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dreams & dreaming Dreams are successions of images, ideas, emotions, and sensations that occur involuntarily in the mind during certain stages of sleep. The content and purpose of dreams are not definitively understood, though they have been a topic of scientific speculation and a subject of philosophical and religious interest throughout recorded history. The scientific study of dreams is called oneirology.

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dreams & dreaming

amy hill


Intial Research In modern times, dreams have been seen as a connection to the unconscious mind. They range from normal and ordinary to overly surreal and bizarre. Dreams can have varying natures, such as frightening, exciting, magical, melancholic, adventurous, or sexual. The events in dreams are generally outside the control of the dreamer, with the exception of lucid dreaming, where the dreamer is self-aware. Dreams can at times make a creative thought occur to the person or give a sense of inspiration. Dream interpretations date back to 5000–4000 BC. The earliest recorded dreams were acquired from materials dating back approximately 5,000 years.

cultral meanings

in popular culture

Since the ancient history period to now, different cultures have various explanations for why we dream, for example; in Chinese history, people wrote of two vital aspects of the soul of which one is freed from the body during slumber to journey a dream realm, while the other remained in the body. Other cultures include; Indinginoues Austrlians, Sumerians, Greeks, Christians, Native Americans etc

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Dreams more recently have also featured in literature, film and even video games. One of the bestknown dream worlds is Wonderland from Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. Modern p.culture often conceives of dreams, as expressions of the dreamer’s deepest fears and desires. In films such as, and Inception, the protagonists must extract vital clues from surreal dreams.

dreams & dreaming

amy hill


Dream Content From the 1940s to 1985, Calvin S. Hall collected more than 50,000 dream reports at Western Reserve University. In 1966 Hall and Van De Castle published The Content Analysis of Dreams, in which they outlined a coding system to study 1,000 dream reports from college students. It was found that people all over the world dream of mostly the same things.

visual

The visual nature of dreams is generally highly phantasmagoric; that is, different locations and objects continuously blend into each other. The visuals (including locations, characters/people, objects/artifacts) are generally reflective of a person’s memories and experiences, but often take on highly exaggerated and bizarre forms.

other phenomona

Incorporation of reality Dream incorporation is a phenomenon whereby an actual sensation, such as environmental sounds, is incorporated into dreams, such as hearing a phone ringing in a dream while it is ringing in reality Precognition Psychologists have explained these experiences in terms of memory biases, namely a selective memory for accurate predictions and distorted memory so that dreams are retrospectively fitted The most common emotion experienced in dreams is anxiety. Other emotions include abandonment, onto life experiences. anger, fear, joy, and happiness. Negative emotions are much more common than positive ones. False awakening In a false awakening, one dreams of having awoken. The room the dreamer falsely awakens in is The Hall data analysis shows that sexual dreams occur no more than 10% of the time and are more often similar to the room he/she fell asleep in. prevalent in young to mid-teens. Another study showed that 8% of men’s and women’s dreams have Sleep paralysis sexual content.. Sigmund Freud argued that even dreams which may seem innocuous on the surface During sleep the body paralyzes itself as a protection mechanism. However, this can be triggered ultimately have underlying sexual meanings. before, during, or after normal sleep while the brain awakens. This can lead to a state where the awakened sleeper feels paralyzed. Effects of sleep paralysis include heaviness or inability to move the muscles, rushing or pulsating noises, and brief hypnogogic or hypnopompic imagery. A small minority of people say that they dream only in black and white. A 2008 study by a researcher at the University of Dundee found that people who were only exposed to black and Out-of-body experience white television and film in childhood reported dreaming in black and white about 25% of the time. is an experience that typically involves a sensation of floating outside of one’s body and, in some cases, perceiving one’s physical body from a place outside one’s body (autoscopy). Lucid dreaming Lucid dreaming is the conscious perception of one’s state while dreaming. In this state the dreamer may often (but not always) have some degree of control over their own actions within the dream or even the characters and the environment of the dream.

emotional sexual

colour vs black & white

ougd505

dreams & dreaming

amy hill


Why dreams ? Dreaming consumesone third of your life ! This is a significant fraction of your life, and its not really discussed at length and we not understood as oppose to alot of other things in science, and psychology. Nobody really has a defintie answer and there are alot of unanswered questions, that are interesting and good to explore

facts about dreaming

dream symbolsism

1. One-third of your life is spent sleeping. 2. In an average lifetime, you would have spent a total of about six years of it dreaming. That is more than 2,100 days spent in a different realm! 3. Dreams have been here as long as mankind. Back in the Roman Era, profound and significant dreams were submitted to the Senate for analysis and interpretation. 4. Everybody dreams. EVERYBODY! Simply because you do not remember your dream does not mean that you do not dream. In fact, you have several dreams during a normal night of sleep. 5. Dreams are indispensable. A lack of dream activity may imply some protein deficiency or a personality disorder. 6. On average, you can dream anywhere from one to two hours every night. Moreover, you can have four to seven dreams in one night. 7. Blind people do dream. Whether visual images appear in their dreams depend on whether they were blind at birth or became blind later in life. But vision is not the only sense that constitutes a dream. Sound, tactility, and smell become hypersensitive for the blind and their dreams are based on these senses. 8. Five minutes after the end of the dream, half the content is forgotten. After ten minutes, 90% is lost. 9. The word dream stems from the Middle English word, dreme which means “joy” and “music”. 10. Men tend to dream more about other men, while women dream equally about men and women. 11. Studies have shown that your brain waves are more active when you are dreaming than when we are awake. 12. Dreamers who are awakened right after REM sleep, are able to recall their dreams more vividly than those who slept through the night until morning. 13. Physiologically speaking, researchers found that during dreaming REM sleep, males experience erections and females experience increased vaginal blood flow, regardless the content of the dream. In fact, “wet dreams” may not necessarily coincide with overtly sexual dream content. 14. People who are in the process of giving up smoking tend to have longer and more intense dreams. 15. Toddlers do not dream about themselves. They do not appear in their own dreams until the age of 3 or 4.

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So there are many explanations for dreams from many various culrtures/ religons and times, however not only questioning dremaing itself but the content is also a big question many people have when they dream. Many people dream of certain things e.g. animals, death, exams, and the loss of teeth which all represent a feeling or fear of the person dreaming.

dreams & dreaming

amy hill


Potential Direction From researching online, it became apparent that this topic hasn’t been covered alot. The strongest directions had been in app design, however there where examples of printed materials that where also interesting and gave various direction indicators. It also became apparent that the subject has many considerations and levels and this would have to be planned carefully.

design for screen

design for print

From looking online, I found a few apps that are dedictaed to understanding and recording As well as onscreen I found that some people had created various sleep realted materials. This dreams. An app would be able to track and record your dreams quickly and easily, it would also gives a list of deliverables that could be created. For instatnce a dream pack could be created, formulate results. An app can also be more sociable, you could have a network share your dreams/ with guides and materials to aid dreaming, or understanding dreams. Aswell as this bedding, pillows dream profile, and discuss what others thought of your dreams, or how they would interpret them. etc are also all appropriate as you have to be asleep to dream.

ougd505

dreams & dreaming

amy hill


Dreams research boards  

Research into dreams and dreaming

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