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Overview ¨ ¨ ¨

Common Terminology Theoretical Foundations Academic Probation Interventions ¤

Virginia Tech ¤ San Diego State ¤ California State University, Long Beach ¤ Additional Interventions ¨ ¨

Miami University Specific Intervention Applicability ¤

Small Group Discussions

Common Terminology

Definition of Academic Probation ¨

Students who do not meet academic standards for one or more semesters


Typically involves a student’s grade point average dipping below a definite level


Excess of 10% of students on academic probation


High risk of attrition

Student Placement into Academic Probation ¨

Universal across institution type


Top reasons include: ¤ Family ¤ Work



¤ Financial


¤ Inappropriate ¤ Failure

course selection

to adjust to increased expectations

Theoretical Foundations

Theoretical Foundations


Tinto & Retention


Astin’s Input-Environment-Outcome model


Weiner & Achievement


Strength-based models

(Tinto, 1993; Astin, 1993; Weiner, 1979; Hanger, Goldenson, Weinberg, Schmitz-Sciborski, & Monzon, 2011)

Academic Probation Interventions

Virginia Tech ¨

Project Success ¤ Small

groups of students

¤ Faculty,

staff, and/or peer facilitators

¤ Reflective ¨


Reasons for intervention success ¤ Intensive ¤ Aids

in sense of belonging

¤ Discusses

information related to academic success and skills (attendance, goal-setting, time (Humphrey, management, etc.)

San Diego State University ¨

Bounce Back Retention Program (BBRP) ¤ Semester-long ¤ Mental

health professionals and peer coaches

¤ Maximum ¨

voluntary course

of 15 students per class

Reasons for intervention success ¤ Multiple

ways to engage with topics

¤ Supports

student strengths and addresses selfdefeating attitudes (Hanger et al., 2011)

California State University, Long Beach ¨

Student Affirmative Action Program ¤ Ongoing

advising and counseling sessions

¤ Orientation ¤ Signed ¨

at outset of probation


Reasons for intervention success ¤ Individual

and consistent sessions

¤ Participant


¤ Addresses

reasons for academic probation (Ramirez & Evans,

Additional Interventions Canadian University ¨

Personal outreach to students on probation in form of both form letter and phone conversation with university staff

Southwestern US University ¨

Success course for students on academic probation

(James & Graham, 2010; McGrath & Burd,

Miami University Specific Intervention

Overview ¨

Three-tier system


Reaches across the university ¤ Office

of Residence Life

¤ Rinella

Learning Center

¤ Student ¨

Affairs division

Focus on first- and second-year students ¤ Divisions

and colleges focus on juniors and seniors

Definitions Academic Warning

Academic Probation

Academic Suspensio n

• For “transition semester” • Cum. GPA falls below 2.0 • Student with more than 16 credithours • Cum. GPA falls below 2.0 • Student with more than 29 credithours • Semester GPA is below 2.0

Tier-Specific Interventions ¨

Academic Warning ¤ ¤ ¤


Academic Probation ¤ ¤


Academic Advisor Academic Specialist LASSI Trained Intervention Specialist EDT 110/academic coaching

Academic Suspension ¤ ¤ ¤

Leave university for two academic semesters Phone conversation with Learning Specialist and Divisional Advisor Re-entry application

Success Rates ¨

Academic Warning ¤

Entering n


No longer on probation n



Academic Probation ¤

Entering n


5% (of second-year students)

No longer on probation n


8% (of first-year students)


Academic Suspension ¤

Entering n


Applicability •

What are some central themes?


How can your institution apply these themes to better support students on academic probation?

References ¨

Astin, A. W. (1993). What matters in college: four critical years revisited. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.


Demetrious, C. (2011). The attribution theory of learning and advising students on academic probation. NACADA Journal, 31(2), 16-21.


Hanger, M. A., Goldenson, J., Weinberg, M., Schmitz-Sciborski, A., & Monzon, R. (2011). The bounce back retention program: One-year follow-up study. Journal of College Student Retention; Research, Theory & Practice, 13(2), 205-227.


Humphrey, E. (2006). Project success: Helping probationary students achieve academic success. Journal of College Student Retention; Research, Theory & Practice, 7(3-4), 147-163.


James, C. L. & Graham, S. (2010). An empirical study of students on academic probation. Journal of The First-Year Experience & Students Transition, 22(2), 71-92.


McGrath, S. M. & Burd, G. D. (2012). A success course for freshmen on academic probation: Persistence and graduation outcomes. NACADA Journal, 32(1), 43-52.


Ramirez, G. M. & Evans, R. J. (1988). Solving the probation puzzle: A student affirmative action program. NACADA Journal, 8(2), 34-45.


Tinto, V. (1993). Leaving college: Rethinking the causes and cures of student attrition (2nd ed.). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.


Weiner, B. (1979). A theory of motivation for some classroom experiences. Journal of Educational Psychology, 71(1), 3–25.

Questions •

Kevin Friedman •

Amy Corron •

Hillary Kovacs •

OCPA Presentation