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DO YOU KNOW ABOUT THE PRINTER 3D? By: Laura Panadero

Currently, the technology is an excellent tool and it makes easier our daily activities. Can you imagine to create a new thing and have it in a few minutes?. Well‌ It is possible with the new printer 3d. Before starting, it is necessary to explain how the printer works. It is a mechanism that constructs things with volume, I mean; it does not use paper and ink, only it uses powder component and polymers. With this printer it is possible to print anything for example, a table, a pen, or maybe some parts of the body. Those printers were built to be used in architecture and industrial drawing in order to create design pieces with help of the computer programs; those printers use two types of technology: one of them uses laser to create the objet to layers, and the other one uses ink with powder component.

In this XXI century, it is impossible to escape of technology, because the technology is a complement to do some tasks every day; Now you can remember that 30 years ago, we did not have it and it was necessary to move the objects from side to side, it took a lot of time, maybe some days, weeks or months with this printer can help us print some objects in a pretty short time. A good example is in the USA, when a baby who was two months of life, was saved when doctors implanted a prosthesis in his trachea, the prosthesis was created in the printer 3d in one day. One year after, the baby is fine and he has an excellent health, also the doctors claim that he does not have any risk.


Finally, I think that technology is very important because it contributes with new solutions. In general technology has many advantages, for example, it can reduce the time of transportation, and it reduces the values of delivery. Maybe in soon time we could have a printer 3d; personally I could not resist buying that printer, I love the technology because it is easy to manipulate, it is interesting and you can learn new things. Also it is important to know this tool because many people that have health or disability problems can find a solution with this new technological advance. So would you like to buy the printer 3d? What do you think about this?

Sources : http://www.wikipedia.org/


THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE AUTOMOBILE IN THE WORLD By: Airon Parra

The automobile has been for a lot of time the best invention that the human has made, owing to the different uses that the automobile gives us. Inside of the big qualities the automobiles are improve our life to move faster. Having as principle the transport of people, the automobile has been an essential element in our life, starting since of the emblematic Volkswagen Beetle until the famous automobiles Lamborghini. The automobile has had so much reception to the people that exist the famous races of the F1 that are seeing at all worlds; also some people life in special automobiles named Motor Home. The first automobile was the vapor automobile, this automobile was created by Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot, this automobile was develop to transport heavy components but in that epoch the people found very funny because that carriage did not have horses, as a matter of fact these cars in that epoch only were toys to rich people, these automobiles were very expensive to common people, besides these cars were dangerous because the drivers caused a lot of accidents. Without matter the problems one person named Henry Ford changed the world cars with his car model “T”, this car was main to start a concept on the cars. This car was faster, cheaper and this had an advantage on the other cars “this car was created to common people”. Trough this concept the other emblematic brands of cars changing their ideas and starting to satisfy the necessity of the common people.


Nowadays each automobile has different features in the relation with purpose of the automobile, the development of the automobile the different brands of cars have had constant changes owing to the necessity in relation the use although the principle is the same, of the people don’t want only a car to transport and no more, the people want a car comfortable as the Mercedes Benz or BMW, other people prefer cars with a special design to that they can to show their personality I mean a customized car as the Roll Royce the which are very elegant, some people prefer the sport cars as the Ferrari , Lotus and Lamborghini this kind of cars have an excellent performance with a special streamlined to go faster, The qualities of the cars have experienced a lot of transformation through the time owing to the different requirements of necessity since the common person until the richest person.


Could you imagine the rats or maybe the pigs like our principal organ donors? By: Katherin Martin

As everyone knows “ The human heart is a fist-sized, muscular organ that is hollow. Its job is to pump blood through the body's network of blood vessels. Its blood, and blood vessels are part of the circulatory system, which supplies all the body's cells with the oxygen and nutrients they need, and removes waste products. Also it has a complex electrical system that keeps everything working...�.With the passing of the time, the technology and scientific advances have been absolutely crucial in the life of almost all people. In ancient time the diseases were considered a mystery or a signal of sin, and only few people had a character and quality to explore the hidden. That was the case of the scientists and thinkers that were considered heretics when they tried to explore new things.

Have you wondered just what the future would bring us ? Or are you someone who thinks that everything is already done? As everyone knows, the principal problem with the patients from the big list are the few possibilities to get an organ (Maybe 1 in 10 people ) compatible with those genes, reason that leads researchers to create an innovating proposal that will change the course of scientific history. US scientists have for the first time made a beating heart in a laboratory using heart tissue from dead rats and pigs to make a structure and to seed it with live cells. The research is the work of scientists at the University of Minnesota that used a process known as whole organ decellularization, where essentially all the cells of a heart are removed, leaving only those that constitute the physical structure , the extracellular matrix or anatomy between cells.


The idea of providing transplant patients with a bioartificial heart, or replacing part of a sickly heart with a working component grown in the lab, has been considered theoretically possible for some time, and this study has taken a first step into turning theory into practice. Using this new decellularization process, a new heart could be filled with cells from the recipient, thus reducing the probability that their immune system would try to reject it, and their body might instead look after it by nourishing, regenerating and regulating it. In September 2 of 1952 the first open heart surgery was a complete innovation for the world and the beginning of a new age for science that opened the door to introduce us in a new and complete world; with Wilfred G. Bigelow like the principal brain of this success. He put the first stone to create the largest stair of the scientific development and just his ideas have been able to change the way of thinking about the advancement. Definitely the progress made until today has been just thank to those people who are able to take the initiative, facing all kinds of dangers and accusations. Sources: http://www.futurepundit.com/archives/004924.html http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijbm/2010/620503/ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j9XzN0-TQZc


BUNGEE JUMPING By : Cristian Panqueva

Surprisingly, bungee jumping is actually a very old phenomenon. The origins of the sport were in an ancient ritual of Pentecost Island in Vanuatu. It was a ceremony to prove manhood and welcome the spring harvest, young people jumped from a platform in the trees suspended by ankles with rope, was also used to punish unfaithful partner’s wings, it was said that If he survived this event one of the two people is released and may again make your life with another person is, as I make a separation where before the tribe was free and there was no more commitment to this person, when they started talking the emotions generated in this sport for young people and also for one who is looking for another adult risky adrenaline.

The bungee jumping is practiced throughout the world, New Zealand is still famous for this sport. The jump should be performed from a structure that allows significant room for one does not swing towards a large, immobile object. Therefore, it is practiced in structures hanging or fly over large open extensions. The most common sites include the jumps of bridges, cranes, helicopters and balloons, in Colombia there are companies that specialize in providing these services, the cost of this sport are 60.00 Colombian pesos which includes all safety equipment and a couple of photos with a short video, the most important places to practice this sport in Colombia are San Gil, Represa Guavio ,Medellin most participants are young people but there are many who want to live a moment of adrenaline and leave behind the old.


Although bungee jumping sounds very dangerous, very few deaths have been attributed to the sport and serious injuries are also rare. The operators and participants practice security protocols to ensure that the bungee is safe and fun. The greatest risk of injury arising from the lack of personal experience with safety and equipment, another factor that should be discussed wing when launching from is knowing the health problem can bring over time and causing brain damage is an example of a young man who had this experience and six months has paralysis of the body and to perform study was determined that it was by this sport today is prohibited in certain places in the world


THE EVOLUTION OF A COSTUME By: Ana María Ángel

The history about the swimsuit, an interesting piece of feminine clothing, began in the end of the XIX Century, when it was possible to find the first swimsuit. The swimsuit was invented, for men and women, like an appropriate and more hygienic piece of wearing useful for taking the sun or swimming in a pool and the beach, however, for the women, the swimsuit was born in 1.890 and had six heavy pieces: hat, rode, pants, socks made in wool or cotton, which became to weigh up to three kilos!.

In the history, the swimsuit evolved a lot, nevertheless, the BIKINI, as a form of the swimsuit that was invented in 1946, meant a radical change. Indeed, in this year the French engineer Louis Réard created the swimsuit with two pieces that were called BIKINI taking this name by the Coral Island Polynesian Bikini in the Pacific Ocean, the place where United States did atomic bombs tests in the same year. In several beaches in United States and Europe its use was prohibited with threat of arrest because at that moment the people would believe that using it was against the moral and the good costumes. But the bikini had fans too, one of them was the famous actress Brigitte Bardot, who popularized it in her early films like “Manina, la fille sans voile” (Manina, the girl in the bikini) and when she posed for many photographers too


In our days, the swimsuit is still a very important piece of clothing in the feminine closet, but now, it is used with less prejudice and there are several styles to choose. Indeed, today we can find swimsuits for everyone, for example: swimsuit with one piece, with two pieces (bikini), tankini which the top piece covers the bust and the stomach, the monokini that exposes the bust, and the burquini which covers all the body, except the face. We can conclude that it could be a near relationship between the advance of the right of women, and the size reduction on the swimsuits, because in the history we have seen how the women were wining more freedom with the time and it was reflected in more revealing swimsuits as a form to express that they can make decisions about their bodies and the form they want to live their lives.


PAST AND PRESENT OF CONTRACEPTIVE METHODS By: Yesid Romero

Probably nothing talks as well as sex does about our humanity. Sex is not only the way to continue the life; moreover it represents several emotions for people around the world. It is a meaning to express love, to feel passion, to share moments and feelings. Notwithstanding to be the most natural aspect of each human, sexuality through the history has been a forbidden issue to discuss. Sex in human beings is a recreational activity too. And for this reason humanity has always been worried about how to have sex without having a pregnancy as result. Next, It is a short summarize about the history of some of the contraceptive methods. And we wonder: how is it currently?

There are many theories about what was the first contraceptive method in the history however many experts say that it was the Petri´s Papyrus: a kind of cream made with Manure of crocodiles and Honey bee. The Egyptian’s women used that as a Spermicide before the coitus. Then, during the II century A.C. Sorano de Efeso a roman doctor used to said to his women patients that the better way to not get pregnant was to jump and sneeze after sex. Would anybody like to try this method nowadays? Just until the XVI century the first condom was made, of course it was so different to modern condoms: it wasn’t made of latex but of skin and animal intestines and as these were very expensive people reused them all the time. Would you do the same? The condom that we know was born in 1844. Now, every year around the world, millions of condoms are produced each day more comfortable and safer than before.


In reality Condoms are not only one of the most common and cheaper contraceptive methods: it is the most effective way to prevent AIDS. People must be conscious of that, even in a stable relationship, to use condom is very necessary. Last but not least: there are many contraceptive methods that involve especially women. For example: the contraceptive pill. That was created in 1960 and that increased the production of Estrogen, reason why the pregnancy is less probable. Modern science has changed the sexual life of millions of persons. If somebody doesn’t want to have children, with a simple surgery he could get this purpose. Even, if some years after the same person changes his mind, with other surgery he could get pregnant. Not all has been written, of course. But now there are a lot of options. In other way it is hilarious that the main contraceptive method, probably the first in history continues being used: Coitus interruptus is more frequently that people think. Don´t you think?


TATTOO, A MILLENARY TRADITION By: Ana Rico

Tattoos are an ancient ritual practiced around the world. In every culture techniques used are different, and often very painful. The origin of tattooing goes back thousands of years and is an essential part of cultures like the Maori (with moko facial tattoo), Egyptian culture, indigenous culture or Polynesian, where it is believed that the tattoo originates. The tattoo was introduced into Western society by the expeditionary English directed by Captain Cook 1770, on his return from Tahiti. Also, the captain Cook discovered in his trips the Moko art, used by the Maori of New Zealand, it consisted in open a wound in the skin with the respective design and once the wound healed, open it again and again until the design is permanent.

Moreover, In the U.S.A, tattoos became popular with commercial sailors and marines from the Second World War, and in the 50’s, differents designs skulls appeared and distinctive phrases between motorcycle gangs. Remained in standby until the 60's and 70's, when resurfaced with hippies. Hippies led to tattoo to the abandoned art category. But it was not until the 80s when the culture of tattoos left the underground area, where some musicians sought to create an image of rock n 'roll more dangerous and tough. In this way, the tattoo became more common and the idea of decorating the body with custom images was attractive to a wider range of people.


By: Ana Rico

Nowadays, there are many types of tattoos. For example, the sun tattoo, which is exposed to the sun and allow the tan handle to capture the desired shape on the body. Eye tattoo exist also, not so known in Colombia but in the U.S.A. has gained a lot of attention. The technique is simple, needle and syringe to inject the ink into the eyeball. Of course, punctures are made away from the area of the iris. Finally there is the ultraviolet tattoo, which is performed using an invisible ink that glows under the so-called "black light", the ultraviolet light. These tattoos can be completely invisible under natural light, but the special ink makes black. The shine in a light color can vary from white to purple, depending on the ink you choose. The ink of other colors can go under and tattoo design can also be seen during the day. According your environment, would you be able to get an eye tattoo or UV tattoo?


BONE ELONGATION By: Paula Moya Florez

Have you ever thought you could be higher than you are? Maybe, in the 19th century no one thought

about that. In the 20th century, the elongation of bones appeared. Bone elongation is a surgical procedure used to extend some bones of the body. It has been used mostly in the area of orthopedic surgery. Also, it has been used to reduce and correct congenital malformations. Its practice began in the first decade of the twentieth century. In 1905 Alessandro Codivilla performed some surgical practices to enlarge lower tips. These first techniques had complications and did not reach the desired goal. In 1951 Gavril Ilazarov improved the technique and expanded its use.


At the present time, the Ilazarov’s method is used for cosmetic purposes as the height increase. Also, bone elongation is highly used on oral surgery and maxillofacial surgery to correct several problems. These process are very traumatic and have a high risk of infections, it is very painful as well. Current techniques cause temporal disability per 6 to 8 months with a top of 2 inches of elongation, and require an external surgery which involves cuts on the skin, tissues and bone. So far, the only known side effects of these procedures are marks and scars.

In the future, the bone elongation could be used to fix or correct jaw deformities and more cosmetic purposes. The new procedures will be less invasive, painful and should be faster as well. Also, these techniques could be used more extensively on orthopedic procedures in order to correct malformations, fix broken bones, and correct congenital problems. In my opinion, maybe we should wait some decades more until this technique will cover these fields. So far, the consumption of this surgery has been mostly cosmetic, In Asian countries and Russia, where physical beauty is associated with the height in an important way. If you had the opportunity to undergo this surgery, would you do it?


TEACHER´S WAYS OF CORRECTING CHILDREN By: Daniela Osorio Ocampo

Along in the school history the punishments have been present in the educational process. Certainly, there is a big difference in the strategies used to correct students. For example any failure or breach of the rule was a worthy penalty in the past. Punishments of the 70s and 80s in school differ from the methods used since 2000 until today, which is why this text wants to make an overall comparison of these two aspects…

The 70 and 80 are known as cruel and humiliating time for the students, the most prominent are the next: DONKEY EARS: This method was used when a student did not know the lesson; IN FRONT OF THE WALL: It was the teacher´s decision to separate the student from the rest of the class, trying to humiliate him putting his back to everyone; HOLDING BOOKS is a physical punishment that sought to generate fatigue and pain to students; COPYING 100 LESSON TIMES: classic punishment or phrase related the misbehavior such as “I will not talk in class” or “I will to answer to my teacher”; HITTING WITH A RULE the most desperate reaction of the teacher, students showed their hands and the teacher hit them with a ruler.


Luckily, the punishments to the students are moderate today because they have a lot of legal protection. Since 2000 it is normal to find corrections to students as discipline reports and signing a book of observations. Other type of punishment is social work with the objective of helping lower grades of the students or making posters about daily coexistence, and if it was a fight between teammates, they should talk to offer apologies. However, today it is possible to see that in many schools like in Singapore and Malaysia they use CANING -For boys- as a routine official punishment for misconduct as well as in some African countries. In some Middle Eastern countries whipping is used; in South Korea, male and female secondary students alike are commonly spanked in school. So‌knowing this, what is your opinion about the ways teachers have corrected and should correct students today?


History, Sustainability and Evolution of Architecture in Colombia By:

There are some people who are thinking that they can improve the sustainability architecture only using vegetation. Do you believe that a grass and a flower in a building becomes a sustainable architecture? Weather conditions influence the building design, using resources such as the sun, vegetation, rain, wind to reduce environmental damage. Sustainable architecture aims to promote sufficiency energy for these buildings to not generate unnecessary energy consumption, use the resources of their environment and have no impact on the environment. The conclusion is that the architecture for many years did not harm the environment; people use technology and materials that have been evolved in construction because architects and engineers just want to see beautiful buildings, regardless of environmental damage.


There are many people who get excited every time they make large building malls or high but‌. Do you think it is fair we are living in a place where we have no typical architecture that identifies our country? The people who designed our country were foreigners or Colombians who studied in other countries because they had the economic capacity to travel. The first university in Colombia with a degree in architecture was the national university in 1934, but still the national college professors were foreign, this means that students learned another type of architecture that is not peculiar to Colombia. Unfortunately, architecture in Colombia is a copy of other countries and people do not see that it would be so cool if one day in our country we could be a nation with our own thoughts that identify us worldwide.

Some people are lazy, for this reason the technology is improving the comforts of everybody. Just look around us to see how technology is integrated into our daily lives; this is why the future will have intelligent buildings, efficient constructions, which means that you will be able to do a bit with minimal resources. Intelligent buildings are the future of the world that will be uploaded to benefit us; although we could think that constructions will not damage the environment.

REFERENCE: V international Congress eco cities - Faculty of Architecture “La Gran Colombia University�


GENERATIONAL GAP By: Alejandro Quiroga A.

The generational gap is a term popularized in western countries during the 60’s referring to differences between people of younger generations and their elderly. It was especially between children and their parents, besides it is a term used in production and marketing based on how to direct a product for a particular generation. Before the 60’s, the generational gap was not significant because the changes between a generation and other were not many, for example, the profession was the same between parents and their offspring.

Has your generation changed a lot?

First of all, during and after the Second World War, as the 50’s began, differences between teenagers and parents began to emerge. It began when a premature marriage became the norm, and other factors such as the modern television, different ways to write and make music (Rock ‘n Roll beginning with ‘’That’s all right Mama’’ which is the first song of this gender by Elvis Presley,) were taken like ‘’a corrupting influence’’ for teenagers by FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover. In the 60’s the hippie counter-culture and diverging opinions about the draft and military involvement in Vietnam raged. As well, the use of drugs was a significant topic of the generation gap of this era. Furthermore, in 1969 the spaceflight Apolo 11 landed the first humans on the moon, this gave way to start the technological age making big changes to the future generations such as electronic devices, the modern TV with colors with shows laughing about the family and a new way of rock (The Beatles, The Who ,etc) thanks to the new musical instruments, but it was in the 80’s the appearance of microchips, PC’s ,Cell phones, mobile devices and internet, built our shape to take the world.


The greatest evidence that shows the change are Language Use and Language Brokering. The generation gap has created a parallel gap in language that can be difficult to communicate across and different generations speak different primary languages, another evidence is the Slang which is an ever changing set of colloquial words and phrases that speakers use to establish or reinforce social identity, besides, it is the technological influence what makes the difference between each generation. However, sociologists also point to institutional age segregation as an important contributing factor to the generational segregation, due to new politics, making the family get divide, for example, the necessity of working to earn some money for the home.


THE TECHNOLOGY WHEN I WAS A CHILD. By: Francisco RodrĂ­guez

The technology has become so common in our lives, that we are getting used to seeing its continued development, surely that development of future technologies will be very surprising to us. I remember when the Televisions were square and the image was black and white. Now the televisions are in 3 dimensions, totally flat. In the future, within a few years the televisions sure will be a hologram. Before, when I was a child my best friend told me that with a plastic card in the future we could take money from a machine, all of us thought it was fantastic but impossible. Today, you can do that and much more, such as getting to a computer and sending money anywhere in the world and buy almost everything. In the same way, I remember, if we were traveling in another city and someone was lost, it was an odyssey, now we just have to make a call to a cell phone to contact your friends or your family. In my childhood I never imagined that we could

communicate from anywhere in the world with satellite and mobile phones, it was impossible. I never imagined that through a simple phone "mobile phone" we could avoid getting lost, because that in my cell phone I could locate myself through an amazing satellite GPS.


When I was a child I listened to tape cassettes or vinyl records in which you could keep approximately 6 or 10 songs. Now I listen to music on a minuscule IPOD NANO, which means that I have to bring all the music that my parents kept in large cabinets full of discs. Frankly the technology makes our life easy and makes it more comfortable, but it has many other negative consequences, for us to isolate ourselves from our family and our friends, now it is common to see groups of people sitting at a table, each one of them with their cell phones without crossing almost any words and I wonder, are they

communicating

among

themselves?

Video

games

also allow us to retain children in their homes and avoid them from playing games that before were interactive and permitted us to exercise the body. The personal and social impact of technology has pros and cons and will continue to grow with many positive and negative consequences, we will not know what we will write in the future our grandchildren

of their archaic parents, they maybe will laugh when they say to others that their parents used a thing called car when they could easily teletransport.


FASHION IN COLOMBIA By: Monica Alvarez

In every period of history, fashion has been an fundamental topic which has defined the trend of the ages. That’s certainly true especially in the last 50 years where fashion industry spends thousands or millions of dollars every year. Dresses, hats, pants, shirts, shoes, accessories, jewelry, define new fashion trend, every day and drive women crazy around the world, but few people realized that those items our grandmas used to wear is what we what to wear nowadays but with new accessories, that make us realize that fashion styles come and go in cycle. All generations have been influence in fashion and in Colombia is not exception.

In Colombia the sixties, seventies and eighties were important because all things were new, the people used to wear clothing according to their favorite singers or economic stratum. At this time is different because not only you can find clothing cheaply but also find different styles. The people used to wear pants boot wide and their hair was large, the glasses had large lenses, the shoes were with platform. Women wore dresses in all moments. The sixties and seventies were similar. In eighties the customs were similar but the people were less discreet. The rock music was important in this process, the people saw different cultures, the clothing was very tight and socks were broken. The hairstyle was with different colors, highlight colors. Nowadays Colombia has all cultures, when you walk around the street, you can see strange outfits, the old people wear informal clothing and still you can find the “hippie fashion” even though was common in sixties and seventies.


The young people wear clothing in accordance with culture or social group, for example at nineties “hip hop culture was fashion� and in this time some groups wear this style, beside that the rock music still has influence in fashion. In the same that case different brands of clothes have been essential for the growth of fashion, Benetton, Gucci, Ralph Lauren, Izod, Guess, Nike, and members Only, were the some clothing brands more important at eighties.


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