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01 2011


01 2011 EDUCATION Tudeshki, H.

Basics of Geo-Mechanics and Hydrology - Part II

Institute of Mining | TU Clausthal | Germany

TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Reasons for bore hole deviations – preliminary results of research on optimizing drilling and blasting with regard to hole deviation NPC Change the Face of Washing in South Africa! CDE Global announced as a Best Managed Company by Deloitte! 35 Years of drilling technique in headings and tunnel drivings Drilling and ground freezing for the Skip shaft Gremjatschinskij of the EuroChem, Russia

Tudeshki, H. ; Kapller, M.

Institute of Mining | TU Clausthal | Germany

CDE Global Ltd.

Cookstown | Northern Ireland

Wennmohs, K.-H.

Atlas Copco MCT GmbH | Germany

Kahl; van Heyden; Dorn

Thyssen Schachtbau GmbH | Germany

Aspects of Drilling and Blasting During Work in Permaforost – The Example of the Norilsk Kaledin, O. Thyssen Schachtbau GmbH | Germany WS- 10-Shaft Sinking Project of Norilsk Nickel AG, Russia WORLD RECORD! Main Braekthrough on the epoch - making GOTTHARD Project Pipe conveyors transport bulk material efficiently across long distances: For the challenging tasks

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BEUMER Group GmbH & Co.KG Beckum | Germany

NEWS & REPORTS Rough terrain requires use of mules BEUMER completes major order in China ContiTech at the Hannover Messe 2011 - Engineering Green Value HAZEMAG & EPR GmbH: Dinting Loader EL 160 LS with new features for Argentina! HAZEMAG & EPR GmbH: sells wobbler feeder and roll crusher to Estonia!

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HAZEMAG & EPR GmbH Dülmen | Germany

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Wirtgen Group GmbH

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Sandvik Metso MTC

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01 2011 EDUCATION NEWS & REPORTS The new Volvo G-Series wheeled loaders re-set the standard

Volvo CE Europe GmbH

F-Series from Volvo redefines the articulated hauler market - again!

Volvo CE Europe GmbH

Hitachi Construction Machinery: Hitachi Construction Machinery develops Overview Monitoring System with Clarion

Hitachi Construction Machinery

Ismaning | Germany

Backers Maschinenbau GmbH Cost-effective Screening and Mixing Technology Heidelberg Cement AG builds on strong partners: Third Komatsu haul truck is delivered by Schlueter for construction machines!

Ismaning | Germany

Amsterdam | Netherlands

Backers Maschinenbau GmbH Twist | Germany

Schlüter Baumaschinen GmbH Erwitte | Germany

DigiCore Deutschland GmbH

C-Track: New ONLINE-Version

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New Cat® Grade Control System Improves Performance and Productivity of Track-type Tractors, Motor Graders, Scrapers and Excavators



Haver & Boecker: Contract for development from Siemens VAI

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Haver & Boecker: Best production quipment and process technology supplier “Eifel”-Road-Show with the Sandvik Vertical Impact Crusher Merlin CV116: Successful test series, from basalt (hardness 6) to aluminum oxide (hardness 9) Construction Machines Dig for White Gold - Cat Wheel Loaders and Dumper load and transport aqueous rock mined in the Stetten salt mine

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Sandvik Mining and Construction Essen | Germany

Zeppelin Baumaschinen GmbH Garching | Germany

EVENTS The AMS-Event calender 2011

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Issue 01 | 2011



Basics of Geo-Mechanics and Hydrology Part II

by Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. H. Tudeshkil Surface Mining and International Mining | TU Clausthal | Germany


prerequisite for mine planning is the accurate knowledge about the physical and mechanical characteristics of the underground. In the first section of the AMS-Online issue 04/2010, some basic characteristics of the underground were introduced, particularly for granular soil. This article deals with variables with regard to permeability and stability of granular soil.

Permeability Soil is composed of solid components and pores, which are filled either with water or gas. The consequence of this composite structure is the fact, that soil is permeable to water. However, it should be noted that soil shows resistance to flowing water. The finer the particles and pores of the soil are, the higher is the resistance. In addition, the density has an influence on water permeability, since increasing density reduces water permeability.

Due to the various compositions of soil, there is a high variation range of permeabilities. As such, a distinction is made between soils that are highly permeable, like gravel and soils that have low permeability, like clay. Highly permeable soil can often be formed as water-bearing strata, and their waters can be confined through low permeable strata, the aquicludes.

Pic. 1: Darcy‘s law

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EDUCATION At this point it should be noted that even very finegrained clay is not really leak-proof. This is the reason that they it not called impermeable soil, but low permeable soil. However, it should be noted that only little amounts of water can pass such low permeable soil, even over long time and with high pressure gradient. The permeability of soil is described by the permeability coefficient or kf-value. As per definition, the permeability coefficient kf is the velocity, with which water with a temperature of 10°C and a hydraulic gradient of i=1 flows through a sample in a testing device. In order to determine the permeability of soil, Darcy’s law is applied. According to Darcy’s law the amount of water Q, which flows laminar through an area F in a porous medium, is directly proportional to the parameter kf and the hydraulic gradient i. The value kf, which applies to porous media being flown through by water, is indicated with a unit m/s, i.e in the dimension of length per time. The gradient or hydraulic gradient I is the ratio of the altitude difference of the water level H at two points A and B along the flow section, and the distance L of both points (Picture 1).

the grain form also has an influence on permeability - very rounded grains have a higher permeability coefficient than angled grains. Lastly, the kf value is also influenced by characteristics of the flowing medium, like temperature, viscosity and density. In the field, the kf value can be determined through pumping tests or through column tests in the laboratory. The pumping test is a hydro-geological field test, in which water is pumped from a well with a defined delivery rate. Because of the pumping of the water, the water level falls, both in the well, as well as in its surroundings. During the course of the test a cone of depression is formed, which deepens with passing time. At least two further drillings (observation tubes) are needed to observe the changes in the water level. The delivery rate Q from the well is needed to calculate the kf-value. This rate can be measured on site. Further parameters that need to be known are the distance (r1 and r2) between the well and the first or second observation tube, as well as the maximum drawdown of the water level (h1 and h2) in the observation tubes. The test arrangements are shown in picture 2.

The permeability coefficient kf is dependant on the form and size of the pore space, the grain size and grain size distribution, the speed droop U, as well as the grain form. The larger and more connected the pore space is, the higher is its water permeability. The kf value (and correspondingly the permeability) is also increased with increasing grain size and decreasing speed droop U (i.e. a soil that is composed of a limited grain size spectrum). Furthermore Pic. 2: Parameter of pumping tests

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EDUCATION Pic. 3: Determination of kf-value in laboratory (according to v. SOOS)

The kf value can be calculated from the abovementioned parameters with the help of the following formulas, according to DUPUIT /THIEM:

r2 r1 Term 1: k f = π h22 − h12 Q ⋅ ln



Attention should be paid to the fact that the delivery rate Q needs to be inserted into the formula with the m³/s unit and the parameters r1, r2, h1 and h2 in meters. On a small scale, the permeability coefficient can also be deter-mined under laboratory conditions. In order to do so, a setup according to v. SOOS can be used, as shown in picture 3. After the test, the kf-value can be calculated with the following formula: Term 2:

Issue 01 | 2011

kf =

Q ∆l ⋅ A ⋅ t ∆hw

Table 1: Classification of the Kf-values

Kf [m/s]


under 10-8

very low permeability

10-8 to 10-6

low permeability

10-6 to 10-4

medium permeability

10-4 to 10-2

high permeability

above 10-2

very high permeability

If the permeability coefficient kf is known, conclusions can be drawn regarding the substratum rocks. Kf values in a dimension of 10-1 m/s describe gravel. Clays are ranged in the scope of 10-9 m/s. The following table 1 shows the classification of the permeability coefficients and the corresponding limits. Picture 4 depicts the Kf-value ranges of gravel, sand, silt and clay.

Pic. 4: Range of the Kf-values for gravel, sand, silt and clay


EDUCATION Geo-mechanical Characteristics of Soil Soil stability is an important parameter in geomechanics. The term stability provides information on the ability of material to bear tension and shear stress with limited deformation, and to reach a new steady position after an increase in tension. In case the stability limit of the material is reached, breakdown occurs. Here the distinction between a sudden breakdown and a plastic flow needs to be made. The latter is called ductile behaviour and is typical for soil behaviour. The shearing strength of soil has a central meaning in soil mechanics, as it leads to breakdown, if it reaches and exceeds the shearing strength. Such ultimate limit states cannot be reached with compression loads, even if they are very high. The compression load, however, is important for rigidity and deformability of soil. Soil does not or does only contain minor tensile loads.

Shearing Strength Compared to compact material like rock, loose soil consists of a structure that is composed of solid particles and pores that surround the structure, which again can be filled by gas or water. Because of this structure, loose soil is sensitive towards shear stress. Soil can only hold a limited shear stress. The limit, at which the ground breaks down, mainly due to movement and displacement of solid

particles, is called shear strength. The shearing strength is dependant on the normal stress on the shear zone, the grain size and grain form, the density, the water content, the consistency, as well as the duration of the stress. The shearing device that is shown in picture 5, serves for laboratory determination of shearing strength in soil samples. The device consists of a firm case and a frame, which can be horizontally adjusted. The soil sample, with the diameter A and height h, is fastened between two teethed filter stones. During the test procedure, a vertical force F or a stress σf is initially applied, in order to consolidate the soil. Subsequently the horizontally movable frame is moved at a constant velocity, until the shearing strength is overcome and there is a break in a forced shear plane. The normal stress σf, the shear force T or the shearing strength τf and the shear distance Δs at the time of breakage is determined:

Term 3:

σf =

Term 4: τ





Pic. 5: Shearing device

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EDUCATION A minimum of three tests are conducted with various vertical forces F. The relevant shear parameters are provided in the graphical presentation of the results in a diagram, in which the vertical stress σf and the shear stress τf form the pair of values. The disadvantage of measurement with the shearing device is that there is an unclear mechanical state in the sample. In addition, pressure measurements of pore water are not possible. Therefore nowadays the shearing device is seldom applied for determination of shearing strength.

failure will occur. In non-cohesive soil the shear straight runs through the source. Thus, non-cohesive soil has no cohesion. In picture 6 the determination of the straight line equation of the shear straight is explained. Thus, the equation of the shear straight is:

Term 5: τ f

= σ f ⋅ tan ϕ f + c f

The shear parameters that can be gathered from the diagram are the angle of the inner friction φ and the cohesion c of the soil sample. The angle of the inner friction φ can be read from the ascending shear straight. The cohesion c is described by the distance of the intersection of the shear straight with the axis of ordinates. Cohesion only occurs in cohesive soil and is a shear stress, which can be borne by soil even without the effect of a normal stress, and no soil

Pic. 6: Determination of the straight line equation of the shear straight

Issue 01 | 2011


EDUCATION Bibliography [1] Dörken, W.; Dehne, E. Grundbau in Teil 1 Werner Verlag, 3. Auflage, Düsseldorf, 2003


[2] Schreiber, B. Mitteilungen zur Ingenieurgeologie und Hydrologie, Heft 35, Lehrstuhl für Ingenieurgeologie und Hydrogeologie der RWTH Aachen, Aachen 1990 [3] Schnell, W. Grundbau und Bodenmechanik 1 + 2 (Studienunterlagen), Institut für Grundbau und Bodenmechanik der TU Braun-schweig, 7. Auflage, 1990 [4] Arnold, I.; Schutze, D. Der Einsatz von Dichtwänden im Lausitzer Braunkohlerevier, Vortrag anlässlich des Clausthaler Kongress für Bergbau und Rohstoffe, Mining 2002, Clausthal [5]

Rheinbraun AG Informationsbroschüren



Abriss der Ingenieurgeologie

[18] DIN 4021 DIN 4021 - Baugrund; Aufschluss durch Schürfe und Bohrungen sowie Entnahme von Proben, 1990, Berlin, Beuth-Verlag [19] Precision Graphics, imagepages/A4artwel.html

[20] University of Wisconsin University of Wisconsin – Stevens Point, Department of geography and geology, [21] Joanneum Research Institut für WasserRessourcenManagement, Tiefengrundwasservorkommen Kärntens [22] Schmidt, F. Schmidt, Frank, Dipl.-Geol.: Hydrogeologische Aspekte und Konsequenzen bei der Rohstoffgewinnung in Kluft- und Karstaquiferen, AI Aggregates International 1/2006, Köln

[7] Sieb- und Schlämmanalyse Institut für Geotechnik und Tunnelbau, Baufakultät, Universität Innsbruck

[23] Geologisches Landesamt Nordrhein-Westfalen Im Grunde Wasser, Hydrogeologie in Nordrhein-Westfalen, Krefeld 1999

[8] DIN 1054 DIN 1054 - Zulässige Belastung des Baugrunds, Beuth-Verlag, 1976

[24] Firma Ott Hydrometrie Informationsmaterial Firma Ott Hydrometrie, Kempten,

[9] Grundbautaschenbuch Grundbautaschenbuch, Teil 1, 5. Auflage, Verlag Ernst & Sohn, Berlin, 1996

[25] Ingenieurbüro für Energie- und Umwelttechnik Niederschlagsverteilung in Deutschland, Ingenieurbüro für Energie- und Umwelttechnik, htm

[10] Schultze / Muhs Schultze / Bodenuntersuchungen für Ingenieurbauten, 1967


[11] DIN 18124 DIN 18124 Baugrund, Untersuchung von Bodenproben - Bestimmung der Korndichte - Kapillarpyknometer, Weithalspyknometer, Beuth-Verlag [12] Computer gestütztes Lernen in den Bauingenieurwissenschaften h ttp:// classification_d/classification_d.htm [13] PERO GmbH Prospektmaterial der Firma PERO GmbH, [14] DIN 4049 DIN 4049, Teil 1 - Hydrogeologie; Grundbegriffe; 1992, Ber-lin, Beuth-Verlag [15] Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum, Klimarechenzentrum,


[16] Chemischer Aufbau des Wassermoleküls, Hauptseminar Ernährung im IGTW an der Universität Hamburg, [17] Schröder, D Schröder, Stichworten. 2. Auflage. Berlin 1992



[26] Baumgartner & Liebscher Baumgartner, A. Liebscher, H.-J.,: Allgemeine Hydrologie, Berlin, 1996



[27] Umweltbundesamt, Umweltbundesamt, [28] Informationsportal Grundwasser-online, Informationsportal Grundwasser-online, [29] Stadtentwicklung Berlin, Stadtentwicklung Berlin, Senatsverwaltung für Stadtentwicklung, [30] Der Brunnen [31] 1998



Bieske, Erich, Bieske, Erich, Bohrbrunnen, 8. Auflage,

[32] Dörken, Dehne Dörken, Wolfram und Dehne, Erhard, Grundbau in Beispielen Teil 1, 3. Auflage, 2002

Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Hossein H. Tudeshki studied from 1977 to 1980 at the Mining College of Shahrud (Iran); following several years of work in the mining industry, he completed his mining study at the RWTH Aachen in 1989. Since 1992 he was Chief Engineer at the Institute for Surface Mining (Bergbaukunde III) of the RWTH Aachen, mainly active in the field of open cast mining and drilling technique. He did his doctor degree in 1993 and qualified as a university lecture in 1997. In 1998 the Venia Legendi was awarded to him be the RWTH Aachen for the field “Rock and Earth Open Pit Mining”. In November 2001 he was appointed as Professor for Surface Mining and International Mining at Clausthal University of Technology. He already has over 25 years of experience in the field of project planning and cost-benefit analysis within the frame of various mine planning projects. The international tasks rendered by him mount up to more than 300 international raw material-related projects. | | |

Issue 01 | 2011



ADVERTISEMENT Issue 01 | 2011



Reasons for bore hole deviations – preliminary results of research on optimizing drilling and

blasting with regard to hole deviation

by Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. H. Tudeshkil, M.Sc., Dipl.-Vw. M. Kappler Surface Mining and International Mining | TU Clausthal | Germany


n open-pit mines for stone production drilling and blasting are the most frequently used production processes. Ground motion and fly stone are major emissions which occur during the blasting process in the stone industry. While former adversely affects the nearby surrounding communities in densely populated areas, the latter endangers machines and workforce on the production plant. Precise drilling and drill-hole measurement support a better planning of the appropriate blasting energy. It is obvious that by enhancing precision in drilling the risk of fly stone and ground motion can be reduced. Moreover, consecutive processes like loading, transportation and processing are supported positively by a more homogeneous grain size of the rock pile. The objective of the research is to determine parameters for borehole deviation systematically and to derive a concept upon the measured data. The concept should lead to either a forecast of the expected hole trajectory as well as to a reduction of borehole deviation. The determined parameters will be used to determine the variable parameters which lead to a minimum of borehole deviation.

variable parameters like hole geometry, drill technology and machine parameters will be calculated in order to reduce the expected absolute deviation of boreholes.

Fig. 1: Parameter groups influencing drillhole deviation

Literature review and analysis of state-of-the-art technology revealed that following parameters are supposed to have influence on borehole deviation: - Geological/tectonic parameter: • genesis, lithology, tectonic degree of stress and wear;

- rock mechanics: • uniaxial compressive strength, shear strength, e-modulus;

- hole geometry: • hole length, diameter, inclination;

- machine, technological parameters: • type of drill device, thrust, rotation, drill rod diameter.

In dependence on the constant, invariable parameters like geology and rock mechanics, an Index will be derived. Based on the the index,

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Fig 2: Determination of planned azimuth outside and within the hole

Only the deviation in the drillhole itself is subject of the research. Reasons for hole deviation like a wrong setting of the drill rig, wrong setting of inclination and/or azimuth, as well as failure in hole length will not be analysed. Such errors can in general easily be avoided by educating the drilling personal.

The geology has been documented for the whole quarry as well as for each drilled wall (see Picture above). The dip, the dipping direction of joints, layers and discontinuities were mapped. The degree of jointing and the joint spacing has been measured and recorded digitally on images.

For this research the holes are measured with the “Pulsar Mini Probe” provided by the company geokonzept. The software “Quarry Pocket” and “holedev.6” are used to export the measurements as spreadsheet and represent it graphically.

Problems arose conducting tests of uniaxial compressive strength of the rock samples. The measured strength was often well below the values given in the literature for comparable rocks. Besides the fact that only a few cylindrical samples could be produced, a lot of the samples broke at low pressure. The premature breaking may be caused by tiny fractures in the rock sample material due to heavy blasting as well as weaker joint filling material. Fractures tend to propagate along the observed micro cracks. Comparing the gained data with common values in the literature reveals a considerably discrepancy (see table 2; image 6). In the line of further research reasonable values from the literature for comparable rock masses were used. Sebastian [1] and Jimeno et al. [2] refer to similar rock strength as used in the line of the research. In-depth literature research revealed laboratory results from previous surveys (Silbermann 2004, [3]) which give sensible values for comparable rock material.

Totally more than 700 boreholes have been measured in nine quarries of the German natural stone industry. In order to survey the geological influences on borehole deviation sedimentary, magmatic as well as metamorphic deposits have been chosen for the research. Additionally geological mapping was conducted to determine the dip and strike of joints, layers, faults and other discontinuities. Picture 3 gives an impression of the mapped geological facts.

Figure 5 relates the average absolute deviation of boreholes to the uniaxial strength of each rock mass for tophammer and down-the-hole hammer respectively. Each line represents a different hole length. The figure reveals the correlation of the average borehole deviation and the uniaxial strength. As was expected the absolute deviation rises with growing rock strength for tophammer. However, research results suggest surprisingly the opposite for

Special emphasis is put on the determination of the intended azimuth of drillholes which is the basis for the calculation of the observed deviation. In opposite to the measurement for the planning of the blast design the planned azimuth has to be re-determined for each hole separately in order to eliminate errors in drill rig setting. Therefore, the planned azimuth is measured within the first two meters of the hole. The angle of the hole inclination can only be determined in advance. Figure 2 shows the two alternative ways of measuring the azimuth within or outside the drillhole.

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Fig. 3: Geological mapping of joints and discontinuities in kuselite rock

Table 1: Comparison of uniaxial compressive strength: laboratory vs. literature [1], [2], [3]

Rock Type Limestone/Marl Limestone Rhyolite Gabbro Kuselite Andesite Gneiss Basalt

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uniaxial compressive strength [MPa] Laboratory Literature bis 80 51 80 96 120 79 190 59 123 106 190 93 220 232 325

down-the-hole (dth) hammer: the harder the material was, the lower was the observed average deviation. Both effects for dth-hammer as well as for tophammer technology seam to intensify the longer the hole are. The reason for this fact can be explained like this: In weak rock material dth-hammer tend to enlarge the hole diameter due to extensive impact energy; hard rock material resists the caliber enlargement and may therefore support the guidance of the bit of the dth-hammer. The higher deviation in hard rock masses for tophammer may be the result of too high bending stress of the drill rod. Generally the higher the rock strength the higher pressure and impact energy is applied. Bending of the drill rod is inevitable. However, this bending may lead to an excentric behavior of the drill bit and therefore drillhole inaccuracy. The research results depicted in figure 5 suggest that up to an uniaxial strength of approximately 180-200 MPa the use of tophammer technology seems to be more accurate



Fig. 4: Rock samples for test of uniaxial compressive strnegth before and after

in terms of drillhole deviation. The dth-hammer, however is supposed to yield better results than the tophammer in an environment of more than 180-200 MPa rock strength. Analysis of meausrements of deviations in the inclination showed that a a majority of the drillholes had a tendency to deviate backwards (steeper than intended). 54% of all surveyed boreholes at a length of 15 m had a higher than planned burden (see fig. 6).

Due to the observed microcracks in rock samples in the line of the rock strength analysis the observed deviations were grouped by their distance to the wall face. Usually blasting occurs in multiple rows. It is assumed that blasting has an effect on the cracks in the rock mass. The nearer the drillhole is to the wall face or the lower the burden is, the higher is the assumed density of fine crack. Figure 7 shows the results of grouping the drillhole deviation in inclination into back- and frontrow.

Fig. 5: Absolute Deviation in dependence of rock strength and hole length for tophammer and down-the-hole hamemr at 5 to 20 m hole length

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Fig. 6: Overview of deviations in hole inclination at 15 m hole length

Fig. 7: Frequency and distribution of deviations in inclination for the front and the back row at 15m length

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Observing the deviation in inclination in the frontrow does not reveal a common pattern. The deviation is evenly distributed. However, in the backrow 61,97% of the drillholes had a deviation below zero (backwards). Moreover, the variance is significantly lower in the backrow than in the frontrow (level of significance 95%). Because of this fact the structure of the rock mass was analysed and correlated to the hole trajectory in inclination. It came clear that a tendency exists of boreholes to deviate to the front if inhomogeneities, discontinouities like joints or layers are vertically or steeply inclined and striking is orthogonal to the wall (e.g. basalt in fig. 8). In case striking is parallel to the wall and the dip is almost horiozontally, drillholes showed a tendency to deviate backwards (e.g. rhyolite, gneiss, keuper marl in fig. 8) In order to verify the fact, that the denser the cracks and the intensive the jointing the deviation will rise, the absolute drillhole deviation in the first row was compared to the deviation in the back row. For every quarry in which multiple row blasting is carried out, the average absolute deviation in the first row was higher than in the second row (see fig. 9). The variance of the deviation in the second row is lower than in the front row, too. Overall the conclusion can be stated that boreholes in the first row when compared to the holes in the second/third row show a greater tendency

to deviate to the front and have a generally higher absolute deviation in average. Investigations of the interdependency in between drillhole length and the deviation show a significant increase in the acceleration of the trajectory deviation (see fig. 10). Applying a tolerance of 2% deviation of the drillhole length (intercepted line in fig. 10) reveals that the danger of an average deviation above the level of tolerance rises with increasing length. The more rod couplings are needed the faster the expected deviation will grow. In a limestone quarry the effects of different hole diameter (but nearly constant thrust 40 – 45 bar) on hole deviation was tested with an dth-hammer at 10m hole length. Results show (fig. 11) that an increase of diameter has positive effects on hole accuracy. Increasing the diameter from 93 mm to 115 mm led to a significant reduction of absolute average deviation. However the results have to be verified for different drill types and rock materials. Keeping the diameter constant and raising the thrust will entail a higher expected average absolute deviation. However, the differences in drilling technology make it necessary to apply a significantly higher thrust (200 bar) when rotary drilling is used instead of percussive dthdrilling.

Fig. 8: Distribution of hole deviation in inclination by rocktype at 15 m length

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Fig. 9: VDistribution of absolute (2D) hole deviation for the front and the back row at 15 m hole length

Fig. 10: Average deviations in depnedence of hole length

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Fig. 11: Dependency of absolute (2D) hole deviation by bit diameter at 10m hole length for dth-hammerr

Fig. 12: Dependency of absolute (2D) hole deviation of thrust at 10 hole length for dth-hammer (95 mm, 52 bar and 105 mm, 45 bar) and rotary drilling (95 mm, 200 bar) in limestone quarries

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Regardless the investigations carried out on rock strength and drillhole deviation no significant influence of the drilling technology (dth-hammer vs. tophammer) could be analysed without doubt since it was not possible to test both technologies in the same rock material. The results of the investigations until now can be summarised as follows:

1. The chosen procedure and the measurement princinple have proven to make sense.

Bibliography [1] Sebastian, U.: Gesteinskunde: Ein Leitfaden für Einsteiger und Anwender. Heidelberg, Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, 2008. [2] Jimeno, C.L./Jimeno, E.L./Carcedo, F.J.A.: Drilling and Blasting of Rocks. Rotterdam, A.A. Balkema, 1995. [3] Silbermann, F.: Beitrag zur Modellierung der Arbeitsweise von Kegelbrechern in Bezug auf den Materialstrom. Freiberg, Universität, Fakultät für Maschinenbau, Verfahrenstechnik und Energietechnik, Dissertation, 2004.

2. Laboratory measurements of rock strength did not deliver reasonable results due to micro cracks caused in samples caused by blasting. 3. The absolute deviation grows with increasing hole length; deviation growth is faster at hole length beyond 10m. 4. The deviation of boreholes for tophammer drilling rises proportionally with increasing rock strength. 5. For rock strength below 200 MPa the use of dth-hammer led to a higher deviation than for tophammer drills. 6. Drilling in rockmaterial below 200 MPa uniaxial compressive strength shows a lower average hole deviation for tophammer compared to dth-hammer. The harder the material gets the more precise gets the dth-hammer compared to the tophammer. 7. Drill holes in the front rows tend to deviate stronger in average than holes in the back rows; the reason seems to be the destruction of the rock within a certain first burden due to previous blasting action.

Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Hossein H. Tudeshki studied from 1977 to 1980 at the Mining College of Shahrud (Iran); following several years of work in the mining industry, he completed his mining study at the RWTH Aachen in 1989. Since 1992 he was Chief Engineer at the Institute for Surface Mining (Bergbaukunde III) of the RWTH Aachen, mainly active in the field of open cast mining and drilling technique. He did his doctor degree in 1993 and qualified as a university lecture in 1997. In 1998 the Venia Legendi was awarded to him be the RWTH Aachen for the field “Rock and Earth Open Pit Mining”. In November 2001 he was appointed as Professor for Surface Mining and International Mining at Clausthal University of Technology. He already has over 25 years of experience in the field of project planning and cost-benefit analysis within the frame of various mine planning projects. The international tasks rendered by him mount up to more than 300 international raw material-related projects. | | |

8. The direction of the deviation depends on the frequency and the dip of discontinuities. 9. The absolute (2D) deviation depends on the joint spacing and frequency. 10. The hole deviation decreases with increasing bit diameter. 11. The hole deviation decreases with decreasing drill thrust.

Dipl.-Vw., M.Sc. Mirco Kappler, born 1978 in Berlin, completed his study of political economy in 2005 at the University of Potsdam, before he completed his Master-study in technical Business Administration with the emphasis of Raw-material extraction at Clausthal University of Technology. Since November 2009 he is engaged in silk as a research associate at the Institute for Surface Mining and International Mining at Clausthal University of Technology. | | |

Issue 01 | 2011




Issue 01 | 2011



NPC Change the Face of Washing in South Africa! Pic.: The new CDE washing plant at NPC’s Sterkspuit Quarry in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

New Approach for NPC: Natal Portland Cement’s new CDE plant set to change the face of aggregate washing in South Africa

NPC are a subsidiary of global construction materials producer, Cimpor of Portugal and operate eleven facilities in South Africa with total production of 1.7 million tons. These include seven ready mix concrete plants, three aggregate production plants of which Sterkspuit is one, two grinding plants and one cement plant.

Natal Portland Cement have announced major productivity and efficiency improvements at their Sterkspuit quarry in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa following the introduction of a new washing plant from CDE Global.

The washing process

The loss of quality fines during the sand processing phase of production has been eliminated following the introduction of the CDE Evowash plant to replace a bucket wheel de-waterer previously employed at the Sterkspuit site. NPC also report an industry first with the introduction of an Aquacycle high rate thickener allowing for the recycling of 90% of the water used in the washing of their crushed material. While thickener systems are in use throughout the mining sector in South Africa it is believed that the CDE Aquacycle now in operation in the first of its kind in a crushed rock or sand and gravel application.

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Sterkspuit quarry is located in the Cliffdale area some 30km from Durban on the eastern coast of South Africa. The CDE washing plant is processing Tillite from the existing blasting and crushing operations and the washed material is being sold by NPC for use in the production of various asphalt mixes and as a replacement for river sand in their own concrete plants. From the crushing plant the minus 9.5mm material is first sent to a CDE Prograde P2-75 double deck rinsing screen fitted with modular Isenmann polyurethane panels on both decks. The Prograde produces a 6.7-9.5mm and a 5-6.7mm aggregate with the minus 5mm material being delivered to the sand washing phase.



Pic.: The washed sand stockpile following the introduction of the EvoWash system

The Prograde is specifically designed for washing which is a major advantage when compared to many other screens on offer according to CDE. “In the majority of cases rinsing screens are simply dry screens with the crude addition of a few spray bars” explains CDE Sales Manager in South Africa, Des Crawford. “The spray bars are only a small part of the overall design which we believe makes the Prograde screen the most effective aggregate washing screen on the market.” The design and construction of the spray bar assembly which is a fully independent structure is one of the key features of the ProGrade range. “The spray bar assembly is not rigidly connected to the screen box as is the case on many other rinsing screens” explains Des. “This eliminates vibration and the associated risk of plant failure.” There is also a major focus on reducing the loss of both material and water during screening through the use of splash prevention over decks and specialist spray bar seals. “These features are key to a safer, cleaner and more productive site” says Des. The advantages of polyurethane screen media on the ProGrade have been immediately clear to Dave Kendall. On the previous washing plant the wire meshes had been lasting only a few weeks due to the abrasive nature of the material being processed. The polyurethane screen deck on the ProGrade have shown enhanced performance in

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the first few months of operation and have resulted in a reduction in the costs of maintenance both in terms of spare part costs and the man hours. An additional advantage is the ease of fitting of the modules when compared with side tensioned wire meshes from a health and safety point of view.

Increasing sand washing efficiency Prior to the introduction of the new washing plant it was the sand washing process which was the biggest area of concern for NPC at Sterkspuit quarry. “Sand production was very inefficient with the bucket wheel that we had on site” explains Dave Kendall, General Manager at the site. The bucket wheel was losing up to a third of the fine sand that NPC needed for their production of asphalt sand leading to significantly increased production costs. The result of this was very coarse sand from the bucket wheel which meant NPC had to buy in large quantities of natural fine sand to blend with this coarse material. “We had to buy in between 70% and 80% of the fine sand we used as a result of the inefficiencies of the bucket wheel as a means of sand production” explains Dave. “This was an area of considerable cost for us which is why we began talking to CDE about improving our process.”



Pic.: The new CDE washing plant at NPC’s Sterkspuit Quarry in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

The new CDE washing plant employs an Evowash 71 system which has been employed on many similar applications throughout the world. “I visited Ireland and the UK and saw the Evowash in action on many similar crushed rock applications” says Dave Kendall. “These visits backed up the claims made by CDE regarding the capability of the Evowash to eliminate the loss of quality sand during the sand washing phase. This offered us an opportunity to greatly increase the efficiency of our Sterkspuit operation and the new washing plant now installed is delivering on this.” As a result of the increased capability to recover the fine sand material following introduction of the Evowash system, NPC have seen the quality of the washed sand improve and they have been able to dramatically reduce the need to purchase natural fine sand from external suppliers as the washed sand product now meets the specifications they require for asphalt mixes. “The move towards self sufficiency that this new plant gives us makes a huge difference to our operations” explains Dave. “Higher quality sand, increased volumes of sand and the effective elimination of the costs of buying in natural fine sand will help us deliver significant efficiency improvements in the months and years to come.”

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Water recycling system Following the sand washing phase the waste water from the Evowash is delivered to an Aquacycle thickener to allow for the recycling of 90% of the water used in the washing process. The Aquacycle has been extensively used in recent years on many CDE installations and offers operators a means of reducing the environmental impact of their operations while also having other advantages such as increased health and safety on site and a greatly reduced amount of space required to accommodate settling ponds. “We believe that the introduction of the Aquacycle to our operations is a first for sand and aggregate producers in South Africa” says Dave Kendall. “With the environmental benefits and health and safety improvements that the Aquacycle offers I am sure it will be adopted by others in the not too distant future.” Wash water containing the minus 75 micron material from the Evowash first enters the Aquacycle thickener via a de-aeration chamber located on the side of the thickener tank. The location of the waste discharge point at the top of the Evowash allows for a gravity feed of this material eliminating the requirement for the additional sumps and pumps that can be required with other systems.



Pic.: The AquaCycle system recycles 90% of the water used in the washing process

In the de-aeration chamber the material is dosed with a small amount of flocculent which is prepared in the FlocStation poly dosing plant. Material is then delivered to the centre of the circular Aquacycle tank before being released. The flocculent that has been mixed with the waste material forces the minus 75 micron particles to bind together and their cumulative weight allows these particles to fall to the bottom of the tank where a set of rakes rotate to maintain an even consistency within the settled sludge. The clean water overflows an integrated weir at the edge of the Aquacycle thickener and is then sent to the Aquastore collection tank for recirculation to the washing plant. When the sludge reaches an appropriate density the rakes report back to the PLC control panel which activates the sludge pump. The settled sludge is then delivered to nearby settling ponds. “The advantages of the Aquacycle thickener to our operation is two fold” says Dave Kendall. “Firstly we have significantly reduced our use of natural resources through the water recycling capability we now have and secondly, the space required to accommodate our settling ponds has been massively reduced.” The settling ponds at Sterkspuit previously required a substantial area due to the lack of water recycling coupled with the loss of large volumes of material to the ponds. The

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reduction is area required following the introduction of the Aquacycle gives NPC additional security in relation to the safe storage of waste material from their operations. “Our settling ponds are located adjacent to a river so the introduction of the Aquacycle thickener is an example of our focus on environmental protection and sustainable production” says Dave Kendall.

Advancements in washing This new washing plant represents the first installation for CDE in South Africa and the company hopes to secure further installations as a result of its success. “We have spent a lot of time in South Africa recently and we know that we can offer operators greatly increased efficiencies based on the existing washing plants we have seen” explains Des Crawford. “The plant at Sterkspuit gives us a reference where our claims regarding plant performance are proven beyond question.” This view is supported by Dave Kendall who says “The CDE washing plant represents a significant improvement on the washing plants in operation throughout South Africa and with the efficiency and productivity benefits we are enjoying I am sure there will be many more to come.”



CDE Global announced as a Best Managed Company by Deloitte!

CDE Global Ltd CDE Global has requalified as one of Ireland’s ‘Best Managed’ companies in the Deloitte Best Managed Companies Awards Programme. The company was first recognised as a Best Managed Company in 2009. The company, which demonstrated superior business performance for a third year running, was recognised at a gala awards dinner in the Burlington Hotel in Dublin on 4th March 2011. The Deloitte Best Managed Companies Awards Programme, in association with Irish Life Corporate Business, recognises indigenous Irish companies across the island of Ireland which are operating at the highest levels of business performance. Winners of the awards can apply to requalify as a Deloitte Best Managed Company for two consecutive years, following receipt of the award. Companies applying for requalification must satisfy the programme eligibility

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criteria and go through a requalification review process in order to ensure that they continue to uphold the standard of a Deloitte Best Managed Company. Commenting on the award, Brendan McGurgan, Managing Director of CDE Global said: “We are delighted to have been recognised by Deloitte as one of the Best Managed companies in Ireland for the third consecutive year. This award is recognition of our success in further expanding the global reach of our products and bringing new products to the global mineral processing market.” Commenting on the winners of the Deloitte Best Managed Companies Awards Programme, Pat Cullen, Managing Partner, Deloitte and judging panel member said: “Despite the negative sentiment that currently prevails, the Best Managed Companies Awards Programme shows that Irish indigenous companies are a cornerstone of growth in the Irish economy and can and will play an important role in Ireland’s overall recovery. For proof of this, you need look no further than this year’s winners.”


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Damian Fadden, Director, Irish Life Corporate Business, and fellow judging panel member said: “Irish Life Corporate Business is delighted to support the Deloitte Best Managed Companies initiative. Ireland’s economic recovery can benefit hugely from the contribution made by its indigenous business sector, and this initiative helps companies in that sector to showcase their success and to benefit from expert mentoring to help them move to the next level. Our staff have met many of the participating companies and have been very impressed with their innovation and determination – on behalf of Irish Life Corporate Business I would like to wish all the companies every success in 2011 and beyond.” The Deloitte Best Managed Companies Awards Programme is open to companies from all 32 counties on the island of Ireland. It is the only awards programme that considers a business’ performance from every perspective. Details of entry for the 2012 Awards will be issued in the coming weeks on The ’Best Managed’ designation is an important marketing tool for the winning companies – but, perhaps most importantly, the awards provide a reason to celebrate the efforts of the entire company. CDE are currently recruiting for a number of positions across a range of disciplines, further details of which can be obtained from or by sending an email to “Our continued expansion has created several opportunities for the expansion of our global team and we are currently looking to bring several new people on board to allow us to continue to expand our reach” says Brendan McGurgan.

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About Deloitte Best Managed Companies Awards The Deloitte Best Managed Companies programme, in association with Irish Life Corporate Business, promotes and recognises excellence in Irish owned and managed companies. It is the only awards scheme on the island of Ireland that considers a business’ performance from every perspective. Entrants to the programme will compete for this designation in a rigorous and independent process that evaluates the calibre of their management abilities and practices. Programme sponsors are Irish Life Corporate Business, the Irish Management Institute and the Sunday Business Post. For further information, visit

International History of Best Managed Companies Programme The Best Managed Companies Programme originated in Canada in 1993, where it has been run successfully ever since and is the country’s leading business awards programme. In addition to Ireland and Canada, the programme is also run in The Netherlands and Mexico.

For Further Information Please Contact Peter Craven CDE Global Ltd T: +44 28 8676 7900 M: +44 7841 1231115 SkypeID: petercraven75 | |



35 Years of drilling technique in headings and tunnel drivings

by Dipl.-Ing. Karl-Heinz Wennmohs Senior Project Director Atlas Copco MCT GmbH | Germany

Pic. 1: Development of percussive hammer drills, from pneumatics to hydraulics

The change from pneumatics to hydraulics, which happened almost simultaneously with the first congress on drilling and blasting in 1976, initiated a “quantum jump” in percussive drilling technique. The first developments in mechanizing drilling in headings and tunnel advances were characterized by very small steps in carrier systems, like drill arms and undercarriages. Initially the focus was on increasing the drilling performance, whereby the accuracy of drilling was low, due to the available cinematic systems of the boring arms. The lecture concludes with a view on the future of the small bore drilling technique for conventional headings and tunnel advances.

17th Drilling and Blasting Techniques Colloquium

Clausthal 2011 Institute of Mining

The Various Drilling Techniques This article discusses percussion drilling. However it has to be made clear that the discussed percussion drilling is not a rotary percussive drilling. As evident from the name, this technique discusses a drilling technique with equal performance in hammer mechanism and rotation. This technique was applied in the 60-ies, in connection with simple, railbound support frames in headings and in shaft sinking with typical trepanning equipment. With the performance of pneumatic striking and rotational mechanisms, it was possible that the available tools (in particular asymmetric chisel blades) economically drilled rocks , up to a strength limit of clearly below 150 Mpa. In case of an increase in the quartz portion, the costeffectiveness boundaries of this technology were quickly reached.

drilling technique to a competitive standard, particularly in potash-, salt- and gypsum mining.

Purely rotational drilling should also not be neglected in this discussion. This technology was mostly stagnant for decades, due to a lack of development in drilling tools and rotating mechanisms, nevertheless it contributed to far-reaching developments in automation of carrier systems like boring arms, carriages and control systems. This has led to marketability, which has brought the rotary

This summarizes the physical limits of the energy transfer, which is the striking piston with the respective piston form, and the maximum piston velocity in impacting the drilling tool.

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As evident from the name, percussive drilling is done by a hammering mechanism that generates energy which is moving in waves on the drill rod or drill rods with approximately 5200 m/s, enabling the core bit to penetrate the rock. The form of the generated wave is dependent on the piston form of the drill hammer. With regard to durability, the piston in a pneumatic drill hammer generates an unfavourable form for the drilling tool. An optimum wave occurs through a very slender striking piston, which has a diameter corresponding to the drill steel. The height of the generated wave should be below the so-called “stresspoint” of the applied drill steel.


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Pic. 2: Piston form of the pneumatic and hydraulic hammer drill

The rotating mechanism is only used for relocation of the drill bit in preparation for the next piston stroke. We call this rotatory movement of drilling tools the turning angle per piston stroke, which can vary depending on the borehole diameter and the bit design (pin or chisel). No high performance in form of torque and number of rotations is needed. Therefore it is possible that the performance of these rotation systems/motors, with or without gearing mechanism, can be significantly smaller, compared to the impact performance. 35 years ago a turning angle of 10 – 20° was recommended for chisel drill bits and 5 – 7 ° for pin drill bits.

This basic conclusion does not apply to all rock formations, as evident from examples. The experiences of the past 20 years have shown that in certain lime formations there are areas of drillability, which remind of past times with rotary and percussive drilling. In this socalled “interference areas” a percussive drill performance of 20 – 22 kW is used. At the same time the number of rotations of the drill bit is increased to 450 – 500 u/min and with a very high torque the drill bit is charged with a certain shearing capacity. This literally turns the drilling technique upside down, taking into consideration a pin drill bit (ballistic pins). The drilling performance of such a setup speaks for itself, in a sense that drilling velocities of 6 – 8 m/min with a 48 mm drill bit are possible in a compression strength of the rock of 140 Mpa . With 450 rpm and 75 Hz in 40°, and a flapping frequency of 100 Hz in 30°, the turning angle at the drill bit results.

Pic. 3: Turning angle of the drill bit per piston stroke

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Small bore drilling technique 35 Years ago In the seventies, many manual drill hammers with bearings were used in headings, as well as in extraction operations of existing ore mines. According to the classification of that time, these manual drill hammers were classified according to their weight. In mineral coal headings weight categories between 20 and 25 kg (without bearings) were predominant, while in ore mines and tunnel drivings the weight category of 26 -30 kg was preferred.

satisfactory results because of the small delivery quantity. With the application of carriage guided drill hammers and the still existing pressurized air chargers, there was a market for more powerful inlet compressors. These larger delivery quantities could only be realized with screw compressors as inlet compressors. At that time mining operations tried hard to mechanize the drilling, in order to achieve higher performance, security and relief for the miners.

These drill hammers were supplied by manufacturers, such as Demag, Flottmann, SIG and Atlas Copco with available rotation versions like rack wheel – or arresting mechanism rotation. The hammering performance of these drill hammers was between 2 and 4 KW with a dynamic air pressure of 6 bar. The supply structure of compressed air under ground could hardly supply more than 4- 4.5 bar dynamically in the drivings. Although some of the drill hammers were technically modified in their control systems to so-called “low pressure drill hammers”, the performance of drill hammers with 4.0 bar was only 50 -60 %, as opposed to 6.0 bar. Therefore, with the available tools, performance enhancements were only possible with the application of inlet compressors. These compressors increased the mains system pressure from 4 to 6 bar. At the beginning only piston compressors were used, as they provided

Pic. 5: Pneumatic drill hammer with arresting mechanism rotation

The first drilling jumbos, which initially were railbound, contained simple boring arms (mainly crossbar systems) with pneumatic drill hammers of 40 -70 kg. These heavy drill hammers were bigger copies of the drill hammers of the 20 – 30 kg category.

Pic. 4: Inlet compressorSG3 (configuration screw compressor)

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Pic. 6: Swivel head for a drill

Impact performances were 5-7 kW, and often the applied drill tools were Monobloc drill rods with a hexagonal shank of 7/8“ x 108 mm or the more powerful drill hammers with 1“ x 159 mm. The drill hammers had mud systems, which included a central mud pipe in the drill hammer and a simple sealing in the drill rod. The main disadvantage of these systems was the susceptibility to a high water pressure, which should not exceed the existing air pressure. Another important step was taken in the development of the so-called split drill tools. With the introduction of separate insertion ends, the mud pipes and seals could be increased in size, and preliminary options of a lateral drilling mud (with internal and external swivel head) could be tested.

With the introduction of rotating boring arms and the application of caterpillar undercarriages, the performance of the drill hammers that were still operated with pressurized air could be increased to an impact performance of 8-10 kW. The last model of a pneumatic drill hammer with arresting mechanism rotation, which was built, was type COP 125 with an impact performance of approximately 8kW. At that time first attempts were made to work with a separate rotation in pneumatic drill hammers. This was a novelty in underground operation, but already standard in above ground drill equipment.

Pic. 7: Heavy Pneumatic drill hammer with separate rotation

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Since available pneumatic motors usually work with a radial piston technique, which built in too large dimension for the circumstances under ground, fins constructions and hydraulic motors, which needed a special pumping set, were chosen. The pneumatic drill hammer technique was upgraded with heavy types with pressurized separate rotation, up to an impact performance of approx. 10 kW. A classic representative of this construction type was the COP 126 ED, with a requirement for compressed air of 15 m³/min and drill hammer. These consumption data demanded significant performance from the inlet compressor stations. Operation of these drill hammers in a tunnel advance requires compressor performances of 110 – 140 kW per drill hammer. Support frames for these heavy pneumatic drill hammers were hydraulic boring arms with mechanical or hydraulic parallel motion of the carriage. Control of the pressure was done with sight and sound control from the operator’s stand of the drill carriage. In that time the rail-less technique was introduced in ore mines and tunnel advances. The drill carriages that were applied at that time were diesel-engined, but still had known hardware like boring arms, carriages and pneumatic drill hammers.

Steps in Development As already mentioned in the foreword, 35 years ago the market was ready for a completely new technique. The market of hand-held drill hammers was stagnant and collapsed in some areas. Technical advancements were more or less limited to improvements in detail, e.g. lubricating systems, whereas it was necessary to initiate developments in soundproofing, according to legal

regulations. Sales figures sank. This resulted in the fact that most manufacturers in Europe discontinued production of these products or sold their businesses. In the early seventies some well-known manufacturers started development of hydraulically powered percussive hammer drill. Initial steps were already taken in the sixties. In that time, a so-called acceleration factor of these developments were the numerous upcoming tunnel projects in the alps. Under great public interest the first tunnel advances in Switzerland were driven with the COP 1038, which was a development of Atlas Copco. At the same time, the Montabert company applied the first hydraulic drill hammers. The high impact performance of these drill hammers was approximately 10 kW, with a separate rotation of 3-5 kW turning performance. What was new in application was the necessity for a feeder and drill hammer, since these activities could not be controlled by the drill carriage driver any more. This shaped the expression of “anti- locking device” . The first systems of our company were very complex electronic control systems, with the available automation possibilities of that time. In Germany, first experiences with such largescale equipment were gained by us with a Boomer H 132 in the Wohlverwahrt Nammen mine. This mine operation was particularly suitable for this technique, since long rounds of up to 5 m and parallel break-ins with large boreholes of 89 to 127 mm were planned. Another important application of this technique, which was equipped with firedamp protection, was done in 1977 with a two-armed drill carriage in the General Blumethal mine for a roadway drivage. Pic. 8: Hydraulic drill hammer of the first generation COP 1038

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY In the early eighties the damping control systems of drill hammers were modified. Research was done to increase precision of movements. The second generation of hydraulic drill hammers offered new kinematics systems to the market, with a significant increase in accuracy of movements. The second generation of hydraulic drill hammers offered new kinematics systems to the market, with significantly increased accuracy of movements. At the same time and with the computers available at that time, first steps were taken in automation of drilling. With the emerging tunnel projects in Europe, like for example the new line Hannover-Wuerzburg in the eighties, the drilling technique was step by step improved with regards to performance and precision. During the course of this large-scale project, first attempts with 100 Hz flapping frequency for rock formations of up to approx. 150 Mpa and introduction to the market was carried out successfully. A special form of high flapping frequency, which was called “vibrodrilling”, was applied in some application areas, particularly in soft rocks. At that time this system of coupling the rotation and hammer mechanism through a rotary control, which was developed by SIG company, was quite innovative. However, since the frequency increased with increasing rotation speed, but flapping frequency remained constant and the single impact energy continued decreasing, this technique was limited to a few cases. The impact performance of the hydraulic drill hammers available in the market for small bore drilling reached 14 kW by mid-eighties. In the late eighties the first models of drill hammers with 18 kW impact performance were developed for the market. One example was the COP 1440 with a flapping frequency of 75 Hz. In the course of technical improvements shortrange drill hammers in performance categories of 10 – 15 kW were developed, and particularly applied in headings and in anchoring equipment.

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In the mid nineties the threshold of the 20 kW impact performance was overcome. The market followed this trend with introducing the first 22 kW drill hammers. With the improvements in boring arm systems and an increased accuracy in movements over the entire working area, the market was prepared for the 25 – 30 kW impact performance category in drill hammers. In the course of this increase in performance it was necessary to improve the control of drill hammers and feeders accordingly. The first steps in automation through computer control were taken in the eighties, however the breakthrough was achieved in the late nineties. The turn of the millennium witnessed another milestone with achieving the 30 kW impact performance, at a frequency of 100 Hz. Drill hammers with frequencies of 130 – 160 Hz were developed much earlier, particularly by the Ingersoll-Rand company. However, the energy of the single impact only achieved an impact performance of 8-14 kW. This single impact energy was too low for hard rocks and longer bore holes. An important factor in improvement was the step-wise optimization of the wash boring. With the available swivel head systems within the drill hammers, the mud pressure could be increased to 20 bar. This was necessary, in order to achieve a timely removal and transport of cuttings from the borehole bottom. The step towards the 30 kW impact performance and the again increased penetration rate asked for an increase of the possible mud pressure to 40 bar. Progress was made with the introduction of air-water mud systems, which considerably facilitated the drilling for blasting and anchoring equipment , particularly in difficult formations.

Pic. 9: Drill hammer with flapping performance of 15 kW, COP 1532



Pic. 10: Drill hammer with 30 kW impact performance COP 3038

Within the framework of this development, the first tests with air-water mud were done in gypsum and lime formations. These tests resulted in systems, which allowed for drilling velocities of 6 – 8 m/min with a borehole diameter of 48 – 51 mm borehole lengths of 3,3 – 4,5 m, with an impact performance of 20 – 22 kW.

Pic. 11: Drilling with air-water mud in Auersmacher mine

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Status of drilling technique in the year 2011 The market of handheld drill hammers has changed in some sectors through the application of electrical percussion drill hammers. The causes for this are manifold, one of them being the energy costs. Furthermore it is easier to provide the needed electricity in great depths and in remote mining areas, as compared to maintaining a complex piping system for the pressurized air. Currently, with this technique only limited impact performances in the area of approximately 1 kW can be realized. Limits of borehole length and diameter are set by the available impact performance, subject to the mountain. This technique for handheld and supported drill hammers still has potential for improvement.


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Pneumatic drill hammers with support in the 20 -30 kg category are still being widely used in many countries of the world. The heavy, carriage guided pneumatic drill hammers still have and will continue to have their field of application in the area of sinking in shafts. For several reasons the application of hydraulic drill hammers is not favoured. Since the market is too small, no developments are initiated in this technique. Drill hammers that have been developed years ago, are preferred. Globally, new shaft projects are mainly implemented with pneumatic equipment. The impact performances of these heavy, pneumatic drill hammers lies between 10 – 14 kW. With the increasing number of Greenfield projects, the demand for high-performance sinking equipment will increase, if a conventional sinking with drilling and blasting technique is chosen. This market is becoming increasingly interesting for further development of heavy pneumatic drill hammers. The mechanized drilling in mining and tunneling has adjusted itself to a performance standard of 20 – 30 kW. High performance drilling tools are equipped with computer control. Apart from the actual control functions of drill hammer, carriage and boring arms, data can be gathered and analyzed in pilot holes, particularly. Here the keyword is MWD, (measure while drilling).

Accuracy is becoming increasingly important for the implementing companies, particularly in tunneling. The prerequisite for accuracy in drilling and blasting techniques is the fact that boreholes are generated accurately in the specified direction, with a minimum of deviation over the borehole length. In addition, this requires a high precision in the kinematics of the carrier systems. The possible standard of accuracy lies at approximately plus-minus of a borehole diameter of approx. 50 mm over the entire drill area of e.g. 100 m². This includes the basic positioning of the drilling equipment, before the start of a new round. In future the recording of drilling data and anchoring positions is more and more demanded for quality control. Modern software for planning of headings and mining operations supports this technique. Numerous mines have included these devices in data systems, so that the equipment is monitored and controlled through W-Lan. In addition to all technical possibilities, there is a market for so-called simple solutions, since in numerous threshold countries a simpler technique is preferred, e.g. in form of hydraulic direct control. Up to 4-armed drilling devices are applied in overbreak in high-performance tunnel drivings. These devices are seen more and more as components within a drifting scheme. In addition to drilling of blastholes up to round lengths of 6 m, drilling devices are used to drill the injection screens,

Pic. 12: Two shaft drilling devices with 7 pneumatic drill hammers

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Pic. 13: Pneumatic drill hammer VL 140 for sinking

particularly in monocoque construction, i.e without sealing and inner shell. Hereby drill holes of up to 30 m are first drilled and then cement is injected. With this technique it is possible to keep a tunnel almost free of water inflows.

the striking piston has most energy. The size of the impulse should be adapted, taking into consideration the drill tools. This can be controlled by the form of the striking piston and the maximum possible piston velocity at the time of impacting the drill steel.

Future Prospects

The drill tools that are available today have technically reached their limits with regard to impact energy for application of small bore drilling. Currently a possible increase of the impact performance over a higher single impact energy can only be achieved by a reduction of lifetime and the corresponding increase in costs of drilling equipment.

The percussive drilling technique, which in 2011 is possible with flapping frequencies of 30 – 200 Hz, will show interesting developments in the future years. The technique still has development potential: It is possible that the 1kH area becomes reality. In principle this technique is simple and conclusive. A striking piston with a piston form that is adapted to the drill steel should always hit the tool at the right time, i.e when

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Pic. 14: Four arm tunnel drill vehicle BOOMER XE 4C with store mechanisms to pre-drill



Further important tasks for the future are increase of efficiency within hydraulic systems, with the aim of reducing drive energy. These aims are comparable to the development of other units that optimize mud mechanics, like for example engine construction. These projects are very cost-intensive and require a high competence in various special fields. With the experiences of 35 years, it will be much easier to adapt future drill hammers to market requirements , taking into consideration the respective market potentials. This includes high-performance short-range hydraulic drill hammers for armature work in low deposits like for example platinum, gold and copper.

Pic. 15: Hydraulic drill hammers with 40 kW impact performance for production wells underground

Dipl.-Ing. Karl-Heinz Wennmohs Senior Project Director Global Strategic Customers Atlas Copco MCT GmbH Essen

Future mining will be done in depths of 5,000 m, where special and new requirements will have to be met by the drilling and blasting technique. Accuracy in drilling, highest drilling performance and modern explosives offer a flexible alternative to mechanical headings. A good coordination of drilling parameters and the currently available explosives and ignitors can guarantee a safe and precise conventional heading.


The quality assurance of the overbreak quality is of big help in reducing costs, particularly regarding upper and lower profiles and the resulting increase in costs. We take the responsibility that the development will not stagnate, and together with you we will keep the drilling and blasting on the state of the art. This will surely be the case for the next 35 years.

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17th Drilling and Blasting Techniques Colloquium Clausthal 2011 Institute of Mining



Drilling and ground freezing for the Skip shaft Gremjatschinskij of the EuroChem, Russia

by Dipl.-Ing. Hubertus Kahl Dipl.-Ing. Tim van Heyden Dipl.-Ing Eduard Dorn Thyssen Schachtbau GmbH | Germany

In September 2008, at the 7th International Economic Forum in Sotschi in Southern Russia, the mineral and chemical company EuroChem announced that it is planning to exploit the potash mine Gremjatschinskij, which lies approximately 200 km Southwest of Wolgograd (see picture 1). The startup of the mine operations and processing plant, which is planned to produce an annual 2.3 Mio. t of 95 %- potassium chloride (KCl), is planned for 2013 and divided into two project phases: 1. Until 2013: Deposit exploration of the potash beds in a depth of 1,200 m, with two parallel sunk mine shafts, whereby the skip shaft is to be sunk with ground freezing, and the other one is sunk with cementation. Production of 2.3 million t/a KCl 2. Until 2016: Production of 4.6 million t/a KCl This is one of the biggest and most ambitious Greenfield mining projects of the last 30 years, both in Russia, as well as in Europe. Since May 2008 the Thyssen Schachtbau company has been involved in this project.

General framework and Task Up to now there is only one deposit in Russia in which potash is mined, the so-called Verkhnekamskij-deposit in the Perm-region. In this region the depth of the layered potash deposits is approximately 380-500 m. The potash deposit Gremjatschinskij was only discovered in the year 1983 during oil prospection. Due to the deposit depth of 1000 to 1300 m, which is uncommon in Russia, for a long time nobody dared to mine these rich resources,. The production layer of Sylvinit has a thickness of 2 to 20 m and a detected area of approx. 97 km².

The analysis of the pilot shaft drilling has shown that the strata overlay mainly consists of non-cohesive or low-cohesive formations. Many water-bearing horizons were detected in depths of 0 to 800 m, which complicates the sinking through possible water inflows of 650 mÂł/h (see picture 2).

17th Drilling and Blasting Techniques Colloquium

Clausthal 2011 Institute of Mining

The deposit reserves are estimated at 6 billion tons with a concentration of KCL, which fluctuates between 34% and 41%.

Pic. 1: The model of the mining and processing plant Gremjatschinskij presents itself on the economic forum in Sotschi in 2008. Front middle: the future production or skip shaft

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The technical concept with which Thyssen Schachtbau company participated in the bidding was mainly based on securing the water-bearing strata between 0 and 520 m with the help of ground freezing. An above-ground precementation was envisaged for the 550 to 800 m fields.

Project Planning In May 2008 EuroChem commissioned Thyssen Schachtbau company to construct one of the two shafts. Due to the local geological and hydrological situation – the mountains consist of loose rocks, sands and clays that are permeated by some water-bearing strata, which partly account for the drinking water supply of the region – it was necessary to create a stable frost body in order to stabilize the rocks for the consecutive sinking. The frost body was dimensioned, based on the test results from the geological and hydrological exploratory drillings and the determined sinking method. In order to do so, extensive FEM calculations were done, taking into consideration

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Pic. 2: The stratigraphy of 0 to 800 m of depth – soil with numerous water-bearing horizons

the stress- and deformation behaviour of the frozen and unfrozen rocks in three different sinking progresses per day. A freezing capacity of 4.500 kW with a ground level temperature of -38°C was determined. Due to the geographical location and the tight time schedule, care was taken to reduce the efforts for on-site installation to a minimum through a module construction method. The entire building site facilities for the drilling and freezing operation were assembled in Germany. The logistics proved to be a particular challenge, consisting of certifications for the Russian market, customs clearance and transport to Russia.


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Generating freezing boreholes In order to ensure the even expansion of the frost body, it was important to follow the very strict specified tolerances for the vertical deviation of freeze pipes over the entire piping depth. In order to respond to these requirements, the application of MWD-technology (Measurement While Drilling) and an external, autarkic EMS (Elektronic Multi Shot) was envisaged. Through the transferred data regarding direction and inclination of the drilling, the application of such techniques allows for a change in the course of the borehole in any direction, which ensures the strict adherence to the tolerances. The borehole diameter of all drillings was set at 216 mm. Through the preset requirement of the shaft inside diameter of 7 m and the calculated frost body thickness needed, a freezing cycle with a diameter of 18 m was determined, with 44 evenly distributed freezing boreholes of 520 m depth and four drillings to measure temperature with a depth of 550 m. The drillings were provided with a protective tube tour of a diameter of 339.7 mm, up to a depth of approx. 33 m, as well as with an extension of freely hung freezing pipes of a diameter of 146.05 mm, up to the frost body depth of approx. 520 m. Two new very mobile universal drilling tools of type RB 50, installed on trucks and with a mast extension were used to implement the work. The advantage of these devices lies in their very compact design, while at the same time they have a high hook load of 500 kN and a top drive torque of 31,580 Nm.

The attached mast extension allows for handling pipes of up to 12 m each (range 3). A 12 m long platform with integrated drilling rod carriage was used as working and piping platform. (see picture 4). The modular system of the work platform ensured a safe and effective work area for drilling personnel at each working step. 4 mud pumps (see picture 5) were applied to realize the needed mud circulation. The pumps were firmly built into the 20 foot shipping container with their hydro mechanical drive (230 kW diesel aggregate each) and all needed components, and could be operated from the control stand of the drilling plant with a cabled remote control. In order to ensure a disturbance-free operation of the triplex pumps, centrifugal pumps were connected upstream as charging pumps. The cleaning and depositing of the needed mud was done through oscillating dehydrators, de-sander and three stirring device containers with a capacity of 26 m続 each. Due to the fact that a high amount of sand was loosened from the drilled rocks, at a later stage a centrifuge was rented in Russia and inserted for mud treatment, as the loosened sand led to a high wear at the pumps. The continuous supervision and conditioning of the mud was done in cooperation with a Russian mud-service. This mud-service also delivered the needed reagents for the on-site preparation of the mud. Since the drillings had to be completed in a very short time, six drilling motors with a diameter of 171.45 mm were available throughout the drilling phase. Usually two of these motors were being maintained.

Pic. 3: 2 February 2009, Setting up drilling tools and mud treatment

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Pic. 4a: Universal drilling tool RB 50

Pic. 5: Mudpump

This “rotation principle� made sure that down times due to defective drilling motors could be avoided. Service engineers of the operation company were available round the clock, in order to ensure disturbance-free operation of the MWD- installation and the EMS.

Pic. 4b: Universal drilling tool RB 50

At the start of the project, not all needed mountain parameters were available for the final determination of the shaft. Therefore corings with a diameter of 102 mm were drilled with the wire line procedure in various depths. A special core drill string with synthetic liner was used to minimize the strain on the cores during the drilling. Thus it was possible to gently obtain 150 m core samples from depths of up to 550 m. Despite sometimes hard climatic conditions it was possible to sink and pipe the required 48 drillings with a total depth of approximately 25,100 m in only 7 months. The work was completed in August 2009. All 48 drillings accurately observed the strict measurement instructions regarding accuracy of direction. Pic. 6: Mud processing with sand separator

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Pic. 7: Course of Borehole

Daily peak performances of more than 200 m per drilling equipment were reached several times. Altogether the drilling equipment was altered approximately 60 times. Due to the consistent implementation of the certified safety standards there was no single accident during the entire construction period.

Freezing In order to avoid jeopardizing the penelized freezing of 27. December 2009, container type refrigerating machines and the biggest possible size of pre-assembled components of the piping system was chosen. Finally 10 container freezing plants (see picture 9) and an above-ground preassembled and isolated piping system of approximately 1,400 m were used in the project. Each freezing container has an installed freezing capacity of 450 KW, in an outcrop level temperature of -38°C. Through optimizing of the level pipe conduit it was possible to reduce the refrigerating performance earlier than expected. Compared to previous projects modifications of the piping system lead to an even construction of the frost body around all freezing pipes and as such to a shorter freezing phase. The complex control technology of earlier freezing shaft projects was not necessary any more. In order to adapt the temperature of the coolant during operation and respond to the requirements and demands of the clients, Thyssen Schachtbau company decided to apply a high-performance coolant. The most modern measuring and control technique, which among others allows for a remote monitoring of the freezing plant from Germany, is applied for the operation and control of the freezing plant. All information converges in the plant control center on site and is processed there. Thanks to the most modern techniques the level losses into the mountain, such as because of unexpectedly high convergence and the related danger of freezing pipe breakages, can immediately be diagnosed. An immediate intervention in the freezing plant is possible at any time.

Pic. 8: Triple rotary cone bit 8,5“ with calibrating guard

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Pic. 9: The performance of the freezing plant in the primary cycle is 4,500 kW

New, innovative ways in capturing the extent of the freezing in the mountain have been taken. Here the laser technology is to be mentioned, which has been applied in freezing shaft construction for the first time in the world. This technology can measure the temperature of the mountain in a resolution of 1 meter over the entire freezing shaft depth. The IST frost body thickness is determined simultaneously over the entire depth, in coordination with the recording of temperatures and further measurement values in the freezing process, and is available to the freezing shaft constructor any time. On the basis of extensive knowledge and experience in sinking freezing shafts, a software was developed, which at any time gives numerical and graphical information about size and form of the frost body. At the same time the software offers forecasts for further expansion of frost, in order to adapt and optimize the current freezing operation, in case needed. Deviations of flow rates and temperatures in each freezing pipe from the corresponding reference values are immediately transferred to the plant control station with digital measuring technique. The principle of frost body calculation is mainly based on recording of mountain temperatures around the shaft to be constructed. The depth-specific radial temperature pattern results from the results of the distances of temperature measurements to the freezing circle, the initial temperature in the mountain (reference measurement), and the freezing circle temperature. The thickness of the freezing unit results from the above, plus the crystallizing temperatures. The result of the analysis of all temperature patterns is the vertical section through the entire frost body, as well as depth-specific horizontal sections. Through the application of fiber-optical measurements of temperature in measurement drilling, a spatial resolution of 1 m is realized in the mountain. The development of the frost body can accurately be presented over the entire freezing depth through application of the fiber optics technique.

Pic. 10: In the secondary pump hall. View to hydro switches

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Due to the high proportion of pre-fabricated units it was possible that the freezing plant started its operation only three months after completion of the foundation- and preparation works of the foreshaft depth. The required operation license was quickly obtained in close cooperation with the Russian mining authorities. This type of freezing plant, which was first applied in the shaft construction project of the EuroChem, counts as an innovative development in the field of sinking shafts, which have to be sunk under the safeguard of a frost jacket. The prerequisite for an effective use and control of the novel shaft sinking freezing technique, particularly for the identification of irregularities in the freezing and sinking process, is a continuous and meticulous coordination of the processes between the responsible teams for shaft sinking and freezing.


Pic. 11: level circular pipeline and circuit points on level heads (above) – frozen bottom of th level heads after 11 month working

By now the global finance crisis has shown its effects on this very challenging and difficult freezing shaft project: Fallen prices for raw material have forced EuroChem to save costs. Completing the shaft in the shortest possible time has stopped to be the highest priority.

Pic. 12: Radial temperature patterns from freezing pipe axis in 50 m depth at two points in time 30.01.2010 (left) und 30.09.2010 (right)

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Pic. 13: Horizontal section with depiction of the freezing unit in a depth of 100 m after 104 days of freezing (left) and 242 days of freezing (right)

EuroCHem has decided to apply, to the extent possible, its own resources and staff for the shaft sinking. Neverthesless, EuroCHem remains interested in a long-term cooperation and strategic partnership with the Thyssen Shachtbau company. With the experiences gained up to now, we have managed to establish ourselves as a German company that operates in the Russian market. The current cooperation with EuroChem at the production shaft Gremjatschinskij consists of implementation and control of freezing works, development of the shaft sinking project and the shaft lining, as well as supply and assembly of the sinking equipment. The potash mine Gremjatschinskij is planned to be the first mine of EuroChem. EuroChem is intensively working on the development of further potash deposits, within and outside of Russia. Among others, potash mines are planned in Perm and in the former Sowjet republic Kazakhstan. Pic. 14: Vertical section presentation of the IST-STAERLE of the freezing unit inside and outside, Freezing day 257

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Pic. 15: Assembly of the shafthead frame that is projected through TS by the contracted body

A further freezing shaft project for EuroChem On 29 June 2010 the Russian mineral and chemistry corporate group EuroChem commissioned THYSSEN SCHACHTBAU company to implement projecting-, drilling and freezing works for the planned two new skip and service shafts of the Palascherskj mine, which is located in the Perm region in the middle Ural mountains. The projecting works envisage a broad spectrum of engineering and construction work. Among others, these consist of analysis and assessment of geological raw data and planning of the freezing borehole and temperature borehole drillings for sinking of both shafts. The layout of the drilling plant attachments, the dimensioning of the freezing machines and the freezing unit control system, as well as the operation of the freezing plant system are other items in the contract. In addition the design documents will be adapted to the implementation documents, according to the legal project regulations of Russia.

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Apart from local climatic challenges like temperatures of - 40째C in Russian winters, the job is characterized by technical challenges, which consist of the task of simultaneously setting up two frost protection zones for two mine shafts with a caliber of 7 m (skip shaft) and 8 m (service shaft), while observing the two-year time frame for sinking the freeze shaft sections. Already in the year 2008 the Moscow chemistry company EuroCHem had announced that it plans to promptly develop the potash deposit purchased in the Perm region for 1.4 billion US dollars, and that it plans to establish a mining and potash processing plant, in order to produce potash products. At that time the geological exploration activities were immediately taken up by EuroChem on the so-called Palascherskij and Balakhontsevskij field of the Verkhnekamskij deposit. The potash processing plant is initially planned for an annual production capacity of 2.5 million tons of potash products. The long-term planning of the promising Perm project of EuroChem comprises of six million tons of potassium chloride annually.


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY EuroChem is known as manufacturer of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizer, its involvement in potash in the Wolgograd and Perm region is in the development phase. The Thyssen Schachtbau company is involved in both EuroChem projects, and its new assignment highlights the strategic partnership of both companies.

Status report Perm

in the Perm region for the drilling works. The team consists of specialists from Germany and recruited Russian skilled workers, which have already been involved in the Gremjatschinskij project. The freezing plant projected for this assignment has a cooling capacity of 3,600 kW. It will start operation on 1 July 2011, and will concurrently setup the frost boddies for both shafts, with a time shift of four months.

In the beginning of September 2010 the freezing- and temperature measurement drilling works at the production shaft of the Palascherskij mine in the Perm region were started. The completion of drilling works of the shafts is expected in summer 2011. Approximately 50 staff has been recruited

Pic. 16: The drill plate shaft 1 that has been projected by Thyssen Schachtbau company: Above at 16. August 2010 (still under construction), below – opening ceremony on 17 August 2010

Dipl.-Ing. Hubertus Kahl Dipl.-Ing. Tim van Heyden Dipl.-Ing Eduard Dorn Thyssen Schachtbau GmbH

FOR MORE INFORMATION AND CONTACT: Thyssen Schachtbau GmbH Sandstraße 107-135 45473 Mülheim an der Ruhr | Germany Tel.: +49 (0)208 - 30 02 0 Fax: +49 (0)208 - 30 02 3 27 eMail: Internet:

17th Drilling and Blasting Techniques Colloquium Clausthal 2011 Institute of Mining

Issue 01 | 2011



Aspects of Drilling and Blasting During Work in Permaforost – The Example of the Norilsk WS10-Shaft Sinking Project of Norilsk Nickel AG, Russia

by Dr. O. Kaledin Head of Department Thyssen Schachtbau GmbH project leader WS-10 Thyssen Schachtbau GmbH | Germany

Introduction to the WS-10 Shaft Sinking Project In September 2007 Thyssen Schachtbau company and Norilsk Nickel AG Russia, signed a contract for construction of the shaft complex of the air shaft WS-10. Among others, the contract includes the following services: Project planning, construction, assembly, supply and installation of permanent mining facilities and handover of the ready-to-use shaft with a depth of approximately 2056 m and handover of the mining complex WS-10 to the contracting entity. The beginning of the plant operation is planned for the year 2018. The plans for Norilsk Nickel are based on a useful life of a minimum of 50 years. The WS-10 mining complex is required to develop and mine the precious copper ore of the Talnakh- and Oktjabrsky deposit. In addition to the WS-10 air shaft for ventilation and mining of ore, Norilsk Nickel is planning to sink a second shaft, the production shaft SKS-1. Rich polymetal ore is being mined in the Norilsk region since the beginning of the 50-ies. More than 30 mines are in operation in that region. The air shaft WS-10, which will have an inside diameter of 9 m, is planned to be an upcast shaft with a conveying capability of 2400,000 t/a. In addition to the required skip conveying plant, the shaft will be equipped with a cage extraction system for emergency driveage and transport of material. The operation of the skip conveyance of the WS-10 shaft will be done automatically. The number of persons needed to implement the production operation is 5 persons per shift! In accordance with the technical assignment, the completed complex will be built from the following objects: a hoist frame of 66 m, a hoist hall for skip and cage extraction, a hall for the main mine fan with two installed

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY axial ventilators, which have fan discs of a diameter of 5.4 m and fan capacities of 800 m³/sec each, an air drift with an inside diameter of 25 m², a main transformator station 110/6 kV, and conveyor belts for the transport of ore. Furthermore there are infrastructure buildings like deposit halls, a compressor building, a fire extinguisher building, a filter plant and social buildings. In order to reduce costs and building time, the contracting party requested to foresee a minimum number of temporary halls and buildings, and to use permanent buildings for the sinking to the extent possible. The scope of the WS-10 contract includes: the WS-10 shaft, 10 permanent buildings, 12 temporary halls, inside roads, as well as supply networks. As per contract, the shaft will be equipped with complete conveyor systems, as well as with loading and unloading facilities and will be ready-to-use. 10 bottom landings and 2 loading areas are planned for the establishment of 2 skip loading units.

Up to a depth of -138 m, i.e the depth in which there is permafrost, the pilot shaft area of the shaft will be lined with cast iron segmental lining. The remaining parts of the shaft will be secured by anchors, steel mats and shotcrete, as well as with a concrete lining that is reinforced by steel fibres. The sinking is done by drilling and blasting. Due to the scheme adopted by Thyssen Schachtbau, which was to implement the project planning in parallel with the construction, it was possible to already start the excavations of the WS-10 shaft sinking project on the 28 November 2007, i.e. approximately two months after the ordering date. Despite the difficult weather conditions in winter (up to 8 m of snow on the location of the shaft) and the temporary stop of work due to the financial crisis in 2009, it was possible to almost complete building of the surface comples and to sink the pilot shaft up to a depth of approximately 150 m.

Pic.: Shaft location WS-10 at 15.10.2008

Pic.: Shaft location WS-10 at 15.7.2010

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY The completion of the surface works and startup of the sinking works in the main shaft with permanent hoists is planned for the end of 2011.

10 -15 m under the surface. However, below this depths the temperature of the permafrost remains constant throughout the year. The average annual temperature of permafrost soil is very diverse, it varies from 0° C to -15° C.

Climate-caused Characteristics of Work in Polar Regions

The temperature of the permafrost soil can vary by several degrees, based on the specific landscape and geographical conditions. This can be attributed to the fact, that the temperature of the permafrost is dependent on many environmental factors, such as vegetation, thickness and density of the snow cover, average yearly air temperature and climate, composition of soil moisture, etc.

Managing work in the polar region poses great demands on man, machine and technique. Apart from extreme climatic conditions, and the complex logistic conditions, due to the exposed position of the Norilsk region –which can only be accesses by the polar sea with ice-breakers or by plane- the permafrost is an extreme problem, and the problems caused by it cannot be solved with conventional working techniques. This presentation explains some of the special features of implementing work in the permafrost area.

Depending on variations of the soil temperature during the entire year, frozen soil is divided into „seasonally frozen“ and „permanently frozen“.

Influence of Permafrost on Construction-, Drilling- and Blasting During construction of the shaft complex for the Norilsk Nickel company the influence and conditions of permafrost was mainly „felt“ during the following activities: 1. During drilling and placing of foundation piles for the foundations; 2. During drilling and blasting

Characteristics of Permafrost The surface layer of soil, which is in a permanent frozen state, is called permafrost. The temperature of permafrost varies with depth. Typically the lowest temperatures are seen in the surface layer of the permafrost soil, with increasing depth the temperature rises to up to 0° C. The temperature of permafrost soil near the surface is not stable over time, it varies throughout the year, according to the season. These temperature fluctuations can be seen up to a depth of

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Basically, two construction principles are relevant in areas with permafrost soil. Before starting planning and construction, the implementer needs to decide on one of the construction principles:

Principle 1

- Permafrost soil is used in its existing, frozen state. This entails specific measures to keep permafrost soil in the frozen state during the operation of the buildings;

Principle 2 - Permafrost soil is used in thawed state for

the setup and operation of plants.

At the construction site only one building principle and only one principle of soil stabilization should be used. During planning and construction, permafrost soil is a significant factor for difficulties in implementation of the construction and assembly. Due to the additional work and expense required – compared to cohesive, stable and non-frozen soils- it leads to considerably higher costs of a construction project. If no special measures are taken for the construction of buildings on permafrost soil, a destruction of the building is possible after a few „freezing/thawing“ cycles.

Principle 1 envisages reducing or preventing heat transfer or radiation from the building into the permafrost soil, in order to prevent the thawing and consecutive settlement of the soil. Usually this principle is only used for temporary buildings, where small foundation settings are noncritical. All attempts to use this principle for permanent buildings (life time over 20 years) without active cooling systems to prevent thawing, have failed. It is virtually impossible to prevent the influence of anthropogenic heat on the construction ground for a long period. An example for such a construction is a building, which is built on a concrete slab that stands on a „gravelcushion“. In order to construct such a foundation, a pit is trenched up to the depths of the permanently frozen soil layers. Thereafter fine gravel is deposited in layers and compressed for thermal insulation. The thickness of the „gravel-cushion“ is determined by thermo-technical calculations, so that the gravel-cushion prevents the heat transfer from the building to the soil. One example is the setup of a building according to the so-called method of „hanging“ drilled piles:

This effect of the permafrost is due to the high ice content of the soil. Permafrost soil looses its bearing capacity during thawing, heavy settling occurs and the permafrost soil turns into a viscous fluid, into which the buildings, halls, construction machines, material and constructions sink. During the re-freezing the permafrost soil heavily swells, which can to some extent lead to destruction of constructions.

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In this case the foundation piles cannot be grounded on rocks, but need to be settled by friction fit and correspondingly long drilled piles into permanently frozen soil layers. Such a procedure basically makes sense, if the rocks are located deeper than 30 m. In this case the building is constructed on foundation piles in a way that the distance between the ground and the bottom of the building is a minimum of 1.5 m. The distance between the ground and the building allows for a permanent exchange of air and as such prevents the thawing of the building ground.


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY The 2nd principle envisages the thawing of the permafrost: The foundation is laid on foundation piles that are grounded in the rocks. The soil under the foundation can thaw – or technologically caused settlements can be allowed. The foundation piles are drilled through the upper layer of the soil into the rock, up to a depth of 4 m.

Particular Characteristics of Setting up Foundation Piles in the Polar Region The setting up of foundations is mainly done in winter (November to April), due to the fact that the tundra soil is frozen in this season and it is capable of bearing construction machines. Temperatures of up to -50° C, strong wind, heavy snowfall and bad visibility due to frequent fog would severely impair installation work outdoors, if not make them impossible. Therefore installation work is envisaged mainly in the summer months, where high intensity of labour and 24 hours of daylight (7 days per week, day and night) is possible. Therefore winter time allows for preparing the foundations for the preparation of installation work, which can be implemented in the summer months.

Technology of Setting Foundation Piles in Permafrost

The borehole is lined with pipings to avoid the break-in of the thawed rocks, which have a relatively low strength, into the borehole. In order to increase efficiency of drilling and prevent freezing of the borehole, it is filled with 50-70 °C hot water. Every 0.3 to 0.5 m the borehole is freed from the drilling mud, during drilling in rocks this is done every 1.0 to 1.5 m. In cleaning approximately half of the mud volume is removed, the height of the mud layer is regularly measured or checked with a steel rod. The chisel blade is strengthened by welding on highstrength steel sheets or by welding on hard alloy electrodes, thus increasing the service life of the blade. Steel ropes are used to hang the drilling tools. Their diameter and carrying capacity is adapted to the drilling tools.

In Norilsk the technology of setting foundation piles has not undergone big changes for the last 50 years. This is due to the fact that the extreme climatic circumstances lead to a higher consumption of fuel and lubricant for construction machines, cause breakdown and accidents through brittle fracture of parts in extreme cold, and lead to a reduction of service life of construction machines and mechanisms by a factor of 2 to 2.5. The setting up of foundation piles is therefore done traditionally through application of robustly setup churn drill equipment with a high portion of manual operation. The drilling in frozen soil and rocks is done with the help of churn drill equipment, in changing cycles of loosening the soil and removing the drilling mud from the borehole with a bailer.

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY of over +20° C. After the complete filling of the pile drilling with concrete the electrode heating is switched on through supply with current, in order to warm up the concrete. The header of the foundation pile is covered with insulation. The temperature curve of the concrete is checked during the first three days after placing of concrete.

Particular Characteristics During Drilling of Blast Holes in the Shaft The drillability of the permafrost soil is very different from the drillabiltiy of the same soil in thawed state. With regard to drillability, three main groups can be differentiated: low fissured rocks, high fissured rocks, frozen unstable soils. This method allows for drilling into frozen soil and rocks in any climatic condition, even in extremely low temperatures. The churn drill equipment is reliable and has a long service life and allows for drilling of holes with a diameter of 0.3 to 1.0; theoretically there is no limitation to the depth of the drilling. In the drilling installation that was used, the chisel is always dropped from a height of 0.5 to 1.0 m into the borehole, in order to impact. The most important advantages of churn drill equipment is its simplicity, universality, and applicability in frozen soil, even soil with high rock inclusions, as well as a temperature-independent applicability. The disadvantages of churn drill equipment is low productivity and a high consumption of energy. During later placing of concrete, pipings used during drilling of holes for the piles are kept. It is very difficult to remove the pipings, as the pipes quickly freeze into the soil.

Low fissured rocks: During drilling of low fissured rocks the same tools are used than for non-frozen rocks. There is no significant difference in these rocks , compared to the non-frozen state.

After drilling, the surface of the piping is freed from ice and is „cleaned“. Before placing the concrete reinforcement cages, pre-warm-up electrodes are inserted into the borehole. Before the start of the work the reinforcement of the foundation pile is manufactured as a pre-fabricated cage and inserted into the piped borehole as 3 m long single cage section and connected with spot welding. After installation and justification of the reinforcement cages, the entire length of the foundation pile is filled with concrete from bottom to top. The concrete mix is delivered to the construction site with a temperature

High fissured rocks: During drilling of high fissured rocks the following is observed: In frozen state high fissured rocks show the same characteristics than fissured rocks. However, if they thaw under the influence of the drilling energy, their characteristics drastically change, and jamming of drilling tools and clogging of boreholes through break in of rocks from the borehole wall are frequent. Due to this problem of clogging, the boreholes for blasting need to be drilled immediately before the filling.

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Frozen, unstable soil: Frozen unstable soil (silt, sand and clay) also possess characteristics that are comparable to rocks. During the operating life of the boreholes, in case of a delay between drilling and filling of the drilling holes for blasting, the unstable soil thaws, a fact that can lead to divergence in borehole walls or to clogging by rock fragments. Another problem is the icing of the boreholes. Drillings with a diameter of D = 53 mm ice already 2 -3 hours after drilling. In case it is not possible to quickly fill the blast holes after drilling, the borehole is filled with hot water of 60 °C to 70 °C , which is blown out of the hole with pressurized air. However, if the drilled face stands for more than one shift, all boreholes are redrilled with a handheld drill hammer before filling. During wet drilling it is necessary to immediately free the boreholes after drilling from water through pressurized air. If this is not done, the rest water will completely freeze in the borehole.

The calculations for blasting operations in permafrost soil are done in analogy to the calculation of parameters for non-frozen rocks. It is however recommended to increase the specific use of explosive by 15 – 20%. In order to blast the permafrost soil an explosive with average performance and a detonation rate of 3.5 to 4.0 km/ sec is used. In order to increase the reliability of blasting, it is recommended to use 2 priming cartridges in each borehole - one at the upper side and one at the bottom side of the explosive charge.

Further Special Characteristics of Shaft Sinking in Permafrost

Special Characteristics of Blasting Work

Another special feature in shaft sinking is the behaviour of water-bearing strata. Mineralized, water-bearing strata that are under hydrostatical pressure (5-10 bar) can almost always be found under permafrost layers.

One special characteristic that is latently existent in blasting of permafrost soil, is the closing of soil and rock through freezing after blasting in the cold season.

It is recommended to always apply metal tubbing in permafrost, in order to ensure an almost dry shaft at later stages.

During implementation of blasting operations in the warm season it is necessary to protect the material quarried by blasting from thawing, in order to prevent sludge formation and problems in loading.

The sinking concept of the WS-10 in Norilsk shaft foresees a metal tubbing that is 10 m deeper than the permafrost layer.

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30 m above the boundary of the permafrost soil to the unfrozen soil exploratory drillings are drilled from the shaft bottom, so that in case needed, injection operations can be done from a safe stand.



Conclusions The implementation of operations under polar conditions poses special challenges to the organization of work and to technology. With regard to drilling technique in permafrost, simple and robust technologies are preferred, as more emphasis is given to reliability than to productivity. These procedures lead to the fact, that such technologies show very slow developments over time. A further development of technologies only occurs with the entry of new entrepreneurs with new know-how, particularly in remote areas of the world, like in Norilsk. Nowadays, with the current intensive development of the infrastructure of the polar region for raw material extraction, working technologies of this region are highly being developed. This allows for hopes that during the coming 10 – 20 years the local technique will reach up to date standards. However, most modern technology is already being applied in the planned permanent mining installations of the WS-10 air shaft, like for example in hoists, the main pit fan system and the high-voltage transformer station, as well as in the shaft sinking technique used.

Dr. O. Kaledin Head of Department Thyssen Schachtbau GmbH Project leader WS-10 Thyssen Schachtbau GmbH

17th Drilling and Blasting Techniques Colloquium

Clausthal 2011 Institute of Mining

Issue 01 | 2011

FOR MORE INFORMATION AND CONTACT: Thyssen Schachtbau GmbH Sandstraße 107-135 45473 Mülheim an der Ruhr | Germany Tel.: +49 (0)208 - 30 02 0 Fax: +49 (0)208 - 30 02 3 27 eMail: Internet:



ContiTech Conveyor Belt Group | Phone +49 5551 702-207

ADVERTISEMENT Issue 01 | 2011



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Giants in hard rock In 2017, the first high-speed trains will travel along, or rather through, the New Alpine Transversal (NEAT) at speeds of 200 to 250 kilometers per hour. This will cut the journey time from Zurich to Milan by one hour to World record. Main Breakthrough on the epoch-making Gotthard project

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY 2 hours and 40 minutes. Swiss Railways are expecting, in particular, to cut freight transport times – yet another important improvement in traffic logistics between Germany and Italy. A new era in trans-Alpine rail travel is dawning. Setting off from Bahnhofstrasse in Zurich for a morning’s leisurely shopping in the stylish Galleria Vittorio Emanuele II in Milan and returning the same afternoon with your shopping bags full of the best Italian designer wear. Only a dream? In 2017, this vision could be reality. This quick jaunt between the two commercial centers will be made possible by a unique, epoch-making project – the construction of the new Gotthard Base Tunnel along with the Ceneri and Zimmerberg Base Tunnels. With a length of 57 kilometers and a maximum altitude of 550 meters above sea level, i.e. truly at the foot of the St.Gotthard mountain, two single-lane tunnel tubes will cross the Alpine range from valley floor to valley floor, as it were, on an almost level course. This will put an end to travel that was so slow, passengers could almost pick the flowers along the line, and the need for double locomotives to drive freight trains up steep gradients will be a thing of the past.

A TOTAL OF 152KM OF TUNNELS, SHAFTS AND GALLERIES A total of 152 kilometers of tunnels and shafts need to be created for the Gotthard Base Tunnel project. The planners have divided the two main tunnels and the almost 180 cross passages into five construction phases. The overall construction time could be considerably reduced, because work on the five sections could be carried out simultaneously. However, extensive logistics provisions were also necessary. Access and supply tunnels had to be built, and enormous underground caverns had to be excavated to serve as bases for the tunnelling activities or drill & blast operations.

A total of 152 km tunnels, shafts and galleries

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The Giga-Jobsidte

Five Times the Volume of the great Pyramid of Giza More than 85km of the main tubes have been excavated and secured with Herrenknecht tunnel boring machines. These high-tech steel giants from Schwanau, with a length of more than 400 meters and cutterheads measuring 9.5 meters, tunnelled their way through the tremendously hard rock, while the crowds of skiers enjoying the snow some 2,000 meters above in the Lukmanier Pass remain oblivious to the earsplitting noise and the machine’s brute force. Since beginning their mountain-munching journey in 2003, the cutting wheels of the four Herrenknecht machines have ‘swallowed’ around 10.5 million cubic meters of rock. In total, 13.5 million cubic meters of material are excavated at the Gotthard Base Tunnel - about five times the volume of the Pyramid of Cheops in Giza. Around 75 % of the tunnel’s main route have been or are being excavated by these ‘mega-moles’, as the tunnel boring machines (TBMs) are sometimes known. However, with the sum total of 114 kilometers of parallel tunnels, the project is far from being complete.

There are three such access tunnel and supply caverns at the Gotthard giga site – at Amsteg in the north, at the Sedrun intermediate heading in the middle and at Faido in the south. Access to the tunnel is relatively easy from the mountain pass roads at the tunnel mouths near Bodio and Erstfeld in the north, while at Amsteg it is approached via a short tunnel of ‘only’ two kilometers’ length. The access tunnel in Faido is 2.7 kilometers long with a gradient of almost 13 percent. Work on the Sedrun intermediate heading was far more complex, as it involved first excavating a horizontal access tunnel with a length of around one thousand meters far above the tunnel level, and then sinking two vertical shafts from its end to a depth of around 800 meters down to the tunnel. A 450-meter-long ventilation shaft completes this spectacular construction.

Between high-precision planning and geological imponderables

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY BETWEEN HIGH-PRECISION PLANNING AND GEOLOGICAL IMPONDERABLES Surprises can always occur when boring tunnels the size of the Gotthard project. It is not for nothing that tunnel constructors have great respect for their task. Their work is a tightrope walk between the highly planned and the unforeseeable. In spite of the many preparatory investigations, unexpected difficulties can always occur. For example, at the very beginning of tunnelling from the southern side of the Gotthard in February 2003 – after only 200 meters – work was interrupted by unconsolidated rock. The two TBMs that set off from Bodio – affectionately known to the tunnelling teams as ‘Sissi’ (S-210) in the eastern tube and ‘Heidi’ (S-211) in the western tube – encountered geological disturbance zones known as kakirite zones. Such geological conditions are too soft for Gripper TBMs, which are designed for very hard rock, and make rapid tunnelling progress almost impossible. Every meter of excavated tunnel must be secured in a complex process. The machines could not leave these disturbance zones behind them until August 2003, after around 400 meters of tunnelling.

The ups and downs in the mointain But a construction log can also include unexpected positive reports. For example, there was good news from the northern side in spring 2004. In the construction plan the geologists had predicted a tunnelling interruption of up to four months to deal with the Intschi zone. Luckily, however, this zone was around 50 % shorter than expected, and the teams operating the machines with the innocent-sounding names ‘Gabi 1’ and ‘Gabi 2’

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were able to pass through the zone, albeit with reduced tunnelling speed. That said, however, the ups and downs in the mountain seemed endless. Good monthly tunnelling performances of 560 m and penetration rates of up to 12 mm per revolution were followed by difficult stretches, some with a penetration rate of only 3 mm per revolution and an advance of only 140 m per month. There was bad news for the engineers and clients in June 2005. Suddenly and without warning, loosened rock mixed with mountain water infiltrated Gabi 2’s cutterhead in the western tube. At first, the tunnellers tried to clear the cutterhead of the fine material by hand and back up the TBM a few centimeters. Without success. Eventually, the unconsolidated area ahead of the machine’s cutterhead was solidified by injecting it with a mixture of cement and bentonite. At the same time, the tunnel builders excavated a 50-meter-long tunnel from the east tube to the west tube to free the TBM’s cutterhead from the front. Regular tunnelling was not resumed until November 2005 after a standstill of five months. The machines also had to deal with changeable geological conditions in the south on the stretch from Bodio to Faido, which impaired tunnelling performances. Noticeable improvements were attained by adapting the two TBMs to the unforeseen circumstances. In December 2005, ‘Sissi’ achieved the best daily performance in the Gotthard Tunnel so far, with 38 meters in the east tube.


Herrenknecht AG Schlehenweg 2 77963 Schwanau | Germany Tel.: +49 (0)78 24 - 302-0 eMail: Internet:


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY 2006: The year of the first breakthroughs

2006: THE YEAR OF THE FIRST BREAKTHROUGHS In June and October 2006 the construction teams in the north celebrated the end of tunnelling in the Amsteg – Sedrun section with a spectacular performance. The machines sped towards the end of the construction lot six and nine months ahead of schedule, respectively. But it all ended with an anticlimax. Just before the end of the lot they met with a geological obstacle – kakirite. This is why the TBMs were dismantled in advance in the solid rock zone. The workers then transported the machine components out of the tunnel with the tunnel train.

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Breakthrough in Faido In fall 2006, breakthrough was finally made in the south, too, with the required precision at the Faido multifunctional station. The TBMs with diameters of more than eight meters reached their targets after 13.5 and 14 km respectively, with vertical and horizontal deviations of only a few centimeters. This degree of accuracy is comparable to a marksman hitting a 1 euro coin at a distance of two kilometers. After a total overhaul and a refit with new, larger cutterheads with diameters in excess of nine meters, Sissi and Heidi set off again in July and October 2007, tunnelling northwards from Faido towards Sedrun.


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Tunneling safely through the “ordeal“ of the Piora Basin

TUNNELLING SAFELY THROUGH THE “ORDEAL” OF THE PIORA BASIN A further difficult zone awaited the tunnel builders on this stretch - the Piora Basin – a funnel-shaped formation filled with sugargrained dolomite and water, which reaches deep into the rock of the mountain range. Its existence was long known, and hardly any other part of the Gotthard had been investigated as intensely prior to the construction work. Since no one knew how far into the mountain the funnel reached, a decision was taken to make exploratory drills. A horizontal tunnel with a length of around 5.5 kilometers was driven from the cantonal road to the disturbance zone. In 1996, this zone was penetrated. The loose grains of rock turned out to be exposed to the enormous pressure of around 150 bar. A thick jet of water mixed with dolomite shot out of the mountain and flooded the road. The media called it ‘D-Day at Piora Beach’.

Tunnelling using conventional drill & blast methods between the Faido and Sedrun intermediate headings was also an extreme technical challenge. Here, the tunnellers blasted huge underground stations out of the rock. They will serve as special stopping bays for trains in emergencies. The branching tunnel will also allow trains to change from one tube to another during operation. A sophisticated system of transverse and connecting tunnels guarantees that smoke can escape and fresh air can enter the tunnel. The two ‘multifunctional stations’ are huge construction sites in themselves. Here, the rock presented tunnellers with a particular drill & blast challenge.

19 inclined drills were made from the exploratory tunnel to the vicinity of the future base tunnel, finally giving the engineers the all clear. They hit on hard rock with no water pressure. Examining drill cores, temperatures and seismic results brought the geologists to the conclusion that the bottom of the Piora Basin was sealed with gypsiferous cap-rock. And so, on October 12, 2008, Sissi reported: Piora Basin successfully crossed’, and its sister machine soon followed suit.

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY The mountain lets off steam The mountain pressure in some sections was so high that the usual method of increasing the target dimensions of the excavating cross section was of no use. Normally, this gives the mountain the opportunity to ‘let off steam’ – the more it deforms, the more mountain pressure is released. But in the critical zones of the Gotthard Base Tunnel, stability could not be achieved by just permitting deformation A counterforce was needed against the mountain to stop the cavity from reclosing completely. The solution was to use telescopically slidable rings. In this method, two telescopically slidable steel half-rings are connected to form full rings inside the tunnel cross section, excavated with an overcut of about 70 centimeters. The ring segments slide slowly together under the mountain pressure until their ends meet and they stabilize each other.

56 Meters in just 24 hours


The Worms

After a major overhaul, the two Herrenknecht Gripper TBMs, Gabi 1 and 2, completed the northern Erstfeld-Amsteg section with a length of just over 7 kilometers in 2009. The geological conditions there were almost ideal. This meant a Gotthard tunnelling record could be set in late summer 2009. In the space of only 24 hours, Gabi 2 chomped its way through no less than 56 meters of mountain – a world record for a tunnel boring machine of such dimensions. On June 16 and September 16, 2009, the construction site teams in the north reached their destinations in Amsteg after only 18 months, that is, six months ahead of schedule. This breakthrough was a prime example of the tunnel builders’ and the machines’ precision. Both TBMs had deviated from the ideal line, horizontally by 4 millimeters and vertically by 8 millimeters – millimeter precision in the truest sense.

At this time, Sissi and Heidi were still working in the mountain in the south. Although Heidi had some problems with a rock collapse in the western tube between Faido and Sedrun in March 2010,

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY October 15, 2010: Main breakthrough at the Gotthard base tunnel

the subsequent stabilization measures only interrupted tunnelling until July 2010. Luckily enough, this event had almost no impact whatsoever on the project schedule. Work continues, including that of the two (vault) lining units supplied by the Herrenknecht branch company Maschinen- und Stahlbau Dresden, which follow the two tunnelling ‘ladies’ at a respectful distance. These 600-meter-long ‘worms’ lay drainage pipes, install sealing systems and concrete the vaults in twelvemeter stages. In a nutshell, they prepare the tunnel tubes, with top monthly performances of 600 meters, for the installation of the railway technology.

OCTOBER 15, 2010: MAIN BREAKTHROUGH AT THE GOTTHARD BASE TUNNEL On Friday, October 15, 2010, breakthrough was achieved in the eastern tube and an “unhindered view of the Mediterranean” has become a reality. Breakthrough in the western tube is expected to take place in spring 2011. A few years of finishing work will then follow, to turn the tunnel into a functioning highspeed rail route with massive security precautions, for example the two emergency stations where trains can stop in case of danger. Here, passengers will be able to move quickly from one tunnel to the other – each of the two tubes serves as an escape route for its twin. This is a clever solution, which came after lengthy consideration of all the alternatives by all those involved in Switzerland. The work of the tunnel builders and the machines is now approaching its end. And the results are very satisfying. All risks were dealt with, all setbacks were overcome, all emotional rollercoaster rides were survived. And schedules were adhered to, despite the almost unimaginable complexity of the project. Time lost in one

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place was made up for elsewhere. On the occasion of the last stage goal, the Erstfeld – Amsteg breakthrough – Moritz Leuenberger, Member of the Swiss Federal Council, spoke of a triumphant victory over the doubters and moaners”. His motto was “no matter how high the mountain and no matter how hard the rock, where there’s a will there’s a way. We can do it, because we want it.”

The greatest compliment Martin Herrenknecht, Chairman of the Board of Management of Herrenknecht AG, also summed it up in his own words: “Anyone who masters such a huge project is at the pinnacle of infrastructure development. Europe will take off its hat to Switzerland as soon as the first trains start speeding through the new Gotthard Base Tunnel. The trust the Swiss have placed in Herrenknecht technology is the greatest complement we could ever receive as a company.”

Author/source: Provided by the Herrenknecht AG



Best results lead to the breakthrough If crusher technology by Metso looks after anything, then it’s your purse: the Barmac vertical impact crusher protects the rotor which controls the process in an autogenous layer of feed material in crushing. The mobile Lokotrack LT1415 protects the nerves, as its large intake opening prevents bridging. As a primary crusher, the LT140 saves time – in conjunction with the flexible Lokolink conveyor system it makes such progress in opencast quarrying that you can save a large proportion of your dumpers. Talk to us about the possibilities of staying successful even in difficult times. Your contact person: Karl-Heinz Hessler Tel.: ++49 (0)621 72700-611 Mobile: ++49 (0)177 6608438

Metso Minerals (Deutschland) GmbH Obere Riedstr. 111-115, 68309 Mannheim,




Pipe conveyors transport bulk material efficiently across long distances:

For the challenging tasks

Pipe conveyors have been in use in Europe since the early 1980s. They are becoming a highly recognised and accepted solution for a number of applications and now represent the state of the art in conveying technology. However, the application potential is far from exhausted, because the possibilities and advantages of this system are still largely unknown to many potential users and in various industries and countries. On-going development is continually expanding the limitations of use. However, not every supplier of pipe conveyors has the expertise necessary to fully exhaust the potential – unlike the specialists in the BEUMER Group. The range of products offered by BEUMER, a family business headquartered in Beckum, is divided into three fields: conveying and loading technology, palletising and packaging technology and sortation and distribution systems. Conveying and loading technology includes, for example, pipe conveyors, troughed belt conveyors, apron conveyors and bucket elevators. The acquisition of KOCH Holding Czech Republic, bulk material handling specialists, has incorporated additional expertise and years of experience with pipe conveyors into BEUMER‘s portfolio. Both companies have extensive experience and references in the development, planning and implementation of pipe conveyors, which are now united as the „Best of both worlds“.

Design, features and applications To receive material, the belt is open like a conventional belt conveyor in the feeding area of the pipe conveyor. After a certain distance, which depends on the pipe diameter or belt width, special belt forming rollers mould the belt into the desired closed shape. The rollers smoothly roll in the belt, avoiding friction between the belt surfaces. From this point on, the closed belt runs along the entire conveying distance, through what are known as panels and partition plates. Six rollers are installed in a staggered arrangement on each of these panels for the upper and lower strands.

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The tubular shape of the belt makes it possible to manoeuvre horizontal and vertical curves without additional transfer stations. This increases operational reliability. At the end of the conveying line, the belt opens on its own and discharges the material like a conventional troughed belt conveyor. In the return strand, the belt is rolled back into its tubular shape, using the same method as in the upper strand.

Fundamental design characteristics One of the fundamental design characteristics of the pipe conveyor is its tubular shape. There are two variations on this shape: the oval and the circular pipe. Each shape has its advantages. For example, an oval shape allows the belt overlap to seal more tightly, because the overlap is flatter than on a circular pipe. When it comes to belt tracking and torsion on straight sections, this shape is more stable – particularly on long conveyors. Due to the lower overall height, the contact surface is smaller, thus reducing the impact of wind on the system. In contrast, the circular shape requires less steel, and the cross section of the steel construction allows for favourable structural stability. These characteristics enable lower costs, decreased load on the lower idlers and increased service life of the system. There is enough flexibility for pipe conveyors to be individually tailored to the various needs of the customer. The belt overlap creates a closed conveying


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY system. The belt quality is selected depending on the application, conveying capacity and length. For instance, a differentiation is made between normal, heat resistant or non-abrasive rubber qualities. Steel cables or textile fabric can be used as the traction element, depending on the required belt strength. The whole cross section is not used to transport material. The degree of filling is typically limited to approximately 75 percent, depending on the material to be transported. This figure is a safety factor that allows the system to handle any short-term increases in capacity. Even though the pipe conveyor is establishing itself more and more, the troughed belt conveyor will continue to have its use. Which conveyor is more suitable depends on the respective application and local conditions.

Features of a pipe conveyor The inherent features of a pipe conveyor facilitate transportation solutions that are either impossible with other conveying systems or that can only be implemented with significant limitations or additional costs. The enclosed design of the pipe conveyor protects the material from the elements, and the elements from the material. Therefore, the system helps meet environmental protection goals and fulfil official requirements. Tight curve radii and large inclines can be navigated. This facilitates flexible routing and provides the opportunity to go around existing obstacles, making a number of solutions possible that allow existing terrain and structures to remain intact. Depending on the application, the capital costs of the conveyor itself might be higher in certain cases for a pipe conveyor over a conventional troughed belt conveyor. However, these additional costs are put into perspective when the pipe conveyor is able to make full use of its advantages. Once transfer points, modifications to plant equipment, excavation work or costly dust or noise pollution measures can be avoided, the savings for the customer greatly outweigh the extra costs for the optimal conveying system.

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Pipe conveyors in use On principle, pipe conveyors are used when, for instance, dusty, wet, sticky or light-weight material needs to be conveyed. They are also used in cases of high environmental demands and/or when local conditions require curved, narrow conveying systems. This leads to the following fields of application:

• the cement industry, for cement, clinker, additives or surrogate fuels • power plants, for fuel and also for waste, such as ash of various consistencies • harbour handling and transfer areas, for the transportation of bulk materials to and/or from off-shore ship loading or unloading systems • the transportation of coal, limestone, gravel, ore or artificial fertiliser • the food and beverage industry, with the use of food safe belts

In one cement plant for the company Dyckerhoff, for example, two relatively short BEUMER pipe conveyors are in use. What is special about these conveyors is their 29 degree inclination. Depending on the material properties, a pipe conveyor can – due to its enclosed design – overcome even larger inclines, which are not possible with a conventional troughed belt conveyor. Because a compact column of material is created inside the pipe, it is more difficult for material to slide

A schematic representation of the basics of the pipe conveyor



The belt forming rollers mould the belt into the desired pipe shape

The conveying line can cross open spaces

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backwards. Dyckerhoff took the opportunity to also design the conveying line with overlapping horizontal and vertical curves that required three dimensionally manufactured steel frames. This minimised the length of the conveyor and further reduced costs. In another example, KOCH Holding a.s. supplied and installed a pipe conveyor for a cement plant in Ladce, Slovakia. This conveyor transports surrogate fuels to the furnace. More and more often, pipe conveyors are being used to transport crushed waste, which is being used as fuel. This is often light-weight material or household waste. Transporting waste using a pipe conveyor is cost-efficient and eliminates unpleasant odours. Also, the track is routed to conform with the existing buildings and surroundings. In the Czech town of Melnik, a pipe conveyor is used to transport wet ash two kilometres from a power plant to the waste site. With a pipe diameter of 350 millimetres,

the pipe conveyor first crosses the premises of the power plant, then open country. It goes through three horizontal and four vertical curves. Since the wet ash must be returned to the plant later for recycling, the pipe conveyor is designed to be reversible and can be converted within 24 hours.

FOR MORE INFORMATION AND CONTACT: BEUMER Maschinenfabrik GmbH & Co. KG Oelder Str. 40 59269 Beckum | Germany Media contact: Regina Schnathmann Tel.: +49 (0)25 21 - 24 381 eMail: Verena Breuer Tel.: +49 (0)25 21 - 24 317 eMail: Internet:

The advantages of the pipe conveyor are, for example, the protection of the material from the elements and protection of the environment from escaping material by means of dust-free transportation

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BROAD SERVICE SPECTRUM The BBM Group is active in a variety of future-orientated business areas: Our core business comprises mining, structural, underground and civil engineering as well as assembly. In addition, as an innovative company we have also embarked on the development and marketing of new IT technologies. Our services at a glance:


Dieter-aus-dem-Siepen-Platz 1 D-45468 Mülheim an der Ruhr PHONE +49 (0) 208 459 59-0 FAX +49 (0) 208 459 59-59 EMAIL

OPEN CAST MINING Excellent raw materials for successful construction projects Our quarries produce first-class rock for structural and civil engineering. Our stone fractions, high quality fine flints and architectural stone are used primarily in road construction and concrete production, and also in the chemical industry. BBM is also increasing in demand as a contract mining supplier for raw materials extraction. MINING Top quality services based on experience BBM is an outstanding supplier of specialist underground mining services, in particular in Germany. Working on behalf of large mining companies, we assume responsibility of complete lots or provide personnel for all forms of mining and assembly work. Our teams are available for flexible application right across Europe. Our own workshop maintains our fleet of machines. BBM has also succeeded in making a name for itself as a contract mining supplier in the underground mining sector.

DIVERSE ACTIVITIES ACROSS EUROPE The proprietor-managed BBM Group has enjoyed success on the market since 1990 and is active in a wide range of business areas. Networked with internationally renowned cooperative partners, we support demanding projects throughout Europe. In doing so we apply the skills of around 1,000 highly qualified employees, who work with competence and commitment to ensure the seamless fulfilment of our orders. It is with maximum flexibility that we set benchmarks in quality and reliability. Thanks to rapid decision-making and the central steering of all activities, we offer integrated solutions from a single source and generate tailored solutions – in all business sectors.

W W W. O P E RTA - B B M . D E Issue 01 | 2011


WE BUILD THE FUTURE Every project needs a vision – and the resources to transform it into reality. BBM combines both: Top quality demands throughout all of our activities in a wide range of areas, excellent corporate knowhow and expert knowledge of the skilled trades and technology. This results in excellent products and services, for which we are renowned and valued right across Europe. BBM is a reliable and in-demand partner, greatly trusted by its clients and cooperative partners. This high performance level and consistent orientation towards the demands of our customers makes us exceptional. We accept challenges and create added value: As a dynamic company that will continue to grow in the future and tap into new markets across Europe. BBM brings projects to a successful conclusion – take our word for it and profit from our rich wealth of experience.


NEWS & REPORTS BEUMER Maschinenfabrik GmbH & Co. KG

Rough terrain requires use of mules BEUMER completes major order in China

With the completion of a belt conveyor installation for Asia cement Group in Chinese Sichuan, the BEUMER Group has once again demonstrated its pioneering role as a specialist for intralogistic conveying. The major order with a total volume of 5 million Euros includes development and installation of a 12.5-kilometre long installation through rough mountainous terrain. The Asia Cement Group, a major building material manufacturer headquartered in Taipei (Taiwan), has built a new plant in the vicinity of Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan. Currently, a furnace chain with a capacity of 4200 tons per day is installed there. For moving the limestone from the quarry to the factory, located 30 km away, the Asia Cement Group has commissioned BEUMER with building a curving troughed belt conveyor installation. Chengdu has about 10 million inhabitants and is thus one of the largest markets for selling building materials in China. That is why the Asia Cement Group in 2004 decided to set up a plant for mining limestone. During the development phase the company was given a permit by the Chinese government to use a disused railway line for transporting the limestone. When the plant was already half-finished the government decided to enlarge a nearby artificial lake to generate electricity and to flood the area intended for transport. With that the conditions changed for the Asia Cement Group since now further use of the disused railway line was only possible for the last 15 kilometres. Inundation of the road and the resulting detour also made transport by lorry more difficult as well. In addition the cement manufacturer is planning to build two other kiln lines at this site. Such a logistic challenge could not be adequately met with lorries in such rough terrain. The better alternative, from a time and cost perspective, turned out to be installation of a troughed belt conveyor installation.

Logistical and engineering challenge For more than 20 years the Asia Cement Group has relied on BEUMER expertise and has numerous installations and bucket elevators by the machinemanufacturing company in operation. Due to the conditions of topography and the resulting logistical and engineering requirements, development, bridging and commissioning of the conveyor had to come from one source. The BEUMER Group is known for extensive know-how in the field of curved belt conveyors and has

The Asia Cement Group has commissioned BEUMER to construct a curved troughed belt conveyor system in Sichuan, China.

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NEWS & REPORTS The large order with a total volume of more than 5 million Euros comprises the development and installation of a 12.5-km-long conveying system in rough and mountainous terrain.

routed through 1.5 kilometres of water. Such extreme outer constraints entail having to mount manually about 90 percent of the installation on site. Since transport by lorry is to some extent impossible the structures have to be carried by mules, piece by piece. For that reason BEUMER designed the entire facility in such a way that all parts can be screwed on and have a carrier length of only three metres. In that way optimum transport can be ensured.

constantly provided proof of its pioneering role with a large number of patents as well as accomplishing even extremely difficult tasks time and again. Besides its advanced technology, innovative capacity and broad spectrum of expertise, the BEUMER Group is also close to the customer with its subsidiary in Shanghai. In May 2006 the Asia Cement Group placed the order for the 12.5-kilometre long troughed belt conveyor with a mass flow of 1500 tons per hour and a conveying speed of four metres a second with the BEUMER Group. The terrain to be conquered consists of mountains and bamboo forests. Since a good portion of the bamboo is under nature conservation, no approval was given for a service route, nor was any clear cutting allowed. Even the subsoil posed a serious challenge for BEUMER engineers: for one thing, the ground is unstable because of previous coal mining. At other points the ground consists of granite that can only be removed to a certain extent. In addition, along the route a segment has to be

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Altitude differences up to 100 metres After the order was placed, BEUMER in consultation with the Asia Cement Group optimised the routing of the troughed belt conveyor on the spot. With eight horizontal curves having a radius of some 1000 to 5000 metres, the machine manufacturer calculated the precise belt tensile forces in costly simulations. The routing decided on by the engineers was examined for its feasibility on the spot. For this purpose, the entire 12.5 kilometres were gone over on foot through rough terrain in order to check the specified sites for the 460 supports for their suitability directly in the field and down to the millimetre. In doing so, it turned out that a 130 metre granite segment had to be tunnelled. Besides rough terrain, extreme altitude differences of up to 100 metres posed a particular challenge. In order to minimise total costs as much as possible, BEUMER has used four horizontal curves and spans the mountains with bridges up to 55 metres in height.



In close collaboration with the customer, BEUMER developed the entire design and computed the static prerequisites for the bridges and belt facilities. With two model conveyor sections, built on site and mounted and readjusted once again by BEUMER, the design of the bridges could be tested with the conveyor. Additionally, BEUMER carried out load tests with real-life loads and the model conveyor sections could serve as models for building bridges. The Asia Cement Group is responsible for steel construction of the bridge according to specifications by BEUMER engineers and under the constant supervision of two technical supervisors. The BEUMER Group develops, builds and delivers the core parts for the drive and take-up stations as well as all belting and drive technology.

BEUMER-Group copes with any challenge For the 12.5-kilometre long conveyor installation the length of the belt is 25 kilometres. The belt has to be vulcanised in 56 places. The width of the belt is 1200 mm and its rigidity is 2800 N/mm.

In close cooperation with the Asia Cement Group, BEUMER has developed the whole construction and provided the static conditions for the bridges and the conveying system.

The BEUMER group is well-known all over the world for outstanding and comprehensive knowhow in the field of belt conveyor systems.

Besides the eight horizontal curves the installation has 28 vertical curves. In order to keep belt tensile forces under control through six declining segments and six inclining ones the installation is operated with special motors and with BEUMER controls adapted to them. The installed driving power comes to six times 500 kW, frequency regulated with BEUMER controls. Driving power is divided into two drive pulleys at the installation’s feed and head, respectively. In this case, one pulley acts as a double drive for 1000 kW and one as a simple drive for 500 kW.

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A movable take-up weight was dispensed with and instead the take-up weight is adjusted once and geometrically frozen with a take-up winch. The troughed belt conveyor should be installed and in operation by mid 2008. Despite all logistical and topographic obstacles the BEUMER Group has coped with every challenge and is right on schedule with construction. And with that, the company has not just delivered a piece of machinery but developed and achieved the customer’s desired results as a whole.

FOR MORE INFORMATION AND CONTACT: BEUMER Maschinenfabrik GmbH & Co. KG Oelder Str. 40 59269 Beckum | Germany Media contact: Regina Schnathmann Tel.: +49 (0)25 21 - 24 381 eMail: Verena Breuer Tel.: +49 (0)25 21 - 24 317 eMail: Internet:

The BEUMER Group The BEUMER Group is an international leader in the manufacture of intralogistics for conveying, loading, palletising, packaging, sortation and distribution technology. Together with Crisplant a/s and the KOCH Holding a.s., the BEUMER Group employs about 2,000 people and achieves an annual turnover of about 375 million EUR. With its subsidiaries and sales agencies, the BEUMER Group is present in many industries the world over. For more information visit

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NEWS & REPORTS Highlight at the ContiTech Power Transmission Group’s booth (B23) in hall 25 are drive belts of the BlueConcept family, which are produced in an eco-friendly manner without carbon black.

ContiTech at the Hannover Messe 2011

Engineering Green Value Technology company ContiTech showcases forward-looking innovations for sustainable mobility and energy supply • New generation of industrial timing belts entirely devoid of carbon black • Strong presence in partner country France

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NEWS & REPORTS Another outstanding idea will be featured by the ContiTech Elastomer Coatings business unit: the flexible solar tank, FLEXSAVE Duo, developed jointly by ContiTech and FSAVE Solartechnik of Kassel.

Hanover, February 2011. “Engineering Green Value” – under this motto, ContiTech AG is again showcasing its special technological expertise for future-looking applications for regenerative energy or sustainable mobility at this year’s Hannover Messe. At its 400-square-meter booth (A16, hall 5), the company is presenting new, health-sustaining and climate-friendly automobile interior trim materials that are largely free from emissions and allergens. And when it comes to products and applications for harnessing power from the sun, wind and water, ContiTech is one of the industry’s preferred technology partners. It is showcasing international projects and outstanding innovations such as the flexible solar tank at the trade show. Its presentation at the fair this year will be supplemented once again with a booth on the topics of drive technology and fluid technology at the Motion, Drive and Automation trade show in hall 25. “Our maxim ‘Engineering Green Value’ stands for the strategic orientation of ContiTech on the whole,” stresses Heinz-Gerhard Wente, CEO of ContiTech AG. “Our driving force, today and in the future, is the creation of true added value for our customers and the environment with our know-how and experiences, while acting in a responsible manner.

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And our goal is to keep ContiTech well prepared in the long term for the challenges of the future. Our presence at the Hannover Messe underscores this in a special way.”

Automotive interiors from Benecke-Kaliko protect people, the environment, and the climate The auto industry is currently focusing its attention on the topic of sustainable mobility more than any other subject. The challenge: The car of the future is expected to be just as powerful and offer the same comfort and convenience features, and yet it must also have fewer CO2 emissions, and be built as far as possible using eco-friendly manufacturing techniques. For car drivers, it is also a matter of being in a car with an interior climate that is as healthy as possible, since every person spends up to two and a half years of his or life in the car.


NEWS & REPORTS ContiTech’s surface specialist Benecke-Kaliko makes a key contribution here with its new Acella® Eco product family for automotive interiors. This exceptionally skin-friendly material, which contains no contact allergens and is eco-friendly, has obtained the most stringent Öko-Tex® certification, Class 1 of the Öko-Tex® Standard 100.

Brilliant ideas for regenerative energy sources Another outstanding idea will be featured by the ContiTech Elastomer Coatings business unit: the flexible solar tank, FLEXSAVE Duo, developed jointly by ContiTech and FSAVE Solartechnik of Kassel, Germany, a technology company founded by Kassel’s university. The heat storage system is equipped with a flexible water tank from ContiTech and assembled with custommade individual components. Unlike conventional models made of stainless steel, this tank, which holds two cubic meters and more of water, is capable of conforming to a given spatial situation in a house. That means that narrow doorways or stairwells no longer get in the way of installation of a thermal storage system in a new or existing building. The system makes it much less of a problem to retrofit existing buildings with solar systems. This is important in making renewable energy truly available to many final-users in the interest of a longterm eco-friendly approach. This intelligent and extremely practical new product for home owners interested in going the solar energy route already won the Intersolar Award 2010, a key innovation prize, in the solar thermics category.

New generation of eco-friendly industrial timing belts of the BlueConcept family One of ContiTech’s highlights in hall 25 (booth B23) is its new generation of industrial timing belts that are currently being tested in several selected sizes in pilot projects. The consumer goods industry in particular offers interesting application fields for these belts. In 2010, the company with its CONTI-V® PIONEER became the first manufacturer to introduce a wrapped V-belt which consists primarily of renewable raw materials and is electrically conductive, although it is manufactured without carbon black. With this advanced development from the BlueConcept family, ContiTech is again

Acella® Eco for vehicle interiors is exceptionally skin-friendly material from Benecke-Kaliko which contains no contact allergens and is eco-friendly, has obtained the most stringent Öko-Tex® certification.

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NEWS & REPORTS playing a pioneering role in eco-and health-friendly applications. “In order to satisfy the growing demand for eco-friendly belts, we have upped our production capacities in recent months,” explains segment head Regina Arning. “Dealer feedback about our new products has been thoroughly positive and very promising. We can now supply the most important sizes.” In addition, ContiTech has expanded its selection of conventional drive belts and is presenting itself as a full range provider with a broad product range in the most varied of performance capacities.


Strong partner in France France – this year‘s partner country at the Hannover Messe – has been a central market for ContiTech for decades with positive global spillover effects. ContiTech is represented in France with two sales locations and one production location. It supplies primarily the automotive industry, the railway industry as well as other key industries in France. The markets in North Africa are served via France as well. Customers in France include PSA Peugeot Citroen as well as the Renault Group in the automotive sector, and the Volvo Group in the commercial vehicle branch (Renault-Trucks, Volvo, Mack, Nissan Diesel). The share on the replacement markets for car belts is also increasing steadily: Since the end of 2010, the ContiTech Power Transmission Group is officially number two on the French market. ContiTech is equally successful in the railway sector: Air spring systems from ContiTech Air Spring systems are on board the TGV, which landed the title of fastest train in world in 2007 with a speed of 574.8 km/h between Paris and Strasbourg, and its successor the AGV.

Die ContiTech AG

With sales of more than €25.5 billion in 2010, Continental is among the leading automotive suppliers worldwide. As a supplier of brake systems, systems and components for powertrains and chassis, instrumentation, infotainment solutions, vehicle electronics, tires and technical elastomers, Continental contributes to enhanced driving safety and global climate protection. Continental is also a competent partner in networked automobile communication. Continental currently employs approximately 149,000 in 46 countries. The ContiTech division holds a global market leadership position for non-tire rubber technical elastomer products and is a specialist in plastics technology in the non-tire rubber sector. The division develops and produces functional parts, components and systems for the automotive industry and other important industries. The division has around 25,000 employees. In 2009, it achieved sales of approximately €2.4 billion.

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HAZEMAG & EPR GmbH: Dinting Loader EL 160 LS

with new features for Argentina!

HAZEMAG & HAZEMAG & EPR delivered 6 dinting loaders type EL 160 LS to YACIMENT CARBONIFERO in Argentina These loaders will come into operation in remote southwest of Argentina, close to the town of Rio Turbio in the province of Santa Cruz. Here coal has already been mined since 1943. Today a modernization of the mine is essential with a new nearby power plant coming on stream soon and the growing demand for coal as an energy source. Fitted with a newly developed rotational boom and tailored to the customers’ needs the dinting loaders are intended to contribute to this target. The compact and low-weight design (length 7.500mm,

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width 1,145 mm, height 1.150mm, weight 10.850 kg) is essential whereat a wide working range of the shovel is guaranteed. Besides a slewing angle of 2x30° each of the bucket and the boom, the rotational fitting on the boom permits the bucket to be positioned in almost all positions to work not only on the floor but also along the side walls and face. A single 55 kW-motor followed by an adjustable axial piston pump powers all hydraulic components including the two driving motors of the crawler chassis (driving speed 0.3 m/s, climbing ability 25 gon, max lateral inclination 12 gon). The local service partner from Argentina underwent a comprehensive training and instruction course in our head office and main manufacturing facility in Duelmen ensuring that even far away in the south of Argentina the customer can count on the reliable service provided by HAZEMAG & EPR.



HAZEMAG & EPR GmbH: sells wobbler feeder and

roll crusher to Estonia!

Wobbler feeder Rroll crusher

HAZEMAG sells wobbler feeder and roll crusher to Estonia


VKG Kaevandused OÜ ordered a wobbler feeder and a roll crusher for processing oil shale in Ojamaa Mine, Estonia. The machines have just passed the acceptance test in HAZEMAG‘s production in Dülmen. The wobbler feeder, which is connected upstream of the roll crusher, screens the fines from the feed material (approx. 1,000 t/h). The coarse material, approx. 250 t/h, is crushed by the roll crusher to reach the desired particle size of 0-125 mm. By using the wobbler feeder as a primary screen, a smaller type of crusher can be used for the subsequent crushing. The gap of the roll crusher can be infinitely varied using a hydraulic system. In case a contaminant enters the machine, the movably supported roll moves aside hydraulically, lets the contaminant pass and moves back into its preset position. In subsequent process steps, the resulting product is used as fuel or for oil extraction.

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HAZEMAG & EPR GmbH Gudrun Richter Brokweg 75 48249 Dülmen | Germany Tel.: +49 (0)25 94 - 77 488 Fax: +49 (0)25 94 - 77 400 eMail: Internet:


HAZEMAG & EPR GmbH is a medium-sized, internationally operating mechanical engineering company with headquarters in Dülmen/North Rhine Westphalia. As one of the pioneers in its field, HAZEMAG is a leading plant and equipment manufacturer for the raw materials processing, mining and drilling industries. The company has an extensive net of licensees and agents in more than 40 countries to provide guaranteed customer back-up and support world-wide. HAZEMAG has a staff of some 400 employees in Germany and abroad..


NEWS & REPORTS Wirtgen Group


Wirtgen Group “i” machines for a better environment

he response of the Wirtgen Group to the stricter emissions standards entering into force as of 2011 is „intelligent emission control“, a drive technology for a better environment. In future, an „i“ will be uniformly added to the machine designation of all machines of the Wirtgen Group that are equipped with the new engine technology. The headquarters of the Wirtgen Group have prepared for the engine conversion in good time so that all customers in the impacted industrial regions have a high degree of planning certainty.

Emissions standards in flux Diesel engines in mobile construction machines operate in very heavy-duty conditions, but must also have as little impact on the environment as possible. Legislators introduced mandatory limits for the emission of pollutants in 1996 that have since become successively more stringent. Particular emphasis is being placed on effectively reducing emissions of particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). So far, emissions limit values could be complied with through measures implemented inside the engines. As of 2011, however, EU Emissions Stage IIIB will enter into force in Europe for mobile machines, while Tier 4i (interim) will enter into force in the USA and MLIT Step 4i in Japan. The next stages will enter into force from 2014 on: EU Stage IV, Tier 4f (final) and MLIT Step 4f. Engine manufacturers are not the only ones facing challenges due to this reduction in limits – the most drastic to date.

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„As a manufacturer of construction machines, we, too, are looking at an enormous technical undertaking. To comply with the new limits, we not only have to implement the changes for the new engines, but also install the exhaust gas aftertreatment components in the machines. And the space required for this is considerable,“ explains Peter Berghoff, Deputy Head of the Development and Design Department of Wirtgen GmbH.

Proven Wirtgen Group technology The stricter emissions standards are being introduced as of January 2011 in the EU and EFTA economic regions, the USA, Canada and Japan. „We developed the „i“ machines precisely for these countries. For instance, if a customer in the USA wishes to purchase a Type 5200- 2 or 5203-2 VISION paver next year, we will supply him with a


NEWS & REPORTS VISION 5200- 2i or 5203-2i,“ explains Martin Buschmann, Head of Development and Design at Joseph Vögele AG. In all other countries, everything remains the same and the current Wirtgen Group product range will be used. „That is actually imperative as the operation of „i“ machines requires fuelling with ultra-low sulphur diesel exclusively. This quality of fuel is currently only available in the EU and EFTA, the USA, Canada and Japan. In other words, a customer in Africa would be unable to supply an „i“ machine with the requisite type of fuel and the engine would suffer considerable damage,“ warns Dr. Axel Römer, Head of Development at Hamm AG.

The low emission values of the „i“ machines will result in a marked improvement in air quality for the operating personnel and the working environment. The „i“ machines represent the state-of-the-art of engine technology and will give operators a competitive edge, enabling them to offer „clean“, i.e. environmentally compatible, machine technology when bidding for contracts.


Transitional statutory rulings In order to make the transition phase manageable for the industry, statutory transitional rulings have been developed for the sale of a limited number of machines that conform to the previous emissions stage. „We will make use of these rulings where possible and practical, as not every engine type will be available in a version that complies with the newest emissions stage on the changeover date,“ said Berghoff. In the EU and EFTA economic regions, the USA and Canada, as well as Japan, the „i“ machines of the Wirtgen Group will offer the certainty of compliance with the newest emissions legislation.

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Wirtgen Group Claudia Fernus Reinhard-Wirtgen-Straße 2 53578 Windhagen | Germany Tel.: +49 (0)26 45 - 13 17 44 Fax: +49 (0)26 45 - 13 14 99 eMail: Internet:

The Wirtgen Group started preparing sales and service managers for the impending changes very early on: Peter Berghoff of Wirtgen GmbH explains the new engine technology of the W 100i.


NEWS & REPORTS Volvo Construction Equipment

The new Volvo G-Series wheeled loaders re-set the standard W

ith a 20% increase in lifting force, the L150G, L180G and L220G are the foundation of the new G-Series range of wheeled loaders from Volvo Construction Equipment. And common to the whole family they offer higher productivity, improved fuel efficiency and stronger hydraulics.

Featuring new engines and driveline systems for improved productivity, lower emissions, greater smoothness, serviceability and operator comfort, the G-Series is the latest generation of wheeled loaders from Volvo Construction Equipment. These new models are fitted with a Tier 4i/Stage IIIB compliant engine that is married to drive train, hydraulics and lifting systems that are all designed and produced by Volvo to work in perfect, productive, fuel efficient, harmony. That’s not all – the G-Series also features a 20% increase in lifting force and 10% improvement in breakout force.

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More = power, torque & fuel efficiency The G-Series is a complete range of loaders that meet the requirements of the Stage IIIB (in Europe) and Tier 4i (in the US) emissions legislation that came into force on January 1st 2011. The L150G, L180G and L220G are all fitted with Volvo’s 13 litre, six cylinder turbocharged V-ACT (Volvo Advanced Combustion Technology) off-highway diesel engine, which features cooled gas recirculation and a particulate filter with active regeneration. The active-type diesel particulate filter (DPF) temporarily holds the particulate matter and then incinerates it, further reducing emissions. This process is conducted without any loss of performance or operation.


NEWS & REPORTS Producing between 220 and 274 kW (300-371 hp), depending on the model, these three units provide high torque at low engine speeds. As well as meeting the low emissions requirements of the legislation, the D13 engine also leads the industry in terms of fuel efficiency, reliability and noise. The production of torque and power at low engine speeds, combined with load-sensing hydraulics, removes the need to overrun the engine, which in turn extends engine life as well as lowering fuel usage and dramatically reducing noise. A variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) has been introduced on the G-Series wheeled loaders. The VGT is designed to continually vary the airflow into the engine. A sliding nozzle allows the exhaust gas flowing into the turbine wheel to vary so as to provide rapid boost at low engine speeds – and to achieve and maintain high boost at higher engine speeds. This contributes to good engine response across the entire engine speed range.

More powerful hydraulics cut cycle times The new Volvo G-series wheeled loaders boast a 20% increase in lifting force and 10% increase in breakout force. The new improvement ensures smooth, full buckets – resulting in faster cycle times and increased productivity. Two stronger, variable displacement load-bearing axial piston pumps and hoses have been introduced to handle the increased pressures. These provide superior control of the load and attachments, as well as high breakout force, faster lifting and tilt functions. A new hydraulic cooling system has been designed to reduce the working temperatures by up to

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20°C over previous models. Also, the hydraulic oil-return filter has improved from 20 micron to 10 micron to further protect the pumps from potential contamination. All made by Volvo, the powertrain is designed to work in harmony for optimum performance. Engines, transmissions, drivelines, heavy-duty axles, hydraulics – all are optimized to not only match each other, but to ensure maximum performance and reliability. Transmissions feature the company’s exceptional Volvo Automatic Power Shift (APS) concept, which ensures the loader always operates in the ideal gear by sensing engine and travel speed, kick-down, engine braking and other factors. Offering operators a choice of four gear shifting programs, APS results in more efficient work cycles with lower fuel consumption and wear.

Up to 15% fuel savings Consisting of a new torque converter with Lock Up and free wheel stator, Optishift is a new system that integrates the Volvo patented Reverse-by-Braking (RBB) function – significantly reducing fuel consumption – by up to 15% – as well as increasing operator comfort and driveline durability. When changing from forward to reverse (or vice versa), RBB applies the standard service brake instead of the torque converter, bringing the machine to a halt and putting less stress on the converter and transmission. OptiShift can significantly reduce fuel consumption in operations such as load and carry – as well as in short cycle loading. The driveline lock up, meanwhile, improves drive response, rimpull & incline performance and fuel efficiency.



Volvo’s patented Torque Parallel (TP) linkage combines the benefits of Z-bar and parallel linkages in one system, delivering good parallel movement and high breakout force, even in the highest lift position. Featuring fewer welds, the TP linkage has a strong and durable design that is designed to withstand the toughest conditions.

Industry-leading CareCab The latest generation Volvo Care Cab fitted to these wheel loaders extends its already legendary status. ROPS/FOPS approved, visibility in the spacious new cabin is excellent, to the rear, to the bucket edge – and to the centrally located instrumentation. With controls that fall easily to hand, operators can breathe easily thanks to efficient air-management and filtering systems – and get on with the job in hand in a comfortable, clean, low-noise and vibration work environment. The servo controls are mounted on the operator seat, and include settings such as Return to Dig. Also, to encourage operators to work smoothly, the accelerator pedal applies an appropriate amount of mechanical back pressure, to encourage low fuel consumption operating techniques.

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Caring for the machine The G-Series comes with advanced electronic monitoring diagnostics that are designed to prolong machine life, enhance uptime and maximize productivity. Contronics monitors functions in real time and alerts the operator if problems occur. MATRIS, meanwhile, charts and analyses data on machine handling and operation. VCADS Pro is a system that allows a machine to be fine-tuned to specific applications, further improving performance. Finally, CareTrack, the Volvo Construction Equipment telematics system, allows machine location and operating data to be securely viewed via the internet from anywhere in the world, aiding fast decisions on maintenance and repairs. Servicing is made easy with the G-Series, with daily pre-start items quickly checked and scheduled service items conveniently grouped together. The G-Series is fitted with a newly designed engine cover that provides better ventilation of the engine compartment. The cover can be electronically opened backwards – giving good access for fast and easy cleaning or servicing duties. Centralized, ground level lubrication banks lower the time spent on scheduled maintenance. And consumables like filters are easy to reach and easy to replace.


NEWS & REPORTS Type specification





D13H-E (Tier 4i) D13H-F (Stage IIIB)

D13H-E (Tier 4i) D13H-F (Stage III)

D13H-E (Tier 4i) D13H-F (Stage IIIB)

21,7 U/s (1.300 U/min)

21,7-23,3 U/s (1.300-1.400 U/ min)

21,7-23,3 U/s (1.300-1.400 U/min)

SAE J1995, gross

220 kW (300 PS)

246 kW (334 PS)

274 kW (373 PS)

ISO 9249, SAE J1349, net

220 kW (300 PS)

245 kW (333 PS)

273 kW (371 PS)

202 kN

236 kN

255 kN

15500 kg

18420 kg

20740 kg

4,0 - 6,8 m³

4,4 - 7,8 m³

4,9 – 8,2 m³

3,1 m²

3,5 m²

4,0 m²

23,6 - 25,6 t

26,4 -28,5 t

31,5 -32,8 t

26.5 R25

26.5 R25

29.5 R25

Engine Max. motor capacity

Break out force Statically tipping load, max turn Bucket Lumber grapple Operating weight Tires

The G-Series comes with a large number of Volvo attachments to suit the application, including high tip and side tipping buckets. It’s not just buckets – there is a wide range of other attachments available, as well as attachment brackets that make changing tools fast and easy. All designed and approved by Volvo to work in perfect harmony with the machines’ link-arm geometry, breakout, rim pull and lifting forces.

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FOR MORE INFORMATION AND CONTACT: Volvo Construction Equipment Europe GmbH Marketing & Communications Manager Thorsten Poszwa Adalperostr. 80 85737 Ismaning | Germany Tel.: +49 (0)89 944 - 66 42 30 eMail: Internet:


NEWS & REPORTS Volvo Construction Equipment

F-Series from Volvo

redefines the articulated hauler market - again! The new F-Series articulated haulers set new standards in the market that Volvo created and continues to lead The new F-Series articulated haulers from Volvo Construction Equipment not only meet the demanding standards set by the Tier 4i (US) and Stage IIIB (Europe) emissions legislation, but also feature a package of improvements in functionality, design, and maintenance. The F-Series ranges from the 24 tonne A25F up to the 39 tonne A40F, each model manoeuvring, travelling and dumping in the most efficient and safe way.

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Having developed the articulated hauler approach in the 1960s, Volvo is still the runaway market leader – a position it enjoys with its philosophy of consistent evolution and refinement of the established hauler concept. Central to this is the articulated steering system, which gives operators outstanding control of the machine through both its high steering force in tough off road conditions (e.g. deep mud) and also its accurate, safe operation at high hauling speeds. The self-compensating hydro-mechanical system also affords exceptionally short turning circles; useful in confined loading and dumping areas and on tightly turning haul roads.



Heavy duty for heavy duties Durability and strength are the hallmarks of all Volvo haulers. Heavy duty front and rear frames have been designed for severe off road operation and long service life. The load body is also heavy duty, made from HB400 steel, and its design, high dump clearance and tipping angle all promote good material ejection. A powerful, load sensing ‘closed centre’ hydraulic system and double acting, single stage hoist cylinders raise the body even on steep downhill gradients. The system allows for precise, controllable dumping – shortening cycle times and aiding safety. A Load & Dump Brake is applied by pressing a button in the cab that applies the service brakes and shifts the transmission to neutral, further increasing safety and reducing operator fatigue. All machines also feature new dumping functions – detent body lowering and, notably, the adjustable tipping angle. Using the onboard Contronics system, operators can set the maximum tipping angle and, therefore, overall height of the body, ensuring safety when working under electrical wires, in tunnels or underground, for example. The new F-Series haulers meet the requirements of Stage IIIB (in Europe) and Tier 4i (in the US) emissions legislation. Electronically controlled, six cylinder turbo charged Volvo V-ACT diesel engines feature high torque at low engine speeds, resulting in good fuel efficiency, high performance, quicker engine response and less wear, i.e. long service life. Purpose built by Volvo, they are designed to exactly match the Volvo drive train, ensuring the best use of power and torque, even in tough working conditions. The engine in the drivetrain is matched to a torque converter with built in lock-up function and fitted with a fully automatic fast adaptive transmission. Its shafts, planetary gears and bearings are all reinforced to cope with the higher torque produced by the increased capacity engines. The new F-Series is not only more environmentally friendly, it is also more fuel efficient than the E-Series machines – by up to 4%. This is a remarkable achievement given that the E-Series was the class leader when it came to low fuel consumption.

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Controlling traction The drivetrain features as standard Automatic Traction Control (ATC) system, which prevents operators leaving their haulers permanently set in all-wheel drive mode, even when not needed, for example on good or paved roads, when only 6X4 drive is required. This leads to higher than necessary fuel consumption, tire and mechanical wear. ATC automatically disengages the rear axle when not needed; eliminating tire skid when cornering and reducing tire wear. However, when ATC system does sense slippage, the longitudinal differential lock and the 6X6 clutch are engaged together: this gives the hauler the optimum traction in all conditions.


NEWS & REPORTS The F-Series is fitted with four ‘dog clutch’ differential locks – one longitudinal in the drop box and three transversal in the axles, which help maximize grip in difficult conditions. When applied in combination, they ensure all wheels rotate at the same speed, maximizing traction in severe operating conditions, e.g. deep mud. The drive mode with all differential locks engaged can be turned on or off, by pressing a convenient floor mounted button while the vehicle is moving, for greater ease of use and productivity.

operator, reducing fatigue and enhancing productivity. The unique Full Suspension (FS) version of the F-Series is fitted with a fully hydraulic front and rear suspension. This, together with an automatic levelling system and stabilizer, maximizes hauling speeds of both loaded and unloaded machines.

A three point bogie beam design allows the rear wheels to move independently, ensuring good ground contact, traction, stability and minimizing strain on the frame. The high positioned rotating hitch (close to the load’s centre of gravity) is maintenance free and features permanently greased tapered roller bearings. Now available across the range, it ensures high ground clearance for excellent off road mobility and improves stability when hauling at high speeds. On the A25F and A30F models, hauling speeds are increased thanks to soft, progressive gas-hydraulic front suspension, which minimizes vibrations to the

The A25F and A30F are fitted with fully hydraulic brakes and dry discs on all wheels, while the bigger A35F and A40F are fitted with oil cooled wet discs. Additionally, all machines feature retarders. The A25F and A30F feature a hydraulic retarder and Volvo Engine Brake (VEB) – the latter consisting of a compression brake and exhaust retarder.

Stopping power

The larger A35F and A40F also feature VEB, but instead of a hydraulic retarder use the wheel brakes. The retarder function helps to control speed while hauling downhill, before curves or crossroads, reducing the need of service brake use and minimizing their wear.

A nice place to work As with all Volvo CE equipment, the new F-Series machines are fitted with a world class operator environment – the ROPS/FOPS protected Care Cab. Good all round visibility is assisted by a centrally positioned operator station, sloping hood, large rear-view mirrors, a wide front windshield and a full-length glass door. A spacious, low noise, climate controlled interior and controls that fall easily to hand all combine to make the new F-Series a low stress environment. This, coupled with easier-to-read Contronics information, allows the operator more time to concentrate on what is going on outside the cab, improving safety. And thanks to a smoother ride, operators experience less fatigue, remaining more alert and productive throughout their working shifts.

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Maintenance is assisted by a swing-down front grille with integrated steps, which acts as a service platform. Additionally, the hood tips 90 degrees, giving easy access to the engine compartment. All grease points and remote mounted drains are accessible from ground level or non-slip platforms. Also, there is no daily or weekly greasing needed. The new F-Series is fitted with CareTrack as standard, Volvo’s telematics system that enables remote monitoring of a wide range of machine functions (e.g. location, fuel consumption, service reminders etc.), optimizing customer operations. These machines are also supported by a global network of Volvo dealers, where trained technicians use Volvo’s diagnostic tools and techniques, and fit only genuine Volvo parts. The F-Series is available with a complete package of customer support agreements (CSA). The new F-Series articulated haulers: Volvo’s most productive, comfortable, environmentally friendly, fuel efficient haulers ever.

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Volvo articulated hauler F-Series

Type Type of engine

Modell (USA) (EUR)







Volvo D11 H-A D11 H-B

Volvo D11 H-A D11 H-B

Volvo D13 H-A D13 H-B

Volvo D13 H-A D13 H-B

Volvo D16 H-A D16H-B

Volvo D16 H-A D16H-B

motor capacity, gross








Engine torque, gross








kg (st t)

24,000 (26,5)

28,000 (31,0)

33,500 (37,0)

33,500 (37,0)

39,000 (43,0)

39,000 (43,0)

dump body capacity

m³ (Yd³)

15 (19,6)

17.5 (22,9)

20.5 (26,8)

20.5 (26,8)

24.0 (31.4)

24.0 (31,4)

Max. Speed

km/h (mph)

53 (33)

53 (33)

57 (35)

57 (35)

57 (35)

57 (35)

kg (lb)

45,900 (101,000)

51,200 (112,700)

62,600 (137,700)

62,600 (137,700)

69,800 (153,600)

69,800 (153,600)

Loading capacity

Operating weight, gross

FOR MORE INFORMATION AND CONTACT: Volvo Construction Equipment Europe GmbH Marketing & Communications Manager Thorsten Poszwa Adalperostr. 80 85737 Ismaning | Germany Tel.: +49 (0)89 944 - 66 42 30 eMail: Internet:

Volvo Construction Equipment (Volvo CE)

is a major international company developing, manufacturing and marketing equipment for construction and related industries. Its products, leaders in many world markets, include a comprehensive range of wheel loaders, hydraulic excavators, articulated haulers, motor graders, soil and asphalt compactors, pavers, milling machines, compact equipment and material handling equipment. Volvo CE is part of the Volvo Group, the world’s largest manufacturer of diesel engines in the 9 to 18 litre category. The Volvo Group is one of the world’s leading manufacturers of trucks, buses and construction equipment, drive systems for marine and industrial applications, aerospace components and services. The Group also provides complete solutions for financing and related services..

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NEWS & REPORTS Hitachi Construction Machinery Co., Ltd.

Hitachi Construction Machinery:

Hitachi Construction Machinery develops Overview Monitoring System with Clarion Overview Monitoring System: Hitachi Construction Machinery, Co. Ltd. and Clarion Co., Ltd. have developed an overview monitoring system to support operator safety checks surrounding machinery. The system enables synthesised images taken from several cameras mounted on a machine to be shown on a display from the operator‘s seat. Basic performance tests using a prototype have been completed and there are plans to commercialise the system in line with the specifications of Hitachi dump trucks and large hydraulic excavators by spring 2012. Based on the development of in-vehicle compact camera technology promoted by Clarion, supporting safe, secure and comfortable driving, the overview monitoring system featuring several wide-angle cameras will be fitted on construction machinery. The images taken from respective cameras will be converted and synthesised and shown on a display as a bird‘s-eye view focused on the machinery. The operator can also switch to „zoom display“ and „wide display“ in accordance with the machine‘s needs requiring wide-area monitoring. With this functionality, operators can quickly assess their position in relation to other machinery or service vehicles on site.

Cameras [1]Front [2]Right side [3]Left side

The overview monitoring system, which has been developed in collaboration with Hitachi Group companies, is expected to significantly contribute to operational safety on site, including the operation of dump trucks and large hydraulic excavators.

External view shows cameral equipment positions (4 - Rear)

Up until now, HCM has been continuously promoting initiatives to enhance on-site safety. In 2001, the company was the first manufacturer to launch a rear monitoring system that comprises a rear-view camera and display as optional equipment for hydraulic excavators. In 2006, HCM introduced this system as the world‘s first standard equipment on all hydraulic excavators of 6.5 tonnes or larger.

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Greg Smith, HCME Manager Heavy and Mining Equipment International Sales (Europe) said: „The advancements in the viewing systems is a wonderful leap forward in providing our customers with a solution to a universally recognised limitation when working with large mining equipment. Visibility around these giant machines has always been at the forefront of occupational health and safety considerations that have influenced safe working procedures and methods for decades. Whilst the industry in general tended to accept that visibility around these machines would always be restricted, the continuous improvement program pioneered by Hitachi, challenges the status quo and searches for innovative concepts and technologies to make our equipment safer, more productive and reliable. Almost every mine safety induction highlights the visibility on and around large excavators and rigid dump trucks as a major consideration on site. This system significantly increases the viewing area of the operator from within the cab and will assist in lowering the frequency of accidental damage, reducing the risk to employees and enhance operational efficiency.

Overview zoom display and rear camera image. Displays distance information using grid points at 1m intervals. Overview wide display and rear camera image. Smoothly synthesises and displays wide-range images in proximity and at a distance.

Based on the development of in-vehicle compact camera technology promoted by Clarion, this feature is yet another example of Hitachi taking mining equipment to the next level.“

Hitachi Construction Machinery Europe (NV)

the subsidiary company of the Hitachi Construction Machinery Group (HCM) for Europe, Africa, Russia and the Middle East, uses its engineering experience and advanced technology to develop and manufacture a wide range of leading-edge construction machinery. HCME‘s main products are hydraulic excavators, ranging from mini excavators up to 780-ton ultra-large face shovels. Hitachi makes the widest range of excavators in the world, and with every single model you can be assured of smooth operating control and responsive multi-tasking capabilities. In addition, HCME markets wheeled loaders, rigid dump trucks, crawler carriers and other products made by HCM Group companies. Hitachi has built a worldwide reputation for making reliable products that provide great value because they work dependably for a long time.

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Hitachi Construction Machinery (Europe) NV Sicilieweg 5 1045 AT Amsterdam | Netherlands Tel.: +31 (0)20 44 - 76 700 Fax: +31 (0)20 33 - 44 045 eMail: Internet: Hitachi Construction Machinery Co., Ltd. Internet:


NEWS & REPORTS Backers Maschinenbau GmbH The economic importance of screening, separating and mixing is quickly explained: Waste is reduced and valuable products are generated. In their application, star screens of Backers present themselves as versatile and robust.

Backers Maschinenbau GmbH

Cost-effective Screening and Mixing Technology The key question with regard to screening in construction and demolition, as well as in recycling, biomass processing and composting, is the composition of material and its moisture. In order to maximize the economic benefit of a screen, it has to be versatile and robust. The star screens of “Backers Maschinenbau” company, which are made from twist, offer high versatility. Compared to other techniques, they show advantages with regard to dependency on weather. They can process both mineral, as well as organic material. Due to the application of screening stars that have been specifically developed by Backer, the agglutination and congestion are less than in other systems. The graining of the screening is defined and tailored to the respective material by selection of the star (star size and material), as well as by the distance of the stars to each other. The screens are suitable for processing the most divers material – for example: Wood chips, root stocks, compost, bark, construction rubble, railway ballast, native soil, gravel, sugar beets, bio mass and many others.

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Star screens of Backers are constructed in a way to even handle cohesive screenings. Backers offers an automatic star cleaning for material with high demands – for example screening of fine earth-moist material (<20mm). As such, loamy ground can be separated from stones of a grain size of 18 mm and moist compost can be separated with good screening performance and low wear. In case the fine screen deck does not run easily, due to cohesion of cohesive material, the hopper feeding is stopped and the cleaning appliance cleans the screen deck between the stars, both on the hub, as well as in the pockets of the star screens. A few seconds later the screening process is continued with increased screening performance.


NEWS & REPORTS Versatile as screen and mixer Based on their design, the machines separate 2 or 3 fractions in one process step. With the addition of a grid to pre-separate bigger particles, separation of one more fraction can be achieved. Exchanging a screen deck of the 3-fraction machine with a container plus mixing unit, expands the options of the device to manufacture stabilized soil or liquid soil for piping in road construction (mixing performance >150 t/h). The Backer star screens are available in many designs: stationary and mobile â&#x20AC;&#x201C; mobile on wheels, mobile on tracks, wheel-crawler-mounted, mobile-lifted and crawler-mounted-lifted.


Backers Maschinenbau GmbH Auf dem BĂźlt 42 49767 Twist | Germany Tel.: +49(0) 59 36 - 93 67-0 Fax: +49(0) 59 36 - 93 67-20 eMail: Internet:

In this regard we would be happy to respond to individual requirements and wishes of clients.

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HeidelbergCement AG builds on strong partners:

Third Komatsu haul truck is delivered by Schlueter for construction machines! Third Komatsu dump truck HD785-7 Within the framework of a large-scale modernization, this is the third Komatsu dump truck HD785-7 that has been delivered to the HeidelbergCement AG into the quarry of the Schelklingen factory. In this quarry, the Komatsu dump truck HD785-7 is the ideal machine to mine the approximate 1.4 million tons of rocks per year. At the border of the Swabian Alb mostly upper Weißjuramergel is mined on five superposed floor levels. The authorized mining surface encompasses approximately 132 ha, which inevitably entails long transport routes from loading points at the mining face up to the crusher, sometimes up to 2 km. Due to its outstanding roadability, here the HD785-7 is best suited – low fuel consumption, thanks to the Komatsu high

performance motor, a fully hydraulic brake system with wet multi-disc brakes, both in the front and in the back, as well as driver comfort with a big and spacious comfortable driver’s cabin with excellent sight allow for reliable and safe working in daily operation. Since the mining surfaces are positioned high, the brakes are particularly stressed during the downhill drive in loaded state. In this case the 4 wheel retarder with oil-cooled multi-disc brakes, as well as the possibility of presetting the speed in driving down gradients (ARSC) come to effect, as safety is in the foreground.

Picture 1: from left to right Braun Josef, Rasche Jürgen (Schlüter), Schlüter Thomas (Schlüter), Kraut Hans-Georg, Kohl Ralf, Mang Gerhard , Kredler Florian, Haupt Frank, Müller Helmut, Hermanski Bernhard, Geprägs Ralf, Schwertle Markus, Walter Artur, Mast Anton

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NEWS & REPORTS The K-ATOMICS drive with „Skip-Shift“-function and the synchronic control of motor and gear provide a pleasant and smooth driving experience. The very robust hutch catches 60m³ with a standard hutch and a vehicle empty load of 72 tons and a load capacity of 91 tons. Here also the efficiency of HD785-7 HeidelbergCement is of benefit, the TCO (total cost of ownership) value speaks for this technically mature machine. The reliability, durability and easy maintenance has also convinced the HeidelbergCement team around the Schelklingen quarry, as the HD785-7 scored in all areas. But it is not only a reliable machine that guarantees profitability, the relationship with the dealer is an important aspect. For years there has been a good business relationship between HeidelbergCement and Schlüter für Baumaschinen with its head office in Erwitte. This relationship has even grown stronger with the exchange of the current Terex SKW vehicle fleet in Komatsu dump truck HD785-7. Interregional maintenance servicing is no problem, as Schlüter für Baumaschinen ensures a smooth service through 16 branch offices with over 100 customer

service and special vehicles, continuously trained technicians, 16 interlinked ET-deposits and the Komatsu spare part warehouse in Brussels. All these points combine to a variety of services, which live up to the high demands of the HeidelbergCement Company. Because it is only with a strong partner, that we can move on the path into the future.


Schlüter Baumaschinen GmbH Annika Ruske Soester Str. 51 59597 Erwitte | Germany Tel.: +49(0) 981 - 969 44 44 Fax: +49(0) 981 - 969 44 27 email: Internet:

Picture 2: from left to right Haupt Frank, Mang Gerhard, Schwertle Markus, Mast Anton, Müller Helmut, Walter Artur

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NEWS & REPORTS DigiCore Deutschland GmbH

Tracking, Tracing and morr – even easier and saver: Any time and everywhere the whole fleet in view!!

C-Track: New ONLINE-Version Ctrack Online is a web-based vehicle tracking solution that provides visibility and control over mobile assets. The system has been designed to be simple-to-use and instinctive, to enable businesses to better manage their fleet operation by knowing the exact location and status of employees and vehicles in real-time. Ctrack Online is suitable for car, van, coach and commercial vehicle fleets of all sizes, providing immediate operational benefits and financial returns. This advanced tracking tool can deliver real advantage by driving down fleet running costs, boosting resource productivity and improving customer service.

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Visibility • Monitor multiple and individual vehicles in map, terrain and satellite views using Google mapping, as well as access live traffic flow information and journey directions • View live vehicle locations on high-quality mapping – full seven-digit postcode search and zoom down to street level • Create No-go, Preferred and Waypoint Geo Zones to trigger alerts to a mobile phone regarding unauthorised vehicle movements into or out of predefined areas • Add unique sites, locations and points of interest to view via the mapping tool and personalise vehicle activity reports



Operational Reporting • Access historical data via a suite of more than 25 individual reports for useful, simple-to-use operational, performance and management information • Automate administrative processes using clear and concise reports that collate accurate data such as fuel usage, time sheets and private mileage • Use the intelligent dashboard to view a top level overview of key performance areas – safety, security, productivity, driver behaviour and green driving – and drill down to the level of detail required

Driver Dispatch • Identify the nearest vehicles to a job and even select the appropriate employee based on required skill set • Analyse trip replays with multiple vehicle comparison to identify job allocation issues and areas of improvement to increase jobs per week and maintain customer service • Allocate and dispatch new tasks to appropriate employees, automatically navigate them to the job and get instant status updates from the driver via the integrated Ctrack cCom invehicle console

Usability • Access any time, anywhere via an Internet-enabled device • No advanced training or specialist expertise required thanks to the user friendly and intuitive system • No software installations or downloads needed, so benefit from a truly zero footprint tracking solution

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C-Track by DigiCore C-Track Benelux is an established Dutch organisation, founded in 1998 by a group of experienced developers and fitters of vehicle tracking systems. This experience is incorporated into the C-Track product offering the best features of conventional on-board computers and black box systems combined with the possibilities offered by today’s technology. Since its founding, C-Track has worked with a wide range of companies and has grown into a complete service organisation. Sales and installation are the starting points, followed by introduction, training and optimisation. A professional helpdesk is ready to handle queries from customers, and a maintenance contract and software updates are standard parts of our service. Choosing C-Track means choosing a partnership with a highly experienced and skilled team of professional and highlymotivated workers, from developers to helpdesk workers, instructors to programmers, and account managers to fitting specialists. The European C-Track companies are supported by DigiCore Europe B.V, with its European headquarters based in Papendrecht. The European nature of the organisation has many advantages for international businesses, with solutions serviced quickly by local partners. Verbal and written communications (including software) are available in all local languages, whilst the execution of European contracts is coordinated centrally.

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FOR MORE INFORMATION AND CONTACT: Company contact: DigiCore Deutschland GmbH Christiane Hillenkötter Gewerbepark 18 49143 Bissendorf | Germany Tel.: +49(0) 54 02 - 70 28 25 email: Internet:

Media contact: DigiCore Deutschland GmbH Beate Wand Große Straße 53a 21075 Hamburg | Germany Tel.: +49(0) 177 - 8 38 94 16 email: Internet:


NEWS & REPORTS Caterpillar

C aterpillar :

New Cat® Grade Control System I mproves Performance and Productivity of Track-type Tractors, Motor Graders, Scrapers and Excavators Proven Cat® grade control systems are now available installed from the factory as an integral component of select EPA Tier 4/EU Stage III emission compliant Cat track-type tractors, wheel tractor-scrapers, motor graders and hydraulic excavators. Cat Grade Control improves operator efficiency and machine performance while reducing the overall cost of a machine guidance system on site, boosting productivity for the contractor and ensuring that machines work to grade, the first time, every time.

Total Tractor Control The Cat Grade Control system works with the contractor from the first cut to the finished material grade, reducing set up time and cutting the need for surveyors to constantly check and reset grade markings/stakes. When installed on a D8T or D9T Cat track-type tractor, Grade Control offers blade automation in three basic modes. These include a rough grade control for initial cut, grade protection as the site develops and Cat Grade Control with Integrated AutoCarry™ to ensure consistent blade loads and to limit track slip. With Integrated AutoCarry, the tilt function of the blade control remains with the operator, as long as the blade tips are above the site plan, the system will calculate blade load and adjust the blade height to optimize for a consistant and productive load.

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Grade Control can also be used with Automatic Ripper Control, which adjusts the ripper shank depth to reduce track slippage and ensure a productive ripping pass. By using Grade Control on a Cat tractor, the contractor minimizes wear and tear and has a more productive, increasingly versatile machine. Further, these systems are completely compatible with AccuGrade™ design files and infrastructure. With a cab-mounted GPS system there is improved reliability and a reduced need for daily removal of a GPS receiver. This means fewer cables and sensors in a harsh blade mounted environment, and the system can be calibrated at the factory. Having Grade Control installed also increases the value of the machine on the used equipment market.

Improved Grader Performance

M Series 2 Cat motor graders achieve all new levels of performance with the Cat Cross Slope Grade Control system. This factory-installed and calibrated cross slope system provides automatic cross slope control capability, which is ready to go to work right from the factory. Cross Slope is fully compatible with all AccuGrade kits, including laser, sonic, GPS and UTS systems. Maintaining proper cross slope while grading ensures roads are built and maintained according to the intended roadway design, enabling better drainage and safer roads.


NEWS & REPORTS Grading a road to the desired cross slope requires grader operators to continuously monitor both ends of the blade and blade position along with the grade in front of the blade and machine to anticipate where the cutting edge needs to be positioned. Cat Cross Slope provides better information, real-time, to the operator in the cab, helping achieve better results with less stress and fatigue. The cross slope system is capable of automatically controlling one end of the motor grader blade. This allows the operator to focus on one side of the blade (typically the toe or leading edge of the blade) as the cross slope system automatically controls the blade slope (typically the heel or trailing edge of the blade), providing consistent cross slope and achieving target specifications. The Cat Cross Slope system uses factory installed sensors and standard machine components for reliable and durable performance. The standard Messenger display in the cab allows the operator to set the target slope while displaying the current measured cross slope in real time. The system also visually indicates the direction of the blade slope, which is important on relatively flat roads where it is difficult for the operator to see. Cat motor graders equipped with Cat Cross Slope deliver more efficient grading by helping operators grade faster and better while moving less material and consuming less fuel.

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Mass Earthmoving Efficiency Caterpillarâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s range of wheel tractor-scrapers has long been one of the most efficient ways to move large amounts of material. Further boosting the efficiency of these machines, Caterpillar is now offering new options for the 621H, 623H and 627H wheel tractor-scrapers, which include Sequence Assist, Load Assist and Cat Grade Control. Sequence Assist automates the dig, haul, unload and return work cycles to reduce joystick use and simplify implement control. The system automatically controls the cushion hitch, transmission hold, ejector and elevator, reducing operator effort and fatigue. Load Assist automatically adjusts the cutting edge height to manage wheel slip, ensure a full, consistent and productive bowl load and get the machine out of the cut as efficiently as possible. The operator only needs to control the apron, much like AutoCarry on a track-type tractor. With Cat Grade Control for the wheel tractor-scraper, the operator has manual control of the cutting edge when the bowl is above the design height, but as soon as one or both tips reach the design elevation, the Grade Control system automatically prevents the cutting edge from going below grade, which effectively eliminates costly rework.


NEWS & REPORTS Excavator Depth And Slope Cat Grade Control Depth & Slope for E Series hydraulic excavators is a simple, easy to use system providing depth and slope information directly to the operator. Using the standard in-cab excavator display, the depth and slope system provides graphical information to assist the operator when digging footings, foundations or basements, as well as trenches, side slopes or embankments. In addition to using the standard machine display, the Cat Grade Control Depth & Slope system incorporates factory-calibrated position sensors to provide real-time location of the bucket teeth. The system can work as a stand-alone depth and slope system for quick and easy setup or the included laser receiver on the stick is ready to be used with the contractor’s laser transmitter for increased accuracy and more flexibility. With predefined standard bucket measurements, the machine arrives from the factory ready to go to work.

the machine arrives on site. The system design eliminates any redundant components and is integrated to protect sensors and to reduce owning and operating costs. Additionally, Cat Grade Control will enhance the value of a used machine, boosting residual values and protecting the owner’s investment. For more information about Cat Grade Control, contact the local Cat dealer, or go to FOR MORE INFORMATION AND CONTACT: Press Inquiries Europe, Africa and Middle East Mia Karlsson Tel.: +41 (0) 22 849 46 62 Fax: +41 (0) 22 849 99 93 eMail: Internet:

By using the standard display in the machine, Cat Depth & Slope preserves space in the cab for improved operator comfort and visibility. Lightbars on the machine display also provide graphical guidance of both depth and slope angle. Integrated switches and buttons on the machine joysticks put system operation at the operator’s fingertips and are fully compatible with the work tool system. Operators can adjust depth or slope without taking their hands off the machine controls, which results in less fatigue and increased efficiency. Cat E Series excavators also can be operated more safely with the system. The built-in e-warning feature provides both audible and visual warnings when the boom, stick or bucket is approaching a defined, limit which is configurable on the display.

Cat Grade Control Productivity and Value Whatever the machine, Cat has a Grade Control system ready to help contractors get more work done in less time by nearly eliminating re-work and significantly reducing material and fuel costs. By installing the system at the factory, the machine owner can have total confidence that everything is calibrated and ready to work as soon as

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Caterpillar For more than 80 years, Caterpillar Inc. has been building the world’s infrastructure and, in partnership with its worldwide dealer network, is driving positive and sustainable change on every continent. With 2009 sales and revenues of $32.396 billion, Caterpillar is a technology leader and the world’s leading manufacturer of construction and mining equipment, diesel and natural gas engines and industrial gas turbines. More information is available at


NEWS & REPORTS HAVER & BOECKER wire weaving and machinery division

HAVER ENGINEERING, Meißen, takes over research and development projects not only for the HAVER Group, but also for other companies

Haver & Boecker:

Contract for development from Siemens VAI Studies on the pelletisation of iron oxides HAVER subsidiary HAVER ENGINEERING, Meißen, (HEM), not only develops machines and processes for mineral processing technology for the HAVER & BOECKER Group with focus on agglomeration and washing processes, but is highly interested in research and development projects for other companies. In January 2011 HEM was awarded a development contract from Siemens VAI. This customer in Austria has contracted HEM to conduct a wide variety of studies on the pelletisation of iron oxides. “After multiple rounds of discussion and clarification of the tasks at hand, the project-responsible persons from Siemens visited our technical research facility in Freiberg, where they were able to appreciate the excellent facilities and equipment, as well as the high standards of quality that one can expect of studies,“ reports Dr. Stephan Hüwel, Managing Director of HEM. The contracted studies are a real challenge because up to now no processes existed that allowed Siemens to manufacture the pellets that one needs. The trials at HEM provide the basis and thus the foundation for designing a

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new process that Siemens VAI would like to put into practice together with leading international steel producers. The time frame for implementing the project is very tight, which means HEM is under pressure to deliver quickly. The results must be available to the customer already by the end of March,” adds Sandra Weyrauch, Manager of HEM, who together with Steffen Silge, a pelletising expert, are responsible for the contract. This contract convincingly shows that HEM has truly developed into a recognised centre of expertise through focus and effective expansion of knowledge over the last three years. FOR MORE INFORMATION AND CONTACT: WIRE WEAVING AND MACHINERY DIVISION Carl-Haver-Platz 59302 Oelde | Germany Tel.: +49 (0)25 22 - 300 Public Relations Office, Machinery Division Fax: +49 (0)25 22 - 30 403 Andrea Stahnke eMail: Tel.: +49 (0)25 22 - 30 820 Internet: Fax: +49 (0)25 22 - 30 710 eMail: Internet:


NEWS & REPORTS HAVER & BOECKER wire weaving and machinery division Polysius do Brasil Ltda. received the prize as the best production equipment supplier.

Gustavo Vaz (Purchasing Director of VALE, Minas Gerais) presents the prize for best processing technology supplier to Oswaldo Delfim (Haver & Boecker Latinoamericana)..

Best production Haver & Boecker: equipment and process technology supplier Neighbour companies Polysius, a leading engineering company for the cement and mineral industry, and Haver & Boecker Machinery Division and Wire Weaving are especially pleased about a recent award. Their subsidiary companies were named as the best suppliers of production equipment and process technology by the world’s second largest mining company, VALE corporation (more than 50,000 employees worldwide). Emphasis was not only placed on the high quality of the products, but also on social aspects, Written on the Brazilian IDF Prize 2010 awarded by world’s largest iron ore exporter: ”We hereby attest that the companies have a high standard of delivery and share one of VALE’s core values: “Respect for life.“ Both companies have been working for decades in the highly challenging world of mining. Polysius has had close relations to the Brazilian mining concern since 1977. So far Polysius has delivered 30 grinding mills to various mining locations throughout Brazil. Here raw materials such as iron ore or copper ore are unlocked. The latest order includes the delivery and installation of two grinding plants at a copper mine in northern Brazil. Haver & Boecker successfully made its debut in Brazilian iron ore processing in the early 1980s. An order for 18 dewatering machines from Companhia Vale do Rio Doce - the

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name of the Rio de Janeiro-based company back then was the breakthrough. Business relations were especially intensified over the last two years. Before the financial crisis, VALE requested bids for screening machines in order to find a screening solution for both rainy seasons and drought seasons. Haver & Boecker Latinoamericana took advantage of the financial crisis and carried out extensive tests and so convinced VALE with its eccentric screening machines. Convinced by the quality, the mining company closed a long-term contract and thus making the Brazilian HAVER daughter company the main supplier of the vibrating screening machines for large mining operations. Now this business development has been crowned by the IDF Trophy award.

FOR MORE INFORMATION AND CONTACT: WIRE WEAVING AND MACHINERY DIVISION Carl-Haver-Platz 59302 Oelde | Germany Tel.: +49 (0)25 22 - 300 Public Relations Office, Machinery Division Fax: +49 (0)25 22 - 30 403 Andrea Stahnke eMail: Tel.: +49 (0)25 22 - 30 820 Internet: Fax: +49 (0)25 22 - 30 710 eMail: Internet:


NEWS & REPORTS Sandvik Mining and Construction Central Europe GmbH

Eifel-Road-Show with the Sandvik Vertical Impact Crusher Merlin CV116:

Successful test series, from basalt (hardness 6) to aluminum oxide (hardness 9)

50 million years ago the heat was already on in the Eifel – at approximately 1,400°C. Volcanic eruptions shaped that time, lava flows streamed over the region and shaped the area. In July 2010, the heat was on in the Bierbrauer & Sohn Company – at 35°C and with intensive expert discussions. In Kretz the long-standing business partner Sandvik Mining and Construction offered to run a “live” test series with the vertical impact crusher CV116. Instead of lava flows, material flows of gravel and basalt, up to aluminum oxide was successfully tested in a “Rock-against-rock” crushing procedure. Not only the enterprises of the surrounding natural stone industry- like for example the Mendinger Basalt company- but also enterprises from the chemical industry like for example the Almatis company from Ludwigshafen- happily accepted the Sandvik offer.

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Successful test series, from basalt (hardness 6) to aluminum oxide (hardness 9) The Bierbrauer & Sohn company was established in 1985 one Unimog. Currently they have 110 construction machines, which comprise a range from a vibratory plate,a wheel loader, up to screening installations and crushers. With 9 staff, the team around Karl Werner has generated total revenue of 3.5 million Euros in 2009. It is active in the construction and recycling industry and serves clients in a periphery of 100 km. Due to the close cooperation with Bierbrauer, the idea of introducing the Sandvik vertical crusher series CV to interested entrepreneurs within the framework of a test series was born. The special feature of the

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campaign was the following: The companies could bring their own material and test it at the operating crusher. It was a matter of course for the Bierbrauer & Sohn company to support the Sandvik road-show with experts and logistics. One of the test companies was the Mendiger Basalt Schmitz Naturstein company from the neighboring city of Mendig. The supplied material (basalt and tuff) was filled into the charging hopper and crushed at several speed levels with a differently opened revision door and the Bi-Flow system. The results were recorded for later appraisal. For the second test series, prescreened basalt from the own plant was supplied and operated on the plant under identical conditions with the first run. Hans Junglas, mine leader of the Mendig, Weibern und Mayen works of the Mendiger Basalt company was pleased with the grain form of the basalt


NEWS & REPORTS material. “The material doesn’t have “little fish” any more”, he concludes. “In addition, our tuff is also well crushed.” Since 2007, Sandvik has been in contact with the Almatis company from Ludwigshafen, a globally active company that celebrated its 100th anniversary. In its Ludwigshafen plant the Almatis company crushes its aluminum oxide granules to a diameter of up to 20 mm. Among many other applications, these granules are used in the fire-proof and ceramics industry. Since mid 2008 the Sandvik-vertical impact crusher CV116 has successfully been in operation to crush the spheres to grainings of mainly 0-6 mm. It should be noted that crushing aluminum oxide leads to a high wear – a problem that is unknown in the aggregate and soil industry. It was for this reason that Sandvik developed special wear parts for the CV116. Compared to the previously used cone crusher with weekly change of wear parts, the wear and maintenance costs could significantly be reduced.

plate through the inspection door in the casing. Thus, the previously needed opening of the machine from the top is unnecessary. As a result of the Eifel-Road-Show with the Sandvik vertical impact crusher CV116, it can be said that the application of the new generation of crushers provides brand-new results, both for the non-metallic mineral processing industry, as well as for the chemical industry. A continuously constant material flow – even up to hardness 9- and wear is a long time coming!

The possibility of applying the vertical crusher CV116 for crushing to 0-1 mm was also to be tested in further tests. The results were so convincing, that for the crushing to 0-1 mm, currently the application of another vertical crusher of the CV series, the slightly smaller CV215, is being negotiated with Almatis. This vertical crusher is a further developed machine that works with the principle of crushing “material against material”. The special “Hurricane-Rotor” is constructed in way that a material bed is generated inside the rotor, which optimally protects from wear. Furthermore all shell parts are also protected from wear through a material bed. The builtin Bi-Flow- flaps allow for up to 20% of the material to bypass the rotor and to be led to crushing, whereby no additional energy expenditure is needed. In the Bauma 2010 a further developed design of the CV crusher series, the VSI CV217, was introduced. In this crusher an opening in the rotor allows for the exchange of the newly developed three-part distribution

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NEWS & REPORTS FOR MORE INFORMATION AND CONTACT: Sanvik Mining and Construction Central Europe GmbH Hafenstrasse 280 45356 Essen | Germany Tel.: +49 (0)201 - 17 85 300 Fax: +49 (0)201 - 17 85 800 Internet:

Sandvik Mining and Construction Central Europe GmbH Projektierung und Sales Support Crushing and Screening Norbert Kaufmann Tel.: +49 (0)174 33 67 47 7 eMail:


Sandvik is a high-technology engineering group with advanced products and a world-leading position in areas such as: machining tools, machines and tools for mining, rust-free material, special alloys, high-temperature material and process systems. In 2009, the Group had 44,000 employees and representation in 130 countries. The annual sales were SEK 72 billion. Sandvik mining and construction is a business area of the Sandvik Group and a globally leading supplier of equipment, services and technical concepts for rock drilling, rock excavation, processing, demolition and bulkmaterials handling. In 2009 the sales were at SEK 32.600 Mio and the number of employees was 14,400.

Sandvik mobile processing technique can now be obtained through a dealer

At the turn of the year 2010/2011, Sandvik has changed its sales structure in the area of mobile crushing and screening technique, and has further strengthened its cooperation with its distribution partners. Since 1st January 2011, the sale of new machines, wear â&#x20AC;&#x201C; and spear parts for mobile crushing and screening technique of the Sandvik Q-series, as well as the service in Germany in done by the Oppermann&Fuss Company and TTS Trump Technik Service GmbH. With this step, direct sale in Oberaula is discontinued. However, some of the employees have been taken over by the distribution partners and continue to be available as contact persons. Sandvik is expecting this change to lead to a closer relationship with its clients, as well as more flexibility in responding to clients needs.

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NEWS & REPORTS Zeppelin Baumaschinen GmbH

Construction Machines Dig for White Gold

Cat Wheel Loaders and Dumper load and transport aqueous rock mined in the Stetten salt mine!


AIGERLOCH-STETTEN (SR). Again snow and frost had a firm hold on Germany – slippery roads shaped the picture on its streets. Due to the experience gained in the previous winter, when at times, the road maintenance authorities and offices ran out of thawing material, many had planned in advance. This is confirmed by Alfred Hoellerbauer, director of the salt-mine Stetten of the Wacker Chemie company, approximately 80 km south of Stuttgart. “This year our clients have already ordered road-salt in summer, occasionally they have ordered bigger amounts. In 2009 they only started to order in October”, he explains.

These orders have even had consequences for the oldest salt-mine in Germany that produces in mined excavation since 150 years, and where the white gold is mined in a depth of approximately 150 m by 70 miners for 16 hours per day in two shifts. The raw material is extracted in an area the size of Manhattan, and due to the high demand of last winter, there has been no major break. Machines and employees are working with full capacity – In any case there is intense activity in the winter months, where every day up to 10,000 tons road salt are mined and loaded on up to 350 transporters. Trucks transport the goods to salt deposits in Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg. Since the road salt business is dependant on the season, it is difficult to plan in advance. Salt can only be produced ahead to a limited

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extent, since in its untreated state it cannot be stored indefinitely. However, in order to avoid capacity bottlenecks in this winter season, the available underground deposit in Stetten was expanded. Here, altogether 200,000 tons of reserve is stored under ground, so that the salt for roads and highways can be delivered in dry state, the only state in which it is easily dispersible. A releasing agent is added to avoid lumping. The total annual production in Stetten is an average of 500,000 tons, out of which approximately 80,000 tons industrial salt is used for the company-owned production in Burghausen, where among others, silicone, pure silicone and pyrogene silicon dioxide are produced. The lion’s share of approximately 400,000 tons accounts for the production of road salt – a market with opportunities for growth. “Nowadays everybody talks about climate change. We are also very concerned about the consequences


NEWS & REPORTS of the global warming, as this will have grave effects on our sales. However, since more and more road space is generated in this country – one only needs to think of the expansion of the A8 between Munich and Stuttgart from 4 to 6 lanes- “ we see a growing market for the production of road salt”, the mine director explains. And this has also been a reason for offering two new varieties of road salt with different grainings. The salt that is not used as road salt or for industrial production, is processed as industrial salt, for salt licks as animal feed, as well for production of sodium chloride brine. In underground mining itself, classical extraction technique is used. Up to seven meter deep blast holes are drilled into the salt deposit. The blast holes have to run exactly parallel to each other and are filled with explosives. The rock salt that accrues in blasting is loaded in the Loadand Carry application with two wheel loaders of the type 980 II and transported to the crusher – the processing is done under ground. The rocks should have a maximum size of 1.5 m edge length. Looking at the mileage one of the drivers, Rainer Volm, says: “During their service life and their 8,700 operating hours the wheel loaders have twice circled the equator. Each one of them has covered a distance of more than 90,000 km.” In case longer distances than 350 m need

to be driven in one go in the underground road network having a total length of approximately 240 km- the type Cat 740 dumpers come into play. Apart from their application in production, these construction machines should also be used for exploration, development of under ground deposits and raw material reserves. For this reason an additional dumper of the 40 ton category, which supports the transport device operating since 2008, was delivered by the Zeppelin office in Boeblingen to Wacker. Due to the fact that the narrowest spots of the excavation chambers are only 5 meters high and 10 meters broad, the dumper bucket is executed as ejector, ejecting the material hydraulically and allowing for controlled unloading, even in limited height. A great deal is demanded of the performance of the dumpers in salt mines. The drivers of the articulated dumpers with four wheel drive make full use of the allowed maximum speed of 35 km per hour, to reach their goal, i.e. the crusher, as quickly as possible. In order to efficiently handle the transport, the route is sprayed by its own water truck and, on and off, the road is leveled. With regard to mechanical engineering, special provisions have to be made – first and foremost in engine technology. “Because we work in a closed space, the emissions of the diesel engines have to be as low as possible. Where possible, the machines and drilling equipment run with diesel drive until they reach their

The salt rock that accrues during blasting is loaded in the Load-and Carry application with two wheel loaders of the Type Cat 980G II.

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In case longer distances than 350 m need to be driven in one go in the underground road network, which has a total length of approximately 240 km, the type Cat 740 dumpers comes into play.

place of operation, where they are converted to electrical drive”, says Hoellerbauer. The reason for these extreme requirements that the motors have to fulfill is related to the fresh air supply. This is because under ground fresh air cannot be taken for granted, although ventilation systems and so-called weather-doors ensure a regulation of fresh air. “Down here we have a good ventilation, thus an after-treatment of exhaust gases has not yet been necessary”, explains the operations manager Michel Schulz. Nevertheless he and his colleagues always pay particular attention to keeping the emission values of the used equipment are kept within limits. Backer equipped the older devices with new and low-emission motors. The fine pored salt dust in the air is harmful to the machines, particularly to the cooler. Therefore it has to be cleaned in regular intervals by the company-owned workshop under ground. The employees also take care of routine maintenance operations, like for example the exchange of air filters, which is also due frequently, because of the particular machine use. Bigger repairs are taken care of by service staff in the Zeppelin plant Boeblingen, as they have received intensive briefings for this work before their first mission under ground. Due to the fact that salt, in combination with water and oxygen causes corrosion, all aluminum parts of the machines has been specially coated. “As long as the salt does not come into contact with water and remains dry, nothing happens. Therefore wheel loaders or dumpers do not receive special painting. Dryness is naturally our first priority. The result can for example be seen in the wheel loader bucket. Even after three years of operation its metal shines and flashes like new – no sign of operation and wear”, explains Schulz. Before the start of the operation of the Clara tunnel, all

Issue 01 | 2011

machines had to completely be deconstructed into single parts, so that they could be transported under ground through the 32 percent inclined chute. They could only be assembled on site in the mine. “Today these unnecessary costs do not occur any more”, explains Alfred Hoellerbauer. Today machines, like the new Cat dumper 740 arrive under ground through the new access tunnel. This tunnel takes the burden off the existing inclined chute, which was previously used for transport of material, persons and equipment. With a diameter of 36 square meters and an incline of maximum 10 percent the new entry is suited for bigger vehicles, which can be used to access the interior of the mine.


Zeppelin Baumaschinen GmbH Comunications Klaus Finzel Graf-Zeppelin-Platz 1 85748 Garching bei München | Germany Tel.: +49 (0)89 - 3 20 00 - 341 Fax: +49 (0)89 - 3 20 00 - 7341 eMail: klaus.finzel Internet:


NEWS & REPORTS Germany’s oldest salt mine The salt mine Stetten is one of the oldest salt mines of Germany. In 1852, the saline Stetten near Haigerloch was built at the suggestion of the Prussian King Friedrich Willhelm IV. In 1858, the extraction of rock salt started, initially as cooking- and cattle salt. After the end of the first World War the plant became property of the “Preußischen Bergwerks und Hütten AG”, the TUI of today. In order to meet the increasing demand for rock salt, Wacker leased the plant in 1924, it was bought in 1960. Since then the enterprise has made it its business to produce road salt for winter services. The extraction is done in the so-called chamber-pillar construction, in which the principal direction drifts like roads are driven into the deposit. The salt is extracted left and right along these roads in approximately twelve meter broad and six to eight meter high excavation chambers. Approximately eight meter thick salt-pillar remain between the chambers. For safety reasons only one third of the salt reserves are mined.

The ejector-shovel hydraulically ejects the material and thus allows for a controlled unloading, even in limited height.

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Innovative and Efficient Solutions for challenging tasks in extraction, surface mining and surface forming.

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Vermeer has transcribed its long-standing experience in the area of rock mills into its new surface mill. The T1255 is characterized by protected technology, intelligent design, excellent production and system stability. Meanwhile the Terrain Leveler can process an area of up to 3.7 m width and 61 cm depth in one single run.

The machine has been designed to ablate all kinds of rocks, gypsum, coal and other material (e.g. concrete). This is done using a big, hydrostatically steered milling drum, which ablates the rock in a more efficient way and with a higher cutting depth. The result: More coarse material with a low proportion of fine fraction. Deutschland GmbH Puscherstr. 9 90411 Nuremberg, Germany

Issue 01 | 2011

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THE AMS-EVENT CALENDER April 2011 30 Mar - 01 Apr 2011 China International Construction Machinery Exhibition

Guangzhou, China

30 Mar - 01 Apr 2011 Stone-Cutter

Trentschin, Slovakia

04 - 07 Apr 2011 CeMAT SOUTH AMERICA

Sao Paulo, Brazil

04 - 08 Apr 2011 HANNOVER MESSE 2011

Hanover, Germany

04 - 08 Apr 2011 The 7th annual ASIA MINING Congress 2011


05 - 09 Apr 2011 SMOPYC 2011

Zaragoza, Spain

06 - 07 Apr 2011 GDMB-expert committee mining

Wolfach, Germany

06 - 08 Apr 2011 Bulk Solids India

Mumbai, India

10 - 12 Apr 2011 Cleanmining 2011

Santiago, Chile

11 - 13 Apr 2011 VII International Brown Coal Mining Congress

Belchatow, Poland

11- 13 Apr 2011 1st Liberian Mining, Energy & Petroleum Conference & Exhibition

Monrovia, Liberia

13 - 15 Apr 2011 MiningWorld Russia

Moskow, Russia

13 - 16 Apr 2011 ConBuild Indonesia

Jakarta, Indonesia

Leoben, Austria

14 - 16 Apr 2011 On the Surface: The Heritage of Mines and Mining

Innsbruck, Austria

27 - 29 Apr 2011 Sibmining

Novosibirsk, Russia

02 - 05 May 2011 CeMat 2011

Hanover, Germany

04 - 05 May 2011 Bulk comodity Switzerland 2011

Basel, Switzerland

Aachen, Germany

10 - 12 May 2011 Symposium Mines Guinea 2011

Conakry, Guinea

11 - 12 May 2011 Bulk Handling Conference 2011

Forest Pines, North Lincolnshire, UK

15 - 18 May 2011 Haulage & Loading 2011

Pheonix, USA

day of geothermal energy - the special - Experimental geothermal 18 - 19 May 2011 Saxon basics - what we really know about geothermal parametres?

Freiberg, Germany

18 - 20 May 2011 recycling aktiv 2011 - 2nd demonstrationexhibitions of recyclingmachines and -plants

Karlsruhe, Germany

21 - 25 May 2011 CIM Conference and Exhibition 2011 - Mines without Borders

Montreal, Canada

24 - 26 May 2011 Waste-to-Resources 2011 - 4th International Conference MBA and sorting plants

Hanover, Germany

14 Apr 2011 Conference „Seltene Erden - Knapper Rohstoff?“

May 2011

05 May 2011 Colloquium „Functional security & norms in the raw material and recycling industry“

24 - 28 May 2011 EXPOMATEC 2011 Infrastructure, Civil Works, Extraction & Mining Machinery Fair Madrid, Spain

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THE AMS-EVENT CALENDER June 2011 01 - 03 Jun 2011 7th China International Coal Equipment and Mine Technical Equipment Exhibition Beijing, China

07 - 10 Jun 2011 UGOL ROSSII & MINING 2011

Novokuznetsk, Russia

08 - 10 Jun 2011 mineplanning 2011

Antofagasta, Chile

08 - 10 Jun 2011 geomin 2011

Antofagasta, Chile

09 - 10 Jun 2011 20. bulk commodity-day

Wiesbaden, Germany

13 - 17 Jun 2011 Exponor

Antofagasta, Chile

14 - 17 Jun 2011 SDIMI 2011 - Sustainable Development in the Minerals Industry

Aachen, Germany

Freiberg, Germany

15 - 17 Jun 2011 Zambia International Mining & Energy Conference & Exhibition - ZIMEC 2011

Lusaka, Zambia

21 Jun 2011 13. ABK - Aachener Altlasten- und Bergschadenkundliches Kolloquium

Aachen, Germany

Pittsburgh, USA

Gaydon, Warwickshire, UK

15 - 17 Jun 2011

62. Berg- und Hüttenmännischer Tag - „Silicium - from the raw material up to the solar cell and back“

21 - 23 Jun 2011 Longwall USA 23 Jun 2011 Miro - Minerals Conference 2011

free of charge

digital informative

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EVENTS Seit einiger Zeit macht LIWELL® sogar mobil. Die LIWELL® motion wurde zur vergangenen bauma vorgestellt und ist nunmehr seit einigen Monaten im Einsatz. (Foto: Hein, Lehmann)

steinexpo 2011 –

Sieblösungen von Retrofit bis Hightech! März 2011: Die 8. Internationale Demonstrationsmesse für die Roh- und Baustoffindustrie, steinexpo 2011, hat in weiteren Ausstellungsbereichen kräftig zugelegt. Während die Spezialhersteller im Bereich Siebtechnik und Siebmedien in den vergangenen Jahren das Geschehen eher beobachteten als mitbestimmten, sind führende Anbieter dieses Bereiches in diesem Jahr wieder aktiv dabei. Sieberfolge hängen von der richtigen Beurteilung des zu siebenden Haufwerks, von der Wahl des Siebbodens und der Auslegung und Einstellung der geeigneten Siebmaschine ab. In der Aufbereitung mineralischer Rohstoffe gilt die Faustformel, dass Geld am Ende nicht mit dem Brechen sondern mit dem Sieben verdient wird. Das zeigt im Grunde sehr deutlich, welche hohen Anforderungen auf der modernen Siebtechnik ruhen: Egal welche Größenordnungen gefragt sind, sie wird zum wesentlichen Gradmesser für die Wirtschaftlichkeit ganzer Anlagen.

Issue 01 | 2011

Breit gefächert ist das Programm an Siebmaschinen bei der SIEBTECHNIK GmbH. Neben den klassischen Standard- und Spezialsiebmaschinen, stellte das Unternehmen vor etwas mehr als drei Jahren mit der elektronischen Steuerung von Ellipsensiebmaschinen erstmals eine weitgehend intelligente Siebmaschine vor. Ihre Stärke ist die Universalität, mit der sie sich an verschiedene Prozesse anpasst. Beschickt von Brecher A, von Brecher B oder unter Umständen auch von beiden, schafft es diese Siebmaschine mit der Bezeichnung „E“, gefolgt von einer Nomenklatur,


EVENTS welche die Ausführung näher spezifiziert, immer, auf ihrem Leistungshoch zu bleiben ohne dass die lästige Fehlkornrate steigt. Außerdem beherrscht dieses momentane High-End-Modell die Selbstreinigung des Siebdecks ziemlich perfekt. Anfangs von den Praktikern der rauen Branche argwöhnisch beäugt, wächst mit dem Vormarsch von Sensoren, iPads und immer mehr Elektronik insgesamt in den Betrieben auch das Vertrauen in diese in weiten Teilen intelligente Siebmaschine. Mittlerweile sind sechs Modelle der neuen Spezies zuverlässig im Einsatz bei Unternehmen der mineralischen Rohstoffindustrie und selbstverständlich ist die Maschine auch das in Bild und Ton präsente Unternehmens-Exponat Nr. 1 auf der steinexpo. Steinhaus zeigt zur Messe an einem Siebmodell mit Wechselsystem die Kombinationsmöglichkeiten verschiedener Siebböden aus unterschiedlichen Werkstoffen und in diversen Ausführungsarten. Des Weiteren werden die im Markt bestens bekannten Steinhaus-Kunststoff Wechselsiebböden vorgestellt. Ihre Spezialität ist eine maximal offene Fläche für höchste Effizienz beim Sieben. Hier hat Steinhaus recht früh ein hohes Maß an Perfektion erreicht – und stetig gehalten. Natürlich streben auch andere Hersteller genau diesen Effekt „größtmögliche offene Fläche“ an und weisen dabei ihre jeweiligen Qualitäten nach. So verbinden die MAX-Stecksysteme der Küper GmbH und Co. KG die Robustheit von Gummiund Kunststoffsieben mit der offenen Siebfläche von Drahtsieben, wodurch Steigerungen in der Siebleistung von bis zu 50 % erreicht werden. Anbackungen und Steckkorn sind dabei weitgehend ausgeschlossen. Das MAX-Stecksystem wurde speziell für den Auslauf der Maschine entwickelt, nicht für den Aufgabebereich. Zum KüperProgramm, aus dem ein repräsentativer Ausschnitt gezeigt wird, gehören weiterhin Spannsiebbeläge unterschiedlichster Art mit konischen Löchern als wirksame Antwort auf verstopfungskritische Medien, Siebmatten und Plansiebbeläge. LIWELL®-Siebmaschinen von HEIN, LEHMANN sind seit Jahrzehnten ein Garant für optimale Ergebnisse bei der Klassierung siebschwieriger Aufgabematerialien, was unzählige unterschiedliche Anwendungsfälle bestätigen. Seit einiger Zeit macht Liwell® sogar mobil. Die auf der bauma 2010 vorgestellte LIWELL® motion ist nunmehr seit einigen Monaten im Einsatz und erzielt die bekannt guten Ergebnisse.

Issue 01 | 2011

Steinhaus zeigt an einem Siebmodell mit Wechselsystem die Kombinationsmöglichkeiten verschiedener Siebböden aus unterschiedlichen Werkstoffen. (Foto: Steinhaus).

Siebleistung clever maximiert: Der Gummisiebbelag links im Vergleich zu MAX (Bildmitte) und rechts dem klassischen Drahtbelag. (Foto: Küper)

Ohne Umbau alle Vorteile eines Systemsiebbelages nutzen. Dieses Versprechen realisiert Krieger mit der Umrüstung vom Querspanner zum Planwechselsieb. (Grafik: Krieger)


EVENTS Intelligenz erobert die Siebtechnik. Elektronisch gesteuerte Ellipsensiebmaschinen der Siebtechnik GmbH bleiben immer auf ihrem Leistungshoch. (Foto: Siebtechnik)

Die ISENMANN Siebe GmbH ist bekannt für cleveres Zubehör für den gesamten Bereich der Siebtechnik. Im Bild ein ausgerüsteter Stückgutabscheider. (Foto: Isenmann)

Weitere Anlagen arbeiten in den USA und anderen europäischen Staaten. Die ISENMANN Siebe GmbH aus Karlsruhe hatte ebenfalls bereits auf der vergangenen bauma ein ausgefeiltes Programm wichtiger Neuheiten dabei und zeigt passend zur steinexpo daraus einen branchenspezifischen Ausschnitt neuer Siebmedien sowie neuer und bewährter Befestigungs-, Zubehör und Industrieteile in Standard- und Spezialausführung. Mit dem Isecone-Teleskopabwurfsystem wird an anderer Stelle im Gelände effektiver Staubschutz praktiziert und demonstriert. Umrüsten statt Umbauen heißt es bei der Ludwig Krieger Draht- und Kunststofferzeugnisse GmbH. Das Retrofit-Programm zur effizienten Umrüstung von Sieben ohne jeglichen Eingriff in die Maschinenstatik erfreut sich bei den Praktikern der Branche hoher Beliebtheit und wird demzufolge auch im Mittelpunkt der Präsentation stehen. Die einfache Umrüstmethode lässt aus einem alten quergespannten Drahtsieb innerhalb kürzester Zeit ein modernes Kunststoffwechselsieb

werden, inklusive der erwünschten Vorteile wie höherer Siebwirkungsgrad, geringer Zeitaufwand für Siebbelagwechsel, flexible Anpassung der Lochweiten, verschleißoptimierte Siebbelegung. Kurz: Alle Vorzüge eines Systemsiebbelages kommen nach dem Umbau für Betreiber zum Tragen.

WEITERE INFORMATIONEN UND KONTAKT: Redaktionell: gsz-Fachpressebüro Pestalozzistr. 2 13187 Berlin | Deutschland Tel.: +43 (0)30 - 47 37 62 25 Fax: +43 (0)30 - 91 20 38 04 eMail:

Fachlich: Geoplan GmbH Josef-Herrmann-Straße 1-3 76473 Iffezheim | Deutschland Tel.: +43 (0)72 29 - 606 - 30 Fax: +43 (0)72 29 - 606 - 10 eMail: Internet:

steinexpo Als größte und bedeutendste Steinbruchsdemonstrationsmesse auf dem europäischen Kontinent feierte die steinexpo im September 1990 im Steinbruch Niederofleiden ihre Premiere. Die Messe wird im Drei-Jahres-Turnus durchgeführt. Im Rahmen eindrucksvoller Live-Vorführungen vor der Kulisse eines beeindruckenden Steinbruchs zeigen Hersteller und Händler von Bau- und Arbeitsmaschinen, von Nutzfahrzeugen und Skw sowie von Anlagen zur Rohstoffgewinnung und -aufbereitung ihre Leistungsfähigkeit. Einen weiteren Schwerpunkt der Messe bildet das Recycling mineralischer Baustoffe. Veranstaltet wird die steinexpo von der Geoplan GmbH, Iffezheim.

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3 SMOPYC 2011 SMOPYC, the International Show of Public Works, Construction and Mining Machinery, due to be held at the Zaragoza Trade Fair Center from 5 to 9 April 2011, promises to be an outstanding event. Efforts have been redoubled as regards the internationalisation of companies through intensive foreign promotion and the programme features numerous trade meetings between countries. In addition, overall improvements have been achieved both with respect to facilities at the fair and as regards the infrastructure and services that support it.

The most eagerly awaited date on the calendar for the Spanish and international public works, construction and mining machinery industry is drawing closer, with SMOPYC 2011 due to take place from April 5th to 9th at the Zaragoza Trade Fair Center. Everything is in place to receive the main actors of a sector which, while not enjoying its most fruitful period, has once again demonstrated its confidence in the long-standing Spanish trade fair. This is borne out by some of the figures already available for the upcoming edition. The event will boast 9 halls, 100,000 m2 of covered space, and 200,000 m2 of outdoor space for the exhibition of heavy machinery, demonstrations and sponsored areas. With respect to participation, unconfirmed figures point to approximately 600 direct exhibitors (this figure does not include represented companies) and 900 brands. These will include practically all the leading companies in sectors related to earthmoving, roads, aggregates, concrete, and lifting and handling, sectors that have once again chosen SMOPYC as the optimum way of making contacts in the international market in 2011. An example that highlights this fact is the presence of Barloword Finanzauto Caterpillar. The company will present its entire range at the fair and will have exclusive occupation of the 6,000 m2 of Hall 5 of the Zaragoza Trade Fair Center. Also of note are the extensive car parking facilities. Exhibitors will enjoy 50,000 m2 spread over 4 zones alongside the halls and outdoor area, with 30,000 m2 of covered car parks. Meanwhile, visitor car parking facilities will amount to a total of 300,000 m2, spread across the southern, northern and western areas of the center.

Issue 01 | 2011


EVENTS equipment and machinery. These are markets which even go so far as to facilitate the entry of foreign companies. For this reason, SMOPYC has focused on such countries and has promoted the event in Algeria, Morocco, Brazil, Ukraine, Poland, Russia, China, Angola and Mexico, amongst others. SMOPYC has also extended direct invitations to participate in the event to the strategic markets of North Africa, Asia and South America.

But SMOPYC 2011 has not only gone to great lengths in terms of available space. Participation fees have been reduced by up to 43% and all efforts have also been made to reduce other costs, such as accommodation and transport, through agreements with hotels, the national rail company (RENFE), and airlines. Similarly, promotion of the event has been intensified in the forums of greatest interest to the sector, with the objective of reaching every corner of Spain and the world, and particularly with a view to seeking a response from emerging countries and those of particular interest to the sector. All these efforts seek to achieve a single main objective: to accompany and serve the sector on the road to recovery.

SMOPYC has already shown itself to be an excellent tool for company internationalisation by means of the different trade missions organised within the framework of the fair. For this edition, trade missions have been organised with the markets of: Algeria, Russia, Mexico, Austria, Brazil, Angola, China, the Middle East, Morocco, Poland, Panama and Portugal. In addition, Anmopyc (Spanish Manufacturers Association of Construction and Mining Equipment) has organised reverse trade missions with the visit of over 100 international companies. Moreover, there will be an extensive program of interviews organised under the auspices of the Enterprise Europe Network project with the cooperation of CREA (Employers Confederation of Arag贸n). This program will feature approximately 800 business meetings, with customised schedules for exhibiting companies. These meetings will be held on April 5th and 6th and will boast the participation of over 200 buyers from 40 countries.

The challenge of internationalisation The current situation makes internationalisation a must for companies. In many cases this is the only viable strategy for consolidation and growth. Many companies are already looking to the international market, be it through the creation of foreign subsidiaries or branches, or with the help of suitable partners. Whether exports are sporadic or regular, the main question is to operate in foreign countries, having first identified the best markets. There are countries firmly committed to investment in infrastructure but which do not have indigenous companies capable of carrying out their projects. Nor do they have the necessary

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R&D&i trends in the public works and construction machinery sector During the last CECE (Committee for the European Construction Equipment Industry) congress organised by Anmopyc and held in Barcelona last October, the most respected voices in the sector underlined the need to develop innovative solutions to increase competitiveness. They advised companies to invest in R&D&i rather than making cutbacks if they wished to guarantee their future. The main innovation initiatives in the sector are aimed at developing more productive machines and equipment with lower fuel consumption and emissions. The regulatory framework is also moving in this direction, as indicated by the latest Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) stipulations for large engines, which came into force in January 2011. This has given rise to the development of the new Tier 4 engines, which guarantee a 90% reduction in pollutant diesel particles and a 50% reduction in nitrous oxides with respect to the previous Tier 3 requirements. In general, design innovation for new machines focuses on questions such as safety, sustainability and eco-efficiency. This is also emphasised in a study carried out by the Aragón Technological Institute (ITA), which examines technological options for the Public Works and Construction Machinery sector. The study indentifies 6 technological areas which companies should focus on in terms of innovation: electronics and communications systems, new materials, calculations and simulations, testing, mechanical systems and process engineering.

The development of each of these areas would be applied to concepts such as the safety, efficiency and productivity of the machine and to the development of the “intelligent machine”, with the introduction of ICTs, GPS and other advanced control technologies.

SMOPYC 2011 Technological Innovation Awards As is the case at every edition, SMOPYC 2011 has offered companies the opportunity to publicise their developments and new creations through participation in the Technological Innovation Awards. The award-winning enterprises for the 2011 edition are as follows:

New developments in Machinery: • Gold Award: Comoplesa-Lebrero, S.A., for its insulated asphalt tanker. • Silver Award: Mopicsa/Soilmec S.p.A. for the BELI hydraulic screen wall machine with 4 high-capacity rotaries. • Bronze Award: SEBHSA, for its Robot pump for the projection of concrete.

Innovation in Equipment, Components and Auxiliary Means: • Gold Award: INELAS POLIURETANOS, S.L, for its Mobile Screen Cleaner Device for dry screening. • Silver Award: MAQUIOBRAS for its UNE 180401:2010 compliant loading and unloading floor platform. • Bronze Award: METALOGENIA, S.A., for its hammerless Ripper R tooth system.

Services applicable to the Building Activity Special mention goes to I.C.C. CONVEYOR, S.L for the ALMEXPAD system for the control of conveyer belt vulcanisation presses.

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EVENTS Enhancements at SMOPYC 2011 In addition to the above-mentioned discount policy, with reductions of up to 43% with respect to the previous edition, there are other, no less important improvements, such as significant enhancements in services and infrastructure: • Improved access and access control thanks to a special entrance and exit device, which, in coordination with the Civil Guard, will facilitate ordered visitor flow. More parking space with improved signalling and better access. • Improved hotel offer as regards capacity, which has doubled, prices and range of alternatives, such as accommodation and transport packages. • Logistics enhancements with improved transport to the city of Zaragoza and buses serving Zaragoza, the Trade Fair Center and Hotels. AVE Carriage with two morning departures and corresponding day returns from both Madrid and Barcelona, with discounts of between 35% and 40%. Direct routes to the Trade Fair Grounds from different hotels and from the Plaza complex, as well as a shuttle service to and from the airport. • Enhanced web services enabling electronic invitations to be obtained directly from the SMOPYC web site quickly and conveniently

As always, in addition to being a great shop window for innovation and a sales event second to none, SMOPYC will also be the meeting point for the leading sectoral associations, who will avail of the occasion to organise their assemblies and conferences.

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FOR MORE INFORMATION AND CONTACT: SMOPYC International Show of Public Works, Construction and Mining Machinery Apartado de Correos 108 50080 Saragossa | Spain Tel.: +34 (0)976 - 76 47 00 Fax: +43 (0)976 - 33 06 49 eMail: Internet:



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