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04 2011


04 2011 EDUCATION Tudeshki, H.

Basics of Geo-Mechanics and Hydrology Dewatering of Open Cast Mines

Institute of Mining | TU Clausthal | Germany

TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Trends and Developments in Bulk Materials Handling Technology

Petermann, L. ; Kaverinski, S.

Sandvik compact bucket wheel excavator with exceptional capacity taken over at Bükkábrány mine in Hungary

Hinterholzer, S.

New, Compact, Flexible, High Performance Screening Systems with screen areas from 0,7...33 m2

Spanknebel, F.

Reducing Geo-risks with Geo-monitoring

Kümpel, H.-J. ; Balzer, D. ; Kühn, F.

Integrated Slope Monitoring Through Geo-sensor Networks

Thuro, K. ; Singer, J. ; Festl, J.

Measuring technology is the cornerstone of automation in process technology: Robust solutions for your process automation

Endress +Hauser Messtechnik

FAM GmbH Förderanlagen | Magdeburg | Germany

Sandvik Mining and Construction | Leoben | Austria

Rotex Europe Ltd. | Remscheid | Germany

Bundesanstalt für Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe Hanover | Germany

Department for Geologic Engineering | Munich Technical University | Germany

Reflections from quartz sand no problem for Levelflex

Weil am Rhein | Germany

Endress +Hauser Messtechnik Weil am Rhein | Germany

Quality under control

Endress +Hauser Messtechnik Weil am Rhein | Germany

Keeping track of material flow

Endress +Hauser Messtechnik Weil am Rhein | Germany

THIS MAGAZINE IS SUPPORTED BY: BBM Operta GmbH Continental/ContiTech Vermeer

Sandvik Metso MTC

04 2011 NEWS & REPORTS EDUCATION Atlas Copco’s Minetruck MT6020 continues to break productivity records

Atlas Copco

Atlas Copco launches new series of extreme duty pedestal boom systems

Atlas Copco

Atlas Copco launches Boomer M1 L a new, robust single boom drill rig for low vein mining

Atlas Copco

Smart ROC T40 - Updated Silence kit meets demands for quieter drilling

Atlas Copco

Underground Rock Excavation

Underground Rock Excavation Underground Rock Excavation

Surface Drilling Equipment

Atlas Copco

Atlas Copco takes Smart ROC D65 to the next level

Surface Drilling Equipment

CDE mobile washing plant proves successful on major canal project in Turkey: Turkish Wow!

CDE Global LTD

allmineral has a new partner

Allmineral Aufbereitungstechnik

Surface mining is the most economical option: Oil shale mining in Estonia

Wirtgen GmbH

Environmentally friendly coal mining in China: WIRTGEN 2200 SM

Wirtgen GmbH

New Performance Series Bucket line for Cat ® Wheel loaders take full advantage of machine power and linkages


New Cat ® 966K and 972K Wheel Loaders Improve Productivity and Fuel Efficiency, Reduce Emissions


Caterpillar ® Introduces 980K Wheel Loader


New excavator from Komatsu Japanese construction equipment manufacturer announces launch of PC240LC-10 excavator

Marubeni-Komatsu Ltd

Alternatives in the Making: Efficient use of resources - raw materials

Siemens AG | Pictures of the Future


Duisburg | Germany

Windhagen | Germany

Windhagen | Germany

Padgets Lane, Redditch, Worcestershire B98 0RT

Munich | Germany

EVENTS The AMS-Event calender 2011 5. Kolloquium „Fördertechnik im Bergbau“ 2012

18 - 19 January 2012

Fachtagung FOKUS Gesteinsrohstoffe Kies, Sand, Naturstein

28 - 29 February 2012

Sensor Based Sorting 2012

17 - 19 April 2012

AIMS 2012

30 - 31 May 2012

Institute of Mining | TU Clausthal | Germany

Vero Baustoffverband | Hanover | Germany

GDMB & Department of Material Processing | RWTH Aachen| Germany

Institute of Mining Engineering | RWTH Aachen| Germany

THIS MAGAZINE IS SUPPORTED BY: BBM Operta GmbH Continental/ContiTech Vermeer

Sandvik Metso MTC


Dear Readers, Ladies and Gentlemen, at the end of a successful year, we are pleased to announce the release of the December issue of our scientific journal, AMS-ONLINE, just in time before the upcoming holidays and Christmas time. For more than three years we have been trying with modern communication technology ( to establish a growing information platform which continuously presents novelties from research and industry, and which offers an international contribution to advanced education and transfer of technology in the raw material industry. The feedback received from our readers in more than 96 countries of the world makes us happy and encourages us to continue this path. We sincerely hope that we will continue to meet your growing expectations and our goals in 2012. We are very grateful for your suggestions, wishes and criticism, because it is your feedback which is a prerequisite for a high quality level and contributes to our success. We thank you for your trust and are looking forward to continuing our fruitful relationship with you in the new year 2012.

The AMS editorial team wishes you a Merry Christmas and a successful start into the new year 2012! ... your AMS-Online editorial ... Christian Thometzek

Issue 04 | 2011



Basics of Geo-Mechanics and Hydrology Dewatering of Open Cast Mines

by Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. H. Tudeshki Surface Mining and International Mining | TU Clausthal | Germany


ollowing the presented basics of geo-mechanics and hydrogeol-ogy during 2011, the last part of further training in this year continues with the importance of water. After explaining parameters related to permeability, strength of soil, stress state in waterlogged soil, as well as groundwater flow, the article goes into details of the importance of drainage of an open cast mine. Core contents of this training are about handling surface water and groundwater.

Introduction Water management or water handling encompasses all measures and applications to gather, lift, clean and discharge water from an open cast mine. In principle, water can be found on surfaces and in the underground in form of surface water, percolation water and groundwater. Figure 1 shows a simplified model of the groundwater system.

Thus water management encompasses the lowering of groundwater levels within a mining field, as well as prevention of inflow of groundwater and fitting and handling of surface water due to precipitation. These measures are needed to ensure that the raw material production can be done in an almost dry open cast mining area. Furthermore it contributes to the effectiveness of open cast mining processes (extraction, loading and transport) and increases the stability of slopes.

Fig. 1: Simplified groundwater system [35]

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EDUCATION Fig. 2: Average Precipitation intensity in Germany [25]

Surface water In case of precipitation, surface water accumulates in various degrees. The amount of surface water is dependent on the intensity and duration of precipitation, the cover of vegetation, the type and usage of soil, as well as the topography of the field (catchment area). In case the benchmark data are known, the amount of precipitation water for a particular area can be determined. The intensity of precipitation is defined as the relation between height of precipitation and duration of precipitation. The intensity of precipitation can be derived from long-time measurements. The results of measurements are usually available globally. The oldest records for all areas of Germany reach back to 1876 and can be analysed in graphs, such as in figure 2.

800 - 1200 mm/Year

< 600 mm/Year

> 1200 mm/Year

600 - 800 mm/Year The relation between the amount, duration and frequency of precipitation is registered in a precipitation diagram. Such diagrams are usually generated on the basis of long-term measurements of precipitation. The precipitation height h (D,T) is a function of time, during which precipitation occurs, i.e. the duration D and frequency T. The precipitation height h(D,T), which is to be expected, is calculated as follows:

h( D ,T ) = u ( D) + w( D) ⋅ ln T whereas

u ( D) = au + bu ⋅ ln D and

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w( D) = a w + bw ⋅ ln D are empirical coefficients, which are area-specific, and are indicated from analysed, long-term measurements for various durations (D). The calculation or knowledge of the precipitation height, which is to be expected h(D,T), allows for calculation of the intensity of rainfall R(D,T) for a defined area. The following applies:

R( D ,T ) =

h( D, T ) ⋅ F D

R(D,T) = Intensity of rainfall [l/(s·ha)] h(D,T) = Precipitation height [mm] F = Area factor [mm²/ha] D = Duration [s]


precipitation height [mm]


T = time of repetition in years

rainfall duration [min]

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Fig. 3: Presentation of precipitation heights for a rainfall duration of 5 to 120 minutes [33]


EDUCATION Whereas D is the duration and F the area factor for conversion to the unit of area ha.

Hereby it should be noted, that for the measurement, both the precipitation in the open cast mine area, as well as the water flowing in from the surroundings of the open cast mine, the so-called catchment area, should be taken into consideration. The rainfall intensity, which is to be considered for calculation of the surface water, also called design rainfall intensity R(D,T), refers to a precipitation with a duration D, which is achieved every T years. As an example the value R60,100 applies for an intensity of rainfall in [l/(s·ha)] for a precipitation event of 60 minutes, which is achieved every year [Source: Design rainfall, Office of construction and operation, Ableitung Gewässert, Hamburg 2003 [33]]. As an example, in case the precipitation height for a rainfall event of a duration of 60 minutes, which happens every 100 years (from firgur 4), is taken as a basis for a maximum measurement of the precipitation amount in an open cast mine, the following results:

R( D ,T ) =

precipitation height [mm]

The relevant height of precipitation or intensity of rain can be calculated from the diagrams, in order to calculate the precipitation water flowing into the open cast mine.

T = time of repetition in years

rainfall duration [min]

Fig. 4: Calculation of value R60,100 (precipitation heights for a rainfall duration of 5 to 120 minutes) [33]

42 m ⋅ 1 ⋅ 10 10 [m ² / ha ] = 1,16 ⋅ 10 8 [m ³ /( s ⋅ ha )] 3600s

R( D ,T ) = 1,16 ⋅ 10 8 [m ³ /( s ⋅ ha )] = 116 [l /( s ⋅ ha )] Provided that the open cast mine has a size of 100 ha, the amount of 11600 l/s of rain (or 41760 m³/h) comes down on the open cast mine. Assuming that the mean evaporation in the region is 500 mm/a and the permeability of the rocks in open cast mine is 10-6 m/s, the following results: ϑ = Evaporation = 57 m³/h υ = Percolation = 3600 [m³/h] The outcome of the water balance is a water volume accumulating in the open cast mine of: ϑWT = water volume in the open cast mine = 41760 m³/h – 57 m³/h – 3600 m³/h = 38103 m³/h

Issue 04 | 2011

With the rainfall occurring every 100 years, in the amount of 42 mm and with a duration of 60 minutes, the drainage installation needs to have the ability of pumping of 38103 m³ of water from the open cast mine. As already mentioned, open cast mine projects need to consider both the precipitation in the open cast mine, as well as the inflowing surface water from the catchment area. In order to do so it is important to know the topography of the terrain. Through the knowledge of watersheds it is possible to estimate the influx from an area around the open cast mine. Figure 5 shows examples of watersheds. The steeper the topography, the more water can flow above ground and consequently it reaches the open cast mine very quickly. In a flatter topography more water can percolate. The reduction of water flow is supported by a cover of vegetation. The vegetation retains the water, whereas it quickly flows out in bare surfaces.


EDUCATION As already mentioned, the approximate calculation of the surface water flowing into the open cast mine from the surroundings can be done with the water balance. In order to do so, the precipitation height, the average evaporation of the area and the average of the permeability of the underground is needed. The reference value for this can be the average annual precipitation. As shown in the previous example, for an accurate assessment of the drainage system, rarely occurring precipitation heights with heavy rainfalls should be drawn on. In case there is no accurate knowledge of the permeability of the underground, the mean groundwater recharge rate can be used. The following figures 6 - 8 show average precipitation heights, evaporation rates and groundwater recharge rates for an area in the Federal Republic of Germany.

Planning for lowering of groundwater needs a detailed exploration and stock-taking of hydrogeological conditions of the open cast mine and its immediate surroundings. In this regard it is of great importance to determine the position and rock pressure conditions of the horizons that are permeable to groundwater, both above and below the planned lowest point of the open cast mine. Field and laboratory tests are essential to assess the physical soil properties of the underground. The obtained knowledge in form of thickness, permeability, groundwater flows and others are mapped in: • Baseline plans (lower area of the groundwater) • Water table contour line plans (Surface of the groundwater) • Groundwater difference plans (Difference of the groundwater surface in various times • Hydrological profiles.

Planning for lowering of groundwater Groundwater is generated through the fact that percolating water reaches relatively impermeable horizons. Through the build-up of percolating water above an impermeable horizon in the underground, e.g a clay layer or a very compact rock, groundwater is generated in groundwater-conducting layers like sand and gravel or in fissured rocks and connectedly fills the cavities of the underground cover large areas.

In baseline plans of horizons that are permeable to groundwater (quifers) or horizons which are impermeable to groundwater (aquicludes), the landform configuration of the aquicludes is reflected in from of isolines. The water table contour line plans show the large-scale position of the groundwater surface or for confined aquifers that show a surplus of water they show the lines of equal groundwater hydrostatic pressures in a given time. They allow for an interpretation of groundwater movements. The plans for groundwater difference contain lines of equal lowering or rise of groundwater.

Fig. 5: Effective catchment area of an open cast mine

boundary of permission boundary of expansion

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EDUCATION Fig. 6: Distribution of precipitation [mm/m²]

Precipitation [mm/m²]

LUWG, Sheet 08, November 2005

Fig. 7: Average evaporation [mm/m²]

Evaporation [mm/m²]

LUWG, Sheet 10, November 2005

Average annual height of groundwater recharge of 1979-1998 [mm/a]

Fig. 8: Average annual height of groundwater recharge [mm/a]

Climate report of Rheinland-Pfalz, Ministry for Environment, Forestry and Consumer Protection, 2007

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EDUCATION Furthermore they allow for an estimation of the consequences of lowering or increase of the groundwater table. The following figure 9 shows an example of a water table contour line map. The marked lines show different groundwater levels.

In case sufficient knowledge of the hydrogeological situation is obtained, a water drainage can be implemented, if required. In order to do so, several methods can be applied. The methods are elaborated in the following section.

While planning a water drainage it has to be taken into consideration that the applied measures meet certain requirements. The hydrogeological conditions in the surroundings of the open cast mine should be be affected as little as possible. As an example it is possible that a lowering of the groundwater level has a negative impact on the surrounding wetlands, which will also be deprived of water. Contamination of water and pollution of water through sediments, as well as erosion of soil through water flowing on the surface is to be avoided. Furthermore the chosen measures should prevent settlements in the surroundings of the open cast mine. While meeting these requirements, the drainage system should not interfere with mining and handling operations and should have a high degree of operating safety, reliability and occupational safety. Furthermore the system needs to be suitable for an automated operation and have the lowest possible investment and operation costs.

Fig. 9: Water table contour map, example (Uni Erlangen) [34]

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EDUCATION Bibliography [1] Dörken, W.; Dehne, E. Grundbau in Teil 1 Werner Verlag, 3. Auflage, Düsseldorf, 2003


[2] Schreiber, B. Mitteilungen zur Ingenieurgeologie und Hydrologie, Heft 35, Lehrstuhl für Ingenieurgeologie und Hydrogeologie der RWTH Aachen, Aachen 1990 [3] Schnell, W. Grundbau und Bodenmechanik 1 + 2 (Studienunterlagen), Institut für Grundbau und Bodenmechanik der TU Braun-schweig, 7. Auflage, 1990 [4] Arnold, I.; Schutze, D. Der Einsatz von Dichtwänden im Lausitzer Braunkohlerevier, Vortrag anlässlich des Clausthaler Kongress für Bergbau und Rohstoffe, Mining 2002, Clausthal [5]

Rheinbraun AG Informationsbroschüren



Abriss der Ingenieurgeologie

[7] Sieb- und Schlämmanalyse Institut für Geotechnik und Tunnelbau, Baufakultät, Universität Innsbruck [8] DIN 1054 DIN 1054 - Zulässige Belastung des Baugrunds, Beuth-Verlag, 1976 [9] Grundbautaschenbuch Grundbautaschenbuch, Teil 1, 5. Auflage, Verlag Ernst & Sohn, Berlin, 1996 [10] Schultze / Muhs Schultze / Bodenuntersuchungen für Ingenieurbauten, 1967


[11] DIN 18124 DIN 18124 Baugrund, Untersuchung von Bodenproben - Bestimmung der Korndichte - Kapillarpyknometer, Weithalspyknometer, Beuth-Verlag [12] Computer gestütztes Lernen in den Bauingenieurwissenschaften h ttp:// classification_d/classification_d.htm [13] PERO GmbH Prospektmaterial der Firma PERO GmbH, [14] DIN 4049 DIN 4049, Teil 1 - Hydrogeologie; Grundbegriffe; 1992, Ber-lin, Beuth-Verlag [15] Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum, Klimarechenzentrum,


[16] Chemischer Aufbau des Wassermoleküls, Hauptseminar Ernährung im IGTW an der Universität Hamburg,

[20] University of Wisconsin University of Wisconsin – Stevens Point, Department of geography and geology, [21] Joanneum Research Institut für WasserRessourcenManagement, Tiefengrundwasservorkommen Kärntens [22] Schmidt, F. Schmidt, Frank, Dipl.-Geol.: Hydrogeologische Aspekte und Konsequenzen bei der Rohstoffgewinnung in Kluft- und Karstaquiferen, AI Aggregates International 1/2006, Köln [23] Geologisches Landesamt Nordrhein-Westfalen Im Grunde Wasser, Hydrogeologie in Nordrhein-Westfalen, Krefeld 1999 [24] Firma Ott Hydrometrie Informationsmaterial Firma Ott Hydrometrie, Kempten,


[25] Ingenieurbüro für Energie- und Umwelttechnik Niederschlagsverteilung in Deutschland, Ingenieurbüro für Energie- und Umwelttechnik, htm [26] Baumgartner & Liebscher Baumgartner, A. Liebscher, H.-J.,: Allgemeine Hydrologie, Berlin, 1996


[27] Umweltbundesamt, Umweltbundesamt, [28] Informationsportal Grundwasser-online, Informationsportal Grundwasser-online, [29] Stadtentwicklung Berlin, Stadtentwicklung Berlin, Senatsverwaltung für Stadtentwicklung, [30] Der Brunnen [31] 1998



Bieske, Erich, Bieske, Erich, Bohrbrunnen, 8. Auflage,

[32] Dörken, Dehne Dörken, Wolfram und Dehne, Erhard, Grundbau in Beispielen Teil 1, 3. Auflage, 2002 [33] Amt für Bau und Betrieb Abteilung Gewässer, Stadt Hamburg Bemessungsregen – Regenreihe der Freien und Hansestadt Hamburg, 2003


[34] Baier, Alfons (2007): Karsthydrogeologische Untersuchungen im Lillachtal östlich von Dorfhaus/Ldkr. Forchheim (Nördliche Frankenalb).- Geol. Bl. NO-Bayern 57, 1-4: 173-208, 13 Abb., 3 Taf., Erlangen 2007

[18] DIN 4021 DIN 4021 - Baugrund; Aufschluss durch Schürfe und Bohrungen sowie Entnahme von Proben, 1990, Berlin, Beuth-Verlag

[35] Watershed Watch Salmon Society: 1037 Madore Avenue Coquitlam, British Columbia Canada

[17] Schröder, D Schröder, Stichworten. 2. Auflage. Berlin 1992

[19] Precision Graphics, imagepages/A4artwel.html


Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Hossein H. Tudeshki studied from 1977 to 1980 at the Mining College of Shahrud (Iran); following several years of work in the mining industry, he completed his mining study at the RWTH Aachen in 1989. Since 1992 he was Chief Engineer at the Institute for Surface Mining (Bergbaukunde III) of the RWTH Aachen, mainly active in the field of open cast mining and drilling technique. He did his doctor degree in 1993 and qualified as a university lecture in 1997. In 1998 the Venia Legendi was awarded to him be the RWTH Aachen for the field “Rock and Earth Open Pit Mining”. In November 2001 he was appointed as Professor for Surface Mining and International Mining at Clausthal University of Technology. He already has over 25 years of experience in the field of project planning and cost-benefit analysis within the frame of various mine planning projects. The international tasks rendered by him mount up to more than 300 international raw material-related projects. | | |

Issue 04 | 2011



Innovative and Efficient Solutions for challenging tasks in extraction, surface mining and surface forming.

T1255 Terrain Leveler

Vermeer has transcribed its long-standing experience in the area of rock mills into its new surface mill. The T1255 is characterized by protected technology, intelligent design, excellent production and system stability. Meanwhile the Terrain Leveler can process an area of up to 3.7 m width and 61 cm depth in one single run.

The machine has been designed to ablate all kinds of rocks, gypsum, coal and other material (e.g. concrete). This is done using a big, hydrostatically steered milling drum, which ablates the rock in a more efficient way and with a higher cutting depth. The result: More coarse material with a low proportion of fine fraction. Deutschland GmbH Puscherstr. 9 90411 Nuremberg, Germany

Issue 04 | 2011

Tel.: +49 (0) 911 5 40 14 0 Fax: +49 (0) 911 5 40 14 99




Trends and Developments in Bulk Materials Handling Technology

by Dr.-Ing. Lutz Petermann, Dr.-Ing. Sergej Kaverinski FAM GmbH, Fรถrderanlagen Magdeburg | Germany

t the Conference on Bulk Materials A Handling Technology, an overview was presented of the current demands

on mechanical engineering and organizational procedures facing plant manufacturer FAM Fรถrderanlagen Magdeburg. Approaches and specific customized solutions were described which have been developed in connection with systematic services in the bulk materials handling industry to meet the vastly increased expectations of plant engineering.

Changing times FAM Fรถrderanlagen Magdeburg is a medium-sized company based in the German city of Magdeburg. With its historical roots stretching far back into the 19th century, the company has a long heritage as a manufacturer of handling and conveying systems. FAM builds turnkey plants for mining, conveying, storage, crushing, homogenizing, and the loading and unloading of minerals, raw materials and freight. Over the past few decades, enormous technical advances have been made in terms of the quality, safety and efficiency of plants and processes (Fig. 1). A few years age FAM, one of the leading suppliers of durable mining, handling and conveying systems, faced the tough challenge of augmenting its existing activities with new types of plants, systems and services, developing new business segments, sharpening its competitive edge, and distinguishing itself by virtue of its own reliable products from the low-cost suppliers on the world markets.

Issue 04 | 2011

Fig. 1: Comparison of FAM tripper cars over the years (top: in the factory in 1932; below: as state-of-the-art equipment used in copper mining in 2006 [1])

As a result of increasing globalization, most aspects of information management, transport and communication have rapidly accelerated in recent years. Both manufacturers and clients have become so flexible that nowadays issues such as distance, different time zones and language barriers have become almost negligible in the workflow (Fig. 2).



Fig. 2: Complex FAM bucket wheel excavator in the Atacama Desert (Chile, 2004 [1])

Then again, the further internationalization of business has also resulted in higher demands concerning machinery characteristics, organizational processes and other services to be performed by manufacturers of bulk material handling equipment, including: • Greater plant complexity and even fully automatic systems • Quick planning, project development and design

The rocky road to success Using advanced mechanical engineering and worldwide networking, fulfilling all the requirements listed above is fairly straightforward – at least individually. However, the challenge facing international manufacturers of bulk materials handling systems is to implement them all simultaneously while meeting international standards and clients’ increasingly complex individual needs on the hotly contested market. These days, plant manufacturers need to: • Remain successful in the long term • Defend their level of expertise with new projects utilizing proven engineering

• Dealing with huge mass flows

• Optimize and increase their efficiency on the basis of their experience

• 365d/24h plant efficiency and reliability

• Absorb the risk of newly designed equipment

• Multi-functionality and mobility

• Conduct research and development

• Cost-cutting and carefully planned logistics processes • Operator-friendly design with minimum maintenance • Organization of high-quality training • Maximum personnel safety • Ensuring environmental compatibility • After-sales service worldwide

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Meeting these criteria is essential if a company is to keep growing in the future. In addition, this does not only help clients who can rely on a genuinely experienced partner, these criteria corroborate the company’s strategies and decisions regarding successful marketing and lasting technologies.



Experience in international business

Fig. 3: Complete port installation with shiploader (Thailand, 2006 [1])

How can this huge challenge be tackled? Regarding engineering, Magdeburg’s priorities are:



• The highest level of German expertise • The use of its advanced in-house production facilities.

Im Bereich der Arbeitsorganisation sind die Stärken in Folgendem zu sehen: • Deploying permanent staff with many years’ experience in international teams • Using state-of-the-art computer-assisted planning and design software, • Continuous internal technical and commercial training

This strategy includes FAM’s desire to open new representations in selected, strategically important markets, to expand its resources at its headquarters in Magdeburg, and to develop new products.

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Looking ahead is usually based on past achievements. What experience has FAM gained from previous projects which can now be tapped to devise relevant action strategies for all areas of business from negotiations to reconstruction and service contracts for existing plants? From FAM’s angle, the current situation in bulk materials handling can be characterized as follows: • Custom solutions remain the number one priority. But whereas clients used to precisely specify their technical requirements, nowadays they increasingly just state the general aim of a project and provide geographical details. Accordingly, the supplier is required to be a one-stop shop providing not just the machinery but also complete project engineering. • Project implementation is becoming an interdisciplinary task not just requiring the solution of traditional engineering and organizational problems but also involving aspects of sociology and mentality including honesty, culturally specific perceptions of time, schedule compliance and cooperativeness. • The internationalization of project implementation and project locations (Fig. 3) is increasingly turning project coordination and subsequent commissioning into meeting places for representatives of not merely different companies but also different cultures. This phenomenon has become a permanent feature of project


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Fig. 4: Complete FAM opencast mining setup (Russia, 2010 [1])

work and should be included in the “To-do List“ of project handling. • Generally speaking, typical characteristics of clients from Asia, Africa and Latin America include their friendliness, spirit of innovation and a willingness to take risks. However, negative aspects in these regions continue to

include a severe lack of expertise as well as of qualified operating and maintenance personnel – making the use of cutting-edge technology all the more taxing (Fig. 5). This problem is growing as the exploitation of these countries’ raw materials increases.

Fig. 5: FAM portal scraper (Taiwan, 2004 [1])

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY • Clients’ increasing lack of expertise means substantial extra work for plant manufacturers to ensure machinery is safe and reliable, including additional explosion [2] and fire protection [3] systems. Under the Machinery Directive 2006/42/EC [4], all the potential mechanical and electrical risks of each machine need to be assessed in accordance with DIN EN ISO 14121-1 [5] throughout all the phases of the plant’s service life in order to eliminate any shortcomings in design, identify any residual risks, and thus be able to warn and protect the client from danger. • Clients will increasingly resort to actions such as assigning project handling to external project groups during bidding, bid evaluation and even project implementation as well as plumping for the cheapest option without properly evaluating bids. This enables low-cost suppliers to undercut project prices with their low-quality products and services in order to win contracts. • The use of three-dimensional simulation software has been very beneficial for presenting and even animating initial layout ideas, the handling and conveying process, plant design and engineering, material flows (DEM) and the final detailed design of plants (Fig. 6) – all in 3-D.

Focus on the environment Expectations of green plant and machinery components have risen so much that this issue must be considered separately in terms of its impact on the industry. To comply with statutory climate and water protection regulations, technical measures must be taken nowadays which eliminate or at least minimize environmental hazards. Measures to safeguard sustainability include: • Reducing noise and dust emissions by enclosing complete material flows and material transfer stations as well as the use of sprinklers and dust collection systems • Systems for the condition-based maintenance of handling and conveying equipment, including the inclusion of full details of lubricant consumption, operating intervals, and the tool life of spare parts and wear parts in plant documentation (e.g. operating manuals, lubrication schedules and service routines).

Complex plants such as FAM’s circular stockyards for storing raw materials feature green design (Figures 7 and 8).

Fig. 6: FAM’s 3-D design for a coal terminal at Europoort in the Port of Rotterdam (Netherlands 2005 [1])

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Product piracy The phenomenon of product piracy has reached a new dimension. Nowadays it even affects bulk materials handling systems and their components.

to leverage it for their products. Counterfeiters use the reputation of a trademark, which brand manufacturers have built up on the basis of the quality of their products, to fool consumers about the true origin and quality of the goods.” [6].

“Product piracy means illegally imitating or copying goods for which the lawful manufacturer holds rights for the invention, design or a particular process. Counterfeiters and pirates exploit technical know-how without permission – know-how that companies have acquired through years of extensive work and by investing huge sums in order

The countries most frequently mentioned in connection with the infringement of copyright, patents and other intellectual and industrial property rights are located in the Far East. Frustratingly, however, cases of product piracy affecting for example FAM spare parts are also increasingly occurring in Europe. The German Federal Ministry of

Fig. 7: A fully enclosed FAM circular stockyard with zero environmental impact (Switzerland, 2007 [1])

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Fig. 8: Scraper and spreader deployed in an FAM circular stockyard (Korea, 2010 [1])


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Finance responded to these events with concern, stating: “The financial losses inflicted by piracy and the cost of combating counterfeiters forces companies to make cuts. According to estimates from business associations, piracy is costing a large number of jobs in the EU and the Federal Republic of Germany.” [6] The problem is becoming more and more global. A set of clear rules on the legal and political level is required to give plant manufacturers the certainty that they can exclusively market the expertise developed by them through many years’ hard work. Some initiatives already exist, such as support from the VDMA German Engineering Federation to combat the counterfeiting industry [7]. However, the current situation is by no means satisfactory

Increasing digitization, worldwide networking and unlimited international communication are giving rise to new requirements and fields of application for both proven and new technologies. Due to ongoing technological progress and the permanent change of frequently saturated markets, the development and improvement of services is a never-ending process.

References: [1] FAM Magdeburg Internet presentation; visit on August 11, 2011 [2] EU Directive 94/9/EC: “On equipment and protective systems intended for use in potentially explosive atmospheres (ATEX)” [3]

VDI 3819: Fire Safety Directive

Outlook: What drives us today?

[4] Machinery Directive 2006/42/EC: Directive of the European Parliament and the Council of 17 May 2006 on Machinery, and amending Directive 95/16/EC (recast)

As a supplier of handling and conveying systems, FAM is globally successful in opencast mining, coal-fired power plants and port handling. The company has additional potential for future market success by:

[6] Bundesministerium der Finanzen (German Federal Ministry of Finance) –

• Using new structural materials • Developing new technologies

[5] DIN EN ISO 14121-1: Safety of Machinery – Risk Assessment

Customs online > Customs and Taxes > Prohibitions and Restrictions > Protection of Intellectual Property > Trademarks and Product Piracy; retrieved August 11, 2011 [7] VDMA Verband Deutscher Maschinenund Anlagenbau e.V. > VDMA Topics > Politics and Initiatives > Product Piracy; retrieved August 11, 2011

• Studying material flows within complex plants by applying discrete element method (DEM) • Extensively applying 3-D simulation in design and engineering

Summary These days FAM is extremely busy in the plant business. Striving to meet the new challenges, FAM is continuously increasing its range of knowledge-intensive services – and thus evolving from a mere product supplier into a provider of technologies and specialized services. What counts is not the breadth of a company’s portfolio, but rather the quality of its services tailored to each client’s specific needs.

Contact: FAM Magdeburger Förderanlagen und Baumaschinen GmbH Sudenburger Wuhne 47 39112 Magdeburg

Dr.-Ing Lutz Petermann (Referent) | | | Dr.-Ing Sergej Kaverinski | | |

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Sandvik compact bucket wheel excavator with exceptional capacity taken over at Bükkábrány mine in Hungary andvik Mining and Construction has successfully started normal S operation of the compact bucket wheel excavator, including beltwagon, for Mátra Kraftwerk G.AG in Hungary.

by Dipl.-Ing. Dr.mont. Stefan Hinterholzer Sandvik Mining And Construction Materials Handling GmbH & Co KG Leoben | Austria

Fig. 1: Sandvik compact bucket wheel excavator PE100-1600/1.5x20

Sandvik compact bucket wheel excavator After completing the detailed design and the fabrication of the main components, the assembly of the entire unit (compact bucket wheel excavator including beltwagon) started at the beginning of November and successfully completed in June 2009. Assembly was conducted according to a demanding schedule of only eight months, with up to some 130 erectors working on the site every day.

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The first extraction level of Bükkábrány opencast mine trial operations commenced on schedule and both machines began normal operations in October 2009. The new entire unit will increase production capacity and also raise productivity at the Bükkábrány opencast lignite mine. The new bucket wheel excavator with a total weight of around 1,650 tons has a 28-meter (92-foot) boom on which the 12-meter (40-foot) diameter bucket wheel is located. The power output of the bucket wheel alone, fitted with 16 buckets, is around 1,100 kilowatt - the entire power output of the machine amounts to 3,200 kilowatt. The entire unit


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY (compact bucket wheel excavator including beltwagon) is designed to generate a conveying output of around 6,700 lcm/h (8,760 lcy/h) or an annual capacity of 12 million bank cubic meters (15.7 million bank cubic yards). In July 2007, the Materials Handling business division of Sandvik Mining and Construction, was awarded a contract to supply these machines from Mátra Kraftwerk AG. Sandvik’s cooperation and excellent business relationship with the customer go back many years. In 1986, Sandvik supplied the customer with three giant open pit mining units, a bucket wheel excavator, a beltwagon and a spreader; these units have been operating successfully for the last 20 years.

This project was of great significance to Sandvik Mining and Construction. It has enabled the company to take another important step into the European open pit mining sector and once again demonstrated its competence as one of the world‘s leading suppliers of open pit mining equipment.

Fig. 2 Sandvik compact bucket wheel excavator in operation

Contact: SANDVIK MINING AND CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS HANDLING GmbH & Co KG Vordernberger Strasse 12 8700 Leoben, Austria Dipl.-Ing. Dr.mont. Stefan Hinterholzer | | |

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New, Compact, Flexible, High Performance Screening Systems with screen areas from 0,7...33 m2

by Dipl.-Ing. Frank Spanknebel Rotex Europe Ltd. Remscheid | Germany


ith new screening machine designs manufacturers can satisfy the rising requirements in product quality, screening efficiency and simultaneously compact and ergonomical screening machines. This way performance can be raised also in tight existing production areas. At the same time the serviceability, the availability and safety of the equipment can be improved.

Introduction of company Rotex • Company Rotex, Cincinnati / Ohio was established 1834 as manufacturer of mills and introduced 1913 the “ROTEX” screener with its characteristic, combined gyratory & linear plane screening movement. • Since the early fifties Rotex products were built by a licensee in Europe. • Beginning of this Century Rotex established a daughter company in Great Britain and a sales and service center in Belgium taking over its licensee.

Screener operation fields Rotex machines are used in almost all applications for screening, feeding and transport of dry bulk products. Amongst many others these are agricultural products, abrasives chemicals, fertilizers, foods, animal feed, minerals, and detergents. Our products are used and proven in hundreds of applications.

• Rotex operates a worldwide sales and service network, employs approximately 200 people around the world and builds hundreds of screening machines per year.

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Basis of dry screen classification

a) Product quality - as limitation of permissible outsize percentage in a fraction

Screening - principals & definitions

b) Screening efficiency - as ratio of gained over fed no minal size material

• Screening is a classification by particle size • It is a gravity based volumetrical process • Changes of product properties are not intended • It is based on the theory of probability

Until today screening means: • No sufficiently exact, closed mathematical models exist • Trials and experience are layout basics

Influencing parameters & screening requirements Screening performance parameters are:

Partical size distribution and Screen performance The screen cuts position in relation to the particle size distribution determines the possible. Removal of fines or agglomerates can be achieved at higher capacities as production screening tasks cutting more centrally through the particle size distribution.

Material characteristics with influence on the screener performance: • Particle size distribution

a) Material characteristics

• Bulk density

b) Choice of screen mesh

• Particle shape

c) Blinding of screen meshes

• Flowabillity / angle of repose

d) Characteristics of oscillation

• Abrasion resistance • Surface moisture (water, oil, fat etc.)

The specification of the screener performance results as a definition from:

• Static charge

The capacity is dependig on where the screener cuts through the particle size distribution

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Product specification â&#x20AC;&#x201C; quality & screen efficiency Influential parameters & product requirements

The real screening process commonly shows that part of the product is carried away with the fines and the coarse material and / or parts of the coarse and the fine material is carried into the product. Among other reasons this is due to the fact that a screen mesh checks and classifies three dimensional particles in only two dimensions.

The Theoretically Ideal Screening Process: EXPECTATION ON A SCREENING SYSTEM


The real screening process:

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Today’s screening requirements Typically the quality of the screening machine shows in producing the product requirements demanded by the customer in giving only permissible oversize and undersize in the product, while simultaneously as little as possible product shall be lost into the overs and unders fraction meaning that the screen efficiency is as high as possible.

Effective screen cleaning • Bouncing balls directly arranged underneath the screen mesh keeps it from blinding and therefore continuously effective. The bouncing effect also gives an impulse for the screen passage of the finess

Here screening machines with almost horizontal screen planes are superior to screeners with more inclined screen decks. Additionally it is often required to increase production in existing buildings. Then customers often require to be able to easily and quickly adapt the product quality to the requirements and adjust the screen cuts. The time required for these tuning measures is depending on the serviceability. A clever designed screener allows fast screen changes and thus increases the production availability and production.

Combined gyratory & linear plane screening motion The screening efficiency and product quality is strongly depending on the operation principal of the screening machine. Therefore Rotex promotes plane screens. It means that the plane of the screen movement is almost identical with the screen mesh plane. This movement effects that the product is not thrown up unlike with vibratory screeners but in constant contact and comparison with the screen mesh. The mechanics of Rotex screens effect a particular screener motion, described as follows.

The circular agitation of screen box frame close to the feed area effects: • Fluidization of the feed material meaning fast stratification and enrichment of increasingly fine particles towards the screen mesh. • Effective distribution of the feed over the whole screen width, meaning optimum use of the total screen area without the need of additionally required distribution feeders

Effective screening • The material is in constant contact with the screen area thus continuous comparison of the particles with the mesh size is insured • The increasingly linear and reciprocating motion towards the outlet end gives again an effective particle mesh size comparison due to the minimized relative movement during the directional changes without significant virtual mesh size reduction due to relatively low transport speeds.

The operation principal results in: Sharp separation • The low inclination of the screen area reduces the required height of equipment and therefore the required investment

Low equipment height • The low inclination of the screen area reduces the required height of equipment and therefore the required investment

Low gyratory frequencies at 200..300 rpm and high oscillation widths of 50..90mm effect: • Low mechanical loads and gentle treatment of the product • Low transport speeds and little abrasion

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The new APEX screen In the context of the presentation we present the new screening machine models APEX and MEGATEX XD. Both machines use the above described operation principal and give its advantages. The screen meshes are arranged on screen mesh carrying frames with ball bouncing devices. These screen frames are lifted from underneath by axes with cams on either end. By rotation of the cams the screen frames are pressed into an upper sealing frame.

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Screen areas from 0,8 to 9,8 m² and one to four separations are created with screen frame drawers from the site of the machine. The screen frames come in two basic sizes. The total screen areas are combined out of these basic sizes. Additionally e.g. for double deck screens two technological units are arranged one on top of each other with a transport floor in between doubling the screen area.



APEX with screen axes from the side

Modular screen insert arrangement and technological units

Schematic design of a APEX A70-2 screening machine

Material feed onto two technological units When feeding onto two technological units the incoming material flow is initially divided into a front and back flow with a spreader plate and then again towards the right and the left with a roof type spreader.

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Fast screen change with APEX screen frames

The new MEGATEX XD screen With this screening machine the fast screen change is ensured through screen inserts changed through doors at the overflow end. Depending on the screen area required one or two doors are installed. Single deck screens up to 33 m², double deck screens up to 28 m² and triple deck screens up to 16,7 m² per screen cut can be realized. The screening machine is driven with a reaction drive arranged at the inlet end is an electric motor and belt drive. Similar to the Apex screening machine the incoming material flow is centrally fed and distributed by drop shafts to various technological units. The sidewise distribution is effected by a transverse elliptical gyratory movement and a “rock box” arranged underneath the central inlet. The feed material falls onto itsself which hampers the dropping speed and reduces wear.

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After the screening in the various technological units the discharge fractions are combined again in the door shafts. The doors lead the material into the stationary take away box and are sealed towards it with brushes. If required the doors are equipped with dedusting connections. Here also the screen change is very simple and fast. Again the solution involves axis with cams that lower the screen frame for pulling it out. The Megatex XD screening machine utilizes a very similar screen movement as the Rotex and Apex plane screens. The transverse elliptical gyratory inlet movement and the almost linear outlet movement effect the same precision screen cuts and highest efficiency. The screening machine has been developed for tough applications e.g. in mineral processing. It can be used at temperatures up to 210°C. With particularly abrasive feeds wear plates are installed in critical areas. All parts that face significant wear are screwed and thus easily exchangeable. Since its introduction in 2003 more than 420 Megatex XDâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s have been sold. Almost 200 machines are used in the fertilizer production field. Further significant fields of application are sand and the screening of sugar.

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• In the past years rising demands in the screening technology have been taken care of by the design of compact and flexible screening machines • In comparison with conventional concepts these designs satisfy the highest requirements in screening performance e.g. sharp separations and highest efficiency. They also require low headroom, are very service friendly and do provide best availability. • Please visit us online at To learn more about our products. Leaflets and videos are available upon request.

Copyright: All illustrations, pictures and texts are property of Rotex Global LLC. Do not use it without prior consent. Contact: Rotex Europe Ltd. Berghausstr. 62 42859 Remscheid, Germany Dipl.-Ing. Frank Spanknebel | | |

Issue 04 | 2011



ContiTech Conveyor Belt Group | Phone +49 5551 702-207

ADVERTISEMENT Issue 04 | 2011



Reducing Geo-risks with Geo-monitoring

by Prof. Dr. H.-J. KĂ&#x153;MPEL, Dipl.-Geol. Dr. D. BALZER & Dr. F. KĂ&#x153;HN Federal Agency for Geo-science and Raw Material Hanover | Germany

aking into consideration the increasing importance, as well as the perception of socio-economic T implications of natural disasters or natural events causing damage, holistic risk-managements concepts are implemented globally. Such concepts, governed by the idea of prevention, reflect a certain

change of paradigm from solely averting danger (How can we protect ourselves?) to a risk culture (What safety at what price?) With regard to natural hazards, the civil society, political decision makers and science are faced with the task of analysing and assessing risks, in order to take resultoriented measures for risk prevention and reduction, as part of services for the public. Risk analyses encompass the analysis of potential hazards (threats) and vulnerability assessment of the population, the infrastructure, economic values, etc., towards an imminent danger. Apart from conventional geo-scientific methods, ground-, airplane and satellite-based geo-monitoring technologies play an increasingly central role for analysis of potential dangers of exogenic and endogenic geo-dynamic processes. With the recently developed sensors and measuring systems it is possible to record geometric, physical or material changes in various levels and scales, within the course of natural processes that have threat potential. This can be done both qualitatively and quantitatively, continuously or in defined time intervals. Here the trend goes towards coupling several single-methods to the point of complex geo-monitoring systems (multi-parameter-monitoring), to networking measuring instruments with digital information and communication technologies, as well as to an integration of geo-monitoring information in space-oriented data pools, using geographical information systems (GIS). Since riskspecific geo-monitoring information can almost be processed and analysed in real-time, they are of significant importance for the operation of multi-parameter early warning systems. Furthermore geomonitoring information provides the basis for further analyses for geo-genic risks, like for example the regional estimation of seismological frequency or drawing model-based prognoses, based on evolved process understanding. The following will further describe current examples from work with BGR with regard to geo-risks, geo-genic risk analyses and geo-monitoring (terrestrial laser scanning, earthquake monitoring, persistent scatterer interferometry).

Natural Disasters, Natural and Manmade Events Causing Damagee Population growth and concentration, increasing accumulation of assets in urban areas, the rise in infrastructural vulnerability and depletion of natural resources are all leading to a constantly increasing vulnerability with regard to extreme natural disasters. The number of annually registered natural disasters (criteria according to International Disaster Database/ EM-DAT; with unprecedented numbers of victims and economical losses, which are triggered by hydro-meteorological events (e.g. hurricanes, heavy rainfalls with floods), as well as by geological events (earthquakes, tsunamis, volcano eruptions, mass

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movements) has increased to approximately 400 events since the 1970 ies, which constitutes a threefold frequency of occurrence ( occurrence-trends-century.htm). Apart from large-scale natural disasters like the tsunami of 26. 12. 2004 with more that 231,000 casualties in the pacific region (Fig.1), sometimes there are localized natural events, which due to their increasing numbers, in sum cause high damage. For the locally affected population these damaging events are no less relevant, since they may also pose risks, like cause loss of personal livelihoods. Fig 2 shows the example of a landslide in the area of the steep coast of the island RĂźgen/Ortslage Lohme in March 2005, which resulted in unavoidable demolition of a Welfare Home located in the immediate surroundings of the tearing edge.



Fig. 1: Example of a natural disaster: Banda Aceh/Indonesia, coastal area damaged by tsunami (2004).

In addition to the analysis of natural risks, geo-science increasingly faces the challenge of assessing manmade disasters and possible risks with inter-disciplinary approaches. One example is examination of depressions caused by old mines or areas at latent risk of surface break. Knowledge on distribution and depression rates is of utmost importance for properties and infrastructure and for an efficient land-use planning (e.g urban development Staßfurt/Sachsen-Anhalt) (Fig. 3 and 4).

Geo-risk Analysis and Assessment Irrespective of the observation scale – whether it is an inter-regional/national natural disaster or a locally damaging event- the civil society, political decisionmakers and eventually science itself face the task of risk Fig. 3: Surface break due to mining (1899) Staßfurt-Leopoldshall; Source: unknown

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Fig. 2: Example of a local geo-genic damage: Lohme, landslide in the area of Ruegen’s steep coast (2005)

analysis and assessment, in line with efficient management of risks of natural hazards, in order to take appropriate measures to reduce and prevent risks , as part of services of general interest. The following basic questions need to be addressed within the context of a risk analysis and assessment. (Fig.5):

Which potential risks (threats) exist? It is an indispensable prerequisite of targeted reduction of geo-risks versus geo-genic hazards to identify and assess the risks (conventional methods, geo-monitoring, see below). A hazard analysis assesses which of the geological events with potential to cause damage can occur with which probability and where (hazard analysis).

Fig. 4: Recultivated surface break of 1899, StaßfurtLeopoldshall (2010); Source: http://www.



Hazard analysis

Vulnerability analysis

Determination of geographic location, intenstity and feasibility

Determination of damage potential for endangered elements/management-capacity

Risk-assessment (risk-analysis) of data and operational background



Identification of risk circumstances

Final risk-assessment: social/political/juristic Fig. 5: Components of analysis and assessment of geo-risks with regard to natural hazards

Who or what is subject to a potential hazard and which damage can occur? A targeted analysis of risks with regard to natural hazards assesses the extent of vulnerability of the elements at risk, (such as population, critical infrastructure, economic values, environment, etc.) versus influencing geo-genic hazards, in order to predict the damage that is expected. A vulnerability analysis requires specific know-how in areas such as sociology, civil engineering and economy.

What are the risks of a potential threat? The risk can be described as a function of the probability of a geo-genic incident with certain intensity and the extent of damage to be expected in a defined area. In practice this approach takes into account issues like determining exposition of threatened people, the kilometres of roads, the number of bridges/schools/medical facilities, or the economic potential, in the face of one or several geo-genic hazards (fig.6). The understanding of risks in the fact of natural hazards is based on the principle, that a risk can only be expected, in case potential losses are envisaged through a natural incident (No risk without threat, no vulnerability without risk).

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How can a potential risk be assessed and which preventive measures contribute to reducing risks? An assessment of possible risks with regard to natural disasters includes matters of risk-acceptance, remaining risks or setting of priorities among several existing risks. This assessment process is done with consideration of social, political and legal factors, and is certainly not (only) the task of geo-scientists. The responsibility of geo-scientists is to scientifically support such dialogues through specialized advice. This means that they should present results of specific risk-analyses in a generally understandable manner, so that they can be converted to an inter-disciplinary, risk-sensitive land use and planning. The latter includes both structural (e.g. designation of restriction areas), as well as non-structural, political and administrative measures (e.g. recommended actions). Furthermore there are specific measures to be taken for preparedness for the case of threat (preparedness)1. [1â&#x20AC;&#x161;preparednessâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; with regard to natural disasters/risk management, means all measures and activities which come into effect in case of a natural disaster. This includes implementation of early warning systems.]

Analysis of Geo-genic Risk Potentials The analysis of geo-genic risk potentials is an intrinsic part of risk-analysis for applied geo-science. Seismicity (earthquakes, including tsunamis and soil liquefaction), volcanism (fall of ashes, lahars, lava streams), floods, mass movements (landslides, debris flow), natural deformations



Fig. 6: Risk-exposure map Central America (El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala, Nicaragua): Number of people per Municipio (administrative district), who are subjected to a medium to very high seismic risk (ground acceleration >300 gal) with a 10% exceedance probability in 500 years; from Balzer et al. (2010).

of the earth surface (land subsidence, subrosion) are all processes that are globally subject of geo-genic risk analyses, as part of subsequent risk assessments. In this regard the BGR implements key activities in the area of risk analyses with regard to geological engineering (mass movements, subsoil stability, land subsidence) and seismic risk analyses (probabilistic/deterministic). The work is mainly included in projects of technical cooperation (currently: Indonesia, Pakistan, and Central America). Apart from classic, conventional methods, a multitude of highly efficient geo-monitoring technologies have been established in past years, which have fundamentally changed the examination of geo-genic risks. In many cases it is only possible to make well-founded statements on complex threat potentials through inter-disciplinary coupling of conventional methods and geo-monitoring technologies. One example is the laminar assessment of the potential of soil liquefaction due to an earthquake, through geological engineering in-situ tests and seismic risk analysis, based on monitoring earthquakes and microzoning.

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Conventional Methods of Analysis of Geogenic Risk Potentials A broad spectrum of conventional geo-scientific methods is available for almost all types of geo-genic risks. These methods allow for a locally specific or laminar assessment of a risk potential, either directly or indirectly, quantitatively or qualitatively. These classical methods already include aspects of monitoring. Table 1 shows examples of engineering geology risk potentials and classical methods of their analysis. The results of conventional extensive geological engineering risk potentials can directly be used for risk analysis. Fig. 9 shows an example of a risk exposure map for Central America. It takes into consideration spatial information and illustrates areas in which mass movements (slides) can occur and shows how many kilometres of roads per municipo (administrative district) are subject to this specific threat.


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Examples of engineering

Tab. 1: Examples for conventional analyses of geologic engineering risk potentials

Geo-monitoring Technologies for Analysis of Geo-genic Risk Potentials

Methods of conventional geological engineering risk analyses (spatial reference)

geology risk potentials Mass movements/rock fall

Stability analysis of a slope (in situ)

Mass movements/landslides

Mapping/Inventory (in situ)

Susceptibility-/hazard note maps (extensive)

Tactile extensometer measurements (analogue monitoring)

Drillings (in situ)

Transverse wave seismic (in situ)

Standard penetration tests (SPT) (in situ)

Cone penetration tests (CPT) (in situ) (Fig. 7)

Underground modelling, settlement, etc.

SPT/CPT in in combination with

Modelling of soil liquefaction potential

Mapping/inventory (in situ)

Development of hazard note maps (Zoning, extensive)

Subsoil stability/bearing capability, settlement

Soil liquefaction

What is monitoring/geomonitoing?

seismic risk analysis (in situ; extensive) (Fig. 8)

Subrosion (depression, sinking)

According to Wikipedia (11/2011), monitoring is an “umbrella term for all types of immediate systematic recording (logging), observation or surveillance of a process with the help of technical tools or other surveillance systems. The central element of this is a repetition of implementation of the respective research programme, so that conclusions can be drawn based on comparison of results. The function of monitoring lies in the possibility of intervening in the process, in case it does not follow the desired course or in case particular thresholds are surpassed or under-run.” Fig. 7: Cone penetration test (CPT), Bantul/Indonesien (2007).

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Such recording, observation and assessment is increasingly used in natural phenomena, in which status and change would pose risks and threats for life and health of people, and where livelihoods and the status of landscapes can be influenced (table 2). In literature, there is no strict ontological distinction between ‘monitoring’ and ‘geo-monitoring’.



Fig 8: Liquefaction-Potential index-map, Bantul/Indonesien (2007)

Fig. 9: Risk exposure map of Central America (El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua): Sum of kilometres of roads per municipio (administrative district), that are subject to zones of high to very high susceptibility to potential slides; from Balzer et al. (2010)

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Geo-monitoring-Technologies

probabilistic tracking of seismicity of an area with the help of catalogued earthquake-monitoring information can be mentioned (see below). Table 3 shows some examples of complex geo-monitoring systems for various types for geogenic threats.

In addition to ground-based satellite geo-monitoring technologies play an increasingly important role in analysis of threat and risk potentials of exogenic and endogenic geo-dynamic processes. With regard to the analysis of geo-genic threats, the expression “geomotoring technologies” subsumes a multitude of geodesic engineering, optical/photogrammetric or remote-sensing and environment-specific observation methods. With the recently developed new measurement recorders/sensors or measuring instruments it is possible to qualitatively and quantitatively detect/measure geometrical, physical or material changes within the course of natural processes that have threat potential, permanently or in intervals, and in various scales. Hereby the trend goes to coupling of various methods to a complex geo-monitoring system (multi-parameter-monitoring), to networking of measuring instruments with digital information and communication technologies, as well as to the integration of geo-monitoring information in space-related data bases with the use of geomonitoring information systems (GIS). The digital analysis of geo-monitoring information allows for an improved understanding of the process and a sound derivation of model-based forecasts of underlying processes.

Global Cooperation in the Area of Earth Monitoring Due to the continuously increasing importance of global use of earth monitoring information with cost-intensive geo-monitoring technologies in the area of natural disasters/risk management, today international syndicates of governmental and non-governmental organisations are initiating new projects and coordinating new strategies and investments. Examples are the Group on Earth Observation (GEO), with the participation of currently 84 states and 61 other organisations (http://www.earthobservations. org/), as well as the European Initiative GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) for creation of a European infrastructure for earth monitoring (http://www. Furthermore there are numerous international and national research projects, aiming at developing and future use of geo-monitoring technologies within the context of specific threat and risk-analyses. In the area of mass movements, for example, there is the project SLEWS (Sensor based Landslide Early Warning System;

Taking into consideration the mainly inter-disciplinary analysis of geo-monitoring information, distinction is made between direct and indirect usage. Due to the possibility of almost transferring and processing geomonitoring information in real-time, they are essential for implementation of complex early warning systems, like the German-Indonesian tsunami early warning system. In case of threat (here: seaquake) it is possible to provide a scenario-based foundation for decision within minutes, through direct use of geo-physical and geodesic monitoring information, making it possible to release prompt tsunami warnings (forecasts). Thus the potential risk for exposed persons can significantly be reduced, if the warning actually reaches the affected persons before the tsunami (last mile). The indirect usage is based on continuous recording and consecutive analysis/interpretation of geo-monitoring information. As an example the extensive Field of knowledge

Tab. 2: Examples for ranges of application for monitoring. (Source: http://de.wikipedia. org/wiki/Monitoring)

Ground-based Geo-monitoring Technologies The advantage of ground-based geo-monitoring methods and surveys is that they provide exact data for any points or profile in the area. Uncertainty and limits occur, if processes and occurrences from these point or profile data are extrapolated. Furthermore, in case areas at risk have to be entered or excessive distances outside the measurement range have to be overcome, there are limits with regard to usage of ground based monitoring What is monitored??


Ozone hole


Species and their distribution

Geology, Geo-

Rock formations, erosions und geodynamics, rotation of the

technique and

earth, gravitational field

Geodesy Hydrology

Waters, outflow, water levels, groundwater

Climatology and

Pressure, temperature, water vapour, wind and weather,

Meteorology Oceanography

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radiation balance •

Tides, sea currents, water levels


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Tab. 3: Examples of complex geo-monitoring systems for monitoring/early warning and analysis of geo-genic risks Type of geo-genic


Type of Geo-monitoring

threat Volcanism

methods. Examples of ground-based geo-monitoring methods related to geo-gen risk analyses are geo-physical methods (for example seismic stations or networks to locate and characterize earthquakes with the help of crosslinked broad-band seismometers), geochemical methods (for example fixed volcano-gas-monitoring) and geodetic methods (terrestrial laser-scanning or tactile/optical sensors for monitoring of mass movements).




Geo-physical (seismological electromagnetic)


geometrical (GPS)

(Fig. 10)

geochemical (Fumarolen-gases)

meteorological (environment)

Communication: telemetrical/internet


geophysical (seismological)

early warning system

geometrical: GPS

(Fig. 11)

communication: satellite-based

Earthquake- monitoring

geophysical (seismological):

system, Germany

Seismic networks (Arrays); Individual-stations •

Communication: Internet

Mass movements/

Region Machu

In zones of local slope stability:

Sudden floods


geometrical (GPS)


optical (Video)


meteorological (Amount of rain, Air humidity, temperature,

Following are some examples from the works of BGR with regard to riskanalyses with the help of ground-based geo-monitoring methods.

atmospheric pressure, wind etc.) •

Communication(LAN per optical

fibre-cable, satellites, Internet)


Fig. 10: Volcano-monitoring Anak Krakatau, Indonesia Fig. 11: Schematic diagram of components of the German-Indonesian tsunami early warning system (GITEWS); Source: http://www.

[cm water level]

pore water pressure




[cm water level]

pore water pressure

[correlation coefficient]

Correlation between precipitation and pore water pressure

[days] [days]

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Example 1: Geo-monitoring of mass movements, based on terrestrial laser-scanning (TLS), Ruegen Island, Wissowerarea, Klinken/national park Jasmund Since the year 2006, a long-term observation of a slide north of the “Wissoer Klinken” in the national park Jasmund/ Ruegen has been done with the help of a terrestrial laserscanner, in addition to conventional slope stability and slide analyses (GÜNTHER ET AL., 2007). The repeated measurements (2 per year) intend to lead to conclusions regarding the susceptibility to erosion and failure mechanisms of the Cretaceous, as well as the iceage sediments (Pleistocene). Furthermore the volumebalance are to be done. With the quantification of mass shifts and coastal breaks it is possible to make forecasts on future landward transgressions through natural processes. The aim is to contribute to an improved risk assessment for a steep coast that is highly susceptible to coastal breaks (Cretaceous) and slides (Pleistocene), and to reduce the potential risk for tourists of the national park in this section through adequate measures. The usage of a terrestrial laser-scanner allows for a high-resolution survey of the Pleistocene landslide through ground-based grid-type scanning with a laser beam (measuring point accuracy 4 mm). Due to the contactless recording and the far reach of the laser (1,500 m at 80% reflectivity), it is possible to also record measuring areas within the landslide areal that are difficult to access or extremely steep. Due to the absorption and shadowing it is necessary to do an overlapping recording of the area from various angles.

• Localizing of erosion-/accumulation areas • Quantifying areal changes through erosion/accumulation • Forecast for further expansion of the slide and its consequences for tourism in the national park.

The difference models document the chronological course of surface changes and allow for area- and volumebalances. As an example, the monitoring periods of 20062007 show a westwardly orientated expansion of the slide by 181 m², with an erosion of 4242 m³ of sediment material (KUHN & PRÜFER, 2007; 2009) (Fig. 14 to 16: Viewing direction west, from the sea directly onto the slide area; yellowish-green areas represent accumulations, bluishviolet areas represent erosions, at the landslide bottom abrasions).

Example 2: Earthquake monitoring of the BGR As the national seismologic data center and member institution for monitoring of the comprehensive test ban treaty, the BGR digitally records and analyses current seismic incidents in Germany and bordering areas on a daily basis, as well as stronger globally occurring quakes. The analysis is based on seismic registrations of the German Seismic Regional Network (GRSN) the Gräfenberg-Arrays

A high amount of data (scatter-plots) are recorded through repeated measuring of the landslide, creating digital surface models that depict the respective actual situation, which can be used for continuative 2D- and 3D analyses. The internal dynamics of this slide can be assessed through comparative appraisals (difference models), according to the following criteria:

Fig. 12: Pleistocene slide with bordering cretaceous sediments (Wissower Klinken), viewing direction north west

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Fig. 13: Terrestrial laser-scanner in the border area of the monitored Pleistocene slide, viewing direction south

(GRF), the GERES-Arrays, as well as with consideration of the registrations of stations of district earthquake services and geological regional authorities and stations in the surrounding countries. The results of the analyses are combined in catalogues or bulletins and can be accessed on internet pages of the BGR in the earthquake monitoring system(ERMOS), or under SEIS.Online (fig.17). ERMOSand SEIS.Online offer the user information on location and strength of an earthquake in Germany, Europe or the world at staggered intervals, within a short time after an earthquake. The data centre of the BGR makes the most up-to-date information available and updates maps and earthquake data. Apart from earthquakes occurred in recent past, information on the most severe earthquake catastrophes, as well as information on nuclear tests done since 1945 are available. The mentioned web applications were developed to make this information accessible for users like situation rooms of technical auxiliary facilities and offices, disaster relief services, visitor and information centres with geoscientific orientation, organisers of international travels, hotel chains and others.

Fig 14: Difference model 1 09-2006 zu 05-2006 Fig. 15: Difference model 2 05-2007 zu 09-2006

The BGR has been administering the earthquake catalogue for Germany, using historical, as well as up-todate information since the year 800. The catalogue is freely accessible under, and is the starting point for probabilistic risk assessments of regional seismicity and the basis for directives for earthquakeproof construction or for the assessment of seismic risks (available for selected areas in Germany).

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Fig. 16: Difference model 3 10-2007 zu 05-2007

Airplane and satellite-based geo-monitoring technologies Apart for ground-based methods, the satellite and airplane based geo-monitoring methods can substantively contribute to geo-genic risk analyses. A major characteristic of remote sensing methods is to locate threat potentials for hazards in early stages, and to depicts typical area indicators through repeated observation of time-bound changes. As a result it is possible to take appropriate measures for reduction of possible risks. The methodological advantages of remote sensing approaches within the context of risk analyses and geo-monitoring are: • The ability of simultaneous and extensive observation of areas

Example 3: Assessment of seismic risk for Central America, based on seismic risk analysis with the help of earthquake monitoring information Within the framework of a technical cooperation project, the BGR, together with partner organizations from El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala und Nicaragua has done an assessment of seismic risk exposures for various vulnerability parameters (number of population at risk, infrastructure, roads). The basis of the assessment has been historical and current regional, as well as global earthquake monitoring information of Central American countries. These data was used to come up with regional probabilistic earthquake risk assessments for various recurring periods (500, 100, 2500 years) (BENITO ET AL., 2008) (Fig. 18). Risk exposure for people and infrastructure in Central America was determined for each municipo (administrative district) for a specific earthquake scenario (ground acceleration > 300 gal with an exceedance probability of 10% in 500 years), taking into consideration spacial information on seismic threats.

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• The possibility of detection of spacial relations and processes, on the basis of a generalized view of remote sensors on the surface of the area with regard to groundbased observations. • The provision of specific information through usage of electromagnetic radiation in the spectral range of visible light, over short-waved infrared, thermal radiation to radar waves. • The possibility of safe exploration of areas that are at risk of breakage or sinking through contact-free application (KUEHN ET AL., 1999; 2004A).

It should be taken into consideration, that the shortwaved electromagnetic radiation (nm to cm wavelengths) which are used by remote sensing methods have no or very low penetration depths into the underground. Therefore the processes in the geological underground that lead to the generation of risk potentials at the surface, can usually be diagnosed through characteristic surface features, which are indicators of the processes in the underground. In potentially unstable terrain remote sensing data can provide indicators for further risk examinations (KUEHN ET AL., 2004B). • Satellite images (average resolution) serve to identify and map lineaments as indicators for tectonically weak zones, as well as for extensive anomalies of vegetation and soil moisture, which can indicate loosening processes in the underground.



Fig. 17: Example of a map of seismic events in Germany, generated by the web-application Seis. Online

• Aerial images and satellite images (high resolution) serve to identify fine fractures and tear-off edges, as well as small vegetation and soil moisture anomalies. • Airborne laser scanning data serve to identify very fine landform configuration characteristics, which can indicate displacements, clefts and tear-off edges , as well as land subsidence or other loosening of underground in early stages • Radar satellite data (SAR SLC data) can serve for interferometric measurement of movements of the area surfaces with a measuring accuracy of millimetres, in order to identify land subsidence, horizontal movements and other loosenings of underground.

In particular the technological progress in the area of radar-based measurements of movement of the past 10 years have opened completely new perspectives for geo-monitoring. In many cases the movements of terrain surfaces are a natural phenomenon. However, in

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connection with active volcanism, tectonically active zones or extreme land subsidence they can indicate hazards with high risk potential.

Example 4: Risk-analysis of land subsidence near Semarang/ Indonesia, while using persistent-scatter interferometry (PSI) The PSI method is one of the most modern satellitebased methods of earth monitoring with radar, which can measure movements at the surface of an area over an observation period of a few months up to several years (FERRETTI ET AL., 2001; MUSSON ET AL., 2004). PSI combines the advantage of remote sensing of a simultaneous observation of extensive areas with the



Fig. 18: Map of seismic hazards (recurrence period 500 years) for Central American countries according to Benito et al. (2008) from Balzer et al. (2010), as basis of assessment of risk exposure

Fig. 19: Risk-exposure map of Central America (El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala, Nicaragua) kilometres of roads per municipio (administrative district), that are subject to a medium to very high seismic threat (ground acceleration > 300 gal) with an exceedance probability of 10%igen in 500 years; from BALZER ET AL. (2010)

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY ability to measure movements at the surface of an area with a high accuracy. The method uses the analysis of phase information in the radar waves that are emitted from the SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) - antenna of the satellite and are reflected back to the antenna of the satellite at so-called stable reflectors. It allows for the measurement of ground movements, even if the annual rates lie in the range of millimeters. Due to the need for stable reflectors (metal objects, corners of buildings, etc.) the PSI is mainly used in urban areas. However, movement measurements in non-urban areas can also be done through the setup of corner reflectors. Taking into consideration the very broad range of application for satellite-based measurements of movement rates with the PSI method, it marks a milestone in geo-monitoring. Among others, the BGR has implemented PSI-based monitoring within the framework of technical cooperation in the megacity Semarang, north of Central Ajva/Indonesia (KUEHN ET AL., 2010). The aim was an improvement of the information base on the extent of land subsistence, which among others was caused by anthropogenic overexploitation of ground water resources (also see KUEHN ET AL., 2004A). Here a direct consequence of the uncontrolled drawing of ground water is the drying up and consequent shrinking of the clay deposited in offshore, alluvial sediments, increasing the land subsidence. The land subsidence causes a high risk-potential in this coastal city, combined with significant risks and damage for the population, the local economy and the urban infrastructure (Fig. 20 and 21). Previously, the sinking rates in Semarang were exclusively determined with levelling at 29 points. The movement rates that were measured at individual monitoring stations were very precise, however the map which is derived from these measurements for the entire affected area is quite inaccurate. Through the usage of PSI it was possible to determine movement rates for 46,912 reflector points (fig 22). In addition, 35 SAR data sets (ERS1/2, ENVISAT ASAR), which were recorded between 2002 and 2006, were analysed. The annual movement rates determined by PSI lie between fractions of a millimetre to 10 cm or more.

Geo-monitoring Technologies in the Context of Vulnerability Analyses and Disaster Management An analysis of risks versus natural hazards not only requires an analysis of possible geo-genic risks, but also a spatial assessment of the potential extent of damage in the framework of vulnerability analysis. The increasing vulnerability to disasters, related to the rapid urbanization and concentration of population particularly in developing countries, calls for monitoring of settlement areas and land use in defined periods of time. The repeated measurements of satellite and airplanebased methods also provide extensive and reliable information. Examples are: â&#x20AC;˘ Maps and information about land use/forms of land use/ settlement structures and their changes over time and space (particularly through anthropogenic interventions, like for example deforestation and consecutive erosion/slope stability), generated through classification of multi-spectral satellite images; â&#x20AC;˘ Maps and information about the type of building density in urban areas as an important vulnerability parameter in case of and earthquake, generated through segment and characteristic-based classifying techniques and visual interpretation of high resolution multi-spectral satellite images; through analysis of night shots it is possible to derive additional patterns of movements of groups of people.

In addition, remote sensing with high resolution satellite images provides further specific information, for example information on the extent of damage after disasters like earthquakes, floods and volcanic eruptions (MATSUOKA & YAMAZAKI, 2006). This on one hand contributes to the Fig. 20: Severe land subsidence in the coastal area of Semarang/Indonesia

Fig 22 shows the distribution of the PSI points in the urban area of Semarang. The border that runs through the picture almost from north-west to south-east, between mainly stable volcanic rocks in the south (green) and areas over alluvial sediments in the north of the city, with partly significant land subsistence (red). The blue lines mark the extent of the pit of the groundwater lowering with more than 20 m in the north east. The satellite-based measurements made a significant contribution to a risk-sensitive urban planning of Semarang (see. KUEHN ET AL., 2010).

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Fig. 21: Severe land subsidence in the coastal area of Semarang/Indonesia

immediate emergency relief in disasters. On the other hand, it is possible to compare satellite pictures before and after the event with the â&#x20AC;&#x17E;change-detectionâ&#x20AC;&#x153; method, in order to extract zonings of the grades of destruction. In connection with geological information it is possible to support a reassessment of risk potentials and to reduce risks.

Future Prospects Geo-monitoring as a combination of monitoring methods and process modelling, is already an indispensable part of risk analysis and risk preparedness activities for natural hazards on a global, regional or local scale. Time-bound geo-monitoring information is increasingly becoming the basis for modelling of natural processes that have a threatpotential, and as such is essential for derivation of riskmitigation strategies. Due to the increasing specification of coupled sensors, as well as through the automatic processing, the ground-,

satellite and airplane-based geo-monitoring methods, which have been rapidly developed in the past years, will expand to further application areas in the context of geogenic risk and vulnerability analysis. In this regard the extensive usage and improvement of multi-parametric geo-monitoring systems in the area of regional and local early warning systems will be in the focus of interest, such as the monitoring of active volcanos, mass movements and earthquake zones. Due to the continuously increasing performance of radar sensor technology for extensive areas, it is possible to detect land

Fig. 22: Classified movement rates according to PSI in a IKONOS satellite image (Colour coding: green after red: yearly sinking rates of 10 cm and more) ); from Kuehn et al. (2010), using material of the Space Imaging LLC, Š2002, All Rights Reserved

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY subsidence with high precision. Taking into consideration the global climate change, associated with the rise in sea levels, this is of particular importance for countries bordering the sea. The high practical value of geo-monitoring technologies in the field of natural disaster management is beyond question. It is to be hoped that the political iestablishment continues to support the inter-disciplinary research and development of these technologies.

Bibliography BALZER, D., JÄGER, S. & D. KUHN (2010): Guidebook for Assessing Risk Exposure to Natural Hazards in Central America - El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua. – Project of Technical Cooperation ‘Mitigation of Georisks in Central America’: 121 pages; 26 figures; 44 tables; 35 maps; San Salvador, Guatemala-City, Tegucigalpa, Managua, Hannover. BENITO, M. B., MOLINA, E., MARROQUÍN, G., ESCOBAR, J. J., TALAVERA, E., ROJAS, W., CLIMENT, A., CAMACHO ASTIGARRABIA, E. & C. LINDHOLM (2008): Evaluación de la amenaza sísmica en Centroamérica. – In: CEPREDENAC Informe, Madrid. BULMER, M. H. & T. FARQUHAR (2010): Design and installation of a Prototype Geohazard Monitoring System near Machu Picchu, Peru. – In: Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. 10, p. 2031-2038. EMERGENCY DATABASE (EM-DAT) (2010): FERRETTI, A., PRATI, C. & F. ROCCA (2001): Permanent Scatterers in SAR Interferometry. ¬ In: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, v. 39, pp. 8–20. GÜNTHER, A., THIEL, C., LANGE, C., SCHÜTZE, K., KUHN, D., OBST, K. & D. BALZER (2007): Integrated slope stability and sliding susceptibility assessment of the Jasmund cliff area (Rügen Island, Germany) – In: Geophysical Research Abstracts European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2007; Vienna. KUEHN, F., TREMBICH, G. & B. HOERIG (1999): Satellite and Airborne Remote Sensing to Detect Hazards Caused by Underground Mining. – In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Applied Geologic Remote Sensing, Vol. II, p. 57-64, 1-3 March 1999; Vancouver, Canada. KUEHN, F., HOERIG, B. & D. BUDZIAK (2004A): Detecting Unstable Ground by Multisensor Remote Sensing. – In: Photogrammetrie, Fernerkundung, Geoinformation, No. 2, 101-109; Stuttgart (Schweizerbart). KUEHN, F., MARGANE, A., TATONG, T. & T. WEVER (2004B): InSAR-based land subsidence map for Bangkok, Thailand. – In: Z. angew. Geol., 1:74– 81; Berlin/Hannover. KUEHN, F., HOTH, P., STARK, M., BURREN, R. & J. HOLE (2009): Experience with Satellite Radar for Gas Storage Monitoring. – In: Erdöl Erdgas Kohle, Vol. 125, 11. KUEHN, F., ALBIOL, D., COOKSLEY, G., DURO, J., GRANDA, J., HAAS, S., HOFFMANN-ROTHE, A. & D. MURDOHARDONO (2010): Detection of land subsidence in Semarang, Indonesia, using stable points network (SPN) technique. – In: Environ. Earth Sci., 60:909-921, DOI 10.1007/s12665-0090227-x. KUHN, D. & S. PRÜFER (2007): Anwendung des terrestrischen Laserscanners im Landslide Monitoring. ¬¬– In: 16. Tagung für Ingenieurgeologie, Bochum (Tagungsband), S. 261-264.

MATSUOKA, M. & F. YAMAZAKI (2006): Damage Survey and Mapping of the 2006 Central Java Earthquake with enhanced use satellite images and GPS. – In: Proceedings 4th International Workshop on Remote Sensing for Post-Disaster Response, Sept 25-6 2006, Cambridge, UK. MUSSON, R.M.W., HAYNES, M. & A. FERRETTI (2004): Space-based Tectonic Modelling in Subduction Areas Using PSInSAR. – In: Seismological Research Letters, 75, 5, 598–606.

Prof. Dr. Hans-Joachim Kümpel Professor Hans-Joachim Kuempel studied mathematics and geo-physics at the universities Freiburg and Kiel from 1971 to 1977. His doctorate and post-doctoral qualification followed in 1982 and 1989 in Kiel. From 1991 to 2011 he was university professor for applied geo-physics at the university in Bonn; from 2001 to 2007 he was director of the Leibnitz institute for applied geo-physics in Hannover and professor at the TU Clausthal, followed by the university of Hannover. Since 2007 he is president of the Federal Agency for Geo-science and Raw Material.

Dipl.-Geol. Dr. Dirk Balzer Graduate Geologist Dr. Dirk Balzer studied geology at the Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University, from the year 1984 to 1989. Since 1991, after he received his post-doctorate at the Department for Petrology, he worked at the Federal Institute for Geo-science and Raw Material in Berlin and Hannover, focussing on salt geology and subrosion. Since 2004 he is leading departments/research groups in the area of risk assessment of ground conditions and geo-risk assessments with regard to geological hazards in the framework of development corporation (Central Asia, Southeast Asia, Central America).

Dr. Friedrich Kühn Dr. Friedrich Kuehn studied geophysics at the mining academy in Freiburg from 1968 to 1972. After graduation in 1972 and receiving his post-doctorate in 1975 at the institute for applied geo-physics of the mining academy Freiberg, he worked in the faculty of marine geology until 1977 and in the faculty for remote sensing of the Central Geological Institute in Berlin from 1978 to 1989. Since 1990 he has been working at the Federal Agency for Geo-science and Raw material in Berlin and Hannover, and since 2003 he is leading the working and research group for remote sensing. Contact: Federal Agency for Geo-science and Raw Material Stilleweg 2, 30655 Hanover | |

KUHN, D. & S. PRÜFER (2009): Langzeitbeobachtung einer Steilküstenrutschung mit Terrestrischem Laserscanning. – In: 17. Tagung für Ingenieurgeologie, Zittau (Tagungsband), S.117-119.

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY by Prof. Dr. Kurosch Thuro, Dr. John Singer & M.Sc. Judith Festl Munich Technical University, Department for Geologic Engineering Munich | Germany

Integrated Slope Monitoring Through Geo-sensor Networks uring the years 2007 - 2010, an economic 3D monitoring and early warning system was developed D for slope movements within the framework of the alpEWAS (= alpine Early Warning System). This system is based on three cost-efficient, innovative and continuously operating measuring systems, developed to monitor deformations at the surface and in the underground: Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR), reflector-less Video-Tachymetry (VTPS) and an economic Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). Along with other systems, these measuring systems monitor typical trigger mechanisms like precipitation, and integrate it in a geo-sensor network, which allows for almost real-time, remote access to data through a web interface. The alpEWAS System was installed in the area of the Aggenalm slope movement (Bavarian Alps, near Bayrischzell) for field-testing, and has continuously been in operation for the last 2 years. During this time measurements were reliably carried out and, aside from small failures, data were gathered. The paper at hand briefly presents some of these time series.

Description of the Project alpEWAS The joint project alpEWAS – development and testing of an integrative 3D-early warning system for unstable alpine slopes – is aiming at integrating innovative, effective and economical measuring technologies into a geosensor network for monitoring tasks at sliding slopes. The project was supported within the framework of the geotechnologies research and development program of the Federal Ministry for Education and Research in Germany. Incidents that occurred even during the implementation of the project, globally, as well as in the alps, confirmed the importance of effective and cost-efficient monitoring of sliding slopes, to the fact that areas, which currently are not or only sporadically monitored for reasons of cost, are also permanently monitored. The option of remote access to the early warning system enables the decision-maker to centrally access all information about his area of responsibility and keep an overall view in situations of extreme rain, in which many slopes have to be simultaneously assessed. The topic of the joint project is the testing and further development of three measuring techniques (Fig. 1) • Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) • Reflector-less Video-Tachymetry (VTPS) • Low-Cost GNSS sensor technology (Low-Cost GNSS)

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as well as their interaction as an early warning system and their integrated analysis. The joint project alpEWAS, (for description please refer to THURO et al. (2009), SINGER et al. (2009c), www. , is defined in 5 project phases: 1. Selection and testing of a project site 2. Design and installation of an early warning system 3. Learning phase of the early warning system 4. Testing phase of the early warning system 5. Automation and improvement of the early warning system

In close coordination with the Bavarian regional authorities the Aggenalm slope movement was selected as a project site with very good preconditions for field testing new measuring techniques under alpine conditions. It became evident that the current movement rates of approx. 1cm/a were lower than expected at the beginning of the project, and although determination of the threshold levels of critical movements was affected (project phases 2 and 3), it showed that testing of new measuring technologies was possible in the test area without high risk potential. During the project, software applications were developed for sensor activation, data management, and complex data processing and for integrative data analysis. After completion of the joint project the participating institutes will continue the monitoring of the Aggenalm.



Fig. 1: Schematic illustration of the geo-sensor network â&#x20AC;&#x153;alpEWAS, installed at the Aggenalm slope movement

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A geological overview can be obtained in SINGER et al. (2009c), a further description of the geo-sensor network can be found in THURO et al. (2010). Complementing the above-mentioned publications, following is a report on the three measuring techniques and the obtained results, as well as consolidation and analysis of data.


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Measuring Technologies That Were Tested Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR)

The field application at the Aggenalm has shown that most of the cables (feed and measuring cables, connectors, mostly laid underground) have proven to be stable with regard to weathering influences, also in winter.

Widely varying parameters â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the used type of cable (measuring and feed cable) and the composition of injection material (type of cement, bentonite, and cement additives) â&#x20AC;&#x201C; have a decisive influence on the quantification of TDR deformation measurements in the underground. These were tested in a comprehensive laboratory program in form of calibration tests (SINGER et al. 2009b, SINGER et al. 2010, SINGER 2010).

Up to now, no significant deformations could be measured with the TDR-system in field application at the Aggenalm, therefore the developed signal and deformation analysis could only be tested and applied in laboratory test analysis.

All results of the various laboratory tests, together with experiences of field applications of the TDR measuring system were included in an installation handbook, which proposes standardized installation as a combination of cable type and injection grout composition. Apart from the elaboration and completion of the installation handbook, further work has been done on the TDR deformation analysis software.

depth in [m]

The TDR measuring system, which was installed at the Aggenalm slope movement and started operation in September 2008, is continuously working since November 2008, and has been conducting hourly measurements since November 2008. Altogether, the TDR system has proven to be a reliable measuring system. Observing the system over the entire timeframe since start of the operation (18 months), the data loss due to individual power cuts and delayed data retrieval (full data storage before the start of fully automated data retrieval) is less than 18% of the planned measurements. In case only the timeframe after the start of the fully automated data acquisition is reviewed, data loss is approximately 10%. The main share of this belongs to a longer-term disruption in January 2010. In future it is expected that automatic data retrieval, data storage and the developed status monitor software achieve higher reliability, as shown in the months February to April 2010.

Deviation of reference measurement in [mm]

Fig. 2: Presentation of time series of the inclinometer measurements (left) and the TDR measurements (below) at the KB1 (lower Lampl-Alm). Compared to the reference measurements, the inclinometer measurements show very low, insignificant deviations of a maximum of 1-2 mm. Moreover, in TDR measurements, no changes in the reflection coefficient can be seen over a time period of approximately 70 weeks

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reflection coefficient

Fig. 2: resentation of time series of the inclinometer measurements (left) and the TDR measurements (below) at the KB1 (lower Lampl-Alm). Compared to the reference measurements, the inclinometer measurements show very low, insignificant deviations of a maximum of 1-2 mm. Moreover, in TDR measurements, no changes in the reflection coefficient can be seen over a time period of approximately 70 weeks



Fig 2 exemplarily shows the reflection coefficients for the TDR measuring knots installed at the Aggenalm – depthness-graph at the lower Lampl-Alm (KB1), presented as time-series related to reference measurements in October 2008, as well as the results of inclinometer measurements. In the TDR time series, no measurable deformations are visible yet, the reflection coefficient does not change over the entire timeframe, and only a slight characteristic noise can be seen. The inclinometer measurements show only small movements (max. 1-2 mm at KB1). The difference between observations of the inclinometer and the ascertained movements from GNSSobservations is due to technical problems during setting up of KB1; the assumed sheet of drift was not reached with a depth of 24.5 m. The reason for non-response of the TDR system in parallel drilling in lower depths are very low deformation values, which cannot break the cement embedding of the coaxial cables – a basic prerequisite for the TDR deformation analysis.

Reflector-less Video-tachymetry (VTPS) The aim of the project alpEWAS was to obtain initial, practical experience in the field with an innovative instrument, the video-tachymeter (VTPS – VideoTachymetric Positioning System). At the onset of the project this type of instrument was widely unused for deformation

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gth in

len cable


measurements. Currently the Topcon Imaging Station is the only instrument on the market, which has a video function that offers the basic prerequisites for the needed accuracy (TOPCON POSITIONING SYSTEMS, INC. 2008). The Trimble Spatial Station VX, also equipped with a video-camera, is also suitable, but has major flaws (TRIMBLE NAVIGATION LIMITED 2010). Both instruments currently cannot be scientifically used, due to lack of external possibilities for connection of the integrated video-camera. An external activation is only offered by the prototype of Leica geosystems company, of which only five have been produced. It consists of a modified tachymeter of the TPS1200-series, a IATS2 (Image Assisted Total Station), and allows for a full access to all subsystems (LEICA GEOSYSTEMS AG 2007). The current prototype still has various shortcomings with regard to construction, in particular practical handling. These shortcomings, which have to be addressed by manufacturers for later marketability include, among others, the bundling of provisional cable ducts and the complete balancing of the changed telescope layout. The prototype is described, among others, in WASMEIER (2009b) and WASMEIER (2009a), together with its comprehensive and complex calibration. It also further examines achievable accuracies, which lie at σ < 1 mgon in field application. However, in special cases they can lie at σ > 2 mgon. Under laboratory conditions a reproducible accuracy potential of < 0,15 mgon could be proven.


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Fig. 3: Control points in the Aggenalm test area. The deformation vectors for GNSS and VTPS in the timeframe autumn 2008 – autumn 2009 are drawn in. The tachymeter target points without motion vectors cannot be measured in all epochs, because of single failures of measurement

The method was used at the Aggenalm to capture several object points on the slope through polar measurements from a central point in several measuring series, and to test them for shifting. As such the approach is initially identical to a conventional setup of a permanent or epochal tachymetric monitoring measurement without network formation. Since only natural object points should be used, no permanent periodical measurements are possible. This is due to the exposition of the slope and the snow condition in the “Sudelfeld”. In particular there might be long breaks in winter, as the camera of the instrument cannot be used in temperatures below zero. Fig. 3 shows control points in the test area Aggenalm. The deformation vectors for GNSS and VTPS in the timeframe autumn 2008 – autumn 2009 are marked. Due to single failures of measurement, the tachymeter target points without motion vectors cannot be measured in all epochs. For the VTPS component the points amount to 3-12 mm. Due to the required connection of the measuring pillar at the slope to partly far away benchmarks in the stable area, this cannot be considered significant. However, with regard to their orientation and compared to the GNSS results, they appear to be plausible. The advantage of videotachymetry, compared to conventional and proven measuring methods, is the variability of possible target structures, which can be both artificial (aiming circle), as well as natural. Based on the type of the targets, more or less complex algorithmic is needed, which usually have to be adjusted for each case. In principle it is possible to access a rich pool of

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operators and methods of digital and industrial image data processing. Figure 3 shows the basic process of the target point measurement with VTPS. For the Aggenalm, rocks on the surface were used as target objects. For monitoring tasks, however, it is also possible to use tear-off edges, buildings (and parts of it), or others. The measuring principle used is an edge-based matching, on the basis of a learning phase that is implemented during installation. For extensive deformations, other methods can also be used. These methods are currently evaluated with the same prototypes at the technical university of Vienna (see REITERER et al. 2010). Among others, further application possibilities can be found in THURO et al. (2010). For each image-based analysis it is necessary to critically challenge the complexity of the algorithmics , and as such to challenge the reliability. In the industrial image measuring technique the standard illumination and other parameters are arranged in a way to create ideal measuring conditions. This cannot be done for videotachymetry, so that in field applications reliability quota of more than 90% cannot be achieved or can only be achieved in exceptional cases. Therefore in the project alpEWAS the aim of an autonomous videotachymetric measurement had to be replaced by a semi-automated monitored measurement. The video tachymeter, which was first applied in geodetic measurement practice, has proven to be suitable for the determination of deformation of non-signalling objects, particularly under manageable measuring conditions, i.e application in closed rooms. In operational measurements during field application distinct limitations



Fig. 4: Flowchart of a target point detection

became apparent, particularly with regard to refraction effects and chaotic atmospheric turbulences. Although these influences affect every form of a conventional tachymetric bearing, but they are critical for the relatively time consuming analysis of videotachymetric images and the often sensitive parameterized detection algorithms. Further developments in this field have to be conducted in three areas, whereby the respective results will serve as inputs for the other areas:

Improvement of hardware, in order to overcome the prototype status. This is particularly the task of manufacturers, whose paramount goals are economical. Therefore it is the task of research to show suitable ranges of application and to evaluate advantages and possible weaknesses.

Further development of suitable algorithmic. The reliability and scope of application of algorithms has to be increased or specially adjusted to the task of videotachymetry. In order to do so, further scopes of application need to be developed and worked on in pilot projects. One example for this could be videotachymetric vibration monitoring.

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Modelling of atmospheric influences. The main problem of impairment of videotachymetric measurements, refraction and glimmering of air has to be again examined, particularly with regard to the innovative equipment class, and if possible, it should be reduced through empirical and exemplary corrections. A research in this regard is planned.

Low-Cost Global Navigation Satellite System (LC GNSS) After the successful start and testing phase of the low-cost GNSS monitoring component at the Aggenalm in project phases 3 and 4 (see THURO et. Al (2009) for further details), the activities of project phase 5 were concentrated on further development of the software component. The main item is the modularly set up Central Control Application (CCA), which is based on the graphic programming language LabView速, National Instruments. The CCA regulates all steps, from system initialization, data recording, processing, up to further processing or routing of the results after an initial quality control (fig. 5) The raw data of all GNSS nodes in the geo-sensor network are centrally gathered through wireless data transfer and analysed in real-time. The obtained information from


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Fig. 5: Central Control Application workflow (GLABSCH et al. 2010a)

GNSS nodes (coordinates, quality parameters, information on status) are promptly available for integrative analysis in a MySQL data bank. The developed measuring system with its technical details is described in details, among others, in GLABSCH et al. (2010b) und GLABSCH et al. (2010a)..

automated restart of the system after uncontrolled shut down is not possible without manual intervention. This disadvantage will also be tackled in further course. In December 2009 there was a cable break in the connection to the GNSS antenna at node 3, and an immediate repair was not possible because of winter weather conditions. Relevant statistics on availability in Hornbergl near Reutte/Tirol from a reference application (GLABSCH et al. 2009) show, that even under difficult conditions, a 97% availability of the GNSS system cold be achieved (Mai 2009 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; April 2010).

Ensuring a secure GNSS system operation is a challenge, particularly in the alpine winter, where antennas and solar panels are partly covered with snow for days and weeks. As an example, the reason for the longer term fallouts in winter 2009/2010 was a malfunction of the charge controller with very little reload by the solar panel, which led to damage of the buffer batteries and repeated power cuts.

Fig 6 shows results of continuous data recording of the GNSS sensor noted in the sliding area of the Aggenalm. The direction components (easting Y, northing X, whereby the direction of the slope almost corresponds to the easting) for the period February 2009 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; April2010 is presented as moving average over 24 values (node 2 and 3) or 48 values (node 1). In a selected acquisition interval of 15 minutes for the carrier phase, this corresponds to a filter length of 6 and 12 hours, respectively. Despite the described technical problems and the resulting data gaps, it was possible to fully record long-term movements of the three sensor nodes. As can be seen form the time series, particularly in node 2 and 3, an acceleration phase occurs during spring (snowmelt). It is presumed that due to the little snow cover of the slope in spring 2010 (C) the increase is not as significant as in spring 2009 (A). The effects of an extreme rainfall in June 2009 can also be seen.

The charge controllers were replaced by a model from another manufacturer, and the malfunction is overcome. Currently the software component is only executable in the LabView development environment. Therefore, an

An enlarged section for the period 15.03 -15.08.2009 exemplarily shows the effects of the snowmelt phase (-A-) and phases of intensive precipitation in June 2009 (-B-) for the sensor node 2, (fig. 7).

All steps in the workflow are regulated by the modularly structured software component (fig. 5), from the initialization and configuration (1) to the continuous data recording (2) and parallel near real time processing (3), up to the forwarding of results (4). The current state of the developed software ensures a continuous and robust operation of the GNSS monitoring component. Currently occurring problems are mainly hardware problems, particularly with the stand-alone power supply.

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Fig. 6: Nodes 1-3, direction components February 2009 to April 2010, moving average (node 1 -12 h, node 2 and 3 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 6h)

Fig. 7: Node 2, direction components in the period 15.03. â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 15.08.10, moving average (12 h)

Hereby, the main goal was the development and testing of an all-weather low-cost GNSS monitoring component for continuous recording of movements in the sub-centimetre scale, as a contribution to an integrative monitoring system for monitoring slopes. The system could successfully be tested on the Aggenalm, on the basis of standard components for sensor technology, power supply and communication in the prototype stage. For the current configuration, a complete GNSS sensor node needs an investment of approximately â&#x201A;Ź 3000. The developed

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software component (CCA)allows for a reliable system operation. Although the achieved accuracies with filter lengths of approximately 6h already allow for assessments of longer term kinesic behaviour, even if changes are small, the potential for usage of simple navigation receivers in monitoring is not exhausted yet. In order to achieve an improved early warning, a (significant) shortening of filter lengths is to be aimed at. Altogether it was possible to test and develop the usage of low-cost GNSS sensor technology to an extent, which allows for introduction of


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY this measuring technology into practice. It was possible to show that this approach allows for monitoring, which up to now could only be processed with precision tachymetry or only with geodesic high-end receivers.

Data management and integrative data analysis

Fig. 8: alpEWAS Control, Management und Data analysis Software

Data management With the help of the alpEWAS Control Software package (fig. 8), a modular software package was developed, which regulates the entire data management of the project. The flexible layout allows for an optimal adjustment of the programme and its components to the respective measuring system. The Open Source MySQLDatabank is a central component. The link between the geosensor network, or between the sensors and databank installed in the field, are so-called sensor-plugins. In addition to the sensor activation, the status monitoring and the sorting of raw measured data, as well as information transport through respective communication channels, an initial analysis is done according to the sensor type. This allows for the fact, that in addition to the raw data, real time usable information (1st level results) are available in the data bank for consecutive integrative analysis. Various possibilities of status monitoring permanently provide feedback on the status of the system. In case critical parameters are achieved or in case of failures of individual programs or sensors, the system administrator is automatically informed, leading to a minimization of data loss. A

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Fig. 9: alpEWAS live viewer with sensor overview and live webcam

practical tool in the system maintenance is the alpEWAS live viewer (fig. 9). This surface always informs the user on the system status. Furthermore the stream of data can be graphically processed (various filter options and combinations) reviewed. An important intersection in access to data is the access of the end-user, who is interested in information on the current state. The data management concept envisages the following: A real time reflection of the data bank from the data analysis unit (master) on a second data bank server (slave), with a broad band internet connection, allows for high data security and a practically unlimited parallel data access of several users. These complex and computationally intensive analyses can be shifted. For data exchange between heterogeneous systems (interoperability), there is a possibility to access the results through standardized intersections, in case the user has access rights. Up-to-date standards, as required in the sensor web enablement (SWE) initiative of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) for access to space-related data, are taken into consideration.

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The main functions of the live viewers (fig.9) is to offer permanent information on the up-to-date system state, as well as the possibility of visualizing graphically processed initial results. The data bank accessed by the viewer (master or slave) can be freely chosen.

Integrative data analysis Data gathered by the sensors installed in the test area are available since February 2009 and first analyses of the obtained time series are possible. The basis of subsequent tests are conclusions from earlier slidings at the Aggenalm, to the effect that a main influencing factor of movement is the influence of strong precipitation in the area. The available data verify the correlation between precipitations, pore water pressure and resulting deformation. One limiting factor is the currently low movement rates in the Aggenalm. Up to now deformations of approximately


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY 1 cm/a were observed through video-tachymetry and lowcost GNSS observations. Accordingly, up to now only GNSS nodes and the available measurements of the groundwater tables, as well as meteorological data offer data for a time series observation.

short time series of all relevant sensors, the manageable number of extreme rain occurrences and the low movement rates, the system of precipitation, increase of pore water pressure and subsequent surface movement can currently not be described through complex models.

Analyzable time series with little data gaps, for example for a section of 60 days between 22.06 and 22.08.2009 are available. Initial optical comparisons are possible with these data. Fig. 10 shows the recorded precipitation, as well as the pore water pressure for the mentioned interval. The delayed increase in the pore water pressure after each rain is eye-catching. However, due to the relatively

Therefore initially only the system response of the pore water pressure on the rainfalls is dealt with. In order to do so, the cross-correlation of the two measuring values is calculated. The analysis of the entire period shows a delay of two to three days. Similar analysis of piezometer data and GNSS observations show no significant similarities, although visually a similar behaviour can be seen.


Fig. 10: Precipitation and pore water pressure in the period 22.07. to 22.08.2009 (filtered, 6 h intervals)

[cm water level]

pore water pressure

Fig. 11: Precipitation and pore water pressure in the period 23.06. bis 3.07.2009 with cross correlation




[cm water level]

pore water pressure

[correlation coefficient]

Correlation between precipitation and pore water pressure

[days] [days]

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Fig. 11 shows the time series for a 10 day section (23.06. to 3.07.2009), which is characterized by heavy precipitation in the first two days. The cross correlation analysis of the two data series offers a maximum of the cross correlation coefficient of 2.5 days, which offers an (initial) integrative possibility of analysis as a method of time series analysis. Longer sections without failures and disturbances of sensors would improve the interpretation of the indicated functional chain of precipitation-pore water pressuresurface deformation and would make the chronological dependency of the involved trigger factors describable. In order to do so, the data recording at the Aggenalm will be continued after support to the geo-technology program by the involved joint partners.

Conclusion and Prospect The developed measuring techniques TDR and LowCost GNSS are mainly based on hardware components already available in the market, whereas the tested videotachymeter is a prototype of the Leica Geosystems company, which is not available in the market yet. New developments in the video tachymetry were made mostly during adjustment of the system layout to the measuring task „slope monitoring“, as well as in the signal analysis and the sensor control. The performance of TDR and lowcost GNSS in continuous monitoring could be shown. In this regard the developed software components for data management and complex data processing played a significant role. These two measuring techniques are currently at the verge of marketability, whereas the spectrum of application is not only limited to slides, but can also be extended to other monitoring tasks, e.g. the monitoring of mines (SINGER et al. 2009a).

Bibliography GLABSCH, J., HEUNECKE, O. & SCHUHBÄCK, S. (2010a): Überwachung von Rutschhängen mittels Low-Cost GNSS Empfängern im near Real Time Processing.– In: WUNDERLICH, T. (Hrsg.): Ingenieurvermessung 10: 275– 288; Berlin (Wichmann). GLABSCH, J., HEUNECKE, O. & SCHUHBÄCK, S. (2010b): Development and testing of a low cost sensor PDGNSS landslide monitoring system using the example of the Aggenalm Landslide in the Bavarian Alps.– In: ALTAN, O., BACKHAUS, R., BOCCARDO, P. & ZLATANOVA, S. (Hrsg.): Geoinformation for Disaster and Risk Management: 63–70; Copenhagen (JB GIS).

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GLABSCH, J., HEUNECKE, O. & SCHUHBÄCK, S. (2009): Monitoring the Hornbergl landslide using a recently developed low cost GNSS sensor network.– JAG, 3 (3): 179–192.

Kurosh Thuro has studied geology at the TU Munich, with focus on engineering and hydrogeology (Department for General, Applied and Engineering Geology, Prof. Spaun, Diploma 1989). After that he started his studies for a doctorate with a scholarship for graduates at the TUM, and continued his studies as an associate. He was awarded a doctorate in 1995 through his work on drillability of rocks with conventional tunnel excavating. In spring 1999 he changed from the TUM to ETH Zurich, where he was senior associate. In 2002 he did his postdoctoral lecture qualification in geologic engineering at the TU Munich. In January 2004 he accepted a professorship for Engineering Geology in the TU Munich. His researches are focussed on tunnelling, particularly problems of rock excavation (performance and wear prognosis in TSM and TBM drive) and slope movements, from field mapping of the phenomena to monitoring, up to modelling and danger zoning. He is a board member in the division of engineering geology of the German Society for Geo-technique (DGGT) and an active member in the working committees 2.11 Professional preconditions for geotechnique experts, 3.3 Test technique rocks and 4.3 Apprenticeship and training in engineering geology, as well as member of the editorial board of several scientific journals (e.g. Geo-mechanics and tunnelling, Austrian Journal of Earth Sciences). For him, laboratory and field belong together like research and training. As dean of geo-science at the TU Munich he particularly handles training in geo-science for the bachelor study course and engineering and hydrogeology for master study course. Contact: o.Univ.-Prof. Dr.rer.nat. habil. Kurosch Thuro Munich Technical University, Department for Geologic Engineering D - 80290 Munich Tel +49 89 289 25850 Fax +49 89 289 25852 Mobil +49 171 637 0891 | | |


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Endress+Hauser Messtechnik GmbH+Co. KG Weil am Rhein | Germany

Measuring technology is the cornerstone of automation in process technology:

Robust solutions for your process automation


utomation engineering has become a vital ingredient in the bulk solids processing industry, where stricter requirements for end product quality, reproducibility and the need to improve energy consumption call for increased automation.

As in many other industries, this sector is also under pressure to drive down costs with the result that facilities have to deliver greater efficiency and perform better than before. Automation with measuring technology to track the various operating conditions in the process is key. On its own, however, a good measuring device with top-class measurement performance is not enough to guarantee success.

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The basis of a good measurement technology solution Measuring devices work on the basis of physical principles which, depending on the surrounding conditions, have their strengths and limitations. To obtain data that are consistent with expectations, it is not enough to simply select the right technology for the task in hand. Factors such as the application and local conditions, a reliable measuring principle and the right installation and commissioning must also be taken into account. In addition, tough operating conditions require robust technology that can cope with the special requirements. Swift commissioning by courtesy of a quick setup at the measuring device cuts time and cost for the operator. The




overrun flow chart of the thickener


following example from practical experience highlights the need to take into account the entire measuring task in the context of the installation conditions and operation.

Sludge density measurement at the thickener Depending on how the raw material is extracted during wet processing, the process at the thickener can be complex and has its own particularities depending on the individual raw materials. Actual measurement of the sludge thickness is essential in optimizing the use of flocculant and the pump operation for pumping out the sludge. Basic conditions for the choice of measuring technology:

The Cerabar S pressure measuring device

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY • The medium comprises different abrasive and finegrained minerals • Diameter of thickener tank approx. 20 m • Continuous operation with constant material column and rotating rake. • Even in the case of a full thickener tank, the measuring device will habe to be cleaned and, if necessary, removed. However, no large assemblies should protrude into the process.

Pressure and density measurement at the thickener The Cerabar S pressure measuring device is installed close to the sludge extractor on the floor of the thickener. This measurement records the pressure of the sludge and liquid column that is present. A continuous sludge level measurement system is installed on the thickener. As both the liquids added and their densities are specified, the actual bed mass is calculated electronically at the outlet using the sludge level in combination with the pressure measurement.

The Cerabar S pressure transmitter offers the following benefits for this application:

On the basis of these actual sludge density values, users can boost the efficiency of the separation process by increasing the bed mass and reducing the volume of process water required. Pump operation and the use of flocculant can also be better controlled. For reliable process automation, it is therefore not enough to have just an excellent measuring device using the latest technology. The selected device must also be adapted to the onsite conditions. In addition, changes in product characteristics (insofar as these can be detected) must be taken into account to ensure the plausibility of the measurement signals in the future. Likewise, correct installation and commissioning are essential for measurement reliability.

Make the right choice When selecting and designing your measuring technology solutions, you can rely on Endress+Hauser‘s vast experience in bulks solids engineering, spanning over 58 years. Measurement technologies that are selected for optimum suitability form a solid basis for a sustained increase in plant efficiency, thereby helping to protect the environment and energy reserves. The aim is to select and use the right measuring devices and measuring principles in order to meet the objectives of automation technology in a processing plant that is in continuous operation.

• Ceramic measuring cell provides a high level of erosion resistance • Flush-mounted version rduces diaphragm wear


• Overload-resistant up to 400 bar • Measurement membrane rupture detection • Lower and upper range value can be configured without specifying pressure. • Fast, easy commissioning using quick setup or PC operating program, FieldCare.

Endress+Hauser Messtechnik GmbH+Co. KG D-79576 Weil am Rhein Tel.: +49 (0)76 21 - 975 - 01 eMail: Internet:

The solution package, together with the special mounting assembly and the sensor with the extended pressure range, meets the requirements for continuous operation. The special fitting with a shut-off valve means that the pressure sensor can be removed even during operation and also ensures that the pressure signal can be recorded directly in the sludge.

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Endress+Hauser Messtechnik GmbH+Co. KG Weil am Rhein | Germany


from quartz sand no problem for Levelflex ngles of repose and reflective surfaces make level measurement A in quartz sand silos a challenging undertaking. Modern radar technology meets this challenge head-on.

The Hirschau-Schnaittenbacher kaolin mining district near Nuremberg is home to one of the biggest continental deposits of kaolin, quartz sand and feldspar in Europe. Formed some 250 million years ago during the Middle Triassic period, the deposits belong to Amberger Kaolinwerke Eduard Kick GmbH & Co. KG. This kaolin mining company based in south-east Germany operates several open pit mines and is part of the international Quarzwerke Group. The paper, glass, foundry, ceramics, plastics and rubber industry are among the primary sales markets of the Quarzwerke Group. Industrial minerals produced by the Group can also be found in paints, coatings and construction chemicals. Amberger Kaolinwerke (AKW) is the specialist in the Group for kaolin and feldspar applications in international markets, with the business focus on the extraction, treatment and refining of these industrial minerals. AKW uses cutting-edge technology to efficiently separate the excavated earth from the kaolin, feldspar and quartz sand industrial minerals using complex classification techniques. When it comes to measuring technology, the company also relies on modern instrument and control solutions. Up to now, Amberger Kaolinwerke used instruments that operated on the time-of-flight of ultrasonic pulses to

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measure product levels in the quartz sand storage silos. However, this physical measurement principle has definite drawbacks for such applications. On account of the angle of repose in the silos and the extremely smooth surface of the small-grain bulk solids, the ultrasonic pulse reflected back to the receiver is often too low to ensure reliable measurement results.

Maximum operational safety in level measurement Working on the principle of guided microwaves, the Levelflex FMP57 proved a practical alternative for continuous level measurement in quartz silos. As with the ultrasonic measurement method, this system also uses the time-offlight principle. Instead of ultrasonic pulses, however, this system freely emits high-frequency microwaves into the container. There is no risk of reflections and lost measured values with the Levelflex FMP57 guided radar. The high level of operational safety is one of the biggest advantages of continuous level measurement in bulk solids using the Levelflex guided radar, and specifically the Levelflex FMP57.


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Even dust emission in silos and unfavorable construction conditions do not impact operational safety. Tall, narrow silos, or silos with supports or other internal fittings can pose a problem for other measurement methods, like free space radar but not for Levelflex.

Levelflex FMP57 This universal measuring device is not affected by product properties and can be commissioned quickly and easily in just six simple steps. The intuitive, menuguided operation concept in the operator‘s own language cuts costs associated with training, maintenance and operation. The multi-echo tracking function ensures that reliable measurement values are always returned during the measurement process. All the echo signals are initially identified using self-learning echo detection algorithms and taking short-term and long-term history data into account. These echoes include the level and interference echoes caused by internal fittings or double echoes. The system then tracks all the echoes and runs a plausibility check on them. Thanks to the new analysis, the level signal is also recorded even if it is below the fixed target suppression line. This ensures that reliable and precise measurement results are always returned even in the event of strong reflections in the silo.

Standardization is key The Levelflex FMP57 is just one device in an instrument family recently launched on the market. This instrument family is part of Endress+Hauser‘s new two-wire concept which standardizes seven measurement methods for flow and level measurement.

Working on the principle of guided microwaves, the Levelflex FMP57 proved a practical alternative for continuous level measurement in quartz silos.

The two-wire concept sets new standards for safety and uniformity in field instrumentation and delivers unrivaled consistency in terms of: • Operation • Software • Interfaces • Data management • System integration • Housing components • Electronics modules • Product order structures • Documentation

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Easy replacement of components without loss of data

Guided radar based on the two-wire principle

Users want to be able to replace components without losing data. The new two-wire concept meets this requirement with the HistoROM memory module with no need for any extra tools (e.g. a laptop). The entire device configuration is automatically stored during commissioning.

In the field of level measurement, Endress+Hauser initially incorporated the guided radar Levelflex family into the two-wire concept and launched it on the market. Eight different models are available to suit the most diverse process requirements, ranging from the basic FMP50 version to FMP51 for the toughest requirements of liquid level measurement. FMP57 and FMP56 are specially designed for bulk solids while other Levelflex versions are available for pharmaceutical applications, aggressive media, interface measurement and the oil & gas industry. With the basic Levelflex FMP56 version, Endress+Hauser has completed the range of guided microwave instruments for the bulk solids industry.

The HistoROM module is unintegrated into the housing and automatically copies the complete device configuration to the new electronics. In addition to flexible management of the configuration data, the HistoROM enables cyclic recording of up to 1000 measured data units, including presentation as line recorders on the display. Saving, comparing, recovering and duplicating data has never been so easy.

Direct programming via the display Endress+Hauser standardizes instrument operation across the product family and beyond. The uniform operating concept makes operation easier and brings safety and reliability to training, commissioning, maintenance, and operation. Standard on-site operating elements with three-key operation, software and interfaces reduce the time needed for commissioning.

What is kaolin? Kaolin, or china clay, is a soft, white, plastic clay, mainly composed of fine-grained, plate-like particles, and does not occur very frequently in nature. Kaolin is formed when the anhydrous aluminum silicates which are found in feldspar-rich rocks, like granite, are altered by weathering or hydrothermal processes. The process of converting the hard granite into the soft substance found in kaolin pits is known as â&#x20AC;&#x17E;kaolinisationâ&#x20AC;&#x153;. The quartz and mica of the granite remain relatively unchanged whilst the feldspar is transformed into kaolinite. .

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Offering excellent value for money, the Levelflex FMP56 perfectly complements the universal Levelflex FMP57 for demanding measuring tasks. Plans are in place for additional instrument families for various measurement parameters.

Traditional analysis vs. Multi-Echo Tracking

Thanks to the new analysis of the Levelflex FMP57, the level signal is also recorded even if it is below the fixed target suppression line..


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Endress+Hauser Messtechnik GmbH+Co. KG Weil am Rhein | Germany

Nowadays, cement plants use a wide variety of grinding aids, demanding both flexibility and reliability from the measuring technology used. dditional materials have been used in the cement grinding process for over 80 years, A with the primary aim to increase production output and boost energy efficiency. Nowadays, additives are increasingly used to regulate the cement quality. A lower clinker

factor also calls for new, harmonized grinding aids. In the past it was easy to work with one conductive, liquid material, but nowadays cement plants expect instrumentation to be more flexible and adapt quickly to new additives. As a result, measuring technology currently used to measure the volume of the grinding aids is pushed to its limit and a lot of time is invested in maintaining the equipment. Classic oval gear meters measure the volume flow with a typical accuracy rating of roughly Âą 0.5%. These meters are also sensitive to fouling and dirt. In such a heavy-duty environment, this can cause additional interference, creates more work for technicians and ultimately also means that cement quality issues are not addressed immediately. For this reason, electromagnetic flowmeters have become the technology of choice for conductive additives and the classic triethanolamine. Endress+Hauserâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s Proline Promag instruments passed the practical test for this application years ago.

The advantage afforded by this measuring system lies in its low pressure loss and immunity to plant vibrations. Market conditions call for cement factories to produce more and more special kinds of cement with defined properties in record time, with the result that production has to switch processes quickly to react to market demands. Furthermore, there is a growing tendency to use glycol compounds as grinding aids which are no longer conductive.

Electromagnetic flowmeters have become the technology of choice for conductive additives and the classic triethanolamine

As already explained, the instruments described above measure the volume flow. However, the mass flow is needed for process control in the grinding process. This means that the density of the additive has to be determined and the control system modified each time the production process is adjusted. Flow measurement with Proline Promass

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The Promass instrument in grinding aids measuring operation

based on the Coriolis principle is a system that measures the density of the liquid medium directly. This instrument measures the mass flow of the liquid medium with maximum precision and reproducibility (e.g. Promass 83F ± 0.05%). This presents the following advantages for the cement production industry: • Universal usage since instrument is not affected by the conductivity of the additive • Also suitable for future liquid media • No adjustments needed when product is changed • No moving parts = low maintenance

• Increased plant availability owing to self-diagnostics, data storage (S-DAT, T-DAT), uniform spare parts concept etc. • Quick setups and standard operation make for userfriendly instruments

Not only are the mass flow measuring systems suitable for the new additive mixtures of several components, they are also far more precise in order to produce the desired cement material properties. This higher precision means that Promass instruments can also drive down the costs of these grinding aids through more efficient use.

• Integrated density measurement of the supply medium

The operating concept of the Promass instrument is the same as that of the electromagnetic Promag devices, making commissioning easy as ABC. All five flow technologies are incorporated into the end-to-end Proline flowmeter concept, giving users decisive advantages thanks to the standardized electronics and operating method: • Minimum storage costs thanks to uniformity of components and spare parts • Easy-to-replace components recalibration saves time



FOR MORE INFORMATION AND CONTACT: Endress+Hauser Messtechnik GmbH+Co. KG D-79576 Weil am Rhein Tel.: +49 (0)76 21 - 975 - 01 eMail: Internet:


• Versatile operating options via onsite display or using an operating software application (e.g. FieldCare) via the local service interface or via a control room with digital communication

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Š Michael Utech -

TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Endress+Hauser Messtechnik GmbH+Co. KG Weil am Rhein | Germany

Keeping track of material flow When it comes to raw material transportation, the industry trend is to move away from the batch feeding of raw material to continuous material supply with belt conveyor systems. Measuring technology makes sure material flows smoothly. For businesses, the continuous supply of large volumes of bulk solids to and from the individual process stages has the advantage of lower storage costs. At the same time, however, operators must ensure that the conveyor transfer points do not become choked and cause a breakdown. Non-contact measuring technology using a microwave barrier is firmly established as the method for detecting material blockages.

Soliwave compact microwave barrier Endress+Hauser has redesigned the time-tested microwave barrier to create a compact instrument which can be used in even more applications. Soliwave consists of an FQR56 emitter and an FDR56 receiver, each with an integrated power unit. If a backup of material occurs, this attenuates the microwave signal which triggers a switch signal as soon as a fixed threshold value is exceeded. This measuring technology is not affected by particle size and offers the added advantage of low life-cycle costs. Since the sensors are installed behind a microwavepenetrable window, they do not come in contact with the transported material and are not exposed to abrasion. As a result, there is no wear and the sensor requires minimum maintenance.

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The Soliwave FDR56 receiver also has an integrated switching amplifier which makes for easy electrical installation on site. As an alternative to the relay or transistor outputs, the Soliwave is also available with a 4 to 20 mA current output. This allows the user to track process changes accurately and, for example, to analyze the buildup of deposits or dirt. If process media are particularly abrasive, users can choose to install a ceramic process-wetted material or deploy a remote version with a microwave-transmissive window at the transfer point. Microwave barriers installed at the conveyor transfer point on the stacker or feeder chute have delivered good results in practice.

Soliwave at the conveyor transfer point A conveyor transfer point with a special material routing system distributes excavated earth of varying properties and particle size to individual belt conveyors. At a conveying speed of approx. 6 m/s this is performed automatically while the system is in operation by a mobile hopper wagon in the conveyor transfer point. With a belt width of 3 m, this variable transfer point must be monitored for material backlog and blockage.



Š Michael Utech -

To ensure reliable product monitoring, the Soliwave microwave barrier is installed in the material conveyance area at the transfer point downstream of a microwavetransmissive window. No internal fittings obstruct the mass flow or are subject to wear. Furthermore, the microwave barrier has the advantage that it is impervious to vibration or shock. In addition, Soliwaveâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s location means that it can be very easily accessed from both sides of the belt conveyor. The necessary threshold value can be set on site.

To ensure reliable product monitoring, the Soliwave microwave barrier is installed.

Soliwave at the feeder chute The level of material in the feeder chute of an incineration plant must be kept as constant as possible to ensure the subsequent incineration process is constant. Furthermore, a sufficiently large volume of refuse-derived fuel is required in the feeder chute

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Soliwave at the feeder chute for minimum and maximum level detection

to ensure that air is driven out. For this reason, a constant supply of refuse-derived fuel is added to the chute or transferred from the chute to the incineration process. Bulk solids of varying quality from the paper industry act as the refuse-derived fuel. In addition, problems tend to occur in the flow of material in the chute which means that internal fittings must be avoided. The microwave barrier monitors a minimum and maximum level at two operating points in the feeder chute. When a sufficient volume of refuse-derived fuel is supplied, the minimum level ensures the system cuts off air to the process. The maximum level signal in the chute is used to prevent excess filling and any backlog of material in the upstream conveyor.

The point level is detected both lengthwise and crosswise along the chute. Given the width of the feeder chute, two parallel microwave barriers are fitted for the minimum level detection function to ensure constant filling routines. Soliwave can also be easily accessed on the feeder chute from the outside.

FOR MORE INFORMATION AND CONTACT: Endress+Hauser Messtechnik GmbH+Co. KG D-79576 Weil am Rhein Tel.: +49 (0)76 21 - 975 - 01 eMail: Internet:

Soliwave emitter FQR56 and FDR56 receiver

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Best results lead to the breakthrough If crusher technology by Metso looks after anything, then itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s your purse: the Barmac vertical impact crusher protects the rotor which controls the process in an autogenous layer of feed material in crushing. The mobile Lokotrack LT1415 protects the nerves, as its large intake opening prevents bridging. As a primary crusher, the LT140 saves time â&#x20AC;&#x201C; in conjunction with the flexible Lokolink conveyor system it makes such progress in opencast quarrying that you can save a large proportion of your dumpers. Talk to us about the possibilities of staying successful even in difficult times. Your contact person: Karl-Heinz Hessler Tel.: ++49 (0)621 72700-611 Mobile: ++49 (0)177 6608438

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Atlas Copco’s Minetruck MT6020

continues to break productivity records


ith haulage costs representing one of the most crucial items on the miner’s balance sheet, Atlas Copco’s Minetruck MT6020 stands out as the productivity winner. Haulage efficiency is a tough nut to crack in underground mining. Trucks need to be powerful enough to carry heavy loads for long periods and often over long distances, yet also compact and robust to access the most challenging of ramps. Atlas Copco’s Minetruck MT6020 delivers on both counts and continues to break records for productivity and costefficiency. This success is largely thanks to the vehicle’s pay-load of 60 tonnes, ease of servicing and the ergonomic operator’s compartment which has been given an extra strong and highly durable shell weighing approximately 1.5 tonnes.

Stuart Tonkin, Chief Operating Officer at Barminco, which operates the largest fleet of MT6020 in Australia and Africa, has also noted significant gains. He says: “Reducing fleet size and fleet kilowatts enables cost savings which is important in current markets. The Minetruck MT6020 is another step in the development of the articulated underground truck and is being adopted by the industry.”

Minetruck MT6020 was launched in 2008, giving mines the unique opportunity to increase their tonnage kilometers per hour (tkm/h) and also to save costs through reducing the size of their fleets.

Atlas Copco confirms the truck’s continuing success in Australia and says its reliability and performance has made the 60 tonner the leading truck in its class.

These benefits were quickly realized, notably in Australia where mining contractor ACM (Australian Contract Mining) recently took delivery of the country’s 100th Minetruck MT6020. “We’ve expanded our fleet of Atlas Copco Minetruck MT6020 trucks because it is the most productive underground truck available today by a fair margin,” says Brian Rodan, Managing Director of ACM.

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Business Line Manager Matt Cobham explains: “We have sold 60 tonners to both contractors and miners in equal numbers and we believe the Minetruck MT6020 is the clear, current first choice. Sixty trucks will be delivered to Australian customers during 2011, and more than half of those will have replaced other trucks at mine sites.


NEWS & REPORTS “We have also upgraded the entire drivetrain since the original Minetruck MT5000 – axels, dropbox, upbox, transmission and engine. Our oldest Minetruck MT6020, which is working at Stawell Gold Mines in Victoria, has racked up more than 25 000 hours to date and is still going strong.”

The Minetruck MT6020 is manufactured in Kvarntorp, Sweden.

Hauling at 11 km/h on a ramp with a 15 percent gradient – a typical scenario for a large underground mine – the Minetruck MT6020 claims to be as fast as trucks with smaller payload ratings but delivers 20 percent more tonnage. And despite its 60 tonne capacity, it does not require larger excavation dimensions.

• Length: 11.227 mm. Width: 3. 440 mm. Height: 3170 to 3470 mm

Among the planned upgrades for 2012 will be the installation of a Cummins Tier 2 engine offering extremely low emissions as well as substantial noise reduction. According to Matt Cobham this upgrade will be even more significant as the larger underground mines go deeper and grapple with ventilation efficiency and increased power costs.

• Maximum torque at 1 300 rpm: 3 084 Nm

Minetruck MT6020 in a nutshell • Payload: 60 tonnes

• Tyre size: 35/65R33 • Engine: Cummins QSK 19-C760 HP • Front axle suspension • Top speed (at full load): 36 km/h • Air conditioned operator’s compartment • Fuel tank capacity: 844 litres • Fuel consumption 67 litres /h • ISO ROPS/FOPS certification • Turning radius: 44°

FOR MORE INFORMATION AND CONTACT: Atlas Copco Underground Rock Excavation Project Leader Marketing Communications, Elisabeth Meyer Tel.: +46(0) 19 - 67 07 019 +46(0) 70 - 67 08 267 eMail: Internet:

Atlas Copco Underground Rock Excavation Product Manager, Ben Thompson Tel.: +46(0) 19 - 50 31 395 +46(0) 70 - 94 69 241 eMail: Internet:

Atlas Copco Underground Rock Excavation is a division within Atlas Copco’s Mining and Rock Excavation Technique business area. It develops, manufactures, and markets a wide range of tunneling and mining equipment for various underground applications worldwide. The division focuses strongly on innovative product design and aftermarket support systems, which give added customer value. The divisional headquarters and main production center is in Örebro, Sweden.

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NEWS & REPORTS Atlas Copco Underground Rock Excavation

Atlas Copco launches new series of extreme duty pedestal boom systems

tlas Copco has introduced a unique A series of extreme duty pedestal boom systems for secondary rock breaking in mines and open pits.

Secondary rock breaking is a tough and sometimes hazardous task but the latest addition to the Atlas Copco range of extreme duty pedestal boom systems makes the job easier, safer and more efficient. The new XD-series claims to be the only one of its kind to be specifically designed for grizzly stations in underground mines and gyratory crushers in open pits.

The new extreme duty series of pedestal boom systems from Atlas Copco claims to be the only system of its kind specifically designed for secondary rock breaking applications in mines and open pits.

“Most other pedestal boom systems is developed for lighter duty applications and this often causes frequent breakdowns, low efficiency and unreliable access to spare parts when used on extreme duty applications like grizzlies underground”, says Thomas Müller, Business Line Manager at Atlas Copco’s Underground Rock Excavation division. “In contrast, the XD-series is the only system on the market that is specifically designed and manufactured for these applications.” Müller explains that the XD-series has been entirely developed by Atlas Copco. Each component is carefully selected and tested, enabling each system to be adapted to the application for optimum performance and reliability. Key components include the pedestal boom’s flexi-base, slew mechanism, cylinders and pin-locking system which are all sufficiently robust to withstand the rigors of the harsh rock breaking environment. There are five systems in the series offering a horizontal reach from 2.7 m to 7 m and a breaker weight of 200 up to 2 200 kg.

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Developed in response to strong demand for a more reliable extreme duty system, the XD-series is now available worldwide through the Atlas Copco organization alongside the company’s wide range of pedestal boom systems for light, medium and heavy duty applications.

Footnote: With the focus on underground mining, the design and development as well as the marketing of pedestal boom systems is located at Atlas Copco’s Underground Rock Excavation division in Örebro, Sweden. FOR MORE INFORMATION AND CONTACT: Atlas Copco Underground Rock Excavation Project Leader Marketing Communications, Patrik Johansson Tel.: +46(0) 19 - 50 31 251 or +46(0) 70 - 60 21 249 eMail: Internet: Atlas Copco Underground Rock Excavation Business Line Manager, Thomas Müller Tel.: +46(0) 19 - 76 82 413 or +46(0) 76 - 62 83 933 eMail: Internet:


NEWS & REPORTS Atlas Copco Underground Rock Excavation

Atlas Copco launches Boomer M1 L a new, robust single boom drill rig for low vein mining

arrow drifts with low roofs and extensive tramming adds up to a tough environment for miners as N well as equipment. The new single-boom drill rig from Atlas Copco can take it in its stride – and provide added comfort for operators. The latest single-boom face drilling rig from Atlas Copco combines extreme robustness with operator comfort. Specially designed for development and production drilling in low-to-medium height mines, the Boomer M1 L claims to be the most robust of its kind on the market. With a height of 1.8 m, which is slightly higher than previous low profile rigs of this type from Atlas Copco, it is the ideal choice for room and pillar mines with roof heights of 2.2–2.5 m. It has an extremely strong carrier as well as oversized wheels compared to similar rigs in the range. “This is the perfect rig for the rough and tough world of low vein mining in room and pillar operations – especially where there are long distances to be covered,” says Peter Bray, Product Manager at Atlas Copco’s underground equipment division.

FOR MORE INFORMATION AND CONTACT: Atlas Copco Underground Rock Excavation Project Leader Marketing Communications, Anna Dahlman Herrgård Tel.: +46(0) 19 - 67 07 382 or +46(0) 73 - 32 67 382 eMail: Internet:

Atlas Copco Underground Rock Excavation Product Manager Face Drilling Rigs, Peter Bray Tel.: +46(0) 19 - 50 31 234 or +46(0) 73 - 33 78 032 eMail: Internet:

Atlas Copco Underground Rock Excavation is a division within Atlas Copco’s Mining and Rock Excavation Technique business area. It develops, manufactures, and markets a wide range of tunneling and mining equipment for various underground applications worldwide. The division focuses strongly on innovative product design and aftermarket support systems, which give added customer value. The divisional headquarters and main production center is in Örebro, Sweden.

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“Typically, rigs of this type have to cover distances of six to twelve kilometers a day and that requires a machine that can really take a lot of wear and tear. The Boomer M1 L can handle this with no problem. Its strong components are built to withstand tramming on rough roadways over long periods of time.” Bray explains that the Atlas Copco designers have “married together” components and systems from existing drill rigs such as the Boomer S1 L and the Boomer M2 D in order to meet customer demands for a stronger workhorse in low roof applications. At the same time, the Boomer M1 L also makes life a lot easier, safer and more comfortable for the operator. It has a fully enclosed, spacious and air conditioned cabin. Visibility is excellent and the environment inside the cabin is matched outside by the environmentfriendly, low emission Deutz 80kW Tier 3 engine. Other advantages include an improved flexible boom, simple controls (Direct Control System 2 - DCS 2) as well as a choice of COP 1638 or COP 1838 rock drills. The rig is also designed to be extremely easy to service to keep downtime to a minimum. A prototype of the Boomer M1 L was successfully tested by the Polish mining company KGHM which has since placed orders for several units.

The new Boomer M1 L, specially designed for low vein, room and pillar mining with roof heights of 2.2 – 2.5 m.


NEWS & REPORTS Atlas Copco Surface Drilling Equipment

SmartROC T40 - Updated Silence kit meets demands for quieter drilling


rilling noise is a major source of irritation, not only for drill rig operators and others on the worksite but also to people living in the area and passers-by. Now the noise generated by drilling has been reduced to a new low level thanks to Atlas Copco’s latest drill rig silence kit.

This distinctive kit or hood is offered as an option with the company’s new SmartROC T35 and T40 drill rig, making it one of the quietest surface drill rigs on the market. First introduced in 2005, the silencer has been upgraded and improved in cooperation with experienced users, reducing the noise generated from the feed by a further 2 dB(A) to a total sound power reduction of 12 dB(A). This means that site personnel at the recommended safety distance from the rig during operation can converse with colleagues without having to shout, use a phone and more easily hear other noise around them while still keeping their ear protectors in place. Another big plus is increased competitiveness. With continued urban expansion and more and more quarrying and infrastructure projects near residential areas, contractors using Atlas Copco’s silence kit will be more likely to be regarded as preferred suppliers.

New standard on the market Olav Kvist, Product Line Manager at Atlas Copco Surface Drilling Equipment says the secret of the new kit lies in a double layer of noise absorbant material together with an upgraded aluminium chassis that has greater resistence to drill rod vibration. “The real noise source is the drill rod,” Kvist says. “We reduced this noise considerably with the first silence kit and now we have done it again by reducing it with a further 2 dB(A) which sets a new standard on the market.” Besides better noise dampening, the new kit is also more functional than its predecessor. It has four access hatches (with a fifth at the very top of the feed). These can be opened two at a time at the touch of a button, allowing access for rod handling, inspection of coupling sleeves or service. In

addition, the kit has also been equipped with an improved lighting system. Without the silencer kit, the specified noise level of the SmartROC T35 and T40 is 127 dB(A) at peak power. The advanced energy saving features of this new SmartROC platform also reduces overall sound power since only the required energy is produced. With the silencer kit added, tests show that the noise level drops to 115 dB(A).This gives an improved working environment at urban construction sites and meets demands for low noise today and for the foreseeable future. Designed and developed by Atlas Copco, the first silence kit has been ordered together with a SmartROC T40 for delivery to Canada. FOR MORE INFORMATION AND CONTACT: Atlas Copco Surface Drilling Equipment Product Line Manager, Olav Kvist Tel.: +46(0) 19 - 67 07 422 or +46(0) 76 - 64 57 565 eMail: Atlas Copco Surface Drilling Equipment Communications and Brand Manager, Hellen Ekefalk Tel.: +46(0) 19 - 50 31 329 or +46(0) 73 - 27 12 425 eMail:

Atlas Copco Surface Drilling Equipment is a division within Atlas Copco’s Mining and Rock Excavation Technique business area. It develops, manufactures, and markets rock drilling equipment and mobile crushers and screeners for various applications in civil engineering, quarries and open pit mines worldwide. The division focuses strongly on innovative product design and aftermarket support systems, which give added customer value. The divisional headquarters and main production center is in Örebro, Sweden.

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NEWS & REPORTS Atlas Copco Surface Drilling Equipment SmartROC D65 has been upgraded to enable direct communication with the rig’s control system.

Atlas Copco takes SmartROC D65 to the next level

he SmartROC D65 surface drill rig from Atlas Copco has been upgraded to T enable direct communication with the rig’s control system. This includes transferring drill plans to the r ig and receiving drilling data log files. The new interface not only makes data transfer simpler and faster. It is also more user-friendly as it allows planners to more easily make changes and last minute adjustments. In addition, Kvist points out, it paves the way for mines and quarries to install wireless systems and also offers SmartROC D65 owner-contractors a competitive advantage in that they can “plug” straight in to their customers’ networks. The application was developed by Atlas Copo during the summer 2011 and has been test-run in Australia with excellent results.

When the surface drill rig SmartROC D65 was launched in 2010 it was immediately recognized for its power and productivity, which is considerable, but also for its intelligence and communications capability provided by its unique, computer-based Rig Control System (RCS). At that time, drill plans prepared in the mine or quarry office were installed into the rig’s control system via a USB memory stick. Now the SmartROC designers have enabled the rig to download this data directly via the worksite’s own local area network (LAN) or wireless network WLAN. „ This is an ethernet application module for SmartROC D65 rigs working in a fixed installation in mines and larger stone quarries ,” explains Olav Kvist, Product Line Manager at the company’s Surface Drilling Equipment division.

SmartROC D65 shares its intelligent platform with all rigs in the SmartROC family, including the Atlas Copco PitViper series. The rig communication standard is all based on the International Rock Excavation Data Exchange Standard (IREDES) enabling total management and operation control.


Atlas Copco Surface Drilling Equipment Product Line Manager, Olav Kvist Tel.: +46(0) 19 - 67 07 422 or +46(0) 76 - 64 57 565 eMail: Atlas Copco Surface Drilling Equipment Communications and Brand Manager, Hellen Ekefalk Tel.: +46(0) 19 - 50 31 329 or +46(0) 73 - 27 12 425 eMail:

Atlas Copco Surface Drilling Equipment is a division within Atlas Copco’s Mining and Rock Excavation Technique business area. It develops, manufactures, and markets rock drilling equipment and mobile crushers and screeners for various applications in civil engineering, quarries and open pit mines worldwide. The division focuses strongly on innovative product design and aftermarket support systems, which give added customer value. The divisional headquarters and main production center is in Örebro, Sweden.

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CDE mobile washing plant proves successful on major canal project in Turkey:

turkish Wow! Eren Construction has taken delivery of a new mobile washing plant for use on a major canal construction project in Turkey. Eren Construction are the principal contractors for the final 63km section of the 221km canal which will take water from the Attuturk reservoir for the irrigation of agricultural land in the east of Turkey during the hot summer months. On winning the project Eren Construction ventured into aggregate production for the first time in an effort to reduce costs and increase control over the supply chain. The initial investment involved the purchase of two mobile crushing and screening plants. As the project developed in became clear that the material being blasted and excavated on site to be reintroduced to the canal construction project required a washing process in order to be able to deliver the quality of sand and aggregates required for use in the civils. “The dry crushing and screening process served our purpose adequately in the early stages of the project but as time went by we soon realised that washing was needed due to the volume of silt and unwanted fines in the excavated material” explains Mr. Yasar Eren, Chairman of Eren Construction. “The nature of the project required that the washing plant be mobile as it would be moved every few months as the project progresses towards completion.”

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It was at this stage that the M2500 mobile washing plant from CDE was introduced to Eren Construction. “The M2500 offered the mobility that we needed while also ensuring that the sand and aggregates we produce are of the highest possible quality due to the very efficient removal of silts from the feed material” says Mr Yasar Eren. Eren Construction are one of the leading multidisciplinary construction companies in Turkey and have a portfolio of many large civil engineering projects including roads, viaducts, underpasses and sewage pipelines as well as experience in residential and commercial construction. sand washing on m2500 mobile wash plantThis canal project is the first time that Eren Construction have been involved with the production of their own sand and aggregates for use on a project. Previous to this the company would have used large quantities of river won aggregates but new legislation in Turkey required that they explore other avenues of supply.


NEWS & REPORTS Eren Construction’s dry crushing and screening plant with the CDE M2500 mobile washing plant on the right.

“Carrying out the washing and screening in house has been a big experience with a lot of learning in the process but other aggregates projects are inevitable now with the new legislation so it has been a positive step for the company” explains Mr Yasar Eren. The construction of the canal requires the blasting and excavating of both limestone and basalt with an estimate that approximately 13m cubic metres of earth will be removed. The limestone will be used as backfill to create the graded slopes for the canal while the basalt is being used in construction of the civils. “We needed to excavate the basalt to create the canal so it made sense logistically to use it for aggregates” says Mr Yasar Eren. When complete the canal will measure 10 metres wide at the bottom with graded 12 metre banks on each side allowing for a water depth of 6 metres,

M2500 is being fed a rate of 125 tons per hour from the dry crushing and screening plant and is producing four products – 0-4mm sand and 4-15mm, 15-22mm and +22mm aggregates. Once material has been delivered to the M2500 E4X the feed conveyor delivers the material to a double deck ProGrade P275 rinsing screen fitted with wire mesh on both decks. The +22m material is removed by the top deck and the 15-22mm by the bottom deck and these products are stockpiled by the integrated 9m wing conveyors.

The M2500 off ered the mobility that we needed while also ensuring that the sand and aggregates we produce are of the highest possible quality.

In addition to the two mobile dry crushing and screening plants and the M2500 mobile washing plant there are also mobile concrete plants on site with a fleet of ten mixer trucks to deliver material to the construction sites. The

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NEWS & REPORTS washed aggregates from mobile washing plantThe -15mm material is sent to the integrated EvoWash sand washing plant where a split screen allows for production of a 4-15mm aggregate and 0-4mm sand, once again discharged to stockpiles via the integrated conveyors. It is the hydrocyclone technology employed on the EvoWash that allows for the effective removal of silts from within the feed material while the high frequency dewatering of the sand ensures that it is discharged at 12% moisture, ensuring it can be used in the production of concrete very soon after production.

Eren Construction have also purchased and EvoWash 71 sand washing plant and two EvoScreen C-series dewatering screens which will be put to work when the project moves on to the next location.

In addition to processing the newly excavated material the M2500 will also be used to process some 60,000 tonnes of material that has been stockpiled on site awaiting the arrival of the new washing plant. “The M2500 has been a very good solution for us” explains Mr Yasar Eren. “Not only has it allowed us to effectively deal with the issue or excess fines in the dry screened material but the mobility of the unit fits in with the requirements of the project perfectly. The whole installation and commissioning of the new washing plant was completed very professionally by CDE and given the quality of the final products this is a process that we will be using in future on other large civil projects that we are involved with.”


For further information visit:

CDE Global Ltd Marketing & Sales Support Manager Peter Craven Tel.: +44 (0)28 8676 7900 Fax: +44 (0)28 8676 1414 eMail: Internet:

Commenting on the project, Iain Walker, CDE sales manager for Turkey said “The application of the M2500 on this project provides evidence of its mobility as well as demonstrating the capability of the unit to be employed by contractors on large civil engineering projects for the production of their own sand and aggregates on site.”

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NEWS & REPORTS Allmineral Aufbereitungstechnik GmbH & Co. KG

Signing the agreement from left to right: partner Heinz-Josef Klösters and Norbert Jakobs, participations Dr. Hans-Caspar Glinz

allmineral has a new partner Schmidt, Kranz Group acquires 75 Percent of allmineral GmbH New opportunities for growth and substantial synergies – Schmidt, Kranz Group Germany is a globally active mechanical engineering company based in Velbert in, whose recent acquisition of 75 Percent of the shares in allmineral GmbH will continue the growth of past years. »The Schmidt, Kranz Group’s involvement is a further expression of our consistent, internationally-oriented market strategy«, states allmineral’s Managing Director – Dr. Ing. Heribert Breuer about the new partnership, adding that »the international market for ore and coal processing, which is our core business, has grown considerably over the last years. Now that an established company with a strong global presence like Schmidt, Kranz group has joined us, we will be able to offer our clients even more qualified expertise and to enter into new markets.«

Signing the agreement Dr. Heribert Breuer, executive director allmineral GmbH & Co. KG

The Schmidt, Kranz Group has various subsidiaries around the world and manufactures and sells crushers, mining vehicles, tunnel boring machines and high pressure hydraulics as well as other products. The acquisition was made possible by the previous shareholders, Klösters und Ackermans, who transferred their shares to the Velbertbased company. Particularly in India the companies aim towards taking joint action in the near future. allmineral Asia wants to greatly expand its activities there with those of Hazemag India. Since 2009, allmineral Asia Pvt. Ltd is responsible

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NEWS & REPORTS Signing the agreement Dr. Hans-Caspar Glinz, proprietor Schmidt-Kranz Gruppe

for marketing, project management and service for allmineral’s complete solutions in the field of mineral processing in India and Southeast Asia. Hazemag India Pvt. Ltd. is part of Hazemag & EPR GmbH, another subsidiary of the Schmidt, Kranz Group. Hazemag & EPR manufacture and distribute machines and plants for processing and crushing above ground and underground, as well as machines for underground mining.

About allmineral allmineral is one of the global leaders for taylor made processing plants in the raw materials industry. The Duisburg-based company has achieved a world class reputation as a specialist for superior processing and separation technologies for coal, ore, slag, gravel, crushed stone, sand and various recycling materials. Around the world there are currently more than 600 allmineral plants operating effectively for dry and wet mineral processing. With its headquarter in Duisburg and company subsidiaries in the US, South Africa, Poland and India, allmineral is present work in over 30 countries.

Schmidt, Kranz & Co. GmbH Hauptstr. 123 42555 Velbert-Langenberg | Germany Tel.: +49(0) 20 52 / 88 8-0 Fax: +49(0) 2052 / 88 8-10 eMail: Internet:

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allmineral Aufbereitungstechnik GmbH & Co. KG Baumstraße 45 47198 Duisburg | Germany Tel.: +49(0) 20 66 - 99 17-0 Fax: +49(0) 20 66 - 99 17-17 Internet:

HAZEMAG & EPR GmbH Brokweg 75 48249 Dülmen | Germany Tel.: +49(0) 25 94 77 - 0 Fax: +49(0) 25 94 77 - 4 00 eMail: eMail: Internet:



Surface mining is the most economical option:

Oil shale mining in Estonia

Comparative testing between the three mining methods was performed in a mine lo-cated in the western oil shale deposits of Estonia. Direct comparative testing in the Es-tonian oil shale mining operation showed Wirtgen surface miners to be superior to con-ventional mining methods.

Selective mining improves quality in oil shale extraction Oil shale is a type of rock consisting of both organic carbon and mineral constituents. Oil shale resources are estimated to amount to some 10 quintillion tonnes worldwide. The amount of oil they would yield exceeds the current total oil reserves by as much as 50 percent. Some 5 billion tonnes of oil shale occur in Estonia, 1.5 billion tonnes of which can be considered recoverable and are mostly enclosed by limestone deposits. The northern European country alone realizes some 70 percent of the global oil shale production. Oil shale mining enabled Estonia to secure a high level of independence in energy supply. In addition, the mining of oil shale has meanwhile become a major factor influencing oil prices on a global scale. Three methods have to date established themselves in oil shale mining: • drilling and blasting • semi-selective mining using rippers,bulldozers and excavators • surface mining as an entirely selective mining method

A direct comparison between the three methods used in Estonia has shown that the surface mining technology offers clear advantages in terms of the run-of-mine (ROM) material quality. Estonia’s leading oil shale producers,

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“Kiviöli Keemiatööstuse” (short: Kiviöli) and “Eesti Energia Mining”, therefore rely on the use of the Wirtgen surface miners.

An economical way to self-sufficiency in resources using surface miners The endeavour to mine oil shale in Estonia has long been characterized by the notion of self-sufficiency in resources. The use of surface miners has now given priority also to the economic efficiency of the mining process. Oil shale mining in Estonia began as early as 1916. Four deposits are currently operated as opencast mines, generating approximately 50 percent of the country’s entire oil shale production. The mining material is processed in two different ways: Kiviöli supplies refineries for the production of heavy fuel oil, while Eesti Energia Mining supplies power plants for electric power generation. Both companies use a 2500 SM for mining. Comparing conventional methods with the surface mining technology clearly shows that selective mining results in tremendous economic benefits for the companies both in heavy fuel oil production and energy generation.


NEWS & REPORTS The Wirtgen 2500 SM surface miner The 2500 SM is a heavy-duty, high-performance miner equipped with a 2.5 m wide cutting drum for material mining. Depending on rock hardness, it achieves cutting performances of up to 1,400 tonnes per hour â&#x20AC;&#x201C; as is the case in coal and oil shale mining. The design of the 2500 SM minimizes the time required for maintenance procedures: vital machine components, such as the cutting drum, offer easy access to allow the quick replacement of wear parts, such as cutting tools. Over 50 miners of type 2500 SM are in operation around the globe. Wirtgen GmbH has developed the 4200 SM for even higher performance levels: this surface miner is capable of loading heavy-duty trucks of up to 200 tonnes in a mere matter of minutes. Being the biggest Wirtgen surface miner, it is capable of mining up to 12 million tonnes per year in soft rock.

Comparative testing of the mining methods The use of Wirtgen surface miners in Estonia allowed a direct comparison to be drawn between surface mining and the conventional mining processes of drilling and blasting and semi-selective mining. The comparative test assessed quantitative parameters, such as the ROM, but also included qualitative aspects, such as the calorific value of the mining material.

Method 1: drilling and blasting In non-selective mining, the material is loosened by means of blasting and then loaded onto trucks by excavators. In the process, the oil shale mingles with the embedded limestone. Prior to processing, the material extracted by blasting needs to be crushed in crushing plants.

Method 2: semi-selective mining Semi-selective mining does not use drilling and blasting. Oil shale and limestone are extracted and loaded using rippers, bulldozers and excavators. This process also results in a significant degree of mixing between the two materials. Both oil shale and limestone are of a plate-like nature. As a result, crushers are required to achieve the specified particle size.

Method 3: surface Mining Surface miners are equipped with a rotating cutting drum enabling precise adjustment of the cutting depth to within a centimetre to cut the different layers of rock. The highly selective mining process enables separate extraction of the oil shale and limestone layers. The use of primary crushers is eliminated as surface miners cut, crush and load the material in a single working pass.

Selective mining of horizontal oil shale and limestone seams with the 2500 SM. Two of the Wirtgen miners are currently in operation in Estonia.

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NEWS & REPORTS A 2,400-litre fuel tank enables operating times to be maximized while keeping breaks in operation as brief as possible. Ease of access allows the actual refuelling operation to be completed swiftly and safely.

The test results at a glance The comparative test was performed in the Kiviöli mine. The deposit encompasses an area of approx. 6 acres. Mining operations began in 2003. Production amounts to some 800,000 tonnes of oil shale per year. The layer of earth covering the material has a thickness ranging from 2 m to 20 m. The oil shale occurs in horizontal layers and seam thicknesses of 0.2 m to 0.6 m. The oil shale seams are partly interspersed with limestone deposits. Unconfined compressive strengths of oil shale and limestone range from 15 to 40 MPa and from 40 to 100 MPa respectively. The calorific value of the different oil shale seams ranges from 1,200 to 4,500 kCal/kg. The comparative test was performed by Damian Baranowski, graduate engineer and member of staff of the “Department of Mining Engineering” at the German University of Aachen. The parameters relating to the conventional mining methods were taken from the first years of operation in which drilling and blasting as well as semi-selective mining was used. The results of the surface mining process were collected during the use of a 2500 SM by Kiviöli from 2006.

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Surface miners impress with quality and quantity The selective extraction using surface miners enabled each layer to be removed in a separate operation. The yield of oil shale per square metre was increased, while the material quality was improved at the same time. Drilling and blasting, on the other hand, led to a significant degree of mixing between the oil shale and limestone deposits, thus reducing the calorific value of the oil shale. Semi-selective mining produced material

ROM Calorific value Ratio of overburden to useful mineral

Drilling and blasting 85 % (4,2 t/m²) 1,750 kCal/kg (70 %) 2,11 87 %

Semi-selective Surface mining mining 75 % 95 % (3,8 t/m²) (4,5 t/m²) 2,080 kCal/kg 2,480 kCal/kg (84 %) (100 %) 2,26 81%

1,84 100%


NEWS & REPORTS of a higher calorific value than that obtained by drilling and blasting but is a highly complex mining process that requires a multitude of mining machines. Surface miners, on the other hand, enable high-quality oil shale to be extracted in a selective process using a single machine. The high quality of the mining product makes it suitable for both oil production and energy generation. The selective mining process additionally enables the limestone to be sold as a separate final product.

Economical advantages of surface mining • Wirtgen GmbH specializes in supporting customers in complex mining situations with its extensive expertise in cutting technology. This allows the surface miners to be precisely customized to the mining of materials of different rock hardnesses. Selective mining improves the final product quality while enabling the economical use of byproducts at the same time. • Surface mining dispenses with the need for primary crushers as the miner produces particle sizes of less than 100 mm. The overall investment cost in mining equipment is reduced. Yet another advantage of the small particle size: trucks can accept 10% more material per truck load, which reduces the number of trucks, fuel consumption rates and maintenance costs.

• Surface mining entirely dispenses with drilling and blasting: there are no vibrations, and the excessive noise pollution caused by blasting is eliminated. • Yet another aspect of environmental friendliness is the low level of dust generated during the cutting process.

Conclusion: surface mining impresses as a state-of-the-art mining technology Direct comparative testing in the Estonian oil shale mining operation showed Wirtgen surface miners to be superior to conventional mining methods. Both the productivity of the machines and the high quality of the material mined in the selective process spoke for themselves. The additional cost benefits resulting from higher truck filling levels, as well as positive aspects in terms of environmental protection and safety have made surface mining the preferred mining method. FOR MORE INFORMATION AND CONTACT: Wirtgen GmbH - Press Relations Press and Public Relations Franz-Sales Mantel, Michaela Adams Reinhard-Wirtgen-Straße 2 53578 Windhagen | Germany Tel.: +49 (0)26 45 - 1 31-0 Fax: +49 (0)26 45 - 1 31 499 eMail: Internet:

Surface mining: an exceptionally eco-friendly and safe mining method Oil shale is mined in both opencast and underground operations. In opencast mining, which is where surface miners are used, the oil shale is partly covered by layers of earth having thicknesses of 2 m to 30 m. This is where the environmental advantages of surface mining are most obvious: Lower volumes of soil need to be removed to extract the same quantity of oil shale: • Lower volumes of overburden per tonne of material need to be moved as Wirtgen surface miners enable higher quantities of useful material per square metre to be mined in comparison with other mining methods.

Issue 04 | 2011

The cut material can be deposited as a windrow either behind or next to the surface miner. Alternatively, it can be directly loaded onto trucks for immediate removal.



The deposit of Shenhua Beidian Energy Co. Ltd. is the first mine in China where Wirtgen surface miners are used for highly efficient coal mining that is gentle on the environment at the same time.

Environmentally friendly coal mining in China :

WIRTGEN 2200 SM Environmentally friendly coal mining in China with the 2200 SM

Efficient process yielding high-quality results

The rapid industrialization of China and the related increase in the standard of living have resulted in a sharp rise of the energy demand of the People’s Republic in recent years. Coal is China’s most important resource for securing the country’s energy requirements. Some 70 percent of the entire energy production is covered by domestic coal mining, with environmental compatibility being an important aspect of the country’s energy policy.

The city of Xilinhot in Inner Mongolia, which is approximately 610 km from Beijing, is one of the largest energy centres in China. In addition to huge wind farms with more than 200 wind turbines, the coal deposit of Shenhua Beidian Shengli Energy Co. Ltd. (short: Shengli) is also situated in the immediate vicinity of Xilinhot. The entire deposit encompasses an area of 340 km² and some 22.442 billion tons of coal. Mining takes place both above ground and underground. The site has been split into five separate mines.

The Chinese government is investing huge sums of money in renewable energy, and coal mining is to become more environmentally friendly as well. That is why Shenhua Beidian Energy Co. Ltd. (short: Shenhua) relies on the use of Wirtgen surface miners. As it dispenses with drilling and blasting operations, surface mining proves to be the ideal alternative when it comes to making coal mining more environmentally friendly and more economically efficient at the same time.

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Shenhua Beidian Energy Co. Ltd. was incorporated in 2003. The new company’s main activities focus on the development of Surface Mine No. 1. This opencast mine, which covers an area of some 37 km² and resources of some 1.89 billion tons of coal, is the first of five opencast mining operations planned in the Shengli coal field. Some 20 million tons of coal per year will be mined in the Shenhua coal mine. The coal is supplied to a coal-fired power plant located in the immediate vicinity of the mine, which is one of the largest coal-fired plants in the world directly connected to a coal mine. The plant has a capacity of 8 x 660 MW.


NEWS & REPORTS In the Shenhua mine in China, the 2200 SM with a 3.80 m wide cutting drum unit is mining coal using the windrowing method. The selective mining process ensures a high degree of material purity.

The mine has meanwhile become a reference project in China for the environmentally friendly mining of coal using surface miners. “We have been very interested in the innovative surface mining technology right from the start. What convinced us in the end was a visit to coal mines in India that were operated solely by means of surface miners. We were very impressed by the efficiency of the machines,” says Mr. Liu, President of Shenhua Beidian Shengli Energy Branch Co. Ltd. A surface miner of type 2200 SM equipped with a 3.80 m wide cutting drum unit gives impressive proof in the Shenhua mine, too, of how high-quality material can be mined without the tremendous strain usually put on the environment by drilling and blasting operations.

The principle of surface mining • Surface miners cut, crush and load rock in a single operation – a single machine completes the job of various different pieces of equipment. Drilling and blasting is not required. • Additional primary crushing is eliminated. The material can be either directly loaded onto trucks via a conveyor system or, alternatively, deposited as a windrow right behind the machine.

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• The cutting depth of the surface miners can be adjusted to allow even thin seams of material to be mined selectively and with a high degree of purity, thus maximizing exploitation of the mineral deposit.

Mining coal with the 2200 SM Embedding the Shenhua mine into the Shengli largescale opencast project places the innovative Wirtgen surface mining technology in a direct comparison with conventional mining methods. Shenhua also used to employ conventional mining methods in the past: “We have employed two different mining methods: either dragline excavators which directly loaded the material onto trucks, or dragline excavators and mobile primary crushers. The first method involves very high current costs, however, while the second method requires a huge initial investment to be made. With the surface miners, we intend to strike a new and more efficient path in coal mining,” explains Mr. Liu. The 2200 SM has been in operation in two fields of the Shenhua mine since the spring of 2009. In the first field, which encompasses roughly 50% of the entire work space, the machine with 3.8 m wide cutting drum removes an up


NEWS & REPORTS to 25-cm thick coal seam. The cut material is deposited as a windrow behind the machine. While the surface miner cuts coal from the seams in the second field, the material cut in the first field is loaded onto trucks by means of wheel loaders.

The 3.80 m wide cutting drum unit: Maximum productivity for all types of soft rock More than 150 Wirtgen surface miners of type 2200 SM are in operation around the globe. The standard 2200 SM model is equipped with a 2.20 m wide cutting drum. An optionally available 3.80 m wide cutting drum unit enables productivity rates in soft rock to be increased significantly. Some 40 of the 2200 SM miners currently in operation are fitted with the 3.80 m wide cutting drum unit. The wider cutting drum unit enables tremendous production rates to be achieved, as is shown by the Shenhua example: equipped with the wider drum, the machine cuts up to 5,000 tons of coal in an 8-hour shift. A 1,500-litre fuel tank enables operating times to be maximized while keeping breaks in operation as brief as possible. In addition, the miner has been designed so as to minimize the time required for maintenance procedures. Vital machine components, such as the cutting drum, are readily accessible, allowing the quick replacement of wear parts, such as the cutting tools. These features make the 2200 SM with 3.80 m wide cutting drum unit a compact machine that offers maximum productivity levels. Wirtgen GmbH has developed the 4200 SM for even higher performance levels: with its loading system, this miner is capable of loading heavy-duty trucks of up to 200 tons in a mere matter of minutes. The 4200 SM is the biggest surface miner produced by Wirtgen GmbH and is capable of mining up to 12 million tons per year in soft rock.

Surface mining – The environmentally gentle mining method Blasting is the standard method used to remove material in opencast mining and rock operations. It creates heavy vibrations, and the environment is polluted by noise and dust. In China, surface mining has been specifically chosen because the innovative mining method entirely dispenses with drilling and blasting operations. It is gentle on the environment in more than one respect:

Issue 04 | 2011

• It does not create any vibrations. • The excessive noise pollution levels caused by blasting are eliminated. • Low levels of dust are generated during the mining operation. To reduce the formation of dust even further, the surface miner is equipped with large tanks from which water is directly sprayed onto the cutting tools and cutting drum.

Surface miners create a safe work environment in the opencast mine Surface miners are not only gentle on the environment but also increase safety during the mining operation: • Wirtgen surface miners give surfaces and embankment walls a highly stable and accurate cross-section, thus enabling steeper embankment walls to be produced. • Surface water can be specifically conducted away to the sump. Water cannot ingress into the surface. Loading the material by means of wheel loaders and trucks is safer and easier as the surface miner produces an even and stable subgrade. • Positioning the cutting drum unit in an enclosed housing underneath the machine not only reduces the generation of dust but also eliminates the risk of flying chunks of rock.

Economical advantages of surface mining: Improve quality, reduce costs Dispensing with blasting operations has a positive effect also on economic efficiency: maintaining a safe distance to residential areas at the periphery of the coal deposit is not required, and maximum exploitation of the mine is guaranteed. In addition, the costs of material processing are reduced: Wirtgen surface miners produce particle sizes of less than 100 mm, which dispenses with the need to crush the material in an additional operational step. The use of surface miners reduces both the overall investment cost, as it dispenses with the need to purchase crushing equipment, and the current production costs. These advantages have positive effects also on the coal mining operation in China: 97 percent of the mined material has a particle size smaller than 100 mm. The small particle size enables the trucks to accept 10% more coal per truck load. In actual figures, the use of conventional mining methods in the Shenhua mine required 526,000 truck transports per 10 million tons of coal. The use of surface miners, on the other hand, enabled the number of


NEWS & REPORTS truck transports to be reduced to 500,000. Fewer trucks, less fuel and less maintenance are required for the same production volumes.

Selective mining guarantees high degrees of material purity Selective mining produces material of high quality, which is an important economical aspect that carries weight in particular in coal mining. Wirtgen surface miners enable the coal to be extracted in a precise operation, thus influencing the product quality at an early stage. The higher quality results in a higher calorific value: less coal is needed to generate the same amount of energy.


Wirtgen GmbH - Press Relations Press and Public Relations Franz-Sales Mantel, Michaela Adams Reinhard-Wirtgen-StraĂ&#x;e 2 53578 Windhagen | Germany Tel.: +49 (0)26 45 - 1 31-0 Fax: +49 (0)26 45 - 1 31 499 eMail: Internet:

The coal mining project in China gives impressive proof that Wirtgen surface miners are ideal candidates for the environmentally compatible, safe and economically efficient mining of useful minerals. Surface mining in China â&#x20AC;&#x201C; An economical and environmentally friendly alternative in coal mining.

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NEWS & REPORTS Caterpillar Inc. Caterpillar offers the following Performance Series bucket categories for wheel loaders; Material Handling (MH), General Purpose (GP) and Rock (R). Each category is also available as a Heavy Duty version.

New Performance Series Bucket line for Cat® Wheel loaders take full advantage of machine power and linkages Caterpillar Work Tools B.V., the leading provider of excavator and wheel loader attachments, is pleased to announce the introduction of a new line of Performance Series buckets for the 966K, 972K and 980K wheel loaders. This new line of pin-on and coupler buckets is designed for optimum performance of the machine. Profile changes improve load ability and make Performance Series buckets perform better in combination with the same machine. In the near future, this new bucket line will also become available for other K Series wheel loaders. “You can count on genuine Caterpillar® quality built in every bucket,” said David Becktel, Commercial Manager Caterpillar Work Tools. “With every Cat® bucket that leaves our factory, not only leaves a world-class product, but also a first-class promise. So you can be sure that every day we will build the products that will make you more efficient and productive”. The Performance Series buckets include a number of new and improved features designed to maximise productivity. These include the following:

Loads easy, Carries more Proven design characteristics improve material flow into the bucket and improve material retention in carry position. In some situations, the number of passes required to fill a truck is reduced. The bucket offering includes standard and heavy-duty versions, giving the customer the assurance of durability when utilizing the right bucket in its application.

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Fuel-efficient Performance Series buckets have a longer floor - easily digging through the pile. The opened throat allows material to flow unrestrictedly into the bucket. Additionally, improved visibility to the load allows the operator to see when the bucket is full. Less time in the pile equals less fuel consumed and more to the bottom line.


NEWS & REPORTS Carries more

• Material rehandling, making these buckets well suited for a variety of STOCKPILE LOADING applications. These buckets provide maximum material retention and improved visibility to the payload in the bucket. These buckets can be equipped with bolt-on adapters and segments, or bolt-oncutting edges with corner guard for versatility and longer life. Buckets are standard equipped with a spill guard to prevent possible spillage over the linkage.

More uptime

• GENERAL PURPOSE buckets incorporate wedge floor design and are built with a shell tine construction to increase strength and rigidity, making these buckets excellent for EXCAVATION and BANK applications. This structure efficiently transmits cutting edge loads back to the lift arms, shielding the bucket shell from distortion and keeping it up out of the dirt. Buckets are standard equipped with a spill guard to prevent possible spillage over the linkage.

Bucket shape, strike plane angle and curved side profile of General Purpose and Material Handling buckets are designed for material retention and consistent load sizes. More material loads into the bucket and is carried all the way to the truck, hopper or stockpile.

A spill guard diverts overflow away from hinge pins, lift arms, hydraulic cylinders and tilt sensors helping to protect these areas of the machine. The spill guard protects the kick-out sensors and other linkage components for more machine up time and less money spent on parts.

New bucket line constructed for Durability and Performance Caterpillar offers the following Performance Series bucket categories for wheel loaders; Material Handling (MH), General Purpose (GP) and Rock (R). Each category is also available as a Heavy Duty version. Each bucket is available as pin-on, or can be used with a quick coupler. Bucket types include:

• ROCK buckets offer superior protection, durability and performance. Specifically designed for quarry, aggregates and mining operations in high impact and/or high abrasion applications, these buckets are factory modified with additional protection. Cat GET components are designed to reduce down time and bucket-related operating cost to help you get the most from your machines.

Caterpillar supports its work tools with a comprehensive range of pre- and after-sales services that cover everything from advice on work tool selection to operator training, equipment management, and a range of financial and insurance products.

• MATERIAL HANDLING buckets incorporate flat floor design and are built for loose

Profile changes improve load ability and make Performance Series buckets perform better in combination with the same machine.


Press Inquiries, Cat Trade Press Media Representatives Sharon Holling eMail: Amber Santor eMail: General eMail: Internet:

Issue 04 | 2011


NEWS & REPORTS Caterpillar Inc.

New Cat® 966K and 972K Wheel Loaders Improve Productivity and Fuel Efficiency, Reduce Emissions

Durch die erhöhte Motorleistung erreichen die neuen Cat Bagger der Serie E nicht nur schnellere Taktzeiten, sondern auch mehr Hubvermögen


Caterpillar introduces the 966K and 972K Wheel Loaders, featuring new designs and engines certified to meet Stage IIIB regulations in the European Union. The new loaders, which offer high productivity and excellent fuel efficiency, have a new operator station, new electro-hydraulic steering with either joystick or steering wheel control, Performance Series Buckets and a more efficient drive train. A new Cat C9.3 ACERT™ engine powers both machines. At 1800 rpm, it delivers peak net power of 201 kilowatts on the 966K and 217 kilowatts on the 972K. Designed to accommodate buckets ranging in size from 2.50 to 9.90 cubic meters, the loaders work productively and economically in high-hour, high-volume applications. Both machines can be equipped with a Cat Fusion™ coupler and a variety of work tools, making them ideal for construction, aggregates, forestry, industrial and other material-handling applications.

New operator station Operators will work comfortably and productively in the 966K and 972K. New steps that have a greater inclination angle than the H Series provide easy access to the cab. A wider door opening, well-placed grab bars and a new

Issue 04 | 2011

front-hinged door that can be opened and closed while seated allow for easy entry and exit. A streamlined four-post ROPS design and a new operator position that has been moved slightly forward provide enhanced visibility to the front and sides, while a standard rear-view camera with large color monitor enhances visibility to the back of each machine. Two rear work lights are located in the rear grill and can be activated to illuminate the area behind the machine in low light conditions. Four halogen work lights illuminate the work area, and two halogen roading lights with signals enhance safety when traveling on roads. The two models come standard with a new loweffort electro-hydraulic joystick steering system. Joystick steering permits operators to work in the most ergonomically neutral position with both arms


NEWS & REPORTS resting comfortably on wide, well-padded, adjustable armrests. A high-backed seat with lumbar support further enhances ergonomics. The Cat joystick steering system has an exclusive force-feedback feature that automatically increases joystick effort as ground speed increases. This improves steering control and comfort, especially at higher speeds. The joystick moves side to side; its angle mirrors the machine’s articulation angle. Optional joysticks integrate controls for operating work tools with additional hydraulic valves. An optional electro-hydraulic steering wheel system will be available from the factory several months after the wheel loaders go into production. It too senses ground speed and automatically adjusts steering effort to improve controllability and comfort at higher speeds. Full machine articulation can be accomplished by rotating the wheel approximately 330˚. This compares to conventional steering wheels which can require two-and-one-half to five or more full turns to achieve full articulation. The operator station also features new viscous cab mounts that reduce noise and vibration; an automatic climate control that adjusts temperature and fan

speed to the operator’s preferred setting; and a new center display panel with five analog-like gauges and a large text box that displays in-language messages. A unique “help” button explains switch functions in-language. Two new membrane switch panels are located on the front right ROPS post. The loaders also feature a new electro-hydraulically activated parking brake. Optional heated and powered mirrors improve operator comfort and clear condensation and ice. AM/FM radios (Bluetooth optional) with CD players are available along with a standard MP3 jack and three 12-volt power outlets. Outside the cab, a window washing platform now is standard.

Performance Series Buckets Cat Performance Series Buckets come standard on the 966K and 972K. Developed especially for production loading, these buckets deliver faster fill times, greater fill factors and better material retention, reducing cycle time and improving productivity and fuel efficiency.


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Versatile Work Tools Many other work tools including specialty buckets, pallet forks, mill yard and logging forks, rakes, material handling arms and plows are also available to expand the application range for the 966K and 972K.

An upgraded ADEMâ&#x201E;˘ 4 electronic control module manages the combustion process and a new highpressure common rail fuel system allows precise injection timing for a clean, efficient fuel burn.

To further enhance versatility, both machines can be equipped with the Cat Fusion coupler, a common interface for Cat small and medium wheel loaders. The Fusion coupler not only allows one machine to use a wide range of work tools, but also permits one work tool to be used by machines of different sizes. Additionally, different cab protection and machine guarding packages are available from the factory for applications in forestry, block handling, waste, steel mills and other industrial applications.

The rugged Cat Clean Emissions Module is securely mounted on its own platform above the engine and contains a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst, Diesel Particulate Filter and Cat Regeneration System. Regeneration, the process by which soot is removed from the Diesel Particulate Filter, can be set to take place automatically so that it does not interrupt the machine work cycle, and it can be initiated manually by the operator when preferred.

Stage IIIB engine The new Cat C9.3 ACERT engine was designed to optimize power density. It uses a combination of technologies to reduce regulated emissions while ensuring high performance and excellent fuel efficiencyâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;for lower owning and operating costs.

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High efficiency drive train Drive train components on both machines have been designed as a system and integrated to optimize productivity and fuel efficiency. The 972K has a new torque converter that increases rimpull by 10 percent in all gears to boost performance, especially on grades. Both loaders have new transmission


NEWS & REPORTS shift logic for downshifting into first gear. The new logic causes the downshift to occur based on the machineâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s torque requirements instead of ground speed. This enables operators to use the automatic transmission mode in first through fourth gears. This simplifies operation, reduces dig times and improves fuel efficiency. Transmission speed shifts are also significantly smoother on both loaders due to this new shifting strategy that reduces torque losses while shifting. The result is faster acceleration, better ramp climbing performance and improved shift quality. To further enhance productivity, ride control, which enhances material retention, is standard on the two new loaders.

Basic Specifications

Engine model Cat 9.3 ACERT Peak net power @ 1800 rpm 966K 201 kW 972K 217 kW Bucket capacities 966K 2.50 to 9.20 m3 972K 2.90 to 9.90 m3


Fast service, more uptime Cat K Series Wheel Loaders retain the convenient, one-piece tilting hood introduced with the G Series. However, the rear portion of the hood now incorporates a clamshell design that allows quick access to the engine oil dipstick, oil fill, fuel fill and cooler cores for cleaning. New fold-back external mirrors allow easier access to a convenient step near the top of the loader tower and a redesigned window-cleaning platform that improves visibility to work tools. The full coverage grab bar around the roof cap provides a secure hand-hold when cleaning windows, replacing wiper blades or inspecting lights. Two ground-level service centers for hydraulic and electrical components permit faster, more convenient maintenance. The new Strata Precleaner removes 93 percent of dust particles before the air has reached the primary engine air filter. The main benefit is extended engine air filter life.

Press Inquiries, Cat Trade Press Media Representatives Sharon Holling eMail: Amber Santor eMail: General eMail: Internet:


Issue 04 | 2011


NEWS & REPORTS Caterpillar Inc.

Caterpillar® Introduces 980K Wheel Loader


with New Cab, Engine, Load-sensing Hydraulics & Optional Lock-up Torque Converter The all-new Cat® 980K Wheel Loader offers high productivity, reliable performance and excellent fuel efficiency and an engine certified to meet Stage IIIB emissions standards in Europe. Major improvements include a new cab, load-sensing hydraulics, a 25 percent increase in lift force and a 16 percent increase in tilt force over the 980H. The loader also features new electro-hydraulic steering with either joystick or steering wheel control, plus Performance Series Buckets and an optional lock-up torque converter. The 980K is equipped with the new Cat C13 ACERT™ engine with peak net power of 274 kW at 1600 rpm. The loader accommodates buckets from 4.00 to 12.20 cubic meters and is a productive and cost effective tool in quarry, aggregates, construction and other high-volume applications.

New operator station Operators will work comfortably and productively in the 980K. New steps that have a greater inclination angle than the H Series provide easy access to the cab. A wider door opening, well-placed grab bars and a new front-hinged door that can be opened and closed while seated allow for easy entry and exit.

Issue 04 | 2011

A streamlined four-post ROPS design and a new operator position that has been moved slightly forward enhance visibility to the front and sides, while a standard rear-view camera with large color monitor enhances visibility to the back of the machines. Interior noise level has been reduced 50 percent compared to the previous model and now is 72 dB. The 980K comes standard with a new low-effort electrohydraulic joystick steering system. Joystick steering permits operators to work in the most ergonomically neutral position with both arms resting comfortably on wide, well-padded, adjustable armrests. A high-backed seat with lumbar support further enhances ergonomics. The Cat joystick steering system has an exclusive forcefeedback feature that automatically increases joystick effort as ground speed increases. This improves steering control and comfort, especially at higher speeds. The joystick moves side to side; its angle mirrors the machine’s articulation angle. An optional electro-hydraulic steering wheel system will be available from the factory several months after the 980K goes into production. It, too, senses ground speed and automatically adjusts steering effort to improve controllability and comfort at higher speeds. Full machine articulation can be accomplished by


NEWS & REPORTS rotating the wheel approximately 330˚. This compares to conventional steering wheels which can require two-and-one-half to five or more full turns to achieve full articulation. The operator station also features new viscous cab mounts that reduce noise and vibration; an automatic climate control that adjusts temperature and fan speed to the operator’s preferred setting; and a new center display panel with five analog-like gauges and a large text box that displays in-language messages. A unique “help” button explains switch functions in-language. Two new membrane switch panels are located on the front right ROPS post. Optional heated and powered mirrors improve operator comfort and clear condensation and ice. AM/FM radios with CD players (Bluetooth optional) are available along with a standard MP3 jack and three 12-volt power outlets.

Performance Series Buckets & versatile work tools Cat Performance Series Buckets come standard on the 980K. Developed especially for production loading, these buckets deliver faster fill times, greater fill factors and better material retention, reducing cycle time and improving productivity and fuel efficiency. Many other work tools including specialty buckets, pallet forks, mill yard and logging forks, material handling arms, rakes and plows are also available to expand the application range for the machine. Additionally, different cab protection and machine guarding packages are available from the factory for applications in forestry, block handling, waste, steel mills and other industrial applications.

Stage IIIB engine A new Cat C13 ACERT engine powers the 980K. It develops more power than the engine in the preceding model, and it delivers lower fuel consumption and lower owning and operating costs. It meets Stage IIIB emissions standards with a suite of technologies that includes an upgraded ADEM™ 4 control module and an enhanced Mechanical Electronic Unit Injector (MEUI-C) fuel system. The durable Cat Clean Emissions Module is securely mounted on its own platform above the engine and contains a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst,

Issue 04 | 2011

Diesel Particulate Filter and Cat Regeneration System. Regeneration, the process by which soot is removed from the Diesel Particulate Filter, can be set to take place automatically so that it does not interrupt the machine work cycle, and it can be initiated manually by the operator when preferred.

Load-sensing hydraulics A new load-sensing hydraulic system automatically directs the right amount of flow to the implements based on operating conditions. Fuel consumption is reduced because the hydraulic pumps only produce required flow. Heat generation is also reduced, which decreases cooling requirements and average fan speed, resulting in additional fuel savings. The new hydraulic system also allows parallel flow to lift, tilt and auxiliary hydraulics, so the functions can be performed simultaneously. In bucket loading, for example, the operator can lift and tilt at the same time for faster, smoother, more fuel efficient loading. Other applications requiring hydro mechanical work tools also benefit from simultaneous operation of hydraulic functions. Concurrent with the change to load-sensing hydraulics, the 980K’s lift and tilt forces have been increased by 25 and 16 percent, respectively, reducing bucket loading times and increasing fill factors. Coupled with the standard Performance Series Buckets, these changes are an example of deep systems integration; Caterpillar specializes in systems integration to drive performance and fuel efficiency benefits for customers.

High-efficiency drive train Another example of systems integration is the drive train which has been optimized with the new C13 ACERT engine to deliver efficient digging power, acceleration, performance and fuel efficiency. To boost productivity in load-and-carry applications and on ramps, the 980K can be equipped with a new optional lock-up clutch torque converter. It is automatically activated in second through fourth gear, and when locked, operates like a direct-drive system. This improves performance and reduces fuel consumption in applications with many load-and-carry and ramp-duty cycles.



Another improvement to the drive train is new shifting logic for downshifting into first gear. The downshift now occurs based on the machineâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s torque requirements instead of ground speed, thereby enabling operators to use the automatic transmission mode in first through fourth gears. This simplifies operation, reduces dig times and improves fuel efficiency. Transmission speed shifts are also significantly smoother due to this new shifting strategy that reduces torque losses while shifting. The result is faster acceleration, better ramp climbing performance and improved shift quality.

Basic Specifications

Engine model Peak net power @ 1600 rpm Bucket capacities

Cat C13 ACERT 274 kW 4.00 to 12.20 mÂł

Fast service, more uptime Cat K Series Wheel Loaders retain the convenient, one-piece tilting hood introduced with the G Series. However, the rear portion of the hood now incorporates a clamshell design that allows quick access to the engine oil dipstick, oil fill, fuel fill and cooler cores for cleaning. New fold-back external mirrors allow easier access to a convenient step near the top of the loader tower and a redesigned window-cleaning platform that improves visibility to work tools. The full coverage grab bar around the roof cap provides a secure hand-hold when cleaning windows, replacing wiper blades or inspecting lights. Two ground-level service centers for hydraulic and electrical components permit faster, more convenient maintenance. The new Strata Precleaner removes 93 percent of dust particles before the air has reached the primary engine air filter. The main benefit is extended engine air filter life.

Issue 04 | 2011


Press Inquiries, Cat Trade Press Media Representatives Sharon Holling eMail: Amber Santor eMail: General eMail: Internet:


NEWS & REPORTS Marubeni-Komatsu Ltd

New excavator from Komatsu

Japanese construction equipment manufacturer announces launch of PC240LC-10 excavator

THE introduction of the PC240LC-10 hydraulic excavator to the European market marks the launch of Komatsuâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s new-generation Dash-10 range, which has been designed to offer improved performance and fuel economy, better operator comfort and enhanced serviceability to optimize productivity and reduce operating costs. Powered by a Komatsu SAA6D107E-2 engine that delivers 177hp (132kW) and is EU Stage IIIB/EPA Tier 4 Interim Emission certified, the new PC240LC-10 model delivers 5% more power and up to 10% less fuel consumption. The machine is also equipped with a fully automatic switchable auto-deceleration system that can further reduce fuel usage during idle conditions by up to 30%. The SAA6D107E-2 engine utilizes an advanced electronic-control system that manages airflow rate, fuel injection, combustion parameters and after-treatment functions to maximize performance, reduce emissions and provide an advanced diagnostic capability.

Issue 04 | 2011

The company has also developed its own hydraulically actuated variable geometry turbocharger and an exhaust gas recirculation valve for the new excavator model, resulting in better precision and air management, as well as longer component life. All major components on the PC240LC-10, including the hydraulic pumps, motors and valves, have been designed and produced by Komatsu. This integrated design uses a closed-centre load-sensing hydraulic system with variable speed matching.



According to Komatsu, variable matching technology allows the engine speed to adjust itself based on the machine load throughout each individual working cycle. The additional improvements on the hydraulic system reduce hydraulic loss, providing increased efficiency and reduced fuel consumption. The new, fully air-suspended operator cab incorporates side consoles together with a high back, fully adjustable heated seat for enhanced operator comfort. The ROPS-compliant cab is specifically designed for hydraulic excavators, featuring a reinforced tubular skeleton framework and viscous damper mounts that deliver low vibration levels to reduce operator fatigue. The PC240LC-10 is equipped with a new 7in LCD monitor that displays information in 25 languages for global support. The operator can select six different working modes on the monitor panel â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Power, Economy, Heavy Lift, Breaker, Attachment Power and Attachment Economy. The new Dash-10 model also includes Komatsuâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s sophisticated Equipment Management and Monitoring System and Komtrax monitoring technology.

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Technical specifications:

PC240LCD-10 Boom

monoblock boom, 5.850 mm


3.000 mm


1.070 kg

Operating weight

25.500 kg

Engine power (ISO 14396) Breaking load/bucket breakout

141 kW 129 kN / 172 kN (Power Max)

Maximum digging depth

6.920 mm

Outer width

3.290 mm

FOR MORE INFORMATION AND CONTACT: Marubeni-Komatsu Ltd Padgets Lane, Redditch, Worcestershire B98 0RT Tel.: +44 (0)15 27 - 51 25 12 Fax: +44 (0)15 27 - 50 23 10 eMail: Internet:




Issue 04 | 2011


NEWS & REPORTS Siemens AG | Rolf Froböse Pictures of the Future | Autumn 2011 Munich | Germany

Alternatives in the Making Efficient Use of Resources - Raw Materials


emand for high-performance materials such as rare-earth metals is on the rise worldwide. But many of these materials are becoming scarce. That’s why Siemens experts are developing technologies designed to improve utilization, recycling, and substitution of key materials. Green products are gaining ground so quickly that materials scientists are sounding the alarm. Permanent magnets for wind turbines are a case in point because they require rare-earth metals, including neodymium, praseodymium, and dysprosium. When these materials are optimally combined, their energy density — the unit of storable magnetic energy — exceeds 400 kilojoules per cubic meter (kJ/m3). That value is so high that magnetic systems, compared to conventional magnetic materials, can be made substantially smaller or significantly more powerful.The designation “rare earth” is actually somewhat misleading, because several of these metals, such as neodymium, aren’t really rare. They are even more common in the Earth’s crust than lead, for example. The problem is that few sizeable deposits have been discovered. Many rare earths can be found in Inner Mongolia, Western Australia, Greenland, Canada, and the U.S. But 97 percent of the worldwide production of rare-earth elements is presently concentrated in China. “So we’re facing a resource problem,” warns Dr. Thomas Scheiter, Head of the global technology field for Material Substitution and Recycling at Siemens Corporate Technology (CT).

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And such resources are hard to do without. For instance, magnets containing only four percent of the silver-gray heavy metal dysprosium enjoy a level of temperature stability that makes them ideal for use in wind energy systems. But today, dysprosium is found only in low-yield deposits, and alternative deposits probably won’t be developed for another five years or more, making supply bottlenecks almost inevitable. Other rare earth deposits, however, such as those at the Mountain Pass mine in California, may soon become available. More remote is exploitation of the rare-earth deposits that were discovered in mid-2011 under the Pacific Ocean floor, not far from Hawaii and Tahiti.

Hooked on Rare Earths The core of the problem is the fact that rare-earth metals are required for many high-tech products, including electric motors, cell phones, laser devices, and LCD television sets. And the introduction of energy-saving light bulbs, whose fluorescent materials also require rare-earth


NEWS & REPORTS elements, has further increased demand. “The excellent properties of rare-earth elements have led to development of new products, which have boosted the market further,” explains Dr. Ulrich Bast, who is in charge of Technology Innovation at CT in Munich. Electric motors, for instance, can operate either with two-coil magnets or with one coil and one permanent magnet. Synchronous machines equipped with permanent magnets are a separate class of motors and generators. They can substantially reduce the weight of wind turbines. “Use of conventional materials, such as iron and copper, results in a heavy machine,” says Dr. Gotthard Rieger, who heads Magnetic Materials Development at CT. A much more elegant solution would be to equip the external rotors, which “tap” the rotational energy of such a turbine, with thin neodymium-iron-boron magnets that induce an electrical field in the coils. In conventionallydesigned wind energy systems, a massive gear set converts relatively slow rotation into fast rotation, which then generates electric power in the generator. New versions, however, are designed to use permanent magnets based on rare-earth elements to generate power directly from the slow rotation. The advantages are that no gear set is needed, weight is reduced, and less maintenance is required, which is an advantage in offshore applications.

materials whose use should be considered critical with regard to their availability. If the answer is affirmative, the roughly 200 materials scientists at CT will face the task of developing alternatives. Given the impending shortage of rare-earth elements, the company has launched a project designed to develop new kinds of powerful permanent magnets. Such magnets will have to be produced either without any rare-earth elements or with only very small amounts of them. “In order to use dysprosium more efficiently than has been done in the past, for example, we are no longer going to distribute it throughout all the material in a magnet,” says Rieger. “Instead, we will create a structure in which this element is concentrated only along the crystallite boundaries within the neodymium-iron-boron part of each magnet.” This can be achieved by applying a thin dysprosium layer on the finished magnet, and then using a heat treatment to diffuse it along the grain boundary into the interior.

Siemens already offers gearless turbines in 3-megawatt and 6-megawatt systems. What this means is that demand for rare-earth elements will continue to increase. What’s more, China is going to play a steadily expanding role in wind turbines and electric vehicles, so it will consume more of its own resources. Siemens is addressing this challenge in the context of an advanced project. For instance, researchers led by Thomas Scheiter are conducting an analysis of the key materials the company uses and in what quantities. They will then analyze current market data to determine whether there are raw

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NEWS & REPORTS This approach drastically reduces dysprosium use, while leaving needed properties unchanged or even improving them.

Iron Age Other concepts are aimed at producing motors that are made entirely without rare-earth elements. Permanent magnets composed of iron oxides with admixtures of other oxides already exist. The problem here, however, is that without special pretreatment these sintered ceramic magnets have, on average, only one tenth of the energy density of magnets made with rare earths, making them unsuitable for many motor and generator applications. In order to minimize the need for rare-earth elements, a Siemens team is therefore working on an innovative material based on an ironcobalt compound in which nanometer-size magnetic rods, strung together like a string of pearls, are enclosed in a matrix. “We will be able to use such nanostructures to create an optimized permanent magnet, and eventually to develop an alternative to rareearth elements,” says Rieger. At Siemens in Munich there is already a laboratory facility for synthetizing and investigating such innovative magnetic materials. But isn’t the new solution a kind of regression to an “iron age”? “In principle, iron is an excellent magnetic material,” says Rieger. But it’s still too soon to tell whether the energy density of this material will eventually rival or even surpass that of rare-earth magnets.

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Another possible way of achieving sustainable utilization of rare-earth elements is to recycle these materials from electric motors. But so far there are no practical methods for doing so. Instead, electric motors usually wind up in smelters. “It’s true the material is recycled, but the rare earths get mixed in with the rest and are simply lost,” says Bast. With this in mind, Siemens researchers have begun to develop a process that begins with removal of magnets from motors and comprises several phases of recycling. “In the simplest case you just remove magnets from an old motor and install them in a new one,” explains Bast. But that wouldn’t always work because the magnets usually don’t fit. Efforts are therefore underway to design products from the very start in a way that will make it possible to remove permanent magnets from a motor with relative ease for recycling. For this project, which is supported by the German Ministry of Research, partnerships with institutions and companies are also used to develop processes for selectively concentrating magnetic materials from smelters in slag, and for recovering rare-earth metals from it. Researchers estimate this process will be ready for industrial use in a few years. Thrifty use of rare-earth elements or their substitution would also benefit the environment. “It’s already clear today that it will be possible to manufacture magnets more sustainably in the future,” asserts Dr. Ute Liepold, Project Manager in the Materials Substitution and Recycling unit at Siemens.


NEWS & REPORTS That’s important because mining of rare-earth metals is having a substantial environmental impact, and especially in China, because acid is used to flush the minerals out of bored holes.

A Natural Solution Even though rare-earth elements presently have been assigned the highest priority among critical raw materials, other substances are arousing concern as well. “The particularly robust refractory metals are also problematic because of potential delivery bottlenecks,” reports Liepold. These metals include niobium, tungsten, and molybdenum, which are used in X-ray tubes, switches, and other applications that require high heat resistance combined with a certain degree of malleability and conductivity.“There certainly won’t be any across-the-board solution for this problem,” says Liepold. “Instead, we need to take a hard look at whatever alternatives are available for each of these materials.” Other critical materials include metals such as platinum, palladium, indium, gallium, and germanium. The outlook in terms of supplies of gold, silver, and copper is somewhat less dramatic, although their prices will most likely continue to rise. The prospect of higher prices for many key materials is thus being addressed by Siemens researchers. For example, one project is already focused on using aluminum (which costs about half as much as copper) in place of copper in electric conductors. “About 20 percent of copper can be replaced by aluminum during the first phase,” says Liepold. In another project, which is

aimed at obviating the need for silver solder, laser welding is being investigated (see Pictures of the Future, Fall 2008, p. 22). Siemens is also conducting research with the objective of producing plastics from sources that are more sustainable than petroleum. Its current focus is on biopolymers that can be produced from oil-containing fruits such as the castor-oil plant. Siemens is presently using conventional thermoplastic polymers, for instance in special-purpose lamps, for applications in medical technology, and for sorting baskets in automated mail applications. In Liepold’s view, using bioplastics to replace these polymers in the future would be a logical next step. “As a green company we have to pay special attention to the issue of raw materials,” Liepold says.

Siemens scientists are developing technologies for recycling rare earths from scrapped electric motors. Pictures of the Future Publisher: Siemens AG Corporate Communications (CC) and Corporate Technology (CT) Wittelsbacherplatz 2, 80333 Munich Dr. Ulrich Eberl (CC), Arthur F. Pease (CT) (Tel. +49 89 636 33246) (Tel. +49 89 636 48824)

A Corporate Technology researcher analyzing magnetic properties. Siemens is studying how powerful permanent magnets can help to reduce the use of rare-earth elements.

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