when he was 12. He went to Krakow's Jagiellonian University in 1938 where he showed an interest in theater and poetry. The school was closed the next year by Nazi troops during the German occupation of Poland. Wanting to become a priest, John Paul began studying at a secret seminary run by the archbishop of Krakow. After World War II ended, he finished his religious studies at a Krakow seminary and was ordained in 1946. John Paul became the bishop of Ombi in 1958 and then the archbishop of Krakow six years later. Considered one of the Catholic Church's leading thinkers, he participated in the Second Vatican Council. The council began reviewing church doctrine in 1962, holding several sessions over the course of the next few years. Well regarded for his contributions to the church, John Paul was made a cardinal in 1967 by Pope Paul VI. In 1978, John Paul made history by becoming the first non-Italian pope in more than four hundred years. As the leader of the Catholic Church, he traveled the world, visiting more than 100 countries to spread his message of faith and peace. But he was close to home when he faced the greatest threat to his life. In 1981, an assassin shot John Paul twice in St. Peter's Square in Vatican City. Fortunately, he was able to recover from his injuries and later forgave his attacker. In his later years, John Paul's health appeared to be failing. At public appearances, moved slowly and seemed unsteady on his feet. He also visibly trembled at times. While one of his doctors disclosed that John Paul had Parkinson's disease, a brain disorder often characterized by shaking, in 2001. John Paul II died on April 2, 2005, at the age of 84, at his Vatican City residence. More than 3 million people waited in line to say good-bye to their beloved religious leader at St. Peter's Basilica before his funeral on April 8. On July 5, 2013, waving the usual five-year waiting period, the Vatican announced that the Roman Catholic Church would

declare Pope John Paul II a saint, and that the canonization ceremony would likely take place within the next 16 months. The Vatican also stated that Pope John XXIII, who headed the Catholic Church from 1958 until his death in 1963 and convened the Vatican II council, would be declared a saint


Nother Nother Teresa Teresa IN MOTHER TERESA’S LIFE 26 August 1910 Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu (Mother Teresa) wass born in Skopje in Macedonia. 1913 The Balkan Wars end; Macedonia is divided between Serbia, Greece, and Bulgaria. 1919 Her father Nikola Bojaxhiu dies. 1925 Gonxha first becomes interested in mission work. 29 November 1928 Leaves home and she travels to the convent at Rathfarnham in Ireland. 6 January 1929 she begin her novitiate in Darjeeling. 24 May 1931 After two years, she takes the name Teresa. 24 May 1937 Sister Teresa takes her final vows in Loreto School, Darjeeling, India. 1938–1948 Begins teaching geography at St. Mary’s High School in Calcutta. 10 September 1946 Inspiration Day; while riding a train, Sister Teresa receives her call to help serve the poorest of the poor. 15 August 1947 India becomes free from British rule; three nations are formed. 1948 She levaes Loreto Order to live alone and work with the poor in Calcutta; her first act is to open a school in the slum of Motijhil. April 12, she receives permission from Pope Pius XII to remain a nun who will report directly to the archbishop of Calcutta; she travels to Patna where she works with the American Medical Missionary Sisters , she returnsto Calcutta in December; she will also become a citizen of India. 1949 Moves in with the Gomes family at 14 Creek Lanein February; in March, Subashni Das, a young Bengali girl, becomes the first to join Mother Teresa. 7 October 1950 The new congregation of the Missionaries of Charity is approved. 1952 Mother Teresa and the Missionaries of Charity move to their new motherhouse in August, Mother Teresa opens Nirmal Hriday, the first home for the dying, next to the temple at Kalighat. 1953 The first group of Missionaries opened the first home for abandoned and handicapped children.

1957 Mother Teresa begins working with lepers of Calcutta. 1959 The first houses outside of Calcutta are opened. 1960 Mother Teresa travels outside of India for the first. 1963 The Missionaries of Charity Brothers is established. 1965 Shantinagar, the Place of Peace for Lepers, is opened. 1969 The International Association of Co-Workers of Mother Teresa becomes officially affiliated with the Missionaries of Charity. 1979 Mother Teresa is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. 1983 Suffers heart attack while visiting in Rome. 1987 The Missionaries of Charity establish hospices for people with AIDS. 1989 Suffers second heart attack; doctors implant pacemaker. 1994 Documentary film Hell’s Angel is broadcast on the BBC Channel Four. 1996 Granted honorary American citizenship. 1997 Sister Nirmala elected to succeed Mother Teresa as leader of Missionaries of Charity; Mother Teresa dies after having a heart attack at the Motherhouse in Calcutta.

Important painters

Nicolås Poussin Poussin was considered the greatest of living painters by his contemporaries. Although he spent most of his life in Italy, his painting became the standard for French classical art. He was born in 1594, Poussin studied painting in the mannerist style in France until 1624, when he traveled to Rome . His early work in Rome (1624 – 1633) manifests diversified tendencies. He executed many drawings of antique monuments for the great patron of the arts Cassiano del Pozzo. He experimented also with the baroque style of Pietro da Cortona and Lanfranco in works such as the Martyrdom of St. Erasmus. His figures began to exhibit greater linear precision and sculptural solidity. Poussin became especially concerned with the didactic and philosophical possibilities of painting. He formulated the doctrines that became the basis of French classical and academic art. His approach to and successful justification of this intellectualization profoundly influenced painting far into the 19th cent. In 1640, Poussin was called to Paris by Louis XIII to displace Vouet as first painter to the king. Both the intrigues of Vouet and the task of administering the large-scale decoration of the Grand Gallery of the Louvre were distasteful to Poussin. By 1643, Poussin had returned to Rome. He then produced works that are considered the purest embodiments of French classicism. During the late 1640s Poussin turned to landscape painting. He constructed a classical landscape, ordered with mathematical precision through the use of architecture. In his late work he developed a freer conception of nature, while his figures were considerably reduced in size and importance. He died in 1665.

Paintings Seven Sacraments

Death of Phocion

Landscape with Orion

Winter (The Flood)

Gunther Gerzso Was born in Mexico City in the times of the Revolution. His parents were Oscar Gerzso and Dore Wendland. After his father's death his mother married a German jeweler. The economic crisis caused the family to flee to Europe in 1922. The family returned to Mexico two years later and her mother divorced. She sent Gunther to Lugano, Switzerland to live with his uncle Dr. Hans Wendland, who was an influential name in the art world. He lived among his uncle's collection of paintings which included works by Pierre Bonnard, Rembrandt, Paul Cézanne, Eugène Delacroix and Titian. He also met Nando Tamberlani, noted set designer who would introduce him to the world of theater. In 1931 Dr. Wendland sent the boy back to his mother in Mexico City. Back home he started doing sketches for set designs and writing plays. Two years later he started working in a local theater production company run by Fernando Wagner. In 1935 he was offered a scholarship to study at the Cleveland Play House where he made more than 50 set designs. During the 1940s and '50s he made various set designs for Mexican, French and American films. He won a total of five Premios Ariel for Best Production Design. During this time he collaborated with directors like Emilio "El Indio" Fernández in Un "Día de Vida". In 1930 Gerzso also started painting as a hobby. He showed a mix of European and Mexican influences. Bernard Pfriem, convinced him to enter the annual Art Exhibition at the Cleveland Museum of Art where two of his works were selected. In 1941 Gerzso and his wife moved permanently to Mexico City and in 1944 he joined a group of surrealist painters that had taken refuge from the Second World War in Mexico. His works from this period show a clear surrealist influence, which he later abandoned when he started working his famous abstracts. Gunther Gerzso was one of the greatest Latin American painters, since it was him, who opposed the ideologist aesthetic movement into which muralism had degenerated. Gunther Gerzso was awarded the Guggenheim Fellowship in 1973 and later in 1978 he was the recipient of the Premio Nacional de Bellas Artes. Gunther Gerzso died on April 21, 2000.

La Isla, 1945

Tiempos Violentos.

Calle de Gabino Barreda.

Margarida Xirgu


In this book you'll be able to find the biographies of many important people, such as authors, painters, inventors and religious people.

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