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03 2010 EDUCATION Methods for Calculation of Raw Material Reserves - Reserve Estimation

Tudeshki, H.

Institute of Mining | TU Clausthal | Germany

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Methods for Calculation of Raw Material Reserves - Reserve Estimation by Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. H. Tudeshkil Surface Mining and International Mining | TU Clausthal | Germany

Resource Estimation One of the fundamental criteria for the assessment of a raw material project is the determination of the volume/ mass of the explored deposit. In addition, the calculations need to determine the amount/volume of raw material, as a function of the degree of exploration. The assessment can be done based on the definition of proven, possible or inferred reserves. This document initially deals with the introduction of various methods of reserve estimation, without defining categories. The basis for reserve estimation is the entire information about topography, geology, hydrology, as well as from drillings, the prospecting trenches, including laboratory analysis for determination of mineral content. It is only after a systematic examination and assessment of these data that reserve estimation can be started.

Methods for Calculation of Raw Material Reserves In the past, the mathematical approaches and derived methods of reserve estimation have continuously been further developed. The simplest methods are based on a geometrical assessment of deposit information derived from explorations. In these methods, which are the oldest ones, one or several investigation results are related to an area or a body with defined measurements. Based on the form of the reference plane, distinction is made between methods of geological areas, triangulation, Profile Method and Polygonal Method. Since in these methods there is no mutual influence of investigation results from neighboring exploration data, later the so-called “NearestNeighbor� Method was introduced as sort of a further development of the polygonal method. An advanced optimization of the reserve calculation has been done during the introduction of the method of floating weighting. In the so-called Inverse Distance Method, the dependence or the mutual impact of examination results

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is determined as a function of distance. However, it was only with the introduction of the Krige Method that the cornerstone for modern geo-statistics was laid. In this method, apart from distance, the orientation of examination results is also taken into consideration for the determination of mutual influence. Both methods of Inverse Distance, as well as the Kriging method are used for three-dimensional reserve estimation, in connection with block models. The above-mentioned methods are briefly explained in the following:

Geometrical Methods As already mentioned, in the application of this method, one or several mean examination results, e.g. the ore content, are related to an area or a body with defined dimensions. In their practical application, these methods serve to obtain a first estimated calculation of the reserves. In principle the accuracy increases the more methodical the exploration is carried out, along with simultaneous homogeneity of the raw material body. While these methods lead to acceptable results with seamlike deposits that only have little fluctuations in their quality, their application in complex deposits with high fluctuations in minearal content would lead to useless results.

Methods for Geological Areas The method of geological areas is the simplest one to estimate reserves. The area chosen for calculation is demarcated, subject to the geological borders of the deposit, including possible discontinuity areas.


EDUCATION The determined deposit information of the respective area, like raw material content and thickness are arithmetically averaged and multiplied by the area. This very simple possibility of calculation is preferably applied in seamlike sedimentary deposits like hard coal and lignite.

Profil Method The Profile Method is also termed as cross-sectional method, the method of parallel profiles or linear method. The procedure is depicted in the following Figure 1. The deposit body is pictured through cross-sectional maps. The slice volume of the resulting parallel slices Si is calculated by the area Fi of a section i and the two onehalf distances to the neighboring sections. The average content for the individual sections is determined as simple or weighted arithmetic average. Since the shape of the deposit body is of no importance in this method, it can be applied to all deposit types.

Fig. 2: Triangulation

Polygonal Method The procedure in this calculation method is similar to triangulation. Instead of three values, each single area is only assigned the value of the exploration location within the respective polygon. The polygon areas are determined by creating the perpendicular bisector of the connection of two neighboring exploration points.

2Triangulation In this method the deposit body is divided into a series of overlapping layers. A triangular network is created by the exploration points on the various levels. An average content is then created, based on the sample values of the corners. Multiplied by the calculated average contents and the layer thickness, the triangular areas lead to the summed-up total reserve of the deposit.

Fig. 3: Polygon Method

Fig. 1: Profile Method

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EDUCATION NearestNeighbor Method This calculation method is based on the polygonal method. The quality assignment of an area encompassed by a polygon is not only done by the quality of the crop within the polygon area, but is also influenced be the quality of the neighboring polygon. In the two-dimensional system the influence can only be determined at the adjoining area of two polygons. In a three-dimensional approach, particularly in inclined deposits, this method leads to a better result than the normal polygon method.

Reserve Estimates from Deposit Modelsn The calculation of reserves of complex deposits (e.g. metallic ores) is done with the help of three dimensional deposit models. In order to do so, the deposit is divided into a system of mostly equal-sized, rectangular blocks. On one hand the size of the blocks is determined by the required accuracy and calculating capacity, on the other hand it is determined by technical factors (block height equal to working height of the extraction equipment to be used). Values are assigned to the individual blocks through interpolation. Once a deposit model is set up and calculated, it is only a question of programming to calculate the geological reserves or contents.

Theory of Deposit Models Even if the deposits are intensely examined, the sample masses that are extracted from drillings and prospecting trenches only consist of a negligibly small part (approximately 1/100.000 to 1/1.000.000) of the entire deposit. Therefore an interpolation of the values is imperative. As such, based on known data from drill core analysis for example, values for not drilled areas are calculated. Both known, as well as calculated data are then assembled into a model. In order to do this interpolation, a multitude of methods is available, and is explained in the following sections. While tackling these problems it should be considered that all approaches are based on models and not on the reality. Any error in the model will be transferred to the results of the work.

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Generating Deposit Models Gathering samples from drill cores, ditches and other mining sampling methods are starting points of any deposit modeling. After the samples are analysed, a borehole data bank including the following data is created in order to generate a deposit model: • Borehole number • Coordinates (x; y; z) of the borehole starting point • Drilling depth of the sample • Angle and direction of Inclination of the borehole sections

In addition, further relevant data of any form can be stored for each partial deposit volume. Usually results of sample analysis may be content of valuable and harmful substance, moisture content, heating value, ash content, density, rock solidity, permeability, fracture surface orientation, etc. The borehole data bank can be expanded with further data, which for example are obtained during mining ctivities on the deposit. Usually the needed information is saved in various source files, which then must be merged. Initial information about the deposit can directly be obtained through statistical and mainly geo-statistical analysis of the data bank. Thus the mean value, histograms and variograms can be generated, and as such trends and correlations between parameters can be determined and pointed out. The goal of this information is the generation of a global picture of the deposit and its structure. The results of these initial calculations form the basis for and provide evidence for the following deposit modeling.

Block models and their Information Content Deposit modeling initially means the division of the deposit into equal or unequal blocks. The block represents the smallest unit of the model and is homogeneous with regard to the included data.


EDUCATION Each block is clearly defined regarding position and size by two or three coordinates of a mostly orthogonal coordinate system and three edge lengths. Information on the entire block is assigned to each of these blocks, in form of data sets. This assignment is done through interpolation or estimation methods, which are explained in the following.

Structure of a Block Model The structure of a block model refers to the spatial expansion of the entire model, as well as the size, form and orientation of individual blocks. Each model can have almost any structure, which above all is determined by the shape and the type of the deposit, as well as by the amount of the available data. If the geology allows it, the size of the blocks complies with the real available homogeneous areas within the deposit (smallest volume, for which a decision such as processing of ore or dumping of waste can be made). In certain circumstances this can correspond to the size of an exploration unit.

The accuracy of the model is higher, if from the beginning a very small block size is chosen, however it should be noted that errors in the accuracy of the estimation (variance) for the individual block increases with decreasing size of the block. Furthermore, the number of blocks is limited by the calculating and memory capacity of the used computers. In order to reduce the requirements for computing performance, there is the possibility to divide blocks at decisive locations, e.g. at dislocation planes, or roof and floor of a seam. This increases accuracy of these zones, without influencing the block size in the rest of the deposit model.

Determining Content in Single Blocks Irrespective of the drilling density in a deposit, it is very seldom that one drilling can be assigned to each block. Even if this would be the case (if the blocks are defined in a corresponding size), it is still questionable, whether the drilling results really represent the respective single block. Figure 4 shows four blocks of a deposit, for which a continuous (actual) grade profile is available. This grade profile shows high local fluctuations, i.e. a high noise level. If each block is centrally examined with a drilling, then the drilling results are influenced by local fluctuations and are possibly far from the block average value.

Fig. 4: Content Profile of a deposit

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EDUCATION It is therefore necessary to find a way to eliminate these short-waved content fluctuations (the so-called “noise”), and to identify the long-waved content variations and to record the correct block average. The contents in a deposit cannot be seen as purely statistically distributed; it is only the noise can be stated as statistically distributed. The possibility of encountering a high-content drilling next to another high-content drilling is higher than a low-content one. Therefore there is a spatial dependency (location-dependant variable). The measurement of this spatial dependency correlates to the homogeneity of the deposit, which in turn is subject to its genesis and the tectonic strain. The geo-statistics deals with the consideration of this spatial dependency of properties, as well as with methods for determination of contents of single blocks. The spatial dependence of sample values and analysis results in a deposit is quantified by a basic instrument of geo-statistics, the so-called variogram.

Development of a Variogram In order to develop a variogram, differences in pairs of values, which have the same distance from each other, are calculated step by step. As an example:

• 1st step: Differences of all value pairs at 10 m spacing • 2nd step: Differences of all value pairs at 20 m spacing, etc.

The procedure is depicted in picture 5. Values for the so-called experimental variogram are calculated by the following formula:

with • γ

Variogram value

• h


• zi

value (e.g. grade)

• zi+h

value in distance h

• n

total number of the compared values

The variogram value  is recorded against the distance h in the variogram. As such it represents the average of the squared differences of two values as a function of distance. An example for such a variogram is shown in picture 3-3. The typical course of the curve becomes evident. There is initially a continuous rise until a certain threshold value C is reached, around which the function fluctuates.

Fig. 5: Procedure for calculation of a variogram

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EDUCATION The range a represents the distance, within which the sample values are dependant upon each other. The search radius, which has to be used during deposit modeling, should correspond to the range a at this threshold value.

Fig. 6: Variograms for deposits with high (blue) and low (red) continuity

Deposit Characteristics in the Variogram Each variogram is specific to its respective deposit. Although same type deposits have similar variograms, each deposit has its own specific variogram. Many geological characteristics of a deposit can be drawn from a variogram, some of which can be quantitatively ascertained: • The continuity of a deposit can be seen in the increase of h for small values of h. Particularly in sedimentary deposits, changes in content occur slowly, i.e. over long horizontal distances. Respective variograms have a steadily and slowly rising variogram function. Variograms with high deviations at even short distances can be seen in deposits such as gold or copper deposits, in which the relation between individual sample values can hardly be determined. • Therefore in determination of the content of single blocks during a deposit modeling, the dependence of the sample values can be drawn from the increase of the variogram function. • The range a is the area, in which a regional dependence of the sample values is encountered. Therefore the variogram value rises with a continuous distance within the range.

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After a distance a the variogram achieves the threshold value (=Sill).

C = γ (∞ )

Beyond the range, the variance fluctuates around the limit value C; there is no clear dependence on the distance. The course of the variogram usually does not start from the value zero. Two samples can only have the same content if they are taken from the same point. However, if the partial regression line is elongated through the first variogram points, up to the intersection with the ordinate, this intersection mostly does not meet the origin of the coordinates. The variogram value of a distance of h=0 is called nugget variance. The term nugget variance was originally attached to gold deposits, in which there is irregularity of distribution of gold nuggets, which leads to a high variance even between very closely neighboring sample values. The nugget variance also entails measurement and analysis errors of sampling. In practice it is hardly possible to assess the share of these reasons in the nugget variance, therefore one should always attempt to qualitatively clarify the causes of the variance (trouble-shooting).


EDUCATION Calculation methods to determine the contents of single blocks

Fig. 7: Determining the grade in a block with the inverse distance method

In order to calculate the contents of single blocks, it only makes sense to consider samples within the range a, since there is a dependency within this distance. The main problem in determining the content of single blocks is to determine the degree of influence of the sample values on the single block content and the associated search for suitable weighting factors for the sample values.

Method of Inverse Distance Weighting In order to calculate the grade in a block with the Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW), an average of values within the search area is established. The dimension of the search area corresponds to the range a from the variogram. Weighting of the values is inversely proportional to their distance from the center of the respective block. Although the IDW method does not represent a geostatistic estimation, but an interpolation, nevertheless it implies the connection between decreasing influence with increasing distance, like in the Krige Method.

Calculation method of the inverse distance weighting The grade of the block E is calculated according to the following formula:

E = grade of the block En = grade of the drilling n = Bohrlochnummer dn = Distance w = Weighting exponent, (with w = 1 - lineare weighting, w = 2 - Square weighting and w = ∞ - Polygon Method)

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Values of the samples that lie within the previously determined search range are multiplied with the weighting factor

then products are added and divided by the sum of the factors λi. The contents Ei are weighted with the inverse value of the distance di exponentiated with the chosen exponent w.

Applications of the IDW In case of a suitable information density, the inverse distance method can be applied in all deposits. The calculation of geomechanical deposit models is also easily possible. In case the reference point of the block (e.g. the center point of the block) is the actual drilling, the weighting factor λ becomes infinite, and calculation for these blocks has to be altered.

Special Forms of Inverse Distance Weighting If the weighting exponent w = ∞ is chosen, this corresponds to the polygon method. If the weighting factor w = 2 is chosen, reference is made to the inverse square distance weighting, which is another special form of the inverse weighting.


EDUCATION The selection of the weighting factor, however, requires great experience, since it is based on estimation, and the possibility of errors is high. If one aims at the best estimation, in which the estimate variance is minimal, the Krige method should be chosen. Figure 8 explains the determination of the single block contents, based on distance and weighting factor.

Fig. 8: Influence of various weighting factors on the block estimation value

The Krige-Method The Krige method was developed by the South-African Daniel J. Krige for a gold deposit. It presents an optimal solution for the geostatistical weighting task, since the estimation process leads to the lowest variance. In the course of time a multitude of modified Krige methods was developed for special applications, they are all relatively computationally intensive and almost without exception need computing.

Krige Calculation Methods (Kriging)

Two additional boundary conditions are relevant with the Krige method: • The sum of the weighting factors λI is equal to 1, so that on average the difference between the actual and the estimated values is zero. • The weighting factors λi are calculated in a way that the variance of the estimation, the so-called estimation variance takes on a minimum.

Calculation procedure: Determination of the dependence of the variance of the weighting factors σ2 = f(λ) (Basis: Considerations for the development of a variogram). Solution for the optimization problem σ2 --> min with

As portrayed in Figure 9, in Kriging, the grade of the block E is calculated according to the following formula: using the Lagrange-Method.

E = grade of the block En = grade of the drilling n = Bore hole number dn = Distance λn = Weighting Factor

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Fig. 9: Determination of the ore content in a block with the Krige method


EDUCATION Characteristics of the Krige Weighting Factors

[15] Schmid, M. EDV - gestützte Bergbauplanung II, Institut für Bergbau der Technischen Universität Clausthal, 1999 [16] Goergen, H. Festgesteinstagebau Publications, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, 1987



In the Krige method, with adherence to the minimal estimation variance (Krige-variance), the best possible estimation values for a block, an area or a point can be determined. The value results from the available information on the changeability of location or the local dependence of the variables, on the form and size of the block and the arrangement of the samples in reference to the block, as well as the position of the samples in relation to each other.

[17] Goergen, H. Festgesteinstagebau Publications, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, 1987



The estimation variance is the smaller, • the bigger the block to be estimated is (Reserve calculation), • the closer the samples of the neighborhood lie around the block and • the more even they are arranged around the block.

[1] Dörken, W.; Dehne, E. Grundbau in Beispielen, Teil 1, Werner Verlag, 3. Auflage, Düsseldorf, 2003 [2] Schreiber, B. Mitteilungen zur Ingenieurgeologie und Hydrologie, Heft 35, Lehrstuhl für Ingenieurgeologie und Hydrogeologie der RWTH Aachen, Aachen 1990 [3] Schnell, W. Grundbau und Bodenmechanik 1 + 2 (Studienunterlagen), Institut für Grundbau und Bodenmechanik der TU Braunschweig, 7. Auflage, 1990 [4] Arnold, I.; Schutze, D. Der Einsatz von Dichtwänden im Lausitzer Braunkohlerevier, Vortrag anlässlich des Clausthaler Kongress für Bergbau und Rohstoffe, Mining 2002, Clausthal Rheinbraun AG Informationsbroschüren

[6] Pflug, W. Braunkohlentagebau Springer Verlag, 1997 [7] e.V.



Bundesverband der Gips- und Gipsbauplattenindustrie Lebensraum Gips,

[8] Rheinbraun Landschaftsgestaltung und Ökologie im Rheinischen Braunkohlenrevier [9]

MIBRAG Rekultivierung und Bergbaufolgelandschaft

[10] Blume, H.-P. ecomed 1990

[19] Das Informationsportal zur angewandten Geophysik [20] GEODIENSTonline Geowissenschaftlicher Dienst http:// [21] Borg, G. Mineralogie und Ökonomie Martin-LutherUniversität Halle-Wittenberg, 2002 [22] University of Melbourne Introduction to Geophysical Exploration html [23] Baumann/Nikolskij/Wolf Einführung in die Geologie und Erkundung von Lagerstätten Verlag Glückauf, 1979 [24] Ewans, A. M. Introduction to mineral exploration Blackwell Science Ltd., 1995



[18] Härtig, H.; Ciesielski, R. Grundlagen für die Berechnung von Tagebauen, VEB Deutscher Verlag für Grundstoffindustrie, Leipzig, 1974




[11] Wohlrab, B., Ehlers, M., Günnewig, D., Söhngen, H.-H. Oberflächennahe Rohstoffe – Abbau, Rekultivierung, Folgenutzung [12] Olschowy, Gerhard Paul Parey, 1993

Bergbau und Landschaft,

[25] Niedersächsisches Landesamt für Bodenforschung (NLfB) Erkundungsmethoden online [26] Wellmer, F.-W.; Neumann, W. Akquisition von Lagerstätten BGR, 1999



[27] Barthel, F. Reserven, Ressourcen und Lebensdauer von mineralischen Rohstoffen und Energierohstoffen BGR, 1999 Univ.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. Hossein H. Tudeshki studied from 1977 to 1980 at the Mining College of Shahrud (Iran); following several years of work in the mining industry, he completed his mining study at the RWTH Aachen in 1989. Since 1992 he was Chief Engineer at the Institute for Surface Mining (Bergbaukunde III) of the RWTH Aachen, mainly active in the field of open cast mining and drilling technique. He did his doctor degree in 1993 and qualified as a university lecture in 1997. In 1998 the Venia Legendi was awarded to him be the RWTH Aachen for the field “Rock and Earth Open Pit Mining”. In November 2001 he was appointed as Professor for Surface Mining and International Mining at Clausthal University of Technology. He already has over 25 years of experience in the field of project planning and cost-benefit analysis within the frame of various mine planning projects. The international tasks rendered by him mount up to more than 300 international raw material-related projects.

| | |

[13] Steinmetz, R., Mahler, H. Tagebauprojektierung, VEB Deutscher Verlag für Grundstoffindustrie, Leipzig, 1987 [14] Kennedy, B. A. Surface Mining, 2nd Edition, Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Inc., Littleton, Colorado, 1990

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OBJECTIVES • To gather the national and international mining industry around the VI International Mining Expo – Colombia Mining 2010 to further stimulate the integration of the business of mining and its suppliers, creating value propositions, business and investment opportunities. • To strengthen institutional and academic connections with entrepreneurial initiatives committed to the best practices in corporate social responsibility (environment, health and safety) for employees and the welfare of their communities.

KEY COMPONENTS The Expo will include from October 6 - 8: A Trade Show, Business Roundtable Meeting Sessions with the support of Proexport, First International Mining Seminar Colombia Mining 2010 and Commercial Exhibition of the invited countries.




The first International Mining Expo was organized in 2005 as a strategic action as part of Antioquia’s Mining Development Plan, developed by the Secretary of Productivity and Competitiveness of this Department. Several State Agencies collaborated in the Expo helping it gain the support of the Institute for the Development of Antioquia - IDEA, the Municipality of Medellín and the Colombian National Learning System (SENA). Visitors from 17 countries participated, 16 multinational mining companies and there were negotiations valued at around US$35m. In 2006, the second version of the International Mining Expo – Colombia Mining, surpassed all expectations. The support from the Canadian government was fundamental to the success of the event. The Canadian Authorities, through its embassy in Colombia, promoted the participation of Canadian mining companies and brought as special guests Fred McMahon, Director of the Center for Trade Studies and the Globalization of the Fraser Institute (this agency is responsible for classifying the mining competitiveness of countries), and Martine Valcin, from the Toronto Stock Exchange. The third version of the International Mining Expo had about 6,300 visitors. A total of 35 projects were showcased, out of which 112 meetings were scheduled and significant negotiating proposals emerged, from $500k to several million dollars. In the jewelry business, there were futures proposals with Proexport of US$3.5m, local market US$1.5m to be delivered in December. There were visitors from 20 countries. In the fourth version of the expo, and enjoying the creation of the Secretary of Mines of the Department of Antioquia there was a participation of 133 exhibitors, an approximate of 4,400 visitors, the presentation of 27 mining investment projects, 20 of them belonging to the Mining Project Bank of the Government of Antioquia, which generated a total of 378 business meetings. There were visitors from 20 countries, 16 foreign speakers, 15 Colombian speakers and negotiations estimated around US$8m.

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The fifth version, in 2009, managed to bring together over 6,000 people during the three-day expo, with a trade show of 177 booths, among which were exploration companies, mining producers, retailers, providers of goods and services, manufacturers and government institutions, among which are highlighted the participation of the governments of: Cundinamarca, Boyacá, Risaralda, Huila, Cesar, Norte de Santander, Tolima and Valle del Cauca, in addition to Germany and Poland as invited countries. Negotiations were closed for an approximate value of US$46m. The VI INTERNATIONAL MINING EXPO will contribute, as it has throughout its various editions, to promote the image of mining in Colombia, placing the country in a strategic position within the regional and global mining markets, showing its mining potential and the investment opportunities currently offered by Colombia.

SAFETY AND LEGALIZATION, COLOMBIAN GOVERNMENT PRIORITIES FOR THE MINING SECTOR • Statutes and Regulations of Act 1333 will provide tools {or the Ministry of Environment, Housing and Territorial Development to suspend or punish mining activities outside the law. • Government will propose creating an Interagency Unit against criminal mining activities. • At the Expo there are 200 exhibitors, in addition to delegates from countries Iike Korea, Australia, Chile, Canada, Israel and the United States.



MEDELLlN, OCTOBER 2010. An aggressive strategy to improve industrial safety and combat illegal mining will be developed by the Colombian Government through the implementation of stringent security protocols. This was stated by Minister of Mines and Energy, Carlos Rodado Noriega, who during the opening ceremony of the VI International Mining Expo which will run until Friday, October 8, 2010 in the White, Blue and Yellow Pavillions in Plaza Mayor Medellin Convention and Exhibition Center, announced that within the Conpes document (a leading paper for joint political instruments and strategies for municipalities, departments and the national government to upgrade the socio-economic conditions of a sector or population), which will be developed to define the guidelines of the mining sector, a proposal to create an interagency unit to prevent mining crimes will be included. This unit, added Rodado, should be the responsibility of the National Prosecutor‘s Office due to the fact that illegal mining is a crime and should be judicialized as such. Also, judges that are unaware of the mining code will be trained towards the attainment of this objective, which is essential to strengthen measures against those mining activities that take place outside the legal framework, which, according to the census being conducted by the Colombian Ministry of Mines, is at a high percentage. „If the supervision fails because the regulations or the norms are remain written and no action is taken, we cannot meet the goal of providing security that ensures the integrity and lives of miners,“ underscored Rodado.

FOR MORE INFORMATION AND CONTACT: Adriana Yepes Account Executive SciTech Media (STM), Communications and PR eMail: Internet: Carlos Giraldo Processes Leader SciTech Media (STM), Communications and PR eMail: Internet:

Ministry to suspend or punish illegal mining, as applicable. „It‘s a new decree that will be a very strong tool, it can stop machinery, prosecute individuals, destroy mercury or cyanide,“ said the Minister. She also added that the Ministry of Mines and Energy and the Ministry of Environment, Housing and Territorial Development will work together to ban mining in natural areas such as paramos (high cold plateau of South America) or wetlands.

Expo Expectations

Rodado Noriega also added that artisan mining will be supported by the Government through cooperative associations that thanks to the structuring of projects will generate economies of scale.

During the Expo‘s opening ceremony, the Antioquia Governor, Luis Alfredo Ramos Botero, was optimistic about the participation of 200 exhibitors and delegates from countries like Korea, Australia, Chile, Canada, Israel and the United States.

Statutes and Regulations

Ramos Botero stressed the importance of the mining sector in Antioquia, with exports of gold worth nearly US$1.4b in 2009 and added that to strengthen this sector, two mining training centers will be developed, in the municipalities EI Bagre and Amaga, to combat informality.

The Minister of Environment, Housing and Territorial Development, Beatriz Uribe Botero, celebrated the statutes and regulations of law 1333, which will provide tools for his

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He also informed that in November the details will be revealed for a project that will be developed in about 95,000 hectares in Urabá which seeks to make coal mining the primary revenue for the Department of Antioquia.

Industry figures Foreign investment in Colombia‘s mining sector reached approximately US$2b in 2009. Export projections aim to go from 80 million tons of coal to 160 million tons in 2020.

About the VI International Mining Expo It’s the International Expo that takes place between October 6 and 8 at Plaza Mayor Medellín Convention and Exhibition Center, around one of the most promising sectors of the economy: The Mining Industry. This event has established itself as the most representative of Colombia and will have in 2010 Trade Shows, Business Roundtables, Mining Conferences and a Trade Show of the invited countries. The event has been organized by the Government of Antioquia and the Chamber “Asomineros” of ANDI (National Business Association of Colombia) with the support of by the Ministry of Mines and Energy of Colombia.


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Simulating the working process of mobile machinery by Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. G. Kunze1; Jun.-Prof. Dr.-Ing. A. Katterfeld2; Dipl.-Ing T. Gr端ning Institute of processing machines and mobile machines | TU Dresden | Institute of Logistics and Material Handling Systems (ILM) | Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg | | Germany | 1 2

The working process of Mobile Machinery is a complex interaction between the machine itself and the bulk material. Only a deep understanding of the underlying processes can lead to an optimal and energy efficient design of the machine and its components. Simultaneous simulations of multibody dynamics, hydraulics, drive train and control systems provide realistic predictions of the machine behaviour. This approach usually cannot account for loads caused by the working process. Realistic simulation of the bulk material can be achieved using the discrete element method (DEM) which usually does not consider machine dynamics. Hence, a realistic calculation of the whole working process can only be achieved, if the aforementioned simulation methods can be combined. This paper looks into the basic principles of simulation and the coupling of appropriate software for the purpose of calculating the interaction between machines and bulk materials. Furthermore a prototypic implementation is presented portraying a wheel loader picking up a pile of stones.

Introduction Simulation has become an indispensable tool in industry. Especially when designing single components the Finite Element Method (FEM) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations have proven themselves valuable for fatigue and flow analysis. Multibody system (MBS) simulation is mainly used for vibration analysis as well evaluating the driving dynamics. Future construction and earthmoving machinery have to be designed specifically to the needs of their respective working process. Hence, knowing the loads acting on the machine due to the working process is of vital importance for the an efficient product development. Only if they can be incorporated into the virtual design process, the need for costly and time intensive measurements on prototypes can be minimised yielding economical and ecological advantages. Especially, the high cost per unit and the small quantities caused by long lifecycles and a large diversity of such machines render the testing on real prototypes impractical as well as economically unviable.

that existing commercial simulation software is only able to simulate the machine behaviour but not the working process, i.e. the handling of bulk and construction material as depicted in Figure 1. The main reason lies in the complexity of the interaction between the machine and its respective bulk material during the intrusion of the machine tool. On the one hand the bulk material influences the machine behaviour; on the other hand the machine dynamics have a large impact on the behaviour of the bulk material. In the following a method for the multidomain simulation of earth moving machinery is presented with the aim to predict realistic behaviours and system loads. The method has been implemented and tested by looking at the example of a wheel loader picking up a pile of stones. This work is a cooperation between Dresden University of Technology and the University of Magdeburg.

Simulation allows testing of virtual prototypes in virtual environments. Thus, the influences of different options and parameters on the machine behaviour can be investigated during the early stages of the product development process saving time and money. However, it has to be said,

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY • Filling the bucket by intruding the material • Transportation of the material from the source to the sink • Emptying the bucket (source wheelloader:

• Loosening the material through the use of chisels and other tools • Transportation of the material (source Surface Miner:

• Gaining and filling of the tool with material • Moving the material using the tool • Placing material using the tool (scource dozer:

Figure 1: Construction Machinery and their working processes

Simulation of mobile machinery Every simulation has different requirements regarding accuracy, input and output data, or the ability to fulfil realtime constraints. Hence, a flexible simulation tool is required which satisfies all these requirements. Figure 2 depicts a basic approach to simulate technical systems in virtual environments using the software framework SARTURIS [Pen-06]. It has been developed at the chair of Construction Machinery and Conveying Technology at Dresden University of Technology with the aim to perform interactive simulations of mobile machinery [Pen-07].

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The framework is based on C++, uses freely available libraries, is platform independent and offers flexible hardware integration together with a powerful visualisation using OpenSceneGraph [OpS-10]. SARTURIS is able to perform diverse simulations of technical systems and can be run on simple laptop computers as well as on powerful server clusters actuating a motion platform and communicating with real driver cabins. Due to the open and modular architecture, coupling to commercial software can be achieved easily [Kun-10].







(Joystick, GUI)

Multibody system PyMbs Hydraulic elements Drive train elements

Simulation Multi-domain model

Control elements


(CAN, Simulator) Figure 2: Overview of thesoftware framework SARTURIS

The use of the modelling language Modelica [Fri-04] is ideally suited for developing multidomain simulation models of mobile machinery. The model description is based on equations, supports the concepts of objectoriented programming and leads to flexible and reusable models and model libraries. The integration of Modelica models into the simulation framework SARTURIS has been achieved using the Open Source Modelica Compiler OpenModelica [OpM-01]. The whole process has been fully automated which makes it easy to use [Fre-09a]. In order for the simulation results to be significant, the model has to incorporate the whole machine including mechanics, hydraulics, drive train and control systems, which leads to a multidomain model. Therefore, a comprehensive model library containing hydraulic, drive train and control elements has been developed using Modelica. The mechanics, represented by the multibody system, form an essential part of the machine model. At the chair of Construction Machinery and Conveying Technology of Dresden University a mulitbody tool called PyMbs has been developed which focuses on realtime simulation of mobile machinery including kinematic loops. PyMbs is short for Python Multibody system and allows comfortable modelling of holonomic multibody systems [Fre-09a] by

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defining bodies which may be connected using joints. In addition force elements and sensors can be added to the system to apply external loads and measure the system behaviour. Using the open source symbolic code sympy [Sym-10], PyMbs generates the equations of motion leading to the standard form of holonomic multibody systems:

p = v T  ∂Ö   ë Mv + h = f +  ∂ p   Ö (p ) = 0 , where p represents the vector of generalised positions, v are the generalised veloctites, λ are the constraint forces or Lagrange multipliers respectively, M is the positive definite mass matrix, h is the vector of the gyroscopic and centrifugal forces, f contains all external loads and φ describes all holonomic constraints.


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY A 3D visualisiation (see Figure 3) enables the user to check his model for consistency by manipulating the degrees of freedom using slider controls. Moreover, PyMbs offers a novel way of dealing with kinematic loops which is unique for mobile machinery leading to very efficient code, suitable for realtime simulations [Sch-10]. The generated equations of motion are being analysed and optimised for performance by PyMbs and may then be exported into different formats such as MATLAB, Modelica, Python, C++ or Fortran. Using the Modelica export format, all multibody systems built with PyMbs can be complemented with elements from the Modelica libraries adding hydraulics, drive train and control systems yielding a systematic approach to setting up multidomain models of mobile machinery. The resulting model can then be simulated within our simulation framework SARTURIS enabling the model to exploit the flexible hardware integration. Although such a simulation yields realistic results for the machine behaviour, it is limited to scenarios which do not involve complex working tasks, since no comprehensive dynamic model of the working process describing the

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tool interaction is available. Indeed, there are analytical approaches to determine the loads occurring during excavating as shown by Kunze [Kun-02], however, they do not take the bidirectional tool interaction into account and are therefore unsuitable for dynamic simulations. In the last decade the Discrete Element Method (DEM) has been established as the most suitable numerical method for simulating granular matter. In addition to analysing the macroscopical material behaviour it can be used to predict the resulting loads on the tool caused by the working process. Like FEM, CFD and MBS simulations, DEM is used for an ever increasing number of applications. The following section looks into its potential for the simulation of the working process.

Figure 3: 3D-visualisation of PyMbs


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Simulation of bulk and construction material

Coupled simulations of enhanced MBS and DEM

Over the past years simulations based on the Discrete Element Method (DEM) have been established as an allpurpose analysing and optimisation approach for academic and industrial problems concerning granular material. A lot of DEM applications can be found in the field of bulk material handling which is impressively shown by the amount of DEM related papers in the important international conferences like WCPT 2010 or CHOPS 2009. The industrial application in the mining area is currently focussed on the simulation of belt conveyor transfer chutes ([Gri-10], [Kat07], [Kat-09a], [Nor-03]). Other DEM applications like mills, mixers and bucket elevators also become increasingly popular for the usage in industry.

Seeing that the working process of mining or construction machines can not be simulated using either a model of the machine nor the DEM on its own, a new method has to be established. [Kat-09b] already commented on the advantages of a linked MBS and DEM simulation, considering mainly the mechanics of a machine. As already mentioned, the applied force onto the bulk material is limited by the hydraulic subsystem of the machines, which has to be taken into account.

In many cases DEM simulations are used to determine the flow characteristics of material streams which means, it is used to calculate the altering positions and velocity profiles of the particles of bulk and construction material. Those results can be referred to as standard outputs of a DEM simulation. In addition to those qualitative results even quantitative results such as forces and torques acting on arbitrary components can be determined by DEM simulations. The quantitative results can be used as load assumptions for subsequent simulations like FEM or MBS simulations for instance. Today, most DEM simulations share one similarity: although the mechanical parts of a simulation model (“walls”) can have complex geometries and move in all six degrees of freedom, they cannot truly interact with the particles. This means, that the mechanical parts of a machine for example do not change their motion due to the interaction with the particles. For many applications the true interaction of the machine parts is not necessary and can be described as an algebraic equation. Hence, the motion of the machine parts can be directly defined by the user. The nature of working processes of mining or construction machines does not allow such simplifications. The velocity of an excavator bucket cannot be assumed constant when pulled through a pile of rocks [Kat-09b], since the machine dynamics heavily affect the material flow behaviour and the reaction of the bulk or construction material has an effect on the response of the machine. Furthermore the force exerted by the bucket is limited by the hydraulic subsystem of the machine, which therefore should not be neglected.

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Thus the method proposed in this paper involves the coupling of the DEM with an enhanced MBS simulation including the models of hydraulic, drive train and control elements. In a cooperation of the University of Magdeburg and the Dresden University of Technology a co-simulation has been developed linking the simulation framework SARTURIS and the commercial software PFC3dTM by Itasca to simulate the excavating process of a wheel loader. Figure 4 illustrates the main principle schematically. The coupling was possible due to the extendibility of SARTURIS and the possibility of adding user defined C++ routines in PFC3dTM. Hence, a user defined executable of PFC3dTM was generated. A coupled simulation of this kind can also be transferred to other applications concerned with granular material, where the dynamic behaviour of machines has to be included. The solution implemented is a program-based coupling on the level of integrators [Dro-04] as it enables the user to take advantage of the full capabilities and flexibility offered by SARTURIS. Communication between both programs is achieved via XMLRPC [Xml-10] a standardised network protocol. Thus the computational load can be distributed. The main procedure for the exchange of the data between SARTURIS and PFC3DTM is depicted in Figure 5 and shall be briefly explained using the excavating process of an earthmoving machine as an example. When both programs are loaded, PFC3DTM receives the initial position of the bucket from SARTURIS. As soon as SARTURIS has determined the bucket’s (new) position and orientation, they are sent to PFC3DTM. Within PFC3DTM a corresponding bucket velocity both for translation and rotation is calculated. After time integration, the forces and torques acting on the bucket as obtained from PFC3DTM are sent back to SARTURIS. Consequently SARTURIS performs a time integration assuming the forces and torques to be constant. The time integration of both programs is controlled in such way that SARTURIS, simulating the machine dynamics, always stays ahead of PFC3DTM.


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Verification The co-simulation has been verified using different simple examples. One test for plausibility was the set up of a one degree of freedom vibrating plate and a single particle as illustrated in Figure 6. After choosing the communication step size sufficiently small, the Co-Simulation yielded the same result as an analytical model which has been set up for comparison. Next, the influence of the communication step size has been analysed. Figure 7 shows that the difference to the reference solution decreases with smaller step sizes hence this procedure is convergent. However, it can be seen that the convergence is merely of order one. Thus more effort should be invested like interpolation, extrapolation as well as implicit and semi-implicit approaches [Bus-10].

rocks. Therefore it needs to drive the bucket into the pile, lift the bucket and reverse. This scenario was simulated by means of a Co-Simulation. The model of the wheel loader incorporates mechanics, hydraulics and drive train and is simulated by SARTURIS using predefined inputs. The rock pile is simulated by PFC3DTM. For the first tests a very simple DEM model out of a few hundred large spheres was used to reduce the calculation time. Afterwards a rock model developed in [Kat-09b] with cubical clumped particles has been used for a more realistic behaviour of the bulk material (Figure 8). The Co-Simulation produced plausible results. Even a lifting of the backend of the wheel loader could be observed (Figure 9) for an inappropriate dynamical driving behaviour.

Application: Wheel loader After establishing the required prerequisites more sophisticated test scenarios have been considered. A wheel loader was modelled which shall move a pile of Figure 4: Principle of coupling machine and process simulation





Model of machines based on MBS

Model of bulk solids based on DEM

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Communication DEMSoftware (PFC3dTM)



PFC3D Initial conditions

Determine position and orientation of bucket

t SARTURIS, position, orientation

time integration Take resulting loads as external force elements into account

Adjust bucket velocity and rotational speed time integration

tPFC, force, torque

Detect resulting loads on bucket

Figure 5: Schematic of the coupled time integration algorithm

Summary and future prospects This paper presented a multidomain approach to simulating the working process of construction machinery. The research work aims at predicting realistic loads from the working process on the machine to support the virtual development process making it more efficient and safer.

Figure 6: Model of a vibrating plate

Therefore a method for simulating the whole construction machine using Modelica as well as the potentials of the discrete element method for simulating the working process have been introduced. Moreover, the limitations of both methods on their own have been identified with respect to our application. A coupling between the software tools SARTURIS and PFC3dTM has been implemented and evaluated using simple test cases. Afterwards more complex test cases featuring a wheel loader picking up a pile of granite stones have been simulated which gave plausible results. The authors claim, that this method is able to produce a realistic behaviour of the machine as well as the earth and construction material taking the interaction between both into account.

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Cumulative Error / m









10 -2 10




10 Step Width / s





Figure 7: Cumulated error w.r.t. the communication step size

Figure 8: Coupled DEM-MBS-Simulation of a wheel loader picking up rocks from a pile

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Therefore the next steps will focus on validating the simulation results and include the following tasks: • Definition of suitable working processes • Conducting measurements with an excavator • Parameterisation and calibration of the DEM models for coarse rock • Comparison of measurement and simulation.

Furthermore, the developed Co-Simulation based on SARTURIS could be transferred to other DEM simulation software.

References [Bus-10] BUSCH, M., SCHWEIZER, B.: MBS/ FEM Co-Simulation Approach for Lubrication Problems Submitted to Proc. Appl. Math. Mech. (PAMM), Karlsruhe, 2010 [Dro-04] DRONKA, S.: Die Simulation gekoppelter Mehrkörpersysteme und Hydraulik-Modelle mit Erweiterung fuer Echtzeitsimulation , Dissertation, TU Dresden, 2004 [Fre-09a] FRENKEL, J., SCHUBERT, C., KUNZE, G., JANKOV,K.: Using modelica for interactive simulations of technical systems in a virtual reality environment, In: Proceedings of the 7th International Modelica Conference 2009 [Fre-09b] FRENKEL, J.: Integration von OpenModelica in das Programmsystem SARTURIS, TU Dresden, Diplomarbeit 2009 [Fri-04] FRITZSON, P.: Principles of ObjectOriented Modeling and Simulation with Modelica2.1., Wiley-IEEE Press, 2004 [Gri-10] GRIMA, A., WYPYCH, P.: Discrete element simulation of a conveyor impact-plate transfer: calibration, validation and scale-up, Australian Bulk Handling Review p.64-72., 2010 [Kat-06] KATTERFELD, A., GRÖGER, T.: Einsatz der Diskrete Elemente Methode in der Schüttguttechnik: Grundlagen und Kalibrierung, Schüttgut, Vol. 12 (2006) Nr. 7, S. 480-486 [Kat-07] KATTERFELD, A., GRÖGER, T.: Application of the discrete element method in materials handling. - Part 3: Transfer stations, In: Bulk solids handling . - Würzburg : Vogel Trans Tech Publications, Vol 27.2007, No. 3, p. 158166, 2007 [Kat-09a] KATTERFELD, A., GRÖGER, T., HACHMANN, M., BECKER, G: Usage of DEM simulations

for the development of a new chute design in underground mining, In: Proceedings of 6th International Conference for Conveying and Handling of Particulate Solids (CHoPS) and 10th International Conference on Bulk Materials Storage, Handling & Transport (ICBMH). Brisbane, p. 85-91, 2009 [Kat-09b] KATTERFELD, A., DRATT, M., HAUT, H., DONOHUE, T.: Gekoppelte Diskrete Elemente Simulation zur Beruecksichtigung von Maschinendynamik, Bauteilverformung und Umgebungseinfluessen, In Proceedings of 14. Fachtagung Schuettgutfoerdertechnik, Magdeburg, 2009 [Kun-02] KUNZE, G., GÖHRING, H., JACOB, K.: Baumaschinen – Erdbau- und Tagebaumschinen, Verlag Vieweg, Braunschweig/Wiesbaden, 2002 [Kun-10] KUNZE, G., SCHUBERT, C., ESSWEIN, W., LEHMANN,S.: Software Architecture for Interactive Simulation of Mobile Machinery, In: Proceedings of 1st Commercial Vehicle Technology Symposium, 2010 [Nor-03] NORDELL, L.: Modern Ore Transfer Chute & Belt Feeder Designs Developed form Discrete Element Modelling (DEM), In: Proceedings of BeltCon 14, Johannesburg. 2003 [OpM-10] OPENMODELICA: http://www. 2010 [OpS-10] OPENSCENEGRAPH: http://www. 2010 [Pen-06] PENNDORF, T.: Universelles Framework zur Abbildung von Maschinenmodellen in virtuellen Umgebungen, Schriftenreihe: Forschungsvereinigung Bau- und Baustoffmaschinen 34, 2006 [Pen-07] PENNDORF, T., KUNZE, G.: “Durchgespielt”- Interaktive Simulation von Baumaschinen, IX-MAGAZIN FUER PROFESSIONELLE INFORMATIONSTECHNIK, Heft 08/2007.- Heise Zeitschriften Verlag, Hannover [Sch-10] SCHUBERT, C., BEITELSCHMIDT, M., KUNZE, G.: Handling kinematic loops of mobile machinery in real-time applications, Submitted to Proc. Appl. Math. Mech. (PAMM), Karlsruhe, March 22-26, 2010 [Sym-10] SYMPY: sympy/ 2010 [Xml-10] XMLRPC: http://www.xmlrpc. com/ 2010

Figure 9: Lifting of the backend which may occur with an overfull bucket (visualised by SARTURIS)

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Control Migration – System integration during an ongoing production process by Dipl.-Ing. D. Müller1; Dipl.-Ing. J.-O. Köhler2 1 MIBRAG mbH| 2ABB Cottbus | Germany |

Open Cast Mine - United Schleenhain With an annual extraction of 10 million tons of raw brown coal, the open cast mine United Schleenhain, which belongs to the central German coal mining district of the MIBRAG company, is a reliable and stable partner for the supply of the Lippendorf power plant.The extraction-, interim storage and transport plants are technologically installed in an active mining field, as well as in an inactive open cast area. The extraction areas consist of 5 dredger benches and 8 extraction tools, two stacker benches, one mass distributor, as well as a hugh conveyor plant, which creates an active supply line to the coal mixing and storage yard. A screening and breaking station is placed at the input side of the coal mixing and storage yard, in which the coal, which arrives through the belt conveyor system is broken into the prescribed grit range. The piling and conveyance to the power plant is done through a dump stacker, or through the mass flow division technology. In the way of stacking and piling two portal scrapers are in operation, which take up the coal from the stockpile -either one by one, or parallel- and deliver it to the transfer bunker of the Lippendorf power plant through a redundantly operated conveyor belt. In 1997, ABB Cottbus received the order to electro-technically equip the equipment and conveyor belts of the coal mixing and storage yard, up to the transfer bunker of the Lippendorf power plant and the central control station. A particular feature is that the equipment in the coal mixing and storage yard operate unattended and fully automatic. The conveyor and transport plants in the mining area were equipped with control technology of the Siemens company. The entire technical integration, was done by the process control of the ABB company. Pic 1: The central control station of the Open Cast Mine United Schleenhain

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Pic. 2: The coal mixing and storage yard were equipped with technology of the ABB company


Requirements for System Replacement

The initial equipping of the central process control Peres in the united Schleenhain open cast mine was implemented with the state-of-the-art at that time, the Advant OCS-technique. As such the central process control itself was equipped with four Operator Stations OS520, two Information Management Stations IMS530, as well as with 12 terminals, which were distributed in the open pit mine and in the surface installations. In addition, an Operator Station OS520 was installed in the coal mixing and storage yard as an emergency work station.

The ABB process control engineering, which started operation in 1999, is based on the hardware of UNIX-work stations of the Hewlett Packard Company (HP). Since it became increasingly difficult to obtain the electronic units required for production, HP discontinued the hard ware basis in 2005. In addition, the software basis HP Unix10 was also discontinued. At that time, within the framework of its lifecycle program, ABB guaranteed its costumers a supply with spare parts in a Limited productlifecyclephase until 2010.

With regard to control, each technological unit was equipped with an ABB-control of the Advant Controller 400 series and in the mine area one Simatic S7 is in operation in each technological unit.

This means that costumers can obtain spare parts for OS520 and IMS530 from ABB until 2010. After that it will become increasingly difficult to obtain spare parts. Furthermore, after 10 years of continuous operation, the specific control components of both the control station, as well as the gateways will not comply any more with the state-of-the-art.

Two gateways were specially developed to couple data between the SIEMENS plant and the ABB process control engineering.

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Therefore, within the framework of a future-oriented continued operation of the open cast mining and the central control station, since 2008 the migration of the control equipment has been prepared.

Approaches In general, the migration concept encompasses the replacement of the service stations OS520 with a system 800xA and the replacement of the Information Management Station IMS530 with a PGIM-Server (Power Generation Information Management). The system 800xA is the current process control system of ABB. It consists of a server-client-architecture, based on Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP (see picture 3). PGIM is an information management system for power plants that was developed by ABB, and was modified by ABB Cottbus for the needs of open cast mining control stations and giant equipment.

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In an initial design, the migration of the 4 OS520 and the 2 IMS530 in the central control station of the united Schleenhain open cast mine, as well as the replacement of the gateway-solution for data coupling between the SIEMENS plant and the ABB process control engineering was reviewed. In this case the 4 OS520 and the 2 IMS530 in the central control station were reviewed for replacement. The operation would then have been implemented over 4 equivalent clients, which have access to the new system 800xA. From the point of view of accessibility it would have been necessary to design the servers redundantly. However, this approach was not considered suitable, due to a spatial separation of the central control station and the emergency work station in the coal mixing and storage yard and the problems which would have occurred in case of a disruption between the central control station and the coal mixing and storage yard.

Pic. 3: The system 800xA is the current process control system of ABB. It consists of a server-client-architecture, based on Windows Server 2003 and Windows XP


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY The second approach was related to 2 systems 800xA, one in the central control station and one in the coal mixing and storage yard. Both systems could be operated independently and could have been connected with each other for data exchange by a so-called multisystem integration. Although this variation would have fully fulfilled the availability requirements, it was also abandoned as unattractive, due to the high technical costs. The approach that was eventually chosen is based on one system 800xA. In order to also respond to the availability requirements, the redundant servers were distributed spatially in the coal mixing and storage yard and the central control station, and were connected by a redundant Gigabit network (see picture 4).

Migration conzept The migration concept includes the replacement of the OS520, the IMS530, as well as the gateway- coupling with the mine. It consisted of three steps, which merge seamlessly. In order to keep production halts to a minimum

and live up to the high availability demands, a parallel operation, as well as switching between new and old units was realized in all stages of the migration.

Step 1 In step 1 the server-client architecture and the new network structures were completely set up. The system 800xA was installed completely. The OCP intersection with the S7-400 was tested and started operation. Special objects were developed, in order to visualize the process objects, which should have been integrated through the OPC intersection into the system 800xA. The entire start of the operation on site was accomplished with conveying process disruptions of only 3x8 hours.

Step 2 In step 2 the controllers in the area of the coal mixing and storage yard were integrated into the system and the operation of this part was converted to the system 800xA. Since ABB-owned controllers were to be applied, the conversion was done without discontinuation of the conveying process.

Pic. 4: based on one system 800xA - the redundant servers were distributed spatially in the coal mixing and storage yard and the central control station, and were connected by a redundant Gigabit network . (the shown pictures are Product-slice of the Hirschmann company)

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Step 3 The transition of the provision of data for higher-level systems, as well as of the shift reports and transport models was a seamless process, which happened smoothly. (see picture 5).

Pic. 5: The transition of the provision of data for higher-level systems, as well as of the shift reports and transport models was a seamless process, which happened smoothly.

In order to implement the migration concept as a complex measure, the individual steps were fixed in the following stages: • Installation of infrastructure





• Installation and operation of a GigabitEthernet-network in redundant Hyper ring-Structure • Development and testing of a OPCApplication for coupling of the ABBcontrol technology with Simatic components • Test setup of hardware and system technique • Simulation and functional demonstration of the installation • Parallel setup of the system technique and realization of a switching mode for activation/deactivation of the existing lead control system to the new system. • Implementation and testing of the system functions in stages • Functional demonstration of the software structuring and applications, with regard to system stability, logic and plausibility in the real technological process. • Deactivation of the old system

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Migration of the Central Control Station Peres System Structure Due to the server redundancy, the system structure allows for a continuation of the operation of the plants of the coal mixing and storage yard and the mine from the emergency workstation in the coal mixing and storage yard station, even in the case of a total breakdown. The ABB controller of the AdvantController400 series are fully integrated through the AC400 Connect Protokoll of the system 800xA and the Connectivity Server 1 und 2. The coupling of the SIEMENS-plant is done through an OPC-intersection of the Connectivity Server 3, which provides the data of the mine from a central S7-400 control to the system 800xA. In order to obtain interlockingand control data, a Profibus-DP-Connection was made between the central ABB-Controller AC800M and the central SIEMENS control. This coupling is also redundant and spatially separated in form of a “cold redundancy”.

Pic. 6: The coal supply of the power plant Lippendorf

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Functionality The system 800xA is designed as an open system, thus it is possible to integrate various external systems, in addition to the various ABB-owned systems with the already available or newly defined intersections. In the open cast mine Schleenhain the system 800xA is construed with the following intersections: • AC400 Connect – available intersection for connection to the controllers of the AC400- Series • AC800 Connect - available intersection for connection to the controllers of the AC800- Series • SIEMENS OPC – self-developed intersection, which establishes connection to a SIEMENS OPCServer, based on OCP

The system 800xA has a licence for data in the amount of 60,000 tags (display elements in the 800xA system), where approx. 30,000 tags are occupied by the SIEMENS OPC intersection. In sum, 9 open cast mining equipment, 3 waste dump equipment, 31 belts, one mass distributer, one coal-mixing and stockpiling site, one transfer bunker and various ancillary units are visualized and, aside from the open cast mining equipment, are also remote controlled.


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY For data transfer to downstream systems the intersection used is PGIM (Power Generation Information Management). This system scans the determined data in the 800xA system, stores them in an own parameter driven data bank, and offers them to downstream systems through various intersections, including OPC. Furthermore PGIM serves as a long-term storage for the 800xA system.

Philosophy of Availability The philosophy of availability in the open cast mine Schleenhain and particularly in the area of the coal mixing and storage yard and central control station is characterized by high demands. They result from the direct coal supply of the power plant Lippendorf, which is done through a conveyor belt system from the coal mixing and storage yard and a transfer bunker, which at its peak offers a buffer of 8 hours. As a result the availability demands concerning the entire complex are high and lead to the following layout: • Portal scraper is redundant • Conveyor belt to the power plant is redundant • Power supply is redundant and spatially divided

Conclusion Implementation of this measure requires a detailed preparation and planning of all project steps. From the beginning, the need for a continuous availability of operation and visualization did not allow for long downtimes. Technical interim solutions were installed to meet the requirements of short switching times between the old and the new system. The course of the project revealed that the migration process met the technical and technological demands. As a result of theses high demands, as it was the case from the beginning of operations, the coal supply of the power plant Lippendorf was ensured with high availability and continuous supply guarantee.

FOR MORE INFORMATION AND CONTACT: Mitteldeutsche Braunkohlengesellschaft mbH Dipl-Ing. Dietmar Müller Glück-Auf-Straße 1 06711 Zeitz | Germany eMail: Internet:

• Entire process-bus architecture is redundant and spatially divided • Process control technique is redundant and spatially divided • Operation work station is redundant and spatially divided • Process relevant intersections are redundant and spatially divided

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ABB Cottbus Distribution opencast mining, Engineering energy production, Engineering water arragements service raw material industry Dipl-Ing. Jens-Olaf Köhler Gaglower Str. 17-18 03048 Cottbus | Germany eMail: Internet:



Material Flow Optimization through the „Discrete Elements Method“ by Dipl.-Ing. Dr. mont. M. Prenner Department of Conveying Technology and Design | University of Leoben | Austria |

The „Discrete Elements Method” is an interesting simulation method for application in the bulk goods industry. The field of application is very wide and is continuously being expanded through software providers and scientific establishments.


The Method

The „Discrete Element Method“ (DEM) is a numeric calculation method, which allows for calculation of movement of a high number of particles. In the Department of Conveying Technology and Design of the University of Leoben this simulation method it is used for the simulation of bulk goods transport processes. The simulation method is applied both in research and development in the area of new conveyor systems, as well as for purely commercial reasons, mostly during the examination of the functionality of bulk good conveyor facilities for material handling. One of the main focuses of research is the determination of material-specific parameters, which are required for the simulation. These parameters have to be entered into the simulation program before the start of each simulation, and determine closeness to reality. The parameters are ascertained by a combination of experiments and comparative simulations. The DEM is a versatile simulation method, gaining increasing importance with the emergence of more and more powerful computers.

In the “Discrete Element Simulation”, spherical shapes are used as standard discrete elements. For example, with the help of the spheres, bulk good movements are simulated at the computer, whereby each individual particle is approximated by a sphere.

Picture 1: Example of a contact model for the Discrete Element Method: Spring (elastic law of force and deformation), damper (viscous damping law) Friction element contact processes (Coulomb friction), Meniscus (cohesion)

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There is also the possibility of building up more complex particle geometries from firmly connected spheres. With this method it is possible to approximate any particle shapes. The ones of the particles are pictured through appropriate contact models, like for example elastic laws of force and deformation, Coulomb friction and viscous damping. Furthermore, cohesive powers can also be taken into consideration, so that cohesive bulk goods can also be modeled. The resulting force is calculated from all contact forces acting on the particle, consequently the Newtonian equation of motion can be set up. With this equation is possible to calculate the new position and velocity for each particle through numerical integration over a very short period of time.



Picture 2: Dredger operation of a bucket wheel reclaimer

After each time step new contacts have to be detected and lost contacts have to be deleted, respectively. Through a repeated running of these cycles the temporal development of the entire particle system can be simulated. With the help of analytically describable surfaces (e.g. polygons, cylindrical and conical surfaces, etc.), machine components, walls and other basic conditions are taken into consideration. Picture 2 shows the simulation of a dredger operation for a bucket wheel reclaimer. The Discrete Element Simulation (DE Simulation) is a simulation method which is much less known than the Finite Element Simulation. The range of programs that are reasonably applicable is very small and entails significant costs.

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Examples of the material flow optimization through the “Discrete Element Simulation” The “Discrete Element Method” is a useful tool for examining the function of conveyor plants, even in the construction phase. The Department for conveyor technology and design at the University of Leoben has already conducted numerous simulations for various companies. Belt stacker, reloading devices and combined reloader and spreader have been simulated. A critical part of such machines are the central chutes. Among others, simulations of central chutes can be seen in the following.


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Simulation of a Central Chute of a Ship Loader SL03 – Cape Lambert (Australia) Technical Data: Mass flow …………………. 14666 t/h Belt speed ………….5.2 m/s Bulk material…………………… Iron ore Bulk Density ……………..……. 2000 kg/m³ The ship loader that was to be simulated was a machine, which was already in action, and the plant did not achieve the conveying capacity. Furthermore, the discharge pulley of the tripper car, the deflection chute and the upper enclosure of the deflection chute showed increased signs of wear. Picture 3 shows problems with the specific mass flow and the wear. The picture on the right side shows a distinct bulk material wave, which is developed due to a material diversion, which is too abrupt. This wave generates a contact of the bulk material with the discharge pulley of the tripper car, which causes the wear presented in the central picture. In addition, due to the material wave and the discharge pulley, the bulk material is lead to areas of the machine, that are not laid out with wear plates, which leads to wear at equipment components that normally are only subject to weather conditions. Due to this wave motion of the bulk material, an unnecessary high wear is also generated at the deflection chute. Another serious problem of the ship loader is the inlet area to the spreader belt, which is too narrow. This causes an afflux of bulk material, which leads to a congestion of the entire central chute of the ship loader. Picture 3, left side, shows the bulk material outlet of the machine. The afflux of the material is also partly responsible for the increased wear of the drum.

Picture 3: Ship loader SL03 – Bulk material outlet (picture above) wear of the driving drum (picture in the center), bulk material wave at the deflection chute (picture below)

Picture 4 shows the simulation of the existing central chute of the ship loaders with “damp” bulk material. Here it can be seen that, at maximum flow rate, the central chute is already blocked and the bulk material leaves the chute. The picture 3 left shows a similar behaviour. The simulation further shows, that the bulk material wave is less distinctive with “damp” bulk material. The simulation with “dry” bulk material that is shown in picture 5 shows a much more prominent bulk material wave and, until the time of blockage, the chute is unobstructed much longer than with “damp” bulk material conditions.

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Picture 4: Jam-packed central chute of the Ship loaders SL03

Bulk material at the deflection chute

Picture 5: Bulk material at the deflection chute

Picture 6: Optimized central chute of the ship loader SL03

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY In order to accomplish an open passage of the central chute, both in “damp”, as well as with “dry” bulk material conditions, several measures had to be taken. As a first measurement the inlet area to the spreader belt had to be broadened. This meant concretely, that the space between the lateral inlet chutes and a broader “Soft Loading” application was installed. In order to avoid the bulk material wave, the deflection chute had to be adapted to the trajectory parabola of the bulk material that is dropped from the tripper car. Through this measure a soft redirection of bulk material could be achieved, which avoided the formation of a bulk material wave (see picture 6). Through the changes it was possible to achieve a faultless function of the ship loader. Such alterations on machines already in action are difficult, due to the limited available space and they often represent only compromise solutions.

Constructive Improvements of a Chute with “Rockbox“

Stacker – Huolinhe (China)

Technical Data: Mass flow ………… 5200 m³/h Belt speed ….….….4,8 m/s Bulk material ……overburden Bulk density ………1615 kg/m³

Belt is eccentrically loaded Picture 7: Rockboxchute for a belt stacker – first design of the client

Unnecessarily big material cushion, the material flow is not delivered compactly to the discharge conveyor, which leads to an increased wear at the funnel.

A „Rockbox“ serves as wear protection through the addition of bulk material at spots that are prone to wear. The illustrations in picture 7 show the first design proposed by the client. Picture 7 reveals that in the upper part of the chute an unnecessary high amount of bulk material (approx. 3 tons) is accumulated as wear protection. Furthermore the goods are decentrally delivered on the discharge conveyor. The right picture shows very well that the bulk material flow fans out after the Rockbox. The bulk material touches the funnel over a large area and leads to an increased wear of the funnel in this area. In this case the wear is only shifted.

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Through an optimal design of the Rockbox chute (see picture 8) it was possible to generate a wear protection with relatively little added bulk material. In addition, a compact and directed flow of bulk material was achieved through the funnel, which led to a reduction of wear of the funnel and a central belt loading. High amounts of bulk material additions entail high risks of accidents for maintenance personnel during maintenance of the chute, since the chutes have to be cleaned manually.

Simulation of a bucket wheel reclaimer in bridge construction Picture 8: Optimized Rockbox chute for a belt stacker

Small material cushion, compact and directed material flow, low wear at the funnel, central loading of belt.

This simulation was also done for a plant, which is already in use in Worsely, Australia. Technical Data: Mass flow - maximum 3200 t/h Belt speed: - bridge belt 4.5 m/s - dump belt 5,1 m/s Bulk material Bauxite Bulk density 1615 kg/m続 Bucket wheel engine speed 4.5 rpm Bucket volume 573.4 l The simulations intended to show that it is possible to increase the mean conveying capacity of the plant from 2000t/h to 2400t/h. In order to achieve this, the bucket volume, the bucket wheel engine speed and the speed of the bridge belt was increased. The main focus of the simulation was set on the emptying of the individual buckets, the function of the central chute of the bucket wheel and on the delivery chute from the bridge belt to the dump belt.

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Picture 9: Example for a bucket wheel reclaimer in bridge construction

Picture 10 shows no critical spots in the simulation at the entire reclaimer during the operation. It is only in picture 3 that a decentral delivery of the bulk material on the dump belt can be seen. The deflection chute therefore has to be slightly turned towards the bucket wheel, in order to solve this “problem�. Picture 10 further shows the loading of the bridge belt with the pulsating, unequal bulk material delivery by the bucket wheel. The cross section of the bulk material changes along the bridge belt. For this situation an almost 100% filling of the bucket was chosen, instead of 90% as per specification.

Fig. 1

Fig. 2

Fig. 3

Fig. 4 Picture 10: Simulation of bucket wheel reclaimer in bridge construction

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Discharge Options of Bulk Material wagon within the framework of a feasibility study – Bucket Discharger With this discharge option of bulk material from a train wagon the “dustpan” principle is to be applied (see picture 11). The advantage of such a shoveling process is that the bulk material discharge can be done relatively dust-free. Furthermore there is the possibility to achieve an almost residue-free discharge of the wagon, through a special control of the bucket movement (see picture 12). In order to achieve an almost residue-free discharge, the bucket needs to touch the bottom of the wagon with its cutting edge. However, at this point, the bottom of the wagon should only be covered with a small layer of the bulk material, so that the bucket is not over-filled by the filling operation. After the contact of the cutting edge with the bottom of the wagon the pivoting of the bucket is started. During this pivoting it has to be ensured that the cutting edge always stays in contact with the bottom of the wagon. In order to achieve this, a variable speed lowering has to superpose the rotary motion of the bucket. After the rotary motion of 90°, the bucket lies evenly at the wagon bottom and is moved horizontally up to the side wall of the wagon. Due to the fact, that the cutting edge never looses contact with the bottom, the bottom of the wagon can almost entirely be freed from the bulk material. Therefore

a consecutive cleaning of the wagon is not necessary. For the transport of the bulk material to the bulk material delivery it is possible to further swing the bucket, so that a premature loss of bulk material from the bucket can be minimized. At the delivery position the bucket is turned by 180° and can deliver the bulk material. Due to a 180° turn it is possible to remove the remaining bulk material on the opposite from the bottom of the waggon.

Determination of default values for the „Discrete Element Simulation“ through tests with real bulk material in combination with simulation tests Since only a limited amount of data is available for the “Discrete Element Simulation”, is necessary to determine the data through respective tests. Such tests, in combination with comparative simulations improve the validity of results and applicability to real situations. It is necessary to determine the contact conditions of the bulk material particles with each other, as well as the contact conditions between the particles and the components that are in interaction with them. The material data that are to be determined by tests (subject to the applied calculation algorithm):

Picture 11: Bucket discharger

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Picture 12: Motion Sequence of the bucket discharger

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY • Friction coefficient between bulk material and machine components or walls • Friction coefficient between the various bulk material particles (repose angle b) • Material density (specific weight)

However, the calculated friction coefficient is only a reference value, since it can be dependent on speed and load (based on bulk material), and has to be aligned in the simulation.

• Cohesion forces • Shear Modulus • Poisson’s Ratio • Coefficient of Restitution • Coefficient of Rolling Friction •

Following two test methods are introduced to determine the friction coefficient.

Horizontal Friction Test In this test the bulk material that is to be tested is filled into the bulk material container (1 in picture 13), which previously has been attached to the friction partner, e.g. a chute lining (3 in picture 13). The bulk material is additionally loaded with weights and is moved horizontally over the friction partner.

Slide Test This test is based on the principle of sliding of bulk material on an inclined plane. In order to carry out this test, the pivoting arrangement of picture 14 (no.5) is filled with bulk material pivoted in the direction of the ramp inclination (no 1 in picture 14). Subsequently the bulk material container is opened and the bulk material flows over a ramp, which is adjustable horizontally and in its inclination (picture 14, no. 1), into the collection container (picture 14, no. 4) . After the entire bulk material has trickled into the collection container, the bulk material flap (picture 14, no.4) is opened and part of the bulk material is pulled out from the collection container. This process is documented in photos and videos and subsequently simulated. The bulk material geometries or the process of trickling that develop during the test are depicted in picture 15.

The friction coefficient between bulk material and friction partner is calculated from the measured horizontal force and the vertical load. Picture 13: Horizontal Friction Test

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1 adjustable ramp

5 Pivoting arrangement for the bulk material container

2 chute lining

3 Collection container 4 Bulk material flap

Picture 14: Slide Test

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Bulk Material with 6% damp Wear Plate AR400:

Picture 15: Sliding test with the respective adaptation simulation

Splitting 50 mm

Point of impact of the bulk material on the back wall (AR400) – bulk material 6% humidity

Bulk material geometry before opening the bulk material flap (AR 400)

Bulk material geometry after opening the bulk material flap (AR 400) 6% humidity

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY The developing geometries of the bulk material (inclination angle of the bulk material heap) in the container characterize the particle friction, combined with the wall friction. However, here the cohesion forces also overlap. The consideration of the cohesion requires a specific calculation algorithm, which is drawn upon in certain cases. For a majority of simulations the knowledge of the friction parameters is sufficient. The point of impact of the bulk material, which glides over the inclined plane, with the back wall of the collection container is subject to the wall friction. The wall friction influences the dropping speed of the bulk material from the inclined plane, and as such is responsible for the geometry of the trajectory parabola. In consecutive simulations the reference parameters are changed to the extent that the simulation almost corresponds to the test. The adjusted friction parameters for the situation shown in picture 15 have the following values:

Dipl.-Ing. Dr. mont. Michael Prenner studied Mechanical Engineering at the University of Leoben, Austria with a focus on conveying technology. After receiving his Ph.D. with his work on the Optimisation of the surface structure for bulb plates in regard to their slip ness behaviour, he currently works as a Scientific Assistant at the Chair of Conveying Technology and Design Methods at the University of Leoben. | |

µParticle - Plate = 0.59 µParticle -Particle = 0.34

Conclusion The „Discrete Element Method“ is a helpful, commercially applicable tool, which already allows for a functional check during the construction phase of almost all bulk material conveying equipment. Since it is very versatile, it can also be applied in the area of research and development, whereas its application spectrum is not only confined to the bulk material conveying sector. This method is also applied in geology, in simulation of fracturing, as well as in the combined particle-flow simulation. The extent of closeness to reality of each “Discrete Element Method” is subject to the knowledge of material parameters. The determination of these parameters is partly difficult and costly. Therefore, before each simulation, is has to be considered, which parameters are needed for the desired simulation.


University of Leoben Department of Conveying Technology and Design Dipl-Ing. Dr. mont. Michael Prenner Franz-Josef-Straße 18 8700 Leoben | Austria eMail: Internet:

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Multiple splitters for continuous distribution of bulk material during pneumatic conveyance (dimensioning, calculation, operating behaviour) by Dipl.-Phys.-Ing. K. Schneider KS-Engineering GmbH | Köln | Germany |

Globally, the industry operates a high number of so-called splitters as elements of pneumatic conveying lines, in order to continuously distribute the conveyed bulk material to several receiving stations. These splitters have taken an important position within the pneumatic conveying systems and are applied in different designs. On the other hand there is not much literature dealing with the phenomenon “splitter”, and providing advice regarding application possibilities, dimensioning, selection and experiences during operation. The available material mostly deals with answers to specific questions, like for example pressure losses in various ramifications, etc. The current article intends to close this gap and to provide an overview over the application possibilities and typical configurations of splitters, with their advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore various selection criteria for usage of splitters are introduced and discussed. In addition, dimensioning and operation of splitters are discussed. Possible susceptibility to interference is pointed out and measures to ensure or promote a smooth operation introduced. Moreover, operation experiences with splitter systems are introduced.

Splitters – Attempt to define and to narrow them down for further discussions The term “splitter” stands for a multitude of process technologies in the bulk material industry. They all have in common that they are used to evenly distribute a material stream and to simultaneously lead it to several target locations. This can be done both within a mechanical conveyor section, e.g. with a special spreading auger and injectors (see picture 1), as well as in a pneumatic conveyor section through a constructive element (the splitter). In case out of several other possible locations, only a particular target location is to be reached, we speak of an alternating distribution (e.g. with the help of a pipe branching). In case all possible target locations are to be fed, we speak of an even distribution. This article deals with the even and simultaneous distribution of particles, in which a working gas (usually air) serves as a pneumatic carrier medium.

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Splitters are mostly used in engineering plants, for example for the treatment of flue gas, where a sorbent is evenly blown into a flue gas channel in up to 16 locations. A further application is the dust firing in coal power plants, in which an even coating of the blown-in dust and air mixtures over the cross section of the boiler are an important precondition for an optimal and low-emission combustion. If in these cases no splitters are applied in the conveying line, a separate conveyor track is needed in each air injection point, together with a conveyor organ, dosage organ and possibly with air supply (see picture 2a). Apart from the spacial problems, this leads to a multiplication of costs. An initial saving in costs can be achieved through a downstream splitter, with which the total amount of air is divided onto the individual conveyor track and metering points respectively. (see picture 2 b). Hereby the distribution (of air) can be done as an equilibrium distribution (see picture 2b) or through the application of positioning device/ venture nozzles as forced distribution (see picture 2c). In case the splitter is arranged delivery sided - in an optimal arrangement this is done close to the injection locations (see picture 2d) - significant savings can be achieved. In


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY this case the air supply, dosage organ, conveying organ and a section of the conveying section are only to be simply executed. With an item by higher pressure or by airtight stream conveying the distribution could also be realized in the conveyor mechanism (c.p. picture 2f). The splitters discussed in this article are splitters with a design, which allow for a distribution within a pneumatic conveying section as a distributing conveyor organ (for example in picture 2d/2e) or as a branching organ in the conveyor line (like for example in picture 2f).

Designs of Splitters Based on material characteristics, conveying tasks and conveying types (thin stream/dense phase) there are multiple designs of splitters. Not all of them are well thought through or suitable for all cases. For example the distribution can be done from a fluidized bed, the splitter can be streamed through from up to down or vice versa, and there are also horizontal splitters. As an example, so-called fan splitters, which are used for the distribution of carbon dust to (mostly 4-6) burners in coal-fired power plants are well known (picture 3). Rotating splitters have also been and are used for the distribution of a mass flow. However, the most used are the thin stream splitters with various distribution mechanisms, which are streamed through from bottom to top.

Pic. 1: 4 Single cable behind a fourfold – distribution box and injectors (see picture 2c) with 2 air fans

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Pic. 2: Splitter in the pneumatic conveying

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Pic. 3: Coal dust fan splitter [2]

Pic. 4: Fuller Konus-splitter [2]

Pic. 5: Four-fold splitter for slaked lime in a power plant

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Mode of operation of thin stream splitters for fine grained and dusty bulk material In his work (1996), Lempp [5] had already found out that in the case of the thin stream splitters and ramifications discussed here, it is necessary to segregate the particles and the gas and to calm down the solids, before again mixing and distributing them. Picture 6 shows the basic strategy in distributing gas-particle mixtures, with the example of a patent drawing (K.-H. Mohr, 1988, patent specification DE 3626983 C2). In this examination Lempp has shown that it is no satisfying solution to separate plates or open branches, for example, since with uneven distribution concentrations of the particles over the tube diameter ( generation of strands) it is necessary to observe them before and after the splitter. It was only in a normal T-piece, in which after the perpendicular impact, the particles were slowed down to a complete halt, and a relatively even admixture and distribution of the solids was measured. It is for these reasons that, despite a high number of sub sheets and subdivision of plots, in case the particle distribution in the feeder pipes is not even, the so-called fan splitters work deficiently. This shows that there is a systematic fault.

Requirements of an “ideal” splitter: In order to limit the varieties of splitters and designs, only thin stream splitters with a maximum load of up to 15 kg/kg and a maximum grain size of 1mm are discussed in the following section. The perfusion of the splitter is from bottom to top in perpendicular position. An ideal splitter has to fulfill the following requirements:

• Separation of gas and solid • Flow calming and equalizing • Strands should not “strike through” • Separation of equalized gas-solid stream

Since a complete separation of solid and gas is difficult to achieve, a delay of the gas velocity to the rate of descent of the solid particles is aimed at. In order to achieve this, the cross-section of the splitter is expanded accordingly. This expansion is continued up to a certain length, in order to dissolve strands and achieve an equalization of the mixture. It is only after that, that the separation of the mixture is done, according to the number of outlets.

The splitter shown in picture 3 will also not work with adequate accuracy, since there also the strands will preferably charge a channel. Pic. 6: Work steps of splitters [after Mohr]

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Frequently asked questions regarding the splitter layout Is there an optimum number of outlets? The number of outlets is based on procedural requirements. In this type of splitter up to 16 outlets have been realized in parallel. However mostly 4 to 6 fold splitters were realized, since in this case the individual lines are less likely to be obstructed, due to the occurring reset forces. In a dual distribution, for example, the gas velocity doubles due to congestion, thus significantly increasing the static pressure as restoring force on the plug. In a 16 fold splitter the velocity in the remaining 15 outlets increases by barely 7% only. In this case the restoring forces are correspondingly lower.

How can the obstruction of individual outlets be detected? The fastest and most reliable way to do this is through pressure measurements before/after the splitter. The conveyor lines that are flown through normally have higher temperatures than the obstructed ones; therefore it is also possible to conduct temperature measurements after the splitters for detection of disturbances. Flow rate measurements in the conveyor lines behind the splitters, which are based on electronic procedures (electrostatic noise, microwaves) are also suitable. Based on the chosen comfort, these methods allow for a qualitative statement on differences in flow rates.

Which accuracy can be achieved with splitters? In case the flow-rate error refers to the theoretical mean value after strand (example: Total flow solid 1000 kg/h; 4-fold splitter; mean value 250kg/h), and an inappropriate splitter type, insufficient strand dissolution, too many outlets, changing solid material characteristics or slant inflow, deviations of up to +/- 35% can be seen. However, if the prerequisites are optimal, the distribution error can lie below 5%, and the range below 10% can usually be achieved. In our case this means that the conveyed amounts per line lie at a minimum of approx. 235kg and maximum of 265 kg/h. Lower accuracies often are sufficient, since the main attention is on the distribution of the total flow rate as such.

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Is it possible to inject additional air, and if yes, where? Due to procedural reasons it is sometimes necessary to increase the amount of air behind the splitter, either to reduce the load ( and thus the line pressure loss) or to better adapt of certain geometries of pipes. Due to the increase in turbulence, the additional air can then contribute to equalizing, however the splitter has to be designed correspondingly longer (higher) .

Can different quantitative distributions of the flow rate also be achieved? This is possible within certain limits, for example two lines with a total of approx. 40% were impinged from a 4-fold splitter, the other two were impinged with a total of 60%. The outlets at the splitter and the pipe cross sections behind the splitter were adapted accordingly. The required distribution was achieved.

Where should the splitter be positioned during the course of the line? From the procedural point of view a division is already possible after a few meters of conveyor line. In that case the conveyor lines (and the pressure losses) behind the splitter would be equal. The most economic solution, however, is a division as close to the air injection points as possible, since in that case only one line needs to be directed to the splitter, and the remaining multiple lines can be very short. In the next chapter a few other hints are given for the equalization of the pressure loss and the division of the flow rate.

How sensitive to wear is the introduced splitter? Wear rather happens at locations, where local high gas velocity (and respectively solid material velocity) occurs. In a splitter this means mainly at the distribution header and/or in the area of additional air injection. Therefore, with conveying goods that lead to high wear, the distribution header can be removed and exchanged, if needed. It might be possible to coat the inside with a wear protection. With the removable tip it is also possible to change the distribution.


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Δpv=K*ρL*v2/2*(1+2*µ*c/v)

Calculation of the splitter Apart of the area division in functional dependence to the number of outlets, the main calculations for the splitter are about the sinking velocity, as well as the estimation of the additional pressure loss.

Calculation of the sinking velocity of the individual particles The sinking velocity of the individual particles w is calculated from the equilibrium of the weight force FG (perpendicular down) and the circulation force of the surge flow FW (perpendicular), neglecting the lift forces as follows: FW = FG (simplified)

• Δpv = Pressure loss in splitter


• K = Empiric factor

[1/1] Wert ≈ 1,2

• ρL = Gas density


• v = Gas velocity


• µ = Load

[kg Feststoff / kg Gas]

• c = Solid particle velocity


At usual velocities, system pressures, temperatures and loads, the additional pressure loss of such a splitter moves in the range of 8 - approx. 50 mbar.

Operation of the Plant In order to achieve the most possible even division of the mass flow, some further points need to be taken into consideration while setting up the splitter (see picture 8 further below):

AS*cW*ρL/2*v2 = g*ρS*π/6*dS3 w = [4/3*g*ds*ρS/(cW*ρL)]0,5

• The splitter has to be set up perpendicularly.

whereas: • AS = projected area of the particle


• g = gravitational acceleration


• ds = cross section of particle


• ρS = particle density


• cW = drag coefficient of particle


It should be noted that this equation only applies to individual particles, the sinking velocity of particle collectives is different, based on composition. Interested readers can access further material under:

Usual sinking velocities of fine particles lie at approximately 0,5 to 2,5 m/s. These values apply to the individual particle. Practical values can be determined through experimental determination of the sinking velocity, e.g. in the Gonnel-classifier.

Calculation of the pressure loss in the splitter The pressure loss in the described splitter is mainly due to the re-acceleration of the solid particle/gas mixture. It is fairly accurately described in the following equation:

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• Before entering the splitter, the perpendicular incident flow length must be at least 10 (15 is more favourble) x dE (whereby dE is the inner pipe cross section at the splitter inlet).

An even division of the bulk mass flow rate can only be assured, if these minimum prerequisites are observed. It is recommended that a corresponding straight trail (10 – 15 x dA) is also observed. A disturbance-free operation of the conveying is of particular interest. The aim is to achieve accuracies in the range of +/- 5 bis 10% . The splitter is part of a general plant, and in setting it up, fluidic aspects have to be observed, in addition to geometrical sizes. It is important that the specific pressure loss happens at the end of the conveying line, so that small differences in the lengths of feed pipes after the splitter can be neglected compared to this pressure loss. This can easiest be done by attaching a nozzle with a defined pressure loss to the end of the feed pipe. A respective example is depicted in the following diagram (Picture 7). Further explanations are provided in the next chapter.



Pic. 7: Typical pressure curve in a conveying system in the splitter

The splitter lengths are dependent upon material characteristics, an additional air injection and the number of exits. Usual lengths lie in the range of 5-10 x of the diameter of the splitter.

Equalization of the Throughput Fluid mechanic correlation at the splitter can well be described through a simplified electric circuit. The following is valid as an analogon: • Voltage U


Pressure gradient

• Electricity I


Material throughput

• Resistance R =

Resistance behaviour of pipes

The aim always is an evenly distributed throughput of material. However it often happens that due to local circumstances, the conduit after the splitter cannot necessarily be implemented absolutely even. This leads to the fact that both the resistances R1 – R4 and the throughput turn out differently, as they are directly coupled with the pipe resistance (see picture 9).

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Pic. 8: Setup of a splitter with incident and disperse flow


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY The following applies here: I =

I1 + I2 + I3 + I4

R =

1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 + 1/R4

U =

U1 = U2 = U3 = U4

Changes in resistance have a direct effect on the changes of the circulation (of electricity). However, in most cases this effect is not desired. A small “trick” to avoid this is to connect an additional resistance in series (See picture 10). In case the additional resistance is chosen big enough, differences in pipe resistance can be neglected. It is obvious, however, that the voltage has to be increased to keep the throughput. The following applies: I =

I1 + I2 + I3 + I4

R =

1/(R1+R1´) + 1/(R2+R2´) + 1/(R3+R3´) + 1/(R4+R4´)

U =

(U1+U1´)= (U2+U2´) = (U3+U3´) = (U4+U4´)

Pic. 9: Equivalent circuit diagram Splitter

Hereby the additional resistance (e.g. in the form of an outlet nozzle at the end of a pipe) determines the uniform distribution of the solid material in the splitter. However, it should be noted that the uniform distribution in other types of splitters can only be done if all strands are dissolved there.

Pic. 10: Equivalent circuit diagram Splitter

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Examples of established plants Examples of established plants are “dense phase splitters” for coal dust out of a pressure vessel and a “thin stream splitter” in the co-firing of animal meal. Both are applications from the power plant sector, but can similarly be found in Chemistry.

Dense Phase Splitter from a pressure vessel Picture 11 below shows the arrangement of the conveyor plant, from which 2 X6 coal dust burners are loaded in dense flow. The performance per string lies at approximately 1,200 kg/h and the pipe diameter at 35 mm inner width. The pipe strands can individually be switched on and off.

Pic. 11: Multiple dosage system for coal dust

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Pic. 12: Block diagram animal meal splitter

Thin Stream splitters for the conveyance of animal meal The plant shown in picture 12 (principle) and 13 (picture) directly conveys meat - and blood meal from the Silo - truck to the boiler. The material can be conveyed relatively easily, which is partly also due to the relatively even corn from. In order to keep required velocities in the burner pipes, a considerable amount of additional air was injected into the lower area of the splitter. The injection is done tangentially (by now it is done from both sides to avoid a tilted position), in the lower part of the splitter.

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Picture 12 clarifies the arrangement of the plant. The air is lead twice to the truck (cover and propellant air) and once it is lead to the fourfold splitter (additional air).The amount of air is divided in a way, that the desired output of 4 x 2,5 t/h is achieved. The pressure in the truck is deliberately kept low, so that he desired performance is achieved. Unfortunately the picture only shows the lower part of the splitter. Furthermore 4 single pipes, which are served by so-called interchangeable silos, can be seen.


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY As can be seen in picture 14, the distribution is very even and the conveyance is relatively quiet. The O2 content, which is also shown, and the boiler load show a good burning and increase of loads. In case required, a silo dosage station can be coupled to each pipe, so that there is no exclusive dependence on the Silo - truck. The silos are also transportable. The big advantage of this solution is the clean handling without interferences through pollution, etc. Experiences during operation have been markedly positive after the start of the operation.

Conclusion Splitters in pneumatic conveying plants require a careful layout and calculation. Not all splitter types are ideal for all cases. Specific characteristics, dependant on geometry and material, were depicted in the example of a thin stream splitter for fine grain bulk material. Frequently asked questions were responded to. Furthermore the general calculation and layout, including operation behaviour and integration into the plant environment was discussed. Examples of established splitters were introduced and the specific case of application was explained. Respective Literature and patent citations are listed in the following

Pic. 13: Pictures of splitter with connections for single pipes and additional air


KS-Engineering GmbH Dipl.-Phys.-Ing. Klaus Schneider Melchiorstr. 11 50670 Kรถln | Germany

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Pic. 14: Measurement plots of the pneumatic conveyance with four-fold splitter

[1] Morimoto, T. ; Yamamoto, A.; Nakoo, T.: ,,On the Behaviour of Air-Solids Mixture in a Pipeline for Pneumatic Conveyance with Single or Double T- Branches“ Bull. J.S.M.E., Vol. 20, 1977, pp 600 - 606A [2] Selves, T.P.; Bames, R.N.: ,,Review of in-line splitting techniques used in pneumatic conveying“ Trans Inst Eng Aust Mech Eng VME 18, 1993 No. 1 ,March pp 51 – 56 [3] Low, H.T.; Kar, S.; Winoto, S.H.: „Pneumotransport of Solid Particles through Manifold System“ Tokyo, 1986, Proc. Third Asian Congress on Fluid Mechanics, pp 630 – 639 [4] Morikawa, Y. et al.: ,,Pressure drop and solids distribution of Air Solids Mixture in horizontal unsymmetrical bends“ Journal of Multiphase Flow, Vol. 4, 1978, pp 397 – 404 [5] Lempp, M. : „Die Strömungsverhältnisse von GasFeststoff-Gemischen in Verzweigungen pneumatischer Förderanlagen“ Aufbereitungstechnik 7, 1966, pp81 -91 [6] Thomas, G.: Verteilungsmessungen an einem 16-fach Staubverteiler ;LCS-Steinmüller, 1886

Patente [7] OS DE 28 29 867; Ruhrkohle AG, Erfinder: Schroer, Schedbauer, Zillessen

Klaus Schneider, Dipl.-Phys.-Ing., born in 1952, independent engineer, businessman and journalist, author of professional articles and professional talks at home and abroad. Physics study 1973-78 in Siegen, 1979-83 SMS AG, 1984-90 Steinmüller GmbH, areas of Combustion technology / flue gas cleaning, afterwards foundation of an engineer‘s office for environmental technology and procedure technology in Cologne. Since that time he is active as a technical adviser and engineering service provider for the division of solid-handling (in particular in the area of Environmental technology, injection arrangements) and optimisation of combustion-technical processes. | KS-Engineering GmbH | Melchiorstraße 11 50670 Köln

[8] OS DE 28 32 846; Rockwell International Corp; Erfinder: Oberg et al.

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Control of belt conveyor transfer stations measurement solutions by Dipl. Ing. S. Zöbisch Endress+Hauser Messtechnik GmbH & Co. KG | Weil am Rhein | Germany |

Today control of transfer points in complex belt conveyor systems is a common process standard. This document prescribes measurement- based technology solutions which consider actual site conditions, the physical properties of material and the measurement environment. Particulat conveyor belt transfer point applications will be discussed and the field devices based on non-contacting or contacting technologies will be considered along with their benefits and their physical limitations. Measurements based on contact free technology are not subject to mechanical ware and tear but may need more attention during installation. In the following paragraph we take a look at the advantages and limits of ultrasonic, radio wave as well as microwave barrier measurement technologies. In addition, we will highlight applications using contact based limit switches such as capacitance and vibrating forks. Finally we will introduce a suite of selection tools which can be used to simplify the selection of any kind of level measurement technology based on a specific application.

The Challenge of controlling transfer points on belt conveyors

The basics of a good measurement solution

Belt conveyors are essential in the material handling business. The transport of bulk material over long distances or at high speeds is from the point of energy consumption most attractive and in most cases from the point of capital investment attractive too.

It is recommended that you focus in the beginning on the selection of a suitable physical measurement technology whilst comparing the life cycle cost of the instrument. This joint consideration is essential and will lead to an optimal measurement solution for belt conveyor transfer points.

As material handling systems become more complex and the materials themselves become more specialist, then the task for the construction of transfer points becomes more complicated. Transfer points will be designed according to the local requirements, as well as to the bulk material properties. The design is based on defined properties for bulk material. In the mineral processing industry these properties may vary according to the type of mining adopted as well as to the local weather conditions. In many cases measurement devices could be used to detect clogging. Here, all factors need to be considered including actual material properties, as well as those which might come up in the future to ensure safe operation. Depending on the process control and the complexity of conveyor system it may also be necessary to monitor the material flow on the conveyor itself.

For the optimum measurement solution it is necessary to cover the following main points: • Reliability • The lowest total cost of ownership (i.e. to not just consider the purchasing costs but also the consequential costs of operation) • instrument signal and measurement date handling over the complete operational life time

First of all the transfer points will be designed to local requirements of material flow and the material properties. After this step the selection of safety and measurement devices will take place. Now it is important to decide the basic specification of the field devices. Is a continuous control of material flow with blockage detection required or a control of the max.

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY belt conveyor load? The physical principles needed for continuous control are different to those for the detection of min. or max.values. In general point level switches will be utilized for blockage detection or for the identification of material backing-up , e.g. mechanical switches, capacitance probes, vibronic switches or microwave barriers. Measurement equipment is based on varying physical principles, which have strengths or limits depending on the individual operational conditions. To fulfill the specifications detailed above it is recommended not only to look for the best physical method, but also to consider the following: • Clear application conditions





• Reliable measurement method • Correct installation and commissioning

Besides the bulk material properties, special attention has to be paid to the conditions at site and the installation possibilities. The material flow with the relevant speeds and the discharge angles are important for positioning the field device. Furthermore it has to be decided whether measurement equipment should being in contact with the bulk material or not. Field devices which are notin contact with the bulk material are not subject to abrasion and the operation is more or less independent from the grain size. However they may need more space at the point of installation. When using non contacting field devices it has

to ensured, that clear and repeatable signal reflections are available, independent of environment such as dust, rain or vibration. In addition it has to be checked that signal evaluation and computation works when the conveyor is operating at speed. For selection of field devices in contact with the bulk material the following questions need to be answered: Is the proposed equipment robust enough to withstand the impact of coarse material and how is caking and build up taken care of caking.

Proven examples for contact free measuring methods for material flow and clogging detectiong For the continuous material flow control of belt conveyors ultrasonic measurement has been a proven technology for years. The sensor is normally installed above the discharge conveyor of the transfer point. It will be used to control the subsequent conveyors or monitor the clogging of the transfer chute via a logical interlocking – high current demand of the belt conveyor drive and no material flow on the discharge conveyor.

Picture 1: Choice and definition of the measuring job

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY A remotely mounted electronic unit can be installed up to 300 m away from the ultrasonic sensor. The electronic transmitter is therefore positioned so as not to be exposed to the extreme vibrations around the conveyor. The Endress+Hauser Prosonic S system provides an extremely fast response time --> 2 to 3 measurements per seconds are possible, and this means that this measurement equipment is ideally suited for fast running belt conveyors. A further benefit of ultrasonic technology is the self cleaning effect of the sensor due to its vibrating diaphragm. In addition to the aforementioned technology for the continuous control of the material flow, it is also possible to install an Endress+Hauser Solimotion FTR20 motion switch which uses microwave technology. This motion sensor is essentially a binary switch, which detects whether there is material flow or not. Ultrasonic sensors have often been installed at the discharge point of stackers. The discharge height is controlled in order to reduce dust emissions and collision with the pile. On stackers operating on large piles the trend has been recently to install free space radar mainly due to clear evaluation signals on windy days and when more dust is more likely to negatively affect an ultrasonic signal. However radar technology is more costly than ultrasonic technology. For contact free detection of blockages and clogging micro wave barriers should also be considered. The measurement system consists of an emitter and a receiver. The material causing a blockage is absorbing the micro wave signal, which is detected in the receiver which will create an alarm signal The advantage of this equipment is the possibility to adjust the sensitivity on site and the sensors are not exposed to mechanical wear and tear.

Picture 2: Material flow with ultrasonic technology

A comparison of the most installed contact free measurement equipment will highlight the benefits and limitations:

Picture 4: Advantages and limits of the free measurement equipment


advantages ■ Self cleaning due to vibrating flat diaphragm ■ Separate instrumentation – recommended for strong on site vibrations ■ Price attractive contact free measurement limits ■ heavy dust atmosphere and wind ■ low density of bulk material – fluidized bulk material

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Micro wave barrier

advantages ■ Nearly independent of dust, fog and dust build-up ■ Recommended for aggressive or abrasive media ■

Picture 3 Free space radar at discharge of stacker

Adjustable sensitivity

limits ■ strong build-up on window ■ bulk material with low dielectric constant


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Proven examples for clogging detection with probes being in contact with the material Depending on the location of the transfer points on site, mechanical switches, capacitance probes or vibronic switches are proven field devices. The advantage of capacitance and vibronic point level switches is the absence of rotating parts and therefore is more suitable for dusty atmospheres. Capacitance probes are available in various designs. These sensors are robust and can take lateral loads of up to 800 Nm. Furthermore there are rod versions, which can be equipped with an active built-up compensation technology. Even whilst handling caking bulk materials a clear switching signal is still possible. Capacitance probes need no calibration and the installation is very convenient with low installation costs. Capacitance sensors have a short response time and work independent of weather conditions like rain and wind and are therefore suitable for demanding and changing processes.

Picture 5: Micro wave barrier to detect clogging

Picture 6 : Kapazitiven Sonden

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Abb. 7 : Detektion der Verstopfung mittels Vibrationsgrenzschalter

For bulk material with a grain size smaller than 25 mm vibronic point level switches are common. Two versions are available with this measurement principle, the conventional fork or the single rod version. The conventional fork version is recommend for fine bulk materials up to 10 mm grain size und can even detect point limits in fluidized products. With this kind of point level device, an extended version or a rope version is available to best suit the conditions on site. The vibronic fork switches are for universal use and universally prefered for use in fine and dusty bulk solids.

The single rod version has the benefit of avoiding potential clogging of the forks by coarse materials. Both versions however are independent of material dielectric constant and conductivity. A comparison of the most installed measurement equipment being in contact with the material and without moving parts shows the benefits and their limitations:


advantages ■ robust design for challenging prosesses ■ ■

with active build-up compensation for caking material modifiable rope versions

limits ■ dielectric constant lower than 1.6 ■ min. length required for bulk material with low dielectric constant


advantages ■ universal use nearly independent of product properties ■ control in fluidized products ■

optional fork coatings to prevent buildup

limits ■ grain sizes >25 mm ■ strong tendency of caking

Picture 8: Advantages and limits of the measurement equipment being in contact with the material

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Summary and selection guide It is recommended during selection of the measurement equipment that you consider the following: Bulk material: • Grain size • Abrasion • Caking potential or stickiness

Local conditions at site: • Space and mounting conditions on site / where to install – from top or laterally • Environmental conditions – temperature / rain / wind • Conveyor speed ðresponse times of measurement equipment • Open or enclosed transfer point (dust and available space)

Specification for field devices: • Continuous measurement • Point level detection • Being in contact with bulk material or contact free

Picture 9 : Information of Continuous level measurement in liquids and bulk solids

• Low total cost of ownership • Low maintenance costs • High reliability

Powerful data base tool to select the suitable measurement device adequate for the bulk material properties, the local site conditions and proven technology. The Applicator ® software prompts you to answer all these application critical questions and furthermore gives you with a simple link to detailed product information, e.g. technical information documents and operation manuals. You can even print out selection guides for continuous level measurement and point switches. There are 57 years of experience in level measurement concentrated in these documents. For each application selected, the suitable measuring principals are compared along with the benefits and limitations. One measuring principal will be highlighted as your best option in addition to any hints and tips for mounting and installation. The ultimate aim of these printout selection guides is to select operational best fit and price attractive measurement solutions for a given application.

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Picture 10: Information of Point level detection in liquids and bulk solids




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Picture11: Representation of the Applicator user interface

Dipl.-Ing. Stefan Zöbisch Born 1953 Study of Mechanical engineering with specification in construction technology, at the advanced technical college of Saarland, Saarbrücken. From 1976 to 2003 he opperats in the internationally plant engineering, with the following major: • Projectmanager for handling plant and large facilities in the bulk materials handling • Sales and distribution responsibility for Western Europe and America • Management of a supplier business of the pneumatic conveyor

FOR MORE INFORMATION AND CONTACT: Endress+Hauser Messtechnik GmbH & Co. KG Dipl. Ing. Stefan Zöbisch Branch manager raw materials Colmarer Strasse 6 79576 Weil am Rhein | Germany Tel.: +49 (0) 7621 - 9 75 01 Fax: +49 (0) 7621 - 9 75 55 5 E-Mail: Internet:

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technology • Since 2004 branch managers of the Endress+Hauser Messtechnik GmbH + Co.KG in Weil am Rhein for the raw material production, raw material processing and raw material refining with distribution-supporting activity. This includes for the various bulk processing industry: • Application advice with selection of measurement methods • Industry related product definition • Responsibility for participation in conferences and trade fairs

| | Endress+Hauser Messtechnik GmbH+Co. KG Branch manager raw materials Colmarer Strasse 6 79576 Weil am Rhein



Innovative and Efficient Solutions for challenging tasks in extraction, surface mining and surface forming.

T1255 Terrain Leveler

Vermeer has transcribed its long-standing experience in the area of rock mills into its new surface mill. The T1255 is characterized by protected technology, intelligent design, excellent production and system stability. Meanwhile the Terrain Leveler can process an area of up to 3.7 m width and 61 cm depth in one single run.

The machine has been designed to ablate all kinds of rocks, gypsum, coal and other material (e.g. concrete). This is done using a big, hydrostatically steered milling drum, which ablates the rock in a more efficient way and with a higher cutting depth. The result: More coarse material with a low proportion of fine fraction. Deutschland GmbH Puscherstr. 9 90411 Nuremberg, Germany

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Tel.: +49 (0) 911 5 40 14 0 Fax: +49 (0) 911 5 40 14 99




A new method for acid dezincification of Steel Scrap by Professor (em.) Dr.-Ing. habil. E. Gock; V. Vogt; I. Schรถnfelder; O. Carlowitz; T. Zeller; A. Sauter; H.-B. Pillkahn Department of Mineral and Waste Processing | TU Clausthal | Germany

Problem The global consumption of zinc lies currently at 11 million tons per year. Out of this amount, approximately 50% are used for the corrosion protection of steel. Due to the fact that secure primary raw material reserves currently are estimated at only 220 million tons, highly efficient recycling technologies are prerequisites for securing the raw material. In Germany, only in the thin sheet processing of the automobile industry 3 million tons of zinc-coated new scraps are generated annually, which have to directly be transferred into the steel recycling. In steel works the zinc separation is done through dust removal, which requires significant efforts in processing technology. In addition, consecutive metallurgical reprocessing of the dusts on zinc, high metal losses and contaminations by flour and chlorine occur in the waelz-procedure, which cause considerable interferences during the zinc-electrolysis. The most economical method of retrieval of zinc would be an advanced de-zincification of the scraps. De-zincified and alloy-free scraps are main prerequisites for sustainable supply of raw material for the German foundry industry. For this type of scrap, additional revenues of 40 to 50 Euros are common. If one takes the three million tons of zinc-coated new scrap, which are generated annually in Germany as a basis, one reaches a zinc metal potential of 60,000 tons, with a market potential of approximately 100 million Euro.

Disposal strategies for zinc-coated steel scrap The currently common de-zincification strategies are directly linked to steelmaking. With the increasing emergence of galvanized steel, a lack of zinc-free steel scrap for high-quality standards occurs. Therefore, apart from the common production-integrated de-zincification in the electro smelting works with consecutive waelzprocedure, pre-zincification methods will achieve more importance in the future.

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With regard to adequate steel scrap quality for the foundries, and taking into consideration the recycling quotas for zinc, the pre-dezincification has a concrete chance to develop into an independent recycling industry sector. However, it should be noted that technical realizations in this area have been of limited success.

Production-integrated De-zincification In order to follow a systematic approach, following please find an overview over the currently common production-integrated de-zincification methods. Picture 1 shows the principle of the production-integrated dezincification through coupling of electro-steel-, converter and waelz-procedure. Basically two different problems need to be reckoned during the waelz-procedure. On one hand the zinc contents of the fine dust vary between 20% and 40% , and on the other hand there are chlorides and fluorides in the oxidic dusts, which occur with the burning of plastic composites in steel scrap [1]. The deleterious effect of chlorine and fluorine appear in the hydrometallurgical extraction of zinc from waelzoxides, which entail up to 90% ZnO. In zinc-electrolysis, chlorine leads to an increased corrosion of the aluminum cathodes and the lead-silver anodes. In literature [1], the maximum permissible concentration of chlorine is stated as 30 to 200 mg/l. With fluorine, the deleterious effect also lies in a massive corrosion of the cathodes and the strong attachment of the precipitated zinc at the aluminum cathode, which leads to problems during stripping. Reasons are the development of ZnF+ complexes, which due to their positive charge move to the cathode, and decompose, while at the same time generating HF. HF is a very strong acid which attacks the protecting Al2O3layer of the aluminum cathodes, so that a direct and firmly adhering alliance between zinc and aluminum occurs.



Pic. 1: Principle of the production-integrated dezincification through coupling of electro-steel-, converter and waelz-procedure

A further consequence is that aluminum also is subject to massive corrosion. The critical values for fluorine are stated as 10 to 50 mg/l [1]. Higher critical values are only permissible if the zinc electrolysis has a cathode cleaning device. Since fluorine and chlorine cannot be removed from the electrolyte, there are strict requirements for the application of waelzoxides in the zinc smeltery, which can only be avoided through a downstream leaching method with NaCO3 or through blending with the primary raw material in the zinc smelter. In the waelz-technology, the acid operation with quartzite has been replaced by an alkaline operation, for reasons of environmental protection. One side effect is the lowering of carbon requirements. The slag is used in the road construction, it is only in exceptional cases that a dumping is done. The reasons for that are non-permissible lead elutions [1].

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Even with the pre-dezincification measures that are introduced here, the waelz-procedure, which also has high importance for other zincic waste like phosphating sludges, galvanic sludges, and others, will in future not be completely replaceable.



Hydrometallurgical Routes

The pre-dezincification differs from the productionintegrated dezincification in the sense, that here a zincfree steel scrap and a direct extraction of metallic zinc occurs, without having to make the detour of extracting zinc from ZnO-dusts. Zinc-coated new scraps, which have not undergone a life cycle, are particularly suitable.

The hydrometallurgical de-zincification is characterized by the pH environment:

For pre-dezincification, two process routes can be taken into consideration: • the pyrometallurgical route and • the hydrometallurgical route.

Picture 2 depicts the general scheme of the currently known methods and proposed procedures for predezincification. Both routes are characterized by specific measures, which basically deal with the selective extraction of zinc and are meant to prevent the oxidation and dissolving of iron, respectively. The difficulties of the pre-dezincification are expressed by a multitude of publications and long development work about the process strategies in laboratory and pilot scales. In addition to the deep involvement with the thermodynamic processes, the differing reactor designs have a high share of the patent-protected ideas.

Pyrometallurgical Routes The predominant number of developments with regard to pyrometallurgical pre-dezincification originates from Japan, followed by Britain, and the remaining patents cannot be specifically assigned. Production of pure steel scrap with a high quality takes the center stage; producing zinc is only a sideline. Also compare: [2 bis 16]. To date, the variety of proposed procedures for the pyromettallurgical de-zincification has not achieved commercial use. The only currently known pyrometallurgical dezicification plant, which works according to the principle of vacuum evaporation, is operated by two recyclers of the Mitsubishi group in Japan. The method seems to be uneconomical [17].

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• the alkaline de-zincification and • the acidic de-zincification.

Selective dissolving of zinc is at the focus of the hydrometallurgical method, since dissolution of iron is connected with a waste problem. While the complex formation of the alkaline de-zincification largely avoids the iron problem, a partial iron dissolution cannot be avoided by the acidic route. The acidic proposed procedures are in principle characterized by an attempt to keep the ferriccharge as low as possible. For reasons of reaction-kinetics an acidic route is of advantage, since it allows for putting through big mass flows, due to the short reaction period. The commonality of hydrometallurgical processes is the generation of high quality steel and pure zinc metal and pure zinc compounds. Following, the technical development status is briefly described with the help of patents and scientific publications.

Alkaline De-zincification The publications and patents, as well as efforts for the technical presentation of the alkaline dezincification are even more comprehensive than its bibliography [18 to 34]. In 1993 F. J. Dudek, E. J. Daniels and W. A. Morgan [34] reported on a pilot plant in East Chicago with 50,000 tons per year (already announced in 1992), which started operation in early 1993. In the US-patent application 1996-680344 of 17.07.1996 by Metal Recovery Industries Inc. by the inventors A. William, F. J. Dudek, E. J. Daniels, the alkaline de-zincification method, repeatedly presented since 1990, was modified through electrolytic support, with which the dissolution of zinc was limited to the natural electro-chemical corrosion process. This modification is the result of a cognitive process from the alkaline de-zincification studies that have been conducted since 1990 [32 to 36]. The patent was granted in 1998 under No. US5779878 [37] with the following description of procedure: The galvanized steel is treated at temperatures of a minimum of 75 °C in 15 percent sodium or potassium hydroxide leach. Hereby zinc is loosened from the surface of zinc-



Pic. 2: General scheme of the currently known proposed procedures and methods for pre-dezincification

coated steel through galvanic corrosion. The material forming the cathode should principally have a standard electrode potential between the one of zinc and cadmium. The corrosive dissolution of zinc can be accelerated by the following measures: • Increasing the number of corrosion points per area through mechanical roughening or deformation of the zinc-coated steel. • Heating of the zinc-coated steel, in order to generate zinc alloys at the surface • Mixing of the zinc-coated steel with a material, whose standard potential lies between zinc and cadmium. • Relative movement of the steel parts against each other and in the electrolyte.

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These findings are also taken up in the world patent of 1999 under the number WO9955939 [38]. The patent registration was complemented under the US-Patent US5855765 of 05.01.1999, in which the transport device that moves the steel through the electrolytic bath is included [39]. The transport device is electrically isolated from the earth potential and consists of cathodic material, whose standard electrode potential lies between the one of zinc and cadmium. This US-Patent is expanded to the world patent with number WO9955938 of 14.11.1999 [40]. The overall flow sheet of the process, which is also , the basis of the Meretec-method is shown is picture 3. The process flow sheet in picture 3 shows the individual process steps of the procedure. The de-zincification part encompasses the leach reactor and two consecutive rinsing tanks. The transport of the material that is to be de-zincified is done through belts that are connected


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY in series. The leach reactor contains a watery NaOHsolution with 150 to 500 g NaOH/l, which is heated to a temperature between 50 °C and 100 °C. The reaction times are specified at ten minutes for a temperature of 75 °C, whereby the transport is done with the help of a belt. The reaction happens independently, so that an external voltage can be skipped. The zincic solutions which come from the leach reactor show a zinc concentration between 25 and 40g/l, the free leach proportion lies between 150 and 300 g/l NaOH. In the precipitation tank, which is located before the electrolysis, aluminum, lead, copper, bismuth and iron are chemically precipitated and filtered out. The purified solution is lead to the electrolysis. The electrolysis process occurs between 30 °C and 45 °C. Zinc, for example, precipitates as powder or in dendritic form at the magnesium cathode and is continuously removed from the cathode. The metal powder suspension is dewatered in a filter or in a centrifuge. The filter cake is pressed into briquettes. The regenerated caustic solution (< 20 g Zn/l) is lead back to the leach reactor. There are experiences for various scraps with zinc coating proportions between 0,5 % and 7 % zinc, which can be reduced to a minimum of 0,002 %, in average to 0,02 % Zink. AMEC, a British-American engineering enterprise, designed a de-zincification plant based on the Meretec principle, which started operation in 2003 in East Chicago. In 2007, the CMA Corp. Ltd., Australia took over a further plant in Melbourne [41].

The Meretec-process consists of six steps: • Shredding • Basic de-zincification • Washing • Caustic cleaning • Reduction electrolysis • Extraction of zinc powder.

The capacity of both plants lies at approximately 120,000 tons zinc-coated steel per year, from which 2,000 tons zinc are extracted [42]. The Meretec process is an autarkic method, which does not allow for an industrial networking with available zinc extractive industries, as they all have acidic technologies. There is only a dependence on the supply of the scrap to be de-zincified. The independence is bought dearly through very high costs of operation, the high reaction temperatures, the long treatment periods and the low concentration of zinc of the alkaline solutions. Furthermore there is no possibility of the direct use of zincate solutions, so that an own caustic cleaning and an extraction electrolysis cannot be avoided. Calculations of economic efficiency have shown that this installation engineering cannot be economically operated in Germany, due to the high energy costs.

Pic. 3: Meretec process from the patent specification WO9955939 [Source: Morgan, W. A. (Metal Recovery Ind. Inc., USA): Process for de-zincing galvanized steel using an electrically isolated conveyor. Patent No. WO9955938, 1999-11-04] Issue 03 | 2010


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Acid De-zincification With regard to the electrolytic precipitation of zinc from acid solutions, sulfatic solutions are preferred. Due to the high costs in terms of procedure, other acids are of secondary importance [43 to 48]. The Societe de Prayon [49] has a 1972 patent, which aims at an independent recycling of zinc and iron from zinc-coated scrap, with H2SO4. An inhibitor for the deferral of dissolution of iron by a colloidal flocculant like for example gelatin, bone marrow, starch, dextrin, guar gum or polyacrylamid is added to the watery H2SO4. The concentration of the added colloid can amount to 20 to 200 g/m3. The caustic process is conducted with 20 to 200 g free sulphuric acid per liter and in a temperature range between 5 °C and 40 °C. The zinc extraction is done through electrolysis. In the consecutive year 1973 the Societe de Prayon [50] also protected establishments for the technical conversion of the above-mentioned method. From the 90ies onwards, the proposed acid dezincification methods become more complex and more practical. In 1992, Nippon Steel Corp [51] created a plant for acid de-zincification, in which first the zinc-containing steel is pre-shredded in a way that curved and shaped surfaces are generated. During this pre-treatment part of the zinc is already mechanically separated. This is followed by a magnetic removal of the partly de-zincified steel, which is submitted into an extraction container, where the cuttings of sheet metal are brought into contact with H2SO4. Due to the deformed surfaces the cuttings do not directly lie on top of each other, so that a complete dissolution of zinc can be achieved. In order to break the acid leaching, the de-zincified scrap is neutralized in an intermediate storage tank. Consecutively it is washed with hot water and dried under natural conditions. The scrap is free of zinc and of high value. In a batch tank zinc dust is added to the sulphuric solution, which contains zinc, and a specific pH is set up, so that the iron precipitates as hydroxide. The extraction of zinc is done electrolytically. Following the above-mentioned patent, Nippon Steel Corp. [52] complements its method through a device with mechanical appliances for an improved solid-liquid separation. This tackles the problem of separating the remaining zincic solution.

The plant that is presented, consists of a leach reactor filled with acid, a neutralization container with water and a cleaning container. All containers are equipped with receiving devices for steel scrap. The steel scrap is moved from stage to stage for a repeated treatment. In 1998, C. Lupi et al. [54] from the Universita di Roma postulates support to the acid leaching. The process developed encompasses a pre-shredding of the zinccoated scrap, an electrochemical dissolution of the zinc with the help of a steel anode, and the extraction of zinc or zinc sulphate from the resulting solution. Tests were carried out to optimize the chemical and electrochemical operation conditions. A laboratory pilot plant was operated to verify the pre-tests. The process allows for very low energy consumption, a very high metal production and a good quality of products. An unusual de-zincification method is the one for steel sheets with sulphuric acid and the presence of bacteria and elementary sulphur, which was developed in 2001 by Paques Bio Syst, BV [55]. Through biological reduction of sulphur and sulphur compounds, the zinc precipitates as zinc sulfide. The process is conducted under anaerobic conditions in a bio-reactor. In 2002, S. Aktas et al. [56] from the Istanbul Technical University engaged in the separation of zinc after the sulphuric acid leaching of zinc-coated steel scrap. The leaching is done at pH values of < 0,2. The resulting solution, which has 80 to 85 g Zn/l and 0,02 g Fe/l, is produced through multi-level leaching. ZnSO4 • 2 H2O precipitates through addition of ethanol and zinc. This compound contains 36,4 % Zn and only 0,02 % Fe and is seen as high-quality raw material for commercial use. The ethanol can be recovered in less than 20 minutes through distillation at 78 °C with a 90% yield. Despite the relatively high scientific and technical efforts on acid de-zincification, there is no commercial use, due to the unsatisfactorily solved separation of iron and zinc and the corresponding waste problems. There are no indications with regard to coupling with the classical zinc route.

More technical improvements to the plants in 1993 by Nippon Steel Corp. [53], complement the preceding patent.

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Acidic Bypass pre-dezincification The comparison of the alkaline and acidic process route for de-zincification of steel clearly shows that from the point of view of reaction kinetics, the acidic route rather fulfills the requirements of high mass flow rates. The essential difficulty in acidic de-zincification is its waste problem, which occurs because of the necessary separation of the iron, which is loosened before the zinc electrolysis. Since the zinc is an accompanying product, the high costs of the caustic cleaning in terms of process are economically not presentable, due to the very low masses. Within the framework of a joint project [58], currently a new method for the acidic pre-dezincification [57] and the bypass predezincification is being introduced. Corporate business partners are found in research, the automobile industry, the scrap trade, the zinc metallurgy, the foundry industry and the machine and plant engineering. It is a matter of a cold dezincification method for steel scrap, which works with end electrodes of the primary zinc metallurgy for the separation of zinc. The problem of iron separation is solved by redirecting the generated solutions with high zinc into the primary zinc extraction process. This bypass principle achieves waste-free zinc recycling.

Picture 4 shows the process network between acidic scrap dezincification, zinc smelting and foundry industry, during bypass pre-dezincification.

Theoretical Background The reaction mechanism of the process is a redox reaction, whereby the dissolution of zinc depicts oxidation (1) and the conversion of hydronium ions to hydrogen depicts the reduction (2). Zn ––> Zn2+ + 2 e- (1) 2 H+ + 2 e- ––> H2 (2) Zn + 2 H+ ––> Zn2+ + H2 (3) The overall reaction (3) shows that the hydrogen production is thermodynamically unavoidable. However, with a steel to zinc mass ratio of 1.000 to 14, the generated hydrogen does not pose any risk potential for the plant operation. Hydrogen can be released into the atmosphere with excess air. The used end electrolyte has a rest zinc content of 20 to 50 g/l and a proportion of free H2SO4 of approximately 180 g/l. The process temperature

Pic. 4: VProcess network of bypass pre-dezincification through coupling of acidic steel scrap dezincification, zinc smelting and foundry industry

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corresponds to the conditions of the environment. In comparison to unloaded sulphuric acid, the advance zinc ions cause an accelerated start reaction, so that the reaction time until the complete dezincification takes a maximum of 10 minutes. The kinetics of the start reaction is shown in picture 5. Dissolution of zinc is followed through the change in conductivity. The measure for the speed of reaction is the increase in the linear function of the conductivity. While pure sulphuric acid leads to a delayed dissolution of zinc, which can be proven through the increase of the conductivity function, the dissolution speed is 10-fold higher in the presence of 50 g/l. This phase of the reaction is of decisive importance for process conditions. The dissolution process during the start reaction with preliminary zinc is shown in picture 6. It is evident that the dezincification starts at the cutting edge of the sheet metal

Pic. 5: Kinetics of the start reaction, subject to the advance zinc concentration in acidic dezincification of steel scraps

section and progresses towards the center. The dark grey proportion is rest zinc. Due to the low excess surge of the hydrogen formation at the non-zinc-coated steel surface, the highest rate of turnover results at the cutting edges of the sheets.

Pic. 6: Detailed view of zinc dissolution at the metal sheet surface

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During the use of new scrap, the application of the reaction is favourably influenced by drawing and scrubbing oils that are used in vehicle body construction. The presence of oils results in an inhibitory effect on the dissolution of iron [59]. Due to this effect the speed of dissolution of iron is reduced by a factor 10, so that the extracted solution containing high zinc has an iron content of less than 3 percent. The maximum achievable zinc concentration of the process acid is economically important for the method. The concentration lies at > 110 g/l zinc. Picture 7 shows the course of loading cell acid with zinc and iron. After 12 minutes, the zinc content lies at > 110 g/l, while the iron content stays in the range of 0.15 g/l iron.

Process Technology On the basis of basic laboratory data, a pilot plant for de-zincification of galvanized new steel scrap from the automobile industry was planned, constructed and built, and started operation in April 2010. The maximum flow rate is approximately 1,000 per hour. This plant consists of five modules, whereby the separation of zinc is done in the

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Pic. 7: Degree of loading of cell acid with zinc and iron ions, subject to the reaction time during the acidic dezincification of steel scraps

first two modules, and the consecutive three modules are laid out as washing stages. The coupling of the modules is done through surface mounting, so that the design of the process steps is variable. The procedural coupling between the primary zinc process and the bypass pre-dezincification can be seen in picture 8. Due to energetic reasons, the zinc electrolysis that follows the iron precipitation is done in a way that the end electrolyte has a minimum concentration of 20 g/l of zinc. The end electrolyte is usually redirected into the leach stage. The acid amount that is needed for the bypass predezincification is taken as partial current from the end electrolyte. After the de-zincification of the scrap, this partial current is again directed to the primary zinc process at the stage of iron precipitation. The bypass process completely relocates the zinc-iron separation into the primary zinc cycle, so that the bypass pre-dezincification is waste-free.



Pic. 8: Procedural coupling between the primary zinc process and the bypass pre-dezincification

Pilot plant The pilot plant was set up in a test hall of the CUTECinstitute GmbH by the Andritz company, Vienna, and is currently in the start-up phase. Picture 9 shows a general overview of the overall plant. The task of vibratory conveyors, which deliver the sheet scrap to the first leach stage, is in the forefront. A further leach stage and three washing stages follow. The plant is completely encapsulated and connected to a suction plant, which contains a gas-wash. Two acid tanks with oil separators and a total volume of 20 m3 form the periphery.

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The supply of end electrolytes and the removal of the loaded acid is secured by tank vehicles. The periphery also includes a waste water treatment system for precipitation of rest metal ions through neutralization. The de-zincified black sheets are dried in air flow in the last stage. Furthermore the remaining oil film offers a welcome corrosion protection, so that the zinc-free sheets are an optimal component for application in the foundry industry. Pictures 10a to 10d reflect details of the process cycle.



Pic. 9: Pilot plant for bypass pre-zincification of zinc-coated new scraps (general overview)

In picture 10a the vibrator supply into the first leaching stage can be seen. The sheet-metal sections have a size of approximately 15 x 15 cm2. This limitation of the sheet size is system-dependent. Goal is a dezincification of metal sheet sections of up to one meter. The acid which is used in the circulatory operation is additionally brought into contact with the sheets through nozzle systems. The transport of the sheet sections in the acid bath is done with the help of adjustable rails on an endless belt (picture10b). The handover into the consecutive stage is achieved with the help of a steeply sloping section of the transport belt, which is permeable to fluid (see picture 10c). The discharge of the de-zincified sheet sections and the air nozzles for drying can be seen in picture 10d.

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The test operation for determination of further basic data for a production plant is currently under way. Pictures 10a to 10d: Pilot plant for bypass predezincification of zinc-coated new scraps from the automobile industry (detailed view): a) Supply of zinc-coated new scraps b) Transport in de-zincification bath with acid spraying c) Module handover d) Discharge of de-zincified scrap



Pic. 10a: Pilot plant for bypass pre-dezincification of zinc-coated new scraps from the automobile industry (detailed view), Supply of zinc-coated new scraps

Pic. 10b: Pilot plant for bypass pre-dezincification of zinc-coated new scraps from the automobile industry (detailed view), Transport in de-zincification bath with acid spraying

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Pic. 10c: Pilot plant for bypass pre-dezincification of zinc-coated new scraps from the automobile industry (detailed view), Module handover

Pic. 10d: Pilot plant for bypass pre-dezincification of zinc-coated new scraps from the automobile industry (detailed view), Discharge of de-zincified scrap

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Economical and Ecological Assessment For a production plant for bypass pre de-zincification, a scrap output of 1,000 t/d is assumed. This is the scrap produced by only one automobile producer per day. The annual output amounts to 250,000 tons. The estimate shows, that with scrap amounts between 500 to 1,500 t/d and a zinc content of 1.5%, the method is most cost-effective at 700 t/d, if the additional sheet revenue is 30 Eur/d and the zinc revenue is set at zero. Picture 11 shows the total proceeds of the bypass pre-dezincification for daily sheet outputs between 500 and 1,500 t/d, in connection with the additional sheet revenues. According to the basic conditions of the underlying cost and revenue model, the bypass pre-dezincification can amortize after only a few years. In order to determine the ecological effects of the bypass pre-dezincification, the new technology was compared to the current waelztechnology. The waelz-technology is a pyrometallurgical enrichment method for zinc oxide, which constitutes the component for the hydrometallurgical route of the zinc electrolysis and is characterized through a high slag emergence and problems with mobilizing metal during deposit.

Mass balance, transport balance and energy balance were compared. Due to the fact that the determined data are highly site-specific, here we confine ourselves to the comparison of energy balances of steel work and waelzplant, and the energy balance of the bypass predezincification. Table 1 shows the determined energy requirement for the vaporization of zinc in the steel work and the energy requirement of the waelz-procedure for production of a zinc oxide concentrate from the fine dusts of steel works, in relation to a bypass pre-dezincification for a zinc extraction of 3,750 tons of zinc per year. Contrasting the energy balances shows that the energetic costs of the bypass pre-dezincification is reduced by the factor 50, compared to conventional technology. At the same time the CO2 emissions are reduced by factor 40.

Pic. 11: Bypass pre-dezincification: Total proceeds in connection with daily metal sheet output and the metal sheet additional revenue (supposition: zinc revenues are zero)

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Table 1: Current energy balance versus energy balance with bypass pre-dezincification

CO2-emissions [t/a]

Steelwork (Zinc-vaporisation 3.750 t/a)



Waelz-procedure plant (Waelz-oxide produktion)



Sum: pyrometallurgical dezincification Bypass pre-dezincification plant

47.679.264 1.000.000

22.761 600

Perspectives From a procedural and energetic point of view the predezincification of steel metal sheets is the most logical way to separate zinc. Due to the fact that the introduction of galvanization in the automobile industry as corrosion protection measure happened over a time period of 15 years, the necessity of developing new dezincification technologies was initially pushed aside. The conventional routes of separating zinc with filter dust of steel works and the consecutive concentration of zinc oxide through the waelz-procedure or the transport of dusts in underground storages are rather favorized. Ten years ago, after the zinc contents of the steel works dust of the stowage-mines were limited to a maximum of 10%, the only variation that remained was the utilization through the waelzprocedure. With increasing zincic fine dust masses, the demands of the zinc electrolysis on the waelzoxides, with regard to cleaning of chlorine and fluorine became more strict. The separation of chloride and fluorine requires an additional washing stage for the waelzoxid, so that today these procedure routes pose serious problems. In this regard, as a consequence of the economic crisis, the only zinc smelting in Datteln, Germany which predominantly processed waelzoxide, was closed at the beginning of the year. Currently German waelzoxide are exported even to Canada as components for the extraction of zinc. It is against this background that the conditions for the hydrometallurgical pre-dezincification processes are particularly favourable. Up to now, the alkaline Meretec technology has been the only alternative. However, since the Meretc concept relies on an autarkic technology, the zinc mass flows are very small. Furthermore there is a multi-stage extraction technology like in the primary zinc extraction, but with process solutions that only contain maximum 40g/l of zinc. This low zinc concentration corresponds to the de-zincified end electrolyte of the primary zinc extraction. The common zinc electrolyte that is common in the primary zinc extraction contains 150g/l zinc.

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needed energie [kWh/a]

The new, cold bypass dezincification technology expands the primary zinc process by one single cold caustic stage. The strength of this new technology is the direct link of steel sheet scrap producers and NE- metallurgy. The field of application which initially is the most important is the dezincification of new metal steel scrap from the automobile industry. The prerequisite is to coordinate the distance between the location where the scrap is produced, the dezincification plant and the zinc extraction operation.

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY [8] Kenji, M. (Ishikawajima Harima Heavy Ind.): Evaporated zinc recovering device, Patent No. JP7034149, 1995-02-03 [9] Mamoru, I.; Michiaki, S.; Seiichi, K. (Nippon Steel Corp.): Treatment of scrap. JP7138664, 1995-05-30 [10] Okada, Y.; Takeuchi, Y.; Fujio, S.: Development of method for removal of zinc from automobile body scraps. Galvatech ’95 Conference Proceedings. The Use and Manufacture of Zinc and Zinc Alloy Coated Sheet Steel Products into the 21st Century, Chicago, Sept. 17-21, 1995 [11] Franzen, A.; Pluschkell, W.: Removal of zinc layers from coated steel strip by evaporation. Institut Für Metallurgie, TU Clausthal, Germany, Steel Research, 70(12), Publisher: Verlag Stahleisen GmbH, 1999

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[13] Fray, D. J.; Kruesi, P. R.: Recycling PVC while degalvanizing scrap. REWAS’99-Global Symposium on Recycling, Waste Treatment and Clean Technology, proceedings, San Sebastian, Spain, Sept. 5-9, 1999

[27] Wijenberg, J.; Droog, J.: Dezincing of zinc alloy coated steel scrap in hot caustic soda. Steel Research, 70(6), 227232, 1999

[14] Masayuki, O.; Tadashi, N.a; Kenichiro, T. (Kawasaki Heavy Ind. Ltd.): Zinc recovering melting system and its method.Patent No. JP2003193149, 2003-07-09 [15] Shiro, S.; Etsuo, K.; Masaki, Y.; Taisuke, O.; Yoshiharu, Y. (Aisin Takaoka Ltd.; Nippon Heating KK.): Dezincification method from metal scrap. Patent No. JP2006037146, 200602-09 [16] Takehama, R.; Shiino, J.; Tanaka, N.; Washimi, I.: Use of zinc-containing iron scrap in iron manufacture. Patent No. JP2007177284, 2007-07-12 [17] Pillkahn, H.-B.: persönliche Unterlagen, 2008 [18] Houlachi, G.; Rosato, L.; Stanley, R. W.: Quality issues in the recycle of zinc from steel scrap. Steelmaking Conference Proceedings, 75, 757-64, 1992 [19] Niedringhaus, J. C.; Rodabaugh, R. D.; Leeker, J., W.; Streibick, A. E.: A technical evaluation of dezincification of galvanized steel scrap. Res. Techn. Cent., Middletown, OH, USA, Steelmaking Conference Proceedings, 75, 72541, 1992 [20] Leeker, J., W.; Niedringhaus, J. C.; Rodabaugh R. D. (Armco Steel Co. LP.).: Alkaline leaching of zinc recovery from galvanized steel scrap. Patent No. EP0479326, 199204-08 [21] Leeker, J., W.; Niedringhaus, J. C.; Rodabaugh, R. D. (Armco Steel Co. LP.).: Recovering zinc from steel scrap whereby the metals scrap moves counter currently to the caustic leaching solution in a plurality of tanks. apparatus therefore, Patent No. NZ240131, 1993-05-26

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[28] Silva, C. J.; Wagner, R. H. O.; Van, T. C.; Ferron, C. J. (Lakefield Research Ltd. Canada): Caustic leaching for zinc recovery galvanized scrap and similar wastes. Patent No. CA2233518, 1999 [29] Groult, D.; Marechalle, R.; Klut, P.; Bonnema, B. T. H.: Dezincing of zinc coated steel scrap: current situation at Saint Saulve dezincing plant of Compagnie Europeenne de Dezingage. International Symposium on Recycling of Metals and Engineered Materials, Proceedings, 4th, Pittsburgh, Pa, USA, Oct. 22-25, 201-209, 2000 [30] Alonzo, V.; Darchen, A.; Hauchard, D.; Paofai, S.: Acceleration of zinc corrosion in alkaline susepnsions containing iron oxides or iron hydroxides. Electrochimica Acta, 48(8), 951-955, 2003 [31] Dowgird, A.; Tomassi, P.: Zinc recovery from galvanized steel sheet scrap, Ochrona przed Korozja, Warsaw, Pol., 48(10), 341-343, 2005 [32] Dudek, F.; Daniels, E. J.; Nagy, Z.; Zaromb, S.; Yonco, R. M.: Electrolytic separation and recovery in caustic of steel and zinc from galvanized steel scrap. Argonne Natl. Lab., USA, Separation Science and technology 25(13-15), 210931, 1990 [33] Dudek, F.; Daniels, E. J.; Morgan, Wi. A.; Kellner, A. W.; Harrison, J.: A recycling process for dezincing steel scrap. Steelmaking Conference Proceedings, 75, 743-8, 1992 [34] Dudek, F.; Daniels, E. J.; Morgan, W. A.: Recycling galvanized steel: Operating experience and benefits. Argonne Natl. Lab., USA, Publications of the Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, 7(93), 515-22, 1993


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY [35] Dudek, F.; Daniels, E. J.; Morgan, W. A.: Benefits of recycling galvanized steel scrap for recovery of highquality steel and zinc metal, Argonne Natl. Lab., USA, Miner., Met. Environ., 495-502, 1992 [36] Dudek, F.; Daniels, E. J.; Morgan, W. A.: Recycling zinc by dezincing steel scrap. Argonne Natl. Lab., USA, Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Extraction and Applications of Zinc and Lead, Sendai, may 22-24, 557-565, 1995 [37] Morgan, W. A.; Dudek, Frederick J.; Daniels, Edward J. (Metal Recovery Ind. Inc., USA):Process for dezincing galvanized steel. Patent No. US5779878, 1998 [38] Morgan, W. A. (Metal Recovery Ind. Inc., USA): Process for dezincing galvanized steel using an electrically isolated conveyor. Patent No. WO9955938, 1999-11-04, 1999 [39] Morgan, W. A. (Metal Recovery Ind. Inc., USA): Process for dezincing galvanized steel using an electrically isolated conveyor. Patent No. US5855765, 1999 [40] Morgan, W. A.; Frederick, J.; Daniels, E. J. (Metal Recovery Ind. Inc., USA): Process for dezincing galvanized steel. Patent No. WO9955939, 1999-11-04

[51] Masaru, M.; Norio, K. (Nippon Steel Corp.): Dezincification method for galvanized steel plate scrap. Patent No. JP421034, 1992-07-31 [52] Meguro, M.; Kawamura, N. (Nippon Steel Corp.): Recovery of zinc from galvanized steel scrap by leaching. Patent No. JP04280933, 1992 [53] Meguro, M. (Nippon Steel Corp.): Apparatus for removal of zinc galvanized steel sheets. Patent No. JP05009607, 1993 [54] Lupi, C.; Pilone, D; Cavallini, M.: Recovery of zinc from steel scrap by electrometallurgical techniques. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Waste Processing and Recycling in Mineral and Metallurgical Industries, 3rd, Calgary, Alberta, Aug. 16-19, 1998 [55] Dor, C. X.; Janssen, G. H. R.; Buismann Cees, J. N.: Biological method of dezincifying galvanized scrap metal. Patent No. EP1114873, 2001-07-11 [56] Aktas, S.; Acma, E.: Recovery of zinc from galvanized scraps.Turkish Journal of Engineering & Environmental Sciences, (2002), 26(5), 395-402

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[42] Virkus, K.; Kuhn, H.: Ein schwieriger Prozess. RECYCLING magazine (2008), Nr. 20, S. 12-15

[58] BMBF-Projekt: Entzinkung von Stahlschrotten. FKZ: 033R021, 2009

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[44] Gregory, J. E. (E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co.): Dezincing galvanized scrap. Patent No. US20307625, 1943 [45] Sen, P. K.; Roy, S.: Recovery of zinc from galvanized steel scrap. Dep. Metall. Eng., Jadavpur University, Calcutta, India. Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals, 28(5), 404-5., 1975 [46] Marthur, P. B.; Venkatakrishan, N. (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, India): Dezincing of steel scrap by leaching with inhibitor impregnated acid. Patent No. IN143253, 1977


Prof. (em.) Dr.-Ing. habil. E. Gock Walther-Nernst-Str. 9 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld

[47] Cosgrove, M.; Weaver, R. W. (British Steel Ltd.; Corus UK Ltd.): Acidic bath for removal of coatings from scrap metal in recycling. Patent No. GB2334969, 1999

Telefon: (0 53 23) 72-2037 / 2038

[48] Ijomah, M. N. C.; Ijomah, A. I.: Chemical recycling of galvanized steel scrap. Indian Journal of Chemical technology, (2003), 10 (2), 169-165

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Telefax: (0 53 23) 72-2353

[49] Societe de Prayon: Treatment of galvanized scrap iron by a wet method. Patent No. BE773906 1972 [50] Societe de Prayon: Wet treatment of galvanized scrap iron Patent No. BE789772, 1973

Issue 03 | 2010



Technology for optimum cast and fragmentation

Orica Germany GmbH Mülheimer Straße 5 53840 Troisdorf Germany Telephone: +49 (0) 2241/4829-1235 Fax: +49 (0) 2241/4829-3235

The rock you want, where you want it

ADVERTISEMENT Issue 03 | 2010



Scooptram St 14 loader –

is setting new standards for equipment, safety, performance, ergonomics and serviceability in the competitive 12 to 16-t market segment

by Dipl.-Ing. Karl-Heinz Wennmohs, Senior Project Director, Global Strategic Customers Atlas Copco MCT GmbH | Essen | Germany

evelopments in the raw materials market have dramatically driven up demand for underground D loaders in recent years. At the same time mines have opened up greater opportunities for LHDs in the larger size range. The 12- to 16-t-class is now an important sector of the global LHD market and

Atlas Copco has developed a completely new machine for this particular segment. The decisive criterion for LHDs is performance in tonnes per shift. If identical power categories are being matched one against the machine with the higher productivity will soon win out. As well as pure performance, factors such as operating costs and machine availability are also important criteria in the selection process. All these features, plus the ergonomic constraints imposed by the operator’s workplace, were taken into account during a collaborative design process involving a number of global mining companies – and the result was the Scooptram ST 14.

The global demand for high-performance loaders for the deep mining industry, usually known as LHDs (load-hauldump loader), has undergone an erratic development over the last ten years in terms of the demands of users and the transport capabilities of the different machine series and manufacturers. The trend towards larger unit sizes has now clearly established itself, with the 12- to 16-t-class having developed into a lucrative market segment for manufacturers. Developments in this particular area cannot simply be initiated by the manufacturers alone from a purely marketing perspective, as the end-customer will ultimately have to be included in the design process if any project of this kind is to be successfully completed as a builder-user partnership.

Looking back When the mining industry talks about mobile loading and transport machines we generally hear names like: • LHD-Loaders, • Muckers, • Boggers, • Scoopy, • The Wagner and • The Scoop

but there is one name that has now established itself worldwide – and that is “Scooptram“.

Fig. 1: The first underground LHD – the Scoop MS-1

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During the period 1940 to 1955 the Elmer brothers and Eddie Wagner developed diesel-powered loading and transport vehicles for surface worksites. During this time experience was built up in the design of four-wheel drive and articulated steering systems. In 1958 Eddie Wagner founded the Wagner Mining Scoop Company and presented his first mobile loader for the deep mining industry. Designated the “Scoop MS-1” this machine was the forerunner of today’s generation of LHDs (Figure 1). The new Scooptram ST-5, which went into service in 1963, heralded the market launch of the LHD concept. This range of machines led to the successful worldwide introduction of LHD technology during the years 1963 to 1975 (Figure 2). The Wagner company took out a large number of technical patents over the years, including the design for the E-o-D (Eject or Dump) bucket. The SAHR (Spring Applied, Hydraulically Released) braking system was also a key development from this period. Wagner was taken over by Atlas Copco in 1989. In 2002 the firm relocated from Portland, Oregon, USA, to Örebro in Sweden and was renamed Atlas Copco Wagner.

Design and development A global market and demand analysis was first carried out for the development of the new Scooptram ST 14 range. This identified a clear trend towards a shift in LHD sizes in the underground mining industry. Machines in the 6- to 10-t-category were being supplanted by equipment in the 10 to 15-t class, while turnover in the 18- to 22-t-category was stagnating or even switching to smaller sized machines. In the case of the smaller types of machine this can naturally be attributed to the fact that larger and more powerful loaders are being introduced in order to increase the output per working unit, although the trend that has been observed in the heavyweight

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Fig. 2: Scooptram ST-5

class is harder to explain. The reasons for it lie partly in the operating conditions, while in some cases it has been found that the vehicle components, powertrain and tyres have reached the limits of their operating capacity. The technical capabilities of an LHD vehicle are primarily measured by its loading and transport capacity per shift. A loader whose haulage potential is technically smaller than that of a larger machine can however prove to be a better solution if it is faster and more mobile in its movements, with the result that it can deliver a significantly higher shift performance. And this also applies when viewed from the other perspective: the much larger vehicle with its relatively slow movements will deliver a lower output per shift and will therefore be inferior to the smaller machine. In addition to these fundamental considerations factors such as diesel consumption and ergonomic/ operatorfriendly design are now coming increasingly to the fore. This is covered in a separate section. The demands of the market, a comparative review of the different types of loader currently in service and the need for a real improvement in the existing systems and technical features led to the development of the 14-t Scooptram ST 14. After numerous field trials at various mines the ST 14 was declared ready for series production and was then purchased by mine operators around the world for use in typical LHD applications, e.g. for cut and fill stoping (Figure 3), loading ore and bringing in back fill material. All these typical mining applications assume a defined maximum distance for the LHD transport cycle. What this distance will be will depend on a number of factors and will naturally differ from one mine to the next.


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Machine performance Getting the optimum performance from an LHD vehicle essentially depends on how quickly and readily it can fill the bucket. This operation is very aptly described as “onepass loading”, which simply means that the loader with its power and optimal scoop design penetrates the muck easier in a single pass, loads the bucket and then continues on to the dumping point (Figure 4). Another important factor for optimum loader deployment is operator visibility in the loading direction and when reversing at speed. A cab height of 2,550 mm affords the driver and excellent line of sight in both travel directions over the top of the engine compartment and bucket, which are 1,980 mm in height (Figure 5). The load sensing system fitted to the hydraulic circuit provides about 44 % more available performance compared with similarly powered machines with open centre hydraulic systems, which is

Fig. 4: Bucket Design

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Fig. 3: Cut and fill stoping

particularly useful when digging. This system can deliver a 14 % increase in travel speed on ramps with a 15 % gradient. This increased speed, combined with faster filling of the bucket, are the factors that make for a higher loading performance. With the load-sensing system the hydraulic flow is determined by the actual demand and ”oil leakages” are reduced to minor adjustment flows. This reduces the energy input and the motor consumes about 10 % less fuel than similarly powered units with open centre hydraulic systems. About 20 years ago the first Atlas Copco underground drilling machines were fitted with a CAN bus system for control purposes. Over the years this technology also came to be used on other product ranges. It was therefore



decided at the planning and design phase that the CAN bus control system (or RCS – Rig Control System) should also be fitted to this new generation of loaders. The hardware and software installed on the Scooptram ST 14 provides an ideal platform for ongoing machine automation.

Safety and ergonomics As part of the pilot study a new generation of operator compartments was built specifically for this new model range. These ROPS and FOPS tested cabs feature a larger window area for improved operator visibility and noise levels are now reduced to a maximum of 80 dB(A). The operator is now exposed to much lower levels of vibration, a factor that was greatly appreciated by loader drivers during underground field trials, along with the improvement in machine performance. If the cab door is not fully closed the braking systems are switched to parking mode, the steering cannot be activated and the bucket and boom are also hydraulically locked (Figure 6). The Atlas Copco foot box is another significant comfort factor for the operator during his long stints on board the vehicle (Figure 7). The new box features hanging control pedals that ensure maximum legroom and allow the driver to stretch out his legs for maximum comfort.

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Fig. 5: Scooptram ST 14 – technical data and dimensions

Visibility from the operator’s compartment was greatly improved as a result of simulation exercises carried out during the Scooptram ST 14 planning and design phase (Figure 8). The benefits of the new cab design were very positively received by LHD drivers.

Servicing and maintenance Servicing and maintenance experience acquired from mines around the world was taken into consideration when planning the ST 14 loader and this is reflected in the design of the new vehicle. All key maintenance routines, such as filter changing, valve inspections and oil level checks, can now be undertaken ”on the ground”. The RCS control system is able to identify the required maintenance work and log the servicing data for future reference. It also provides extensive diagnostic support for troubleshooting with information displayed on the onboard display screen. This information can additionally be transferred to the mine’s existing data system and in this way can be used for scheduling maintenance work while at the same time performing fault analysis and troubleshooting routines.



Fig. 6: The loader cannot be operated with the cab door open

Fig. 7: Atlas Copco foot-box

Outlook Fitted with the latest generation of diesel engines to comply with current emission regulations the new series of LHDs in the 12- to 16-t-class has been designed to meet the demands of todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mining industry. Everyone involved in the development of the new range is fully aware of the vehicle emission limits that are to be imposed on underground loaders and dumpers in the runup to 2015. A typical example taken from the dumper sector illustrates just how tough these targets are:

Current vehicle emission limits in 1995 for single dumper vehicles will be equivalent to the emissions from 85 similarly sized dumpers from 2015 on. This fact represents a real challenge for motor and vehicle manufacturers and it is one that will have to be solved within a relatively short period of time. With its forward-looking design the ST 14 loader is already geared up for future emission reduction targets. Fig. 8: Fields of vision from the new operatorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s compartment

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY LHD operations typically involve repetitive cycles over the working shift. At the extraction face this means taking material from the muck pile and transferring it to a continuous conveyor or drop-hole, while in stope filling operations it will involve collecting the back fill material (from the drop-hole or bunker) and transporting it along a roadway to the discharge point. In critical areas the loader can also be used in remotecontrol mode so that the driver can operate the machine by radio from a safe distance. Advanced on-board video camera technology is now available that allows the loader to be remotely operated from practically any part of the mine. But the real breakthrough involves the progressive automation of the loading and transport cycles. The first step in this direction will see the machine making the trip from the loading point to the tipping area automatically and without any assistance. The actual loading and dumping cycle will be completed manually by remote control. Such operations could also be continued during shift changeovers when blasting is carried out. The key factor in all this is the need for an on-board operator and everyone involved in developing this new technology is working towards the ultimate objective of the fully manless LHD cycle.

The first steps have now been taken in this direction with the Scooptram ST 14, whose design remit included this development objective from day one. The automation system should be hands-on, tailored to the task and highly functional. All the hardware components required to operate the automatic control system are now on the machine. All that is needed is the availability of and connection to the mine’s own performance-capable Wireless LAN network (Figure 9). Excellent results have already been achieved with the Scooptram ST 14 set up to deliver back filling material, in other words permanently assigned to carrying out a repetitive working cycle. Further deployments in various mines around the world have confirmed this. While a number of requirements have yet to be met – for example there is still a catalogue of questions surrounding the actual ”one pass loading system” – it seems likely that the experience acquired to date will be sufficient to resolve any outstanding problems in this area.

Fig. 9: Scooptram ST 14 equipped for automatic operation


Dipl.-Ing. Karl-Heinz Wennmohs Senior Project Director

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Global Strategic Customers Atlas Copco MCT GmbH Essen

Issue 03 | 2010



Measurement of torque in underground loader, as a basis for optimization by Dr.-Ing. G. Sch채fer, Dipl.-Geophys. W. Rolshofen Institute of Mechanical Engineering | TU Clausthal | Germany

ue to the installation situation, cardan shafts can be used to transmit the power between motor D drive and gear box. To verify the real stresses and strains, torque and bending moment as well as axial forces are measured. With these results design and dimensioning of the power train can be enhanced.

Introduction Loaders are used in salt and potash mining for the transport of material between the face and the tipping point. They are special purpose vehicles, which have been designed for application in narrow spaces and low heights. As an example, the K+S Group applies loader of the GHH Fahrzeuge GmbH with air and water-cooled diesel drive in various locations, as well as electric loaders. The technical specifications for the examined Type LF-17/21, is shown in table 1, according to the manufacturer information. In order to get an impression of the dimensions and the appearance of this type of loader, picture 1 shows such an equipment.

Pic. 1: GHH loader of Type LF-17/21 at the Zielitz/4/ location

The power transmission between the engine and gear box is done through a cardan shaft with a multiple universal joint, which better adapts the drive section to the special conditions.

Pic. 2: Main elements of the drive section, consisting of water-cooled engine, torque converter, the two drive sections with intermediate bearing and the power shift transmission gear box

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Table. 1: Technical data according to manufacturer’s information for loader Type LF-17/21 /3

Measurements: In the vehicle at hand the difference in height between the outlet flange of the torque converter and the inlet flange of the gear box needs to be balanced. Furthermore the rear axis impedes the direct connection between both elements. Therefore the vehicle construction foresees a “long” cardan shaft between the torque converter and the intermediate bearing, as well as a “short” cardan shaft between intermediate bearing and gear box.


Loading capacity: 17 – 21t


Engine: Deutz BF8M1015C watercooled, 320 KW Gear box: Dana Series 8.000

HRD Fire extinguishing system

Length: 12.491mm

Axis: Kessler D112

Central lubrication unit

Width: 3.700mm

Tyres: 35/65 – R33

Closed cabin

Height: 2.875mm

LCB Brakes

Air conditioning

Four-wheel drive

Exhaust brake

Bucket Volume: 9.5 – 12.9m³

Empty weight: 58.500 kg Traction force: 413 kN

CANBUS Control

Examination of Operating Behaviour In order to observe the strains of the cardan shafts of the individual loader, the K+S Group requested to conduct an actual measurement, in coordination with GHH, the manufacturer of the vehicle. A loader, which had recently started operation, was chosen for measurement of loading parameters. It was planned not to influence the cardan shaft equipment of the LF-17/21 by the measurement method. It is for this reason that the detection of torque was done through a cardan shaft (identical in construction), which was turned into a gauge bar through application of relevant sensors. Therefore strain gauges were attached in full bridge circuit, whose signals were recorded through a telemetry-system.

Picture 3 gives an impression of this measuring shaft. In this shaft an aluminum ring is pictured, which contains a sender for telemetric transfer and batteries for the feeding voltage of the measuring bridge. Subsequently the entire construction is surrounded by a plastic coating, after which the cardan shaft was again balanced. Furthermore a calibration of the measuring signals was done by installing the cardan shaft on a test bench. Hereby the voltage signal of the torsion sensors has been calibrated with a calibrated measuring shaft. Apart form the torque, which was recorded redundantly and marked with T1 and T2, the bending moment ()Mb) and the axial load (Fax) was also measured. Furthermore the oscillatory signal was determined at various spots of the drive train with accelerometers. These results, however, will not be further explained. The same applies to the vehicle signals (e.g. motor or motor speed of the converter), which were directly recorded from the control signals of the vehicle with the CAN-Bus system. In picture 4 the arrangement of the sensors can be seen as an example.

Pic. 3: Cardan shaft with applied DMS, for the measurement of torque, bending moment and axial load. Furthermore a ring can be seen, which accommodates the telemetry transmitter, as well as the power supply unit for the supply of sensors

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Pic. 4: In the view from above on the drive train the arrangement of the sensors, as well as a relevant image section from the loader

Measurement Signals of the Torque The measurement system and other fittings were arranged to ensure a normal service of the vehicle. It is noteworthy that neither the management nor the driver received any requirements regarding the operating conditions. The recording of measuring data started with the switching on of the vehicle voltage. Picture 5 shows the measured torque of a selected set of measuring data over a time period of 30 minutes. It shows a normalized torque, in relation to the maximum value, which shows periodic high-level torque. The section between 22.50 and 22.55 is marked and enlarged in picture 6 for better illustration. In that picture two peaks can be seen. The second peak, which is also marked, is again enlarged (see picture 7). The enlargement explicitly shows that these peaks are alternating torques.

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A comparison with other data sets shows that the randomly selected time periods of the measurement signals do not represent absolute peak values, however, due to their periodicity, they are representative for an operating condition. Thus the actual strain of the operating cardan shaft can be determined. Due to the dynamics of the cardan shaft this strain can not be determined from the calculated course of torque for the respective motor speed of the converter. In order to further optimize the drive train, load spectrums from the actual measurement for the test operation on a test bench for examination of cardan shafts /5/ can be given, which are then replicated.



Pic 5: Half-hour section of the measured torque at the cardan shaft during the production process, which is recorded normalized

Pic. 6: Five-minute section of the measured torque at the cardan shaft during the production process (see picture 5)

Pic. 7: Enlargement of the torque peak in the measured torque at the cardan shaft during the production process (see Picture 5 and 6)

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Since loaders that are used in mining are special purpose machines, torque measurements were conducted at the cardan shafts during operation, within the framework of optimization measures. In order to avoid changing the installation situation, a conventional cardan shaft was laminated with DMS, whose signals were transferred with a telemetry system. The measurement signals showed periodically occurring incidences, which could be assigned to a certain state of operation. The results allowed for an improved layout of the cardan shaft.

/1/ VDI-Richtlinie 2227: Gelenkwellen und Gelenkwellenstränge mit Kreuzgelenken Einbaubedingungen für Homokinematik, VDI 2009, ICS: 21.120.10 /2/ Seherr-Thoss, Hans-Christoph, Schmelz, Friedrich, Aucktor, Erich: Gelenke und Gelenkwellen, 2. erweiterte Aufl., 2002, Springer Verlag, ISBN: 978-3-540-41759-0 /3/ GHH Fahrzeuge GmbH: LHD Fahrlader LF-17/21, Technische Daten, /4/ K+S Aktiengesellschaft: Pressefoto - Fahrlader des Typs LF 18 D3 am Standort Zielitz,

Achnowledgements This research would not have been possible without the successful cooperation with K+S Group and the GHH Fahrzeuge GmbH. A special thanks go to the staff of the K+S Kali GMbH in Zielitz.

/5/ Institut für Maschinenwesen: Verspannprüfstände für Gelenkwellen unterschiedlicher Baugrößen,


Dr.-Ing. Günter Schäfer Academical principal Institute of Mechanical Engineering TU Clausthal Robert-Koch-Straße 32 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld Tel.: +49(0) 53 23 - 72 38 94 Fax: +49(0) 53 23 - 72 35 01

Dipl.-Geophys. Wolfgang Rolshofen Institute of Mechanical Engineering TU Clausthal Robert-Koch-Straße 32 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld Tel.: +49(0) 53 23 - 72 28 24 Fax: +49(0) 53 23 - 72 35 01

Born in 1963, studied mechanical engineering at the TU Clausthal, scientific employee of the IMW since november 1989, academical principal since 1991, promotion in november 1995 on wear and calculation of splined joints.

Born 1975, studied geophysics at the TU Clausthal, research assistant at IMW since may 2004.

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Installing a 1,000 m long DN 400 ZSM Rising Pipe in the Rossenray Mine Shaft, West Mine

by Dipl. Ing. Andreas Hachmann AHA, Pr端fung u. Abnahme | Recklinghausen | Germany

This rising pipe management has in length of approx. 1000 m and is fastened on only one main hosting system in the shaft. This main hosting winch is on approx. 500 m depth. The part of the hositing winch, which is located above that management stands, while the part located under it hangs. The connection of the pipes occurs with the quick fastener system ZSM. On this occasion, two superimposed, movable role chains are inserted in the connecting flange system with which then the power transmission occurs about dynamic impulse. A flange is connected within only 8 sec. strength-conclusively.


Rossenray Mine Shaft

Short Description of the Overall Situation

Rossenray is a downcast mine shaft with a depth of approx. 1,000, which belongs to the West Mine. Picture 1.

The rising pipe has a length of 1,000 m and is only installed on one hoisting winch in the shift. The hoisting system is located in a depth of 500 m. The piping above that is standing, while the section below is hanging. The connection of the pipe sections is done through the ZSM quick lock system, in which two superposed and mobile roller chains are inserted into the connecting flange system, and the load transmission is done through pressure. A flange can be connected positively in only 8 seconds. Picture 18 The assembly is done with a heavy truck-mounted crane and with a load pick-up cross bar of the pit bank, which has specificallz been built for this purpose. Picture 6

Since summer 2008, a cooling water pipe has been installed in the mine shaft. The pipe leads cold water, which is being generated above ground, into the mine layout of the west mine, in order to cool the high temperatures and consequently generate better working conditions. In order to ensure a minimum temperature rise in the coolant during the transport under ground, the piping has been isolated.

Pic. 1: BW West Shaft Rossenray

In the beginning, a catching device was installed on top of the pit bank, which at the end of the installation had to carry the entire drill string of approx. 1,000 m and a dead load of 240 tons. It was only after this installation, that the truck-mounted crane, which also had to carry this load, could be removed. The piping was installed in the catching device on the pit bank with the crane and the cross bar, and was continuously elongated by additional pipes, until finally the entire drill string hung in the catching device and the crane was not needed any more. It was only after the activation of the main pipe in the shaft and the installation of all bend-protections and pipe guides, that the field installation hoisting could be removed.

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Pic. 2: Hoisting winch in shaft, new piping left side

Dead Weight of the Components • 500 m piping, upstanding: (operating condition) 120,0 t • 500 m piping, vertically supported: (operating condition) 120,0 t • 1000 m piping: (Installed operating condition) 240,0 t • VHoisting system:


8,0 t

• Field installation hoisting at pit bank: 13,0 t

Load of the Piping in Operating Condition • Primary pump pressure:

7,0 bar

• Operating pressure:

2,5 bar

• Overall pressure:

99,5 bar

• Pressure surge:


Statics and Construction

reached the replacement state of wear and needs to be replaced. The replacement state of wear was determined for the upstanding and vertically supported pipe, as well as for the stand pipe, as they are subject to applied loads and safety has to be calculated differently. In order to determine the time of replacement state of wear, regular measurements of wall thickness of the supporting pipe need to be carried out by the operator.


Flange Connection ZSM

In addition to the dead weight of the 1,000 m long drill string, the inner pressure of 100 bar and the water column of 1,000 m, the change in length from the temperature expansion has also been taken into consideration. (Picture 2)

The connection of the pipes with each other is done through two hoisting linkages, which are inserted by hand into foreseen slots. The connection is particularly characterized by the short installation time. As such a flange connection can be achieved in approximately 8 seconds (Picture 7, picture 18).

Safety Guidelines The following safety guidelines for the yield point in steel industry were adhered to: • Upstanding piping:


• Vertically supported piping: 3,0-fold • Hoisting winch:


• Field installation hoisting


For the piping, the replacement state of wear also had to be determined. The replacement state of wear is the minimum wall- thickness of the supporting pipe, which ensures safety. Below this wall thickness the pipe has

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Individual Components Main Hoisting Winch in the Shaft in a Depth of 500 m The two welded carriers, which in sum weigh 8.0 tons, have a span width of approx. 9.5 m. They carry the entire 1,000 m drill string of 240 t and the water column of 107 tons. The installation in the shaft was done above an existing hoisting winch for three existing pipes on two supports, which were grounded on the 498 m level. (Picture 2, Picture 3)


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Pic. 3: 3D View in Shaft, new hoisting winch above and prior hoisting winch below

Pic. 5: Installation cross beam in the crane hook

Pic. 4: Filed installation hoisting at pit bank

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Piping DN400 with Bend Protection and Pipe Guide In the case under review, hot-rolled pipes φ 406,4 with wall thicknesses of 16 to 30 mm, were applied according to pressure range and function. In the upper upstanding section the distance between the bend protection is 8.0 m, while in the lower, vertically supported section the distance between pipe routings is much bigger at 40.0 m. (Picture 11)

Hoisting Winch on Pit Bank The 13 ton welded double carrier has a length of 11.0 m and stretched over the entire shaft on the pit bank. Once installed, the dead weight of the entire 1,000 m drill string of 240 tons hung on the double carrier. (Picture 4)

The used filler metals had to have the DB or TÜV approval and had to correspond to the used base material with regard to its mechanical characteristics like tensile strength, yield stress, breaking strain and durability. The gas used was part-mechanized active gas welding process with the mixed gas M21 to DIN EN 439 (18 % CO2 and 82 % Argon), with the application of welding instructions pf the manufacturer. (Picture 14 )

Material Requisition in Steel Manufacture The operational demands lead to a high utilization of the construction. Therefore it is very important to adhere to the following material requirements:

Installation Cross Bar and Hanger The installation hanger served as a connection between the installation cross bar and the piping and consists of double clips with hinge bolts. At the lower end is a top with a welded ZSM spigot, which was connected to the piping with chains. When installed, the dead weight of the entire 1,000 m drill string, i.e. 240 tons, is supported by the hanger. (Picture 5, Picture 13)

Pic. 6: Installation site with truck mounted crane 600t carrying capacity and installation cross beam right side

Construction and Installation Prerequisites for production with regard to welding technology The piping and the standpipes were manufactured by the “Kupferdreh pipe productions” in Essen. Manufacturing requires a license of the AD/HP rules and regulations. The production of heavy steel construction for hoisting winch, hoisting rope and hoisting cage was done at the Deilmann Haniel mining systems in Dortmund. In addition to a certificate to DIN EN ISO 9001, the production plant possesses the big welding certificate of suitability to DIN 18800-7 for dynamic load (Klasse E). Furthermore the plant had to provide valid welding examinations for all welders in butt and fillet weld to DIN EN 287, for the processed material and component thickness before start of production.

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY ZfP - in Steel Manufacture After the welding, highly loaded areas of the construction were non-destructively checked for cracks by the manufacturer. (Picture 13) For this purpose the following ZfP methods were applied: • Visual Inspection (VT) 100% • Magnet Powder (MT) Picture 16 • Ultrasound examination (UT)

The results of these examinations were checked in the framework of the accompanying receipts.

Pre-installation in the Factory and Endinstallation on Site Um unter Tage keine unangenehmen ÜbExcept the pipings, all other are assembled and received in advance, in order to avoid any unpleasant surprises under ground.

Pic. 7: Installation of ZSM piping with truck mounted crane

• S355J2G3 / S355J2+N , using the DAST 009 • Traceability of material (stamping or re-stamping) • Inspection Certificate 3.1 to DIN EN 10204 • Z-Quality in component load in thickness direction. DAST 014 • Weld bead bend testing to SEP1390 if t>30mm and load in flexural tension • Ultrasound examination of the sheets and head plates, that are loaded in thickness direction , Picture 13

The adherence to these requirements was checked in the framework of the accompanying receipts.

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In order to do the final installation on site, it was necessary to bring the main hoisting joist into the shaft. The carrier segments were transported under ground one by one, hanging under the basket, and were reassembled in a depth of approximately 500 m. (Picture 2, Picture 3, Picture 15) The installation of the field installation hoisting on the pit bank was done considerably quicker and easier. The welded double I carrier had a height of h=1.5 m. The catching device for the 1,000 m long drill string was installed in the middle of the cross bar. (Picture 4) The installation of the ZSM piping was done with a 600 ton truck-mounted crane. The crane was positioned outside the shaft hall in a front yard, that had been prepared for the installation. (Picture 6) The first pipe was lifted in the crane hook with the hoisting cage, and then lowered through the roof of the shaft hall and placed on a catching table of the field installation hoisting. (Picture 19, Picture 5) The next pipe in the crane was then inserted with the spigot into the bushing of the pipe which is hanging in the catching table. (Picture 7)


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Pic. 8: 1000m drill string is hanging in the catching table on the installation joist

Pic. 9: Lowering cross beam

Pic. 10: Drive pipe standing on main hoisting winch

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Pic. 11: Bend protection above and pipe guides below the hoisting winch

In a depth of 500 m in the shaft the installation of the riser bracket could be done approx 50 m above the hoisting winch. (Picture 17) Meanwhile the load was still hanging above in the field installation hoisting on pit bank. (Picture 8) Through the installation of the band protection above and pipe guide below the hoisting winch, the piping is kept horizontal and is freely mobile vertically, so that no constraints are built up. (Picture 11) Through inserting the two hoisting linkages into the foreseen slots, a stable ZSM flange connection is generated. (Picture 18) Now the crane took over the load, and the catching table could be opened, so that it again could take over the load. This procedure was repeated until the entire 1,000 m drill string was hanging in the catching table of the field installation hoisting on the pit bank. (Picture 8) After knocking off the installation cross bar the truck mounted crane was not needed any more.

The lowering cross bar was already installed with 2 hydraulic cylinders on the field installation hoisting. (Picture 9) Now it was possible to lower the drill string by approx. 50 mm, until the stand pipe mounted the hoisting winch down on -500 m. (Picture 10) The expansion of the lowering cross bar and field installation hoisting was now possible, since the load of the drill string could now be carried by the hoisting winch in the shaft.

Pic. 12: Installation team RAG BW West

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Pic. 13: Installation cross beam pipe adapter

Examination and Receipts The material requirements, the welding technique and the destruction-free material examination were supervised during the entire production (before, during and after welding). The receipts in the factory and the final receipts on site, above and in the shaft confirm the compliance of the components and the overall project with the final planning.

Pic. 14: Production and welding technique

Pic. 15: Main hoisting winch joist â&#x20AC;&#x201C; middle parts

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Pic. 16: Hanging flange - MT Examination

Pic. 17: Drive pipe above the main hoisting winch (with 50 mm air)

Summary Acknowledgements This interesting project could only be concluded successfully in the foreseen timeframe and with the required precision and care, because of close cooperation of all involved persons during the planning-, production and installation phases. (Picture 12) With careful planning and prior installation it was possible to achieve the goal of minimal impairment of the shaft operation. The installation of the shaft piping began at 5.30 on Saturday morning and ended after only 33 hours, early Sunday afternoon. Up to seven pipes per hour could be installed, which is an indication of the easy installing of ZSM connections. (Picture 7)

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Pic. 19: Single pipe installation on pit bank Pic. 18: Cross-section of ZSM Flange – the two chains are red, the spigot is yellow

Involved Persons • Constructor


• Project Management

RAG Herr Hake, Herr Sorge

• Planning, statics and construction IBH, Ing. Büro • Steel manufacture

Deilmann Haniel

• Piping ZSM

Röhrenwerke Kupferdreh

• Installation

RAG BW West + Servicebereich

• Examination and receipts

AHA, Prüfung u. Abnahme

FOR MORE INFORMATION AND CONTACT: Dipl.-Ing. Andreas Hachmann AHA Prüfung und Abnahme Klausenerstraße 6 45665 Recklinghausen Tel.: +49(0) 23 61 - 90 42 064 Fax: + 49(0) 23 61 - 90 42 018 Mobil: + 49(0) 171 - 36 57 741 Official independent technical expert for mining and deep drilling rigs Öbuv technical expert for structural engineering, crane runways, crane carriers and welding technique

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Bucyrus shows extended product range at Electra Mining 2010 Bucyrus International, Inc., a world leader in the design and manufacture of mining equipment, presented its comprehensive product line to the African market at Electra Mining 2010 in Johannesburg in October 2010. On the Bucyrus booth you could see exhibits including a 35M Continuous Miner and a VAST™ simulator, plus scale models of a Bucyrus /HF electric rope shovel, a hydraulic excavator, rotary blasthole drill, walking draglines and mining trucks.

35M Continuous Miner

VAST™ simulator

Bucyrus Continuous Miners are manufactured using the latest engineering innovations and are designed to increase productivity and reliability. The Bucyrus 35M is built to meet the specific underground mining conditions of the South African Market. The heavy-duty 35M Miner is built for hard cutting applications and high coal seams – operating at a maximum cutting height of 4.7m. The 88-tonne 35M Continuous Miner combines mass with longer cat tracks, unique cutting geometry and lacing, and a state-of-the-art electrical control system.

The new VAST™ System (Value Added Simulation Training) for Bucyrus electric mining shovels debuts at Electra Mining. A low-cost solution only requiring VAST software, an updated Windows-based PC, a monitor, and two control sticks, VAST cuts training costs and increases productivity. In the field, operators who have undergone VAST training consistently outperform operators who have not. Bucyrus scale models on display at Electra Mining 2010 will include the following:

Electric Rope Shovels Bucyrus produces electric rope shovels with superior digging forces and rapid cycle times. A 1:50 scale model of a Bucyrus 495HR/ HF electric rope shovel shows the revolutionary Bucyrus HydraCrowd™, with a hydraulic cylinder replacing rack-and-pinion or rope crowd. HydraCrowd provides highly responsive control and smooth vibration-free operation, cutting downtime and increasing productivity.

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Hydraulic Excavators

Walking Draglines

Bucyrus hydraulic excavators offer superior productivity with fast cycle times, high bucket fill and a doublebenching backhoe. To provide increased uptime and low operating cost, components are extremely accessible and unique features ease troubleshooting.

Bucyrus walking draglines are the largest single-bucket excavators built today. On display is a 1:50 scale model of the Bucyrus 8750 D3 Dragline featuring AC gearless technology. The revolutionary design incorporates 13,000 HP synchronous motors for the hoist and drag motions. The AC technology used – supported by Siemens – provides for reduced downtime, maintenance costs and energy consumption, as well as increased productivity.

Rotary Blasthole Drills Bucyrus has been at the forefront of rotary drill technology advancement for over 50 years, having produced some of the largest and most productive rotary drills in the mining industry. Innovations include a Rotary Bit Change Carousel, a Forked Pipe Wrench, a reinforced 49 series drill mast, a 24-volt control system conversion, and an enhanced operator’s cab.

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Mining Trucks Models of the range of mining trucks will also be displayed. Bucyrus manufactures mining trucks with payload capacities ranging from 136 to 362 tonnes, and has most comprehensive AC drive truck series in the mining industry.


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY 10,000 people, 1 passion Following the acquisition of the mining business of Terex Corporation earlier this year, 10,000 dedicated employees now serve Bucyrus customers from nearly 100 locations around the world making ‘The Bucyrus Difference’ by continuing to promote the company’s long-held values of safety, customer focus and reliability.

The extended product range now comprises walking draglines, electric rope shovels, the world’s largest hydraulic excavators, off-highway haul trucks, highwall miners, underground longwall systems, room & pillar mining systems and transport machinery, and a full range of drills and belt systems for all mining applications – all backed by genuine spare parts and consumables and world-class aftermarket support.

Bucyrus 25C: A Powerful New Compact Continuous Miner Weighing in at 61 tonnes (135,000 lb), the new Bucyrus 25C continuous miner incorporates all the robust features of the 25M series plus new features and enhancements. With 2 x 205 kW (2 x 275 hp) cutter-head motors, it is the most powerful continuous miner in its class. Designed for operating heights of 0.86 – 3 meters (34 in to 120 in) in low to mid seams with hard cutting conditions such as rock inclusions, the 25C is equipped with 164 kW (220 hp) Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) traction control for higher speeds and greater control. It offers new features for maximum efficiency, productivity and extended service life.



The 25C features the latest evolution machine control system with a larger transmitter. A newgeneration hydraulic system features pressure and flow on demand as well as fewer components and increased component life. Both the hydraulic and VFD systems provide machine protection.

The 96.5 cm (38 in.) conveyor provides higher throughput with a bi-directional discharge forming an integral part of the mainframe. A hydraulic take-up maintains proper chain tension for all conveyor positions and extends chain life.

Cutting The 25C operates a broad range with maximum rated cutting head power. The cutter-head motors are protected by a torque-limiting clutch to prevent damage in the event of a rock strike. The highstrength steel drums features 5.1 cm (2 in.) thick walls with maximum bit tip standoff.

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Maneuvering The164 kW (220 hp) Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) traction control provides higher speeds and greater torque to ground control which combined with the machine geometry facilitates cross-cut turning.




One-piece highly robust frame uses 75 mm (2.9 in.) steel plate â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 50% thicker than competitors. The heavier, rigid frame allows more efficient cutting when sumping at the top of the seam and ripping to the bottom. The support frame fabricated from high-strength steel has massive steel legs 15.25 cm (6 in.) thick. The largest-in-class boom pivot bores feature hardened steel pins and replaceable bushings. The robust clevis and frame have fewer weld joints subject to tension.

The 25C is designed for easy maintenance with independent cutter heads, traction, control systems, and wethead technology. Diagnostics are located for easy access.


For Immediate Release For further information, contact Guido Schawohl Tel.: +49 (0)23 06 - 709 11 83 eMail: Internet:

About Bucyrus International, Inc. Bucyrus is a world leader in the design and manufacture of high-productivity mining equipment for the surface and underground mining industries. Bucyrus surface mining equipment is used for mining coal, copper, iron ore, oil sands and other minerals. Bucyrus underground mining equipment is used primarily for mining coal, and also used for mining minerals such as potash and trona. In addition to machine manufacturing, Bucyrus manufactures high-quality OE parts and provides world-class support services for their machines. Bucyrusâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; corporate headquarters is located in South Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. Issue 03 | 2010



Best results lead to the breakthrough If crusher technology by Metso looks after anything, then itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s your purse: the Barmac vertical impact crusher protects the rotor which controls the process in an autogenous layer of feed material in crushing. The mobile Lokotrack LT1415 protects the nerves, as its large intake opening prevents bridging. As a primary crusher, the LT140 saves time â&#x20AC;&#x201C; in conjunction with the flexible Lokolink conveyor system it makes such progress in opencast quarrying that you can save a large proportion of your dumpers. Talk to us about the possibilities of staying successful even in difficult times. Your contact person: Karl-Heinz Hessler Tel.: ++49 (0)621 72700-611 Mobile: ++49 (0)177 6608438

Metso Minerals (Deutschland) GmbH Obere Riedstr. 111-115, 68309 Mannheim,




ContiTech Conveyor Belt Group | Phone +49 5551 702-207

ADVERTISEMENT Issue 03 | 2010


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Sandvik HM150 Formed Roller in action on belt conveyors 5 and 8 of the overburden conveyor bridge AFB 60m.

Sandvik HM150 roller in Action on the world‘s largest conveyor bridge in the Lusatia region

The Swedes play a leading role in the production of lignite Prince Herrmann Ludwig Heinrich von Pückler-Muskau, a landscape gardening genius, built the Muskau Park in the Lusatia region in 1817 – it is part of a UNESCO world heritage site today. In the same era, 1850, the first lignite was mined in the region and still today, Vattenfall, the Swedish company, extracts lignite without subsidies - in Jänschwalde among other places, one out of the five opencast mines currently in operation. As one of the largest employers and apprenticing companies in East Germany, Vattenfall currently employs almost 8,000 employees and about 800 apprentices. Sandvik Mining and Construction also plays a leading role - in the literal sense. At the Jänschwalde location there are 320 sets of 5–roller garlands of HM150 formed rollers in action on the overburden conveyor bridge AFB 60m. On belt five, the main belt conveyor (belt type 3000 ST3000-18:8, idler spacing approx. 800 mm) and on belt eight, the stockpile belt conveyor (belt type 2750 ST2500-18:8, idler spacing approx. 800 mm).

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It all began in the spring of 2004. Bernhard Hofmayer, Production Manager at Sandvik in Schöppenstedt, introduced the HM150 formed roller to Vattenfall. The engineers were impressed by the completely new design and the innovative assembly technique. The discussion about the advantages and disadvantages of the component optimised formed roller were ready to begin. Quickly and unbureaucratically they were able to agree upon a test phase in the open-cast mine in Welzow-Süd. Due to the extreme operating conditions the highest requirements are demanded for rollers and conveyor systems. The belt speeds at the location are between 10 – 11 m/s and the tonnages add up to 52,000 tons waste hourly. Sandvik accepted this challenge and developed the innovative formed roller. Noise emissions were reduced by about 20 dB (A) the weight savings were beneficial for the statics. The result: operational release by the TÜV [Technical inspection association in Germany]. In conclusion all formed rollers in use on the conveyor bridge were exchanged for the Sandvik HM150.


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY HM150 formed rollers in action on the overburden conveyor bridge AFB 60m - on belt five, the main belt conveyor (belt type 3000 ST3000-18:8, idler spacing approx. 800 mm) and on belt eight, the stockpile belt conveyor (belt type 2750 ST2500-18:8, idler spacing approx. 800 mm).

With the positive experiences from the Vattenfall open-cast mine WelzowSüd the rollers were also installed in Jänschwalde 50 km away. Vattenfall’s intention for the planned operation of the formed rollers on the overburden conveyor bridge AFB 60m was to improve conditions for employees, residents and the environment by investing in modern technology. Furthermore, it was about fulfilling TÜV requirements. Even here the focus was on the sophisticated statics of a conveyor bridge weighing 30,000 tons. Through the weight saving of 10 - 15%, which was obtained compared to conventional manufactured rollers, the extensive and cost-producing modification of the steel colossal was prevented. The weight optimisation is also an advantage in case of a replacement of a single roller or garland which is required less frequently due to the extremely long operation period of the rollers. „I do not remember that I ever had to exchange one of the 1,600 formed rollers in the last six months,“ stated Mechanist Christian Ramm. „In-house we call the HM150 fire extinguishers because of their orange-red colour and form,“ he added. In the first three years the failure rate was at 2.9% well below the statistical average for conventional rollers. Operative Engineer Peter Hobracht wraps it up: “The lifetime of the rollers, which is prolonged by the low failure rate and the low-noise surrounding area due to the running smoothness, strongly convinced us to use the innovative formed roller“. Currently, more than 19,000 Sandvik formed rollers have been delivered to Vattenfall in the Lusatia region. The technicians as well as the purchasing managers are very satisfied with the relationship, which includes both the delivered formed rollers and the services provided by Sandvik. Vattenfall‘s order of another 1,700 sets of 3-roller

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garlands of HM150 for a cross country conveyor system shows the positive overall impression of the company, brand and product. In the 19th century, Prince Pückler planted fully grown trees in his 750 hectare landscape park for the first time. Since 2007 Vattenfall has followed in his footsteps and afforested three million deciduous and coniferous trees as part of its recultivation programme of its used surfaces in a region which was characterised by only pine forests. Furthermore, by 2030 a 1,900 hectare large „Eastern Lake“ shall be created which will be the largest artificial inland water in the Lusatia region – it may not be an UNESCO Word heritage site, but it will certainly be an attractive area for sports and relaxation for generations to come. From this point of view Sandvik with the HM150 currently plays a leading role in the present era in production and the transportation of lignite.



Belt speeds of 11m/s and tonnages up to 52,000 tons waste hourly make great demands on the Sandvik Heavy Duty Roller.

Thanks to the Sandvik Heavy Duty Roller noise emissions were reduced by about by 20 db (A).

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Sandvik HM150 formed Roller The term „formed roller“ refers to both the specific and optimised production procedure of Sankvik and also to the final product. By using high-precision production procedures and facilities, the HM150 formed rollers feature improved characteristics which are described in the following list: • optimised load distribution in the ball bearings

The technicians as well as the purchasing managers are very satisfied with the relationship, which includes both the delivered formed rollers and the services provided by Sandvik.

The component optimised, patent-protected HM150 formed roller mainly consists of the load-resistant and deformation-reduced flow formed shell, bearing seats manufactured by means of deformation (end formed), the forged hollow shaft as well as the newly developed highly effective labyrinth seals.

• tilt angle reduction for the ball bearings • reduced noise emissions • higher permissible rotational speeds • smoothed bearing seats Rz ~ 0,5 µm (reduces fretting corrosion) • weight reduction of the formed roller by 10 - 30% • inherent balance G smaller 14 according to DIN ISO 1940 • maximum concentricity deviation ~ 0.3 mm

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Sandvik is a global industrial group with advanced products and

world-leading positions in selected areas â&#x20AC;&#x201C; tools for metal cutting, equipment and tools for the mining and construction industries, stainless materials, special alloys, metallic and ceramic resistance materials as well as process systems. In 2009, the Group had about 44,000 employees and representation in 130 countries, with annual sales of nearly SEK 72,000 M.

Sandvik Mining and Construction is a business area within the Sandvik Group and a leading global supplier of equipment, cemented-carbide tools, service and technical solutions for the excavation and sizing of rock and minerals in the mining and construction industries. Annual sales in 2009 amounted to about SEK 32,600 M, with approximately 14,400 employees.


Sandvik Mining and Construction Central Europe GmbH Sales and Service Conveyor Components Sven Waliczek Tel.: +49 (0)171 - 22 38 743 eMail:

Sanvik Mining and Construction Central Europe GmbH Hafenstrasse 280 45356 Essen | Germany Tel.: +49 (0)201- 17 85 300 Fax: +49 (0)201 - 17 85 800 Internet:

ANZEIGE Issue 03 | 2010



Iron ore mining in Australia:

Top-of-the-range machine performance and service support Surface miners are main mining equipment!

Wirtgen Surface Mining: Large-scale project in iron ore mining: surface miners are the main mining equipment The Australian continent offers a wealth of mineral resources that is truly unique in the world. As a raw material supplier of, for example, coal, iron ore, bauxite or nickel, Australia holds a prominent position in the world market. The economy of the fifth continent is determined to a significant extent by the success of the mining companies. The mining industry is the key driver of economic growth. Conventional mining methods involving drilling and blasting were dominant until recently; since 2007, however, one of the continent’s largest iron ore producers has been banking on the innovative technology offered by the Wirtgen surface miners. The mines operated by Fortescue Metals Group (FMG) are Australia’s first large-scale project that uses surface mining as the main mining method. As many as twenty Wirtgen surface miners have become vital keys to the economically efficient mining of high-quality materials in FMG’s iron ore mines.

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Cut costs, improve product quality – the advantages of selective mining FMG’s iron ore deposits are located in the Pilbara region in Western Australia, less than two hours’ flight north of Perth. In this region, FMG holds the mining rights to an area covering 71,400 km². A special allmark of the mines presently opened up by FMG is the flat-lying nature of the iron ore deposits. In such an environment, the advantages offered by the surface mining technology are most obvious: “Wirtgen surface miners allow highquality products to be mined with economic efficiency even from technically challenging mineral deposits,” says Bernhard Schimm, Manager of the Wirtgen Mining Division. In comparative studies that were performed as part of the selection process to determine the most suitable main mining method, surface mining was able to win out over all other mining methods.

Fortescue Metals Group was won over by the high economic efficiency of the surface mining technology: • Wirtgen surface miners enable precise and highly selective material mining. Maximum exploitation of the mineral deposit is thus guaranteed. • Selective mining using surface miners allows the product quality to be influenced at a very early stage, which results in high-quality materials being mined. • Major potentials for cost reduction can be realized as surface miners cut, crush and load the material in a single working pass. The use of primary crushers, for example, is thus eliminated. • The use of surface miners cuts the overall investment costs in opencast mining equipment required for iron ore mining by nearly fifty percent. Surface mining eliminates the need for crushers, for example, and reduces the number of transport trucks. • Cutting, crushing and loading in a single step additionally enables the production costs per tonne of iron ore mined to be reduced by around forty percent.

Bernhard Schimm, Manager Mining Division Wirtgen GmbH

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Fifteen 2500 SM surface miners impress with maximum mining performance FMG’s large-scale project began in 2004 when initial feasibility studies were conducted in the mines. Even early trials and geological analyses revealed the benefits inherent in the use of surface miners. Numerous trial operations were carried out over the next two years. To optimize machine operation, the customer – supported by Wirtgen Australia, the Wirtgen Group’s local subsidiary – carried out various trial operations using 2200 SM and 2600 SM surface miners.

At the same time, the customer and Wirtgen visited numerous international reference projects involving surface mining: Wirtgen GmbH looks back on some thirty years of expertise in surface mining, and has succeeded in establishing the innovative mining technology in the USA, for example, where it is used to mine gypsum, or in India where it is used to mine limestone and coal. Once the trial results had satisfied the customer in terms of both machine productivity and quality of the material mined, the first deposit of the FMG site, the “Cloudbreak” mine, was opened up and the infrastructure tailored to the use of surface miners. The pits were laid out to the greatest possible length, for instance, to achieve extended uptimes while keeping non-productive times (e.g. turning) low. At the beginning of 2007, an agreement was signed between FMG and Wirtgen covering the purchase of ten 2500 SM surface miners. Following commissioning of the first machine in June 2007, trial operations produced outstanding results so that FMG decided to expand its fleet by another five 2500 SM machines.

Graeme Rowley, Executive Director Public Policy, FMG

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Each of the fifteen surface miners impresses with cutting performances ranging from 1,200 to 2,000 tonnes per hour depending on rock hardness. “It is admirable how Wirtgen has succeeded in implementing such a high cutting rate right from the start in their first large-scale project in iron ore,” says Graeme Rowley, Executive Director at FMG until March 2010.


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Selective mining using surface miners allows the product quality to be influenced at a very early stage, which results in high-quality materials being mined.

The surface miners produced the intended results not only in terms of quantity, however, but also with regard to material quality: FMG has installed an â&#x20AC;&#x153;Automatic Positioning Systemâ&#x20AC;? in the miners, which allows optimum use to be made of the advantages offered by selective mining. The system acts as a digital map, enabling the miner operators to accurately position their machines in the deposit and thus to also precisely determine the quality of the material being cut. The loaded trucks are then sent to different storage locations. The various grades of iron ore stockpiled in the different storage locations are later mixed in accordance with composition requirements.

Wirtgen surface miners enable precise and highly selective material mining. Maximum exploitation of themineral deposit is thus guaranteed.

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Simple and quick: tool replacement using the battery-operated hydraulic tool extractor. After securing the pressing head, the tool is extracted from the toolholder from the rear by means of a hydraulic cylinder. The tool extractor can also be used to insert new cutting tools.

core competence cutting technology The cutting drum is the core component of every surface miner. Over the years, Wirtgen GmbH has acquired an unrivalled expertise in cutting technology that is, above all, grounded in the ambition to develop and improve the technology on an ongoing basis. It aims at increasing productivity and reducing operating costs. In cooperation with system partner Betek, Wirtgen GmbH has therefore developed cutting tools with a special wear

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protection for the mining of hard, abrasive rock, such as iron ore, to further increase the durability of the components used. The time required for replacing the cutting tools is yet another cost aspect that Wirtgen and Betek have responded to by developing a new tool fastening system as well as a special tool extractor. Both features enabled the time needed for tool replacement to be reduced by overfifty percent.


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Maximum performance in large-scale opencast mining: the 4200 SM FMG’s choice of the surface mining technology became the foundation of a strong business relationship between Wirtgen and FMG. “We had been looking for a technology that would enable us even more efficiency in iron ore mining, and we found it in surface mining,” stresses Graeme Rowley. “With the Wirtgen surface miners we chose not only the best technology, however, but also the most reliable supplier. It became clear right from the start that we placed the same demands on surface mining.” In view of their successful cooperation in implementing FMG’s large-scale project, Wirtgen and FMG decided to also make the most of their joint potential for innovation. They collaborated in developing an even more powerful surface miner that would be perfectly matched to the conditions prevailing in iron ore mining: the 4200 SM. Combining FMG’s wealth of experience in iron ore mining and Wirtgen GmbH’s know-how in machine design makes the 4200 SM a matchless high-performance machine for

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the mining industry. In March 2009, after just eighteen months of development, Wirtgen GmbH was able to present a machine that not only promises maximum economic efficiency but also keeps that promise in field operation: even during the trials performed at the time of commissioning in the Cloudbreak mine, the surface miner achieved twice the cutting performance of a 2500 SM. The customer’s response was entirely positive: FMG ordered four additional 4200 SM surface miners. With the joint development of the 4200 SM, Wirtgen GmbH also stressed its claim in customer service. “For us, the business relationship is not over once a machine has been sold. We are driven by our desire to be a reliable partner to our customers, supporting them on a long-term basis to make sure they achieve their goals,” says Mining Division Manager Bernhard Schimm.

The Surface Miner 4200 SM: the high-performance mining machine impresses not only with tremendous productivity and precise control but also with intelligent design in terms of ergonomics and maintenance safety.


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY The new features of the 4200 SM Ergonomics: The operator’s cabin can be rotated about 90° and is located above the front track unit. This position largely isolates the cabin from the vibrations and noise emissions caused by the engine and cutting drum. In addition, the driver’s seat can be swivelled about 270°, thus ensuring an optimum view of the loading operation and steering of the crawler tracks.

The discharge conveyor of the 4200 SM can be adjusted in height and slewed about 90° to either side. The new conveyor system enables trucks of up to 240 tonnes to be loaded in just a few minutes.

Cutting drum drive: The cutting drum drive of

Maintenance: The 4200 SM offers safe and quick access to all areas relevant for maintenance. It is equipped with a central filling station for fuel and lubricants, and replacing bigger components, such as the conveyor belts, can also be performed quickly and with the greatest ease.

the 4200 SM is equipped with a maintenance-free, wear-free turbo clutch that ensures smooth starting of the drum and serves as overload protection. Rearrangement of the drum drive components additionally enables greater cutting depths, which results in fewer cutting operations.

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Conveyor system:


TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Service support: full service from the very first minute Especially in mining, where the machines are in operation around the clock and availability is a vital key to the success of a mining company, Wirtgen GmbH has positioned itself with a full service offer. Wirtgen service staff support customers in every way possible from the time of delivery of the machine. Following their arrival at the Cloudbreak mine, the miners were set up for operation by Wirtgen service technicians in less than a week. A kit of basic spare parts was supplied together with the machine. Based on field experience, the two companies also drew up a list of additional spare parts and wear parts requirements.

Intensive Training

Initial training classes for machine operators and service staff were conducted at the time of commissioning of the machines. In consultation with the customer, Wirtgen GmbH additionally offers a broad and ongoing training programme. While introductory training classes for new employees are offered on an ongoing basis, extension trainings are also conducted either in the mine, in Perth or in the German main plant to optimize utilization of the machines.

Service structures focusing on customer requirements ensure maximum availability The comprehensive range of services offered is based on close cooperation between the main plant in Germany and the local Wirtgen Group subsidiary. To support FMG’s large-scale project in the best way possible, Wirtgen Australia – based in Sydney – established an additional service centre in Perth. This is where repairs are carried out, cutting drums and conveyor systems are overhauled, and spare parts having a total value of approx. AUD 7.5 million are stocked. Some forty service technicians and logistics experts from Wirtgen Australia are based in Perth, making it their business to support FMG’s mine “just in time”. The effective service concept also provides for service staff to be present in the mine: some 20 service technicians from Wirtgen GmbH and Wirtgen Australia provide technical support on site. The team is in close contact with the service experts at the German main plant to obtain technical assistance whenever necessary. Constant support of the customer is thus ensured, enabling them to implement their production targets. The large-scale project in Australia clearly shows that, in the field of surface mining, Wirtgen GmbH offers its customers not only powerful machines for the mining of high-quality products but also a comprehensive solution concept for large mining projects. Driven by its ambition to continue the joint development of machines, and by the high standards placed on first-rate customer support in after-sales service, Wirtgen GmbH positions itself as the ideal business partner in surface mining.

„Just-in-time“-service: Wirtgen’s service support offer comprises both local support provided by service technicians as well as the demandbased stocking of spare parts. Maintenance times are thus minimized, and the surface miners are all set for full-time operation.

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TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY Parts structure in line with customer requirements With a spare parts concept tailored to fit the customer’s specific requirements, Wirtgen GmbH maximizes availability of the machines:

On site: The parts needed for daily use are stocked on the construction site. These include cutting tools, toolholders or crawler track components. Items required for regular maintenance, such as filters or gaskets, are also stocked on site.

The warehouse

at the service centre based in Perth additionally stocks items for long-term requirements. These include, for example, conveyor belts.

Thus: Over 85 percent of the potentially required

spare parts are thus stocked in the customer’s immediate vicinity. Safety items such as engines or gearboxes are additionally kept in stock at the German main plant to ensure prompt delivery.

To enable them to achieve their production targets, customers of Wirtgen GmbH are supported by aftersales service experts who have a wealth of expertise gained over many years.


Wirtgen GmbH Claudia Fernus Reinhard-Wirtgen-Straße 2 53578 Windhagen | Germany Tel.: +49 (0)26 45 - 13 17 44 Fax: +49 (0)26 45 - 13 14 99 eMail: Internet:

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BROAD SERVICE SPECTRUM The BBM Group is active in a variety of future-orientated business areas: Our core business comprises mining, structural, underground and civil engineering as well as assembly. In addition, as an innovative company we have also embarked on the development and marketing of new IT technologies. Our services at a glance:


Dieter-aus-dem-Siepen-Platz 1 D-45468 Mülheim an der Ruhr PHONE +49 (0) 208 459 59-0 FAX +49 (0) 208 459 59-59 EMAIL

OPEN CAST MINING Excellent raw materials for successful construction projects Our quarries produce first-class rock for structural and civil engineering. Our stone fractions, high quality fine flints and architectural stone are used primarily in road construction and concrete production, and also in the chemical industry. BBM is also increasing in demand as a contract mining supplier for raw materials extraction. MINING Top quality services based on experience BBM is an outstanding supplier of specialist underground mining services, in particular in Germany. Working on behalf of large mining companies, we assume responsibility of complete lots or provide personnel for all forms of mining and assembly work. Our teams are available for flexible application right across Europe. Our own workshop maintains our fleet of machines. BBM has also succeeded in making a name for itself as a contract mining supplier in the underground mining sector.

DIVERSE ACTIVITIES ACROSS EUROPE The proprietor-managed BBM Group has enjoyed success on the market since 1990 and is active in a wide range of business areas. Networked with internationally renowned cooperative partners, we support demanding projects throughout Europe. In doing so we apply the skills of around 1,000 highly qualified employees, who work with competence and commitment to ensure the seamless fulfilment of our orders. It is with maximum flexibility that we set benchmarks in quality and reliability. Thanks to rapid decision-making and the central steering of all activities, we offer integrated solutions from a single source and generate tailored solutions – in all business sectors.

W W W. O P E RTA - B B M . D E Issue 03 | 2010


WE BUILD THE FUTURE Every project needs a vision – and the resources to transform it into reality. BBM combines both: Top quality demands throughout all of our activities in a wide range of areas, excellent corporate knowhow and expert knowledge of the skilled trades and technology. This results in excellent products and services, for which we are renowned and valued right across Europe. BBM is a reliable and in-demand partner, greatly trusted by its clients and cooperative partners. This high performance level and consistent orientation towards the demands of our customers makes us exceptional. We accept challenges and create added value: As a dynamic company that will continue to grow in the future and tap into new markets across Europe. BBM brings projects to a successful conclusion – take our word for it and profit from our rich wealth of experience.


NEWS & REPORTS Atlas Copco Construction Tools

ATLAS Copco´s

Xtended Life Program:

second-hand hydraulic breakers restored as new!


nder the „Xtended Life Program“ label Atlas Copco are offering second-hand hydraulic breakers in the 750 to 10,000 kg weight class. The units are properly restored in the hydraulic breaker shop in Essen, Germany. As such their technical condition can be compared to that of new breakers. Customers receive a product with a virtually normal lifespan, the original documentation and a works guarantee. „We check all components of the used breakers“, Ralf Schneider, Product Specialist at Atlas Copco explains. „Damaged parts are not repaired but immediately replaced, like all of the wear parts are. Then every single breaker is put on the test bench and is subjected to the same testing routine which new breakers have to sustain.“ The requirements to be met by quality, performance and reliability are the same as those to be met by new units. „At the end of the job these hydraulic breakers have not just been repaired but have virtually been restored to their original condition,“ Schneider continues. „In everyday operation one does not notice that the breaker is not a brand-new unit straight from the factory and that it has been used before,“ Atlas Copco customer Sepp Meier from Sins in Switzerland explains.

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„From a technical point of view our HB 2500 DP as well as our MB 1700 DP are state-of-the-art. Both units give the same performance as our other hydraulic breakers. The supply of wear parts and the service are identical – in our opinion a really good investment.“

FOR MORE INFORMATION AND CONTACT: Atlas Copco Construction Tools Marketing Comunication/ Media Relations Anja Kaulbach Tel.: +49 (0)201 - 633 - 22 33 eMail: Internet:

Atlas Copco Construction Tools is a division within Atlas Copco´s Construction and Mining Technique business area. It develops, manufactures and markets hydraulic, pneumatic, and petrol-driven equipment for demolition, recycling, compaction, rock drilling and concrete applications. Products are marketed and sold under several brands through a worldwide sales and service organisation. The division is headquartered in Stockholm, Sweden, and has production units in Europe, Africa and Asia. .



Screentechniques by


Backers Maschinenbau GmbH Auf dem B端lt 42 49767 Twist | Germany Tel.: +49(0) 59 36 - 93 67-0 Fax: +49(0) 59 36 - 93 67-20 eMail: Internet:

BACKERS Maschinenbau GmbH Backers now also offers a crusher with the mobility of a 2-hta starscreen. The crusher breaks with a high proportion of cubic particles. Crushers suffer increased wear and tear if a large amount of soil is collected with the stones to be crushed. This is especially the case if the proportion of soil is cohesive. The new crusher therefore does without its own (usually very short) screen, because a particular example of use is crushing stones. In order to break down soil with a proportion of stones, a starscreen is placed upstream because the starscreen promises a very good cleaning effect: even with cohesive soils. Thanks to the starscreen insert, the proportion of stones is excellently cleaned with a continually high rate. The cleaned oversized particles from the starscreen can then be directly added to the crusher and broken. In the crusher, the breaking effect increases significantly when it can work without dirt particles and cohesive soil. The wear resistance and output rate are also increased by advance cleaning of the stones. In order to be able to use the crusher for recycling work, it has been provided with a vibrating chute beneath the rotor. With a rotor width of 1m, the compact crusher can break relatively large stones. The crusher has dimensions of 2.55m x 2.70m x 6.75m (w x h x l) and a weight of 13t in the transport position.

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NEWS & REPORTS Metso Minerals (Germany) GmbH

METSO Minerals:

Revival of GfA Screening Machines S

ince 2001 and through the merger of Nordberg and Svedela, Metso has strengthened its market position as a manufacturer and supplier of screening machines in Europe. The result can be seen in a very broad range of articles of proven Nordberg GfA screening technologies: Whether feeder, prescreening sieves or screening machines – by now various applications benefit from the traditional know-how around screening techniques. In two production locations the established technique is being further developed, under the official Metso Minerals Brand. The supply of spare and wear parts of such plants, which are still very popular with many users under the name of GfA or Svedela, is still ensured.

„After all, over 4,000 machines are still in operation with the old names, both nationally, as well as internationally. It is us who make the ends meet. “, explains Paul Mehmann of Metso Minerals, who is the manager for the spare parts support in screening technology and wet processing. Mehrmann is very busy handling the queries for the GfA Screening machines, which partly are quite old. „This is partly due to the fact that the robust plants now show small ailments or just need new spare parts“. This is his perception of the situation, and he goes on to: „Many

users of reliable GfA technologies are not aware of this possibility and they are worried that they neither have access to spare parts, nor to exchange machines that are constructed in the same way. Numerous users access well-established products, which they know and which do not force them to change their habits or their production. In the service location Mannheim wear parts of GfA screening machines like bearings and springs, which show signs of fatigue after Reproduction of a GfA screening machine – A typical circular vibratory screen type 2PP 7000 x 2500; the robust construction even allows for acceleration forces of > 5 G.

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Another example of a GfA screening machine, linear motion screen type H2PP 7000 x 2250.

decades of work, are particularly required. On request, the spare parts service can also check whether an old bearing can be refurbished, or if a complete exchange is needed. Accordingly, the storage capacity in Mannheim is big â&#x20AC;&#x201C;shelf rows over several floors, in which spare parts for conventional GfA and Svedala products are piled up, prove that users are still at ease with the established technology and do not want to leave their old-timers.

This principle has advantages for the client, even in the worst case scenario. In case a machine is irreparably damaged, it is often of advantage to find an adequate equivalent, which is built the same way or is equipped with all required functions to replace the failing screening plant. In order to provide quick help, Metso has two production locations near Mannheim, which exclusively deal with the manufacturing of replacement screening machines. â&#x20AC;&#x153;With More wear and spare parts (compression springs, cardan shafts and exchange bearing sets) for GfA or Svedala screening machines.

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Replacement rotating shaft for log washing.

this the client has a 100 percent guarantee that he will receive an absolutely identical replacement for his GfA- or Svedala screening unit within 6 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 8 weeks. Brand new and in the desired colorâ&#x20AC;&#x153;, says Mehrmann. Since 2006 only, Metso has produced approximately 80 GfA replacement machines , which are very popular for application in wet processing. Due to the fact that Metso in Mannheim has the old construction designs, it is always possible to revive Cross members in various versions for screening machines.

components of series which have long been discontinued (and partly have non-standard measurements). The newly issued desired machine automatically receives the serial number of the replacement unit.

At any time the operators of a Svedala or GfA screening machine can contact Paul Mehrmann under the telephone number (++49 621)72700710 or with e-Mail (paul.

FOR MORE INFORMATION AND CONTACT: Metso Minerals (Germany) GmbH Mr. Paul Mehrmann Obere Riedstr. 111-115 68309 Mannheim | Germany Tel.: +49 (0)621 - 72 700 - 0 Fax: +49(0)621 - 72 700 - 111 eMail: Internet:

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NEWS & REPORTS Kormann Rockster Recycler GmbH

NeW Rockster R900

guarantees maximum flexibility

Rössner Bau Performance and quality since 112 years! S

ince already 4 generations the team of Rössner Bau GmbH, situated in Wendelstein close to Nürnberg (Germany), has dedicated itself to one major goal: “Performance due to long-term tradition”. Founded in 1898 by master paver and road builder Georg Rössner the company is now directed by great-grandson Jürgen Rössner providing efficient full-service solutions in the areas of road construction, underground engineering, road pavement and sewer rehabilitation. Since more than 10 years, also the recycling of construction and demolition debris – at the company owned building yard, or directly on site at the customer’s place - has become an important and growing business for Rössner. Whilst in the past the company had to rent different crushers from external suppliers to carry out these special recycling jobs, at the Bauma fair, which took place in spring 2010 in Munich, the company has come to an important decision: the acquisition of an own Rockster impact crusher R900, which has not only amplified the innovative machinery of Rössner in an optimum way, but also guarantees maximum flexibility and efficiency in the future recycling business of the company.

Rockster R900 Already since a while, owner and CEO Jürgen Rössner was thinking about the purchase of an own crusher. “Renting different machines to carry out our customer’s Recycling jobs has not been an efficient solution anymore,” so the company chief. „After a broad analyses within the existing and future customer base we have calculated a potential of jobs, which was more than enough to not only justify but even recommend an own crusher as best solution.”

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The decision was made at bauma, which took place in spring 2010 in Munich. At this exhibition, Rössner had the possibility to see and compare the different technologies of various international crusher manufacturers. At the Rockster booth, the company owner got to know a completely new technological approach. “Before meeting Rockster, my idea about a crusher was simple, but obvious: huge entry opening = high performance,” says Rössner. “But at Rockster I got to know further factors, that are influencing not only performance but also final grain quality. I was impressed by the different adjustment possibilities of the two independent swing beams in combination with



the variation of the crusher speed. Maybe, in the beginning this may presume a little bit of sensibility for the machine settings, but with a much more better result regarding performance and quality of the product.“ Additionally to the different adjustment possibilities also the fully hydraulic concept of the machine was an important reason for the buying decision. “In the past we had a lot of troubles with electric dysfunctions of our crushers,” says Rockster R900 in operation in Recycling material at the company Buhl.

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Rockster R900 in operation in Recycling material at the company Buhl.

Rössner. “In these situations you’re always dependant on other companies to solve your problems, which costs a lot of time and money. With the purchase of the full hydraulic R900 we have also excluded these problems. Future service and maintenance works can be carried out by our own team and machine stops will be reduced to the minimum. Our Fazit: Rockster provides mature technology and a well-engineered concept!“


NEWS & REPORTS Apolczer Baumaschinen GmbH in Lauf close to Nürnberg is the competent local Rockster partner for Rössner. Company owner and long time business friend of Jürgen Rössner, Helmut Apolczer, is supporting the new Rockster owners in all kind of technological matters and advice, providing a reliable service, maintenance and flexible spare part supply for the new R900. Since the 7th of June 2010 the Rockster machine is in operation almost day and night, at the moment at the place of excavation and demolition specialist “Buhl” in Nürnberg. In combination with a screening plant the Rockster impact crusher is applicated in Recycling material. The final grain will be used for road construction and as filling material for excavation pits. With his new equipment, Jürgen Rössner is more than optimistic regarding future Recycling jobs. “We have set ourselves no limits – neither geographically, nor in terms of applications in different materials,” so Rössner. ”The R900 enables an easy transport via low loader and ensures various operation possibilities. It is not only an important amplification of our existing machinery, but it also helps us to fulfil our major goal: providing a high quality full-service solution for our customers, from the first consultation to the punctual and successful realization of the project.“

Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Jürgen Rössner and Helmut Apolczer.


Kormann Rockster Recycler GmbH Wirtschaftszeile West 2 4482 Ennsdorf | Austria Tel.: +43 (0)72 23 - 81 000 Fax: +44 (0)72 23 - 81 000 329 eMail: Internet:

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NEWS & REPORTS SBM Mineral Processing GmbH

A very special task for the Tyrolean company Reindl OHG Brothers:


The upper Austrian plant manufacturer SBM Mineral Processing has implemented a very special task, ordered by the Tyrolean company Reindl OHG Brothers. Apart from the “normal” application, the crawler-mobile crusher plant Remax 1100 Cone is also applied at the Tiefenbach glacier in Tyrol at an altitude of 3,000 meters. In that location it crushes hard rocks, the feed size is from 2 to 170 mm. Subject to the material, the production lies at up to 250t/h. The family business of the Reindl OHG Brothers is the specialist in the area of milling in western Austria. This is an area, which is considered as the most difficult in processing technology, since new challenges have to be tackled every day. Furthermore the glacier, as a site location, poses further high demands on the machine. Taking into consideration all these circumstances, SBM Mineral Processing has built a crawler-mobile crusher at the highest technical level. The oil cooler was designed by SBM in a way that even great distances can be covered uphill. In order to achieve a continuous performance, the feed hopper is correspondingly dimensioned at 10 m³. Furthermore it is equipped with a hydraulic dumping grate, which can be operated with a remote control. The basic frame of the machine has been manufactured extremely stable, which ensures high running smoothness and a smooth transport.

The engine of the Remax 1100 runs with a diesel generator set, which leads to a substantively reduced mileage, compared to other drive solutions. As such the client can benefit from a favorable energy balance. But there are also a number of other advantages: The low rotational speed range leads to a long service life. The speed adjustment can be done continuously, a switch from diesel to mains operation is possible and the plant is able for dolly-fleet-system. For the past years, the Reindl company has relied entirely on the high technical know-how of SBM Mineral Processing in the mobile crusher sector. However, by now the Remax 1100 Cone is the seventh plant of SBM, which is in operation in the Reindl company. Apart from a highly technical level, the crawler-mobile SBM crusher plant scores with its high flexibility. As such, an already existing SBM screening unit of the Reindl company can be attached to the new Remax, as needed. The control of the screening unit is done from the new Remax. With this solution it is possible to flexibly and quickly react to various demands.

About SBM: As the manufacturer of processing and conveyor systems for gravel, sand, rubble and similar material, SBM Mineral Processing has generated a turnover of over 50 million Euros and is internationally present with an export share of 80%. In specialized sectors SBM belongs to the global market leaders. The product range encompasses single machines, stationary and mobile plants, as well as mobile concrete mixing plants and service and support. The head office is in the upper Austrian Laakirchen.

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FOR MORE INFORMATION AND CONTACT: SBM Mineral Processing GmbH Mag. Barbara Krautgartner, MBA Arbeiterheimstrasse 46 4663 Laakirchen | Austria Tel.: +43 (0)76 13 - 27 71 160 eMail: Internet:

Menedetter PR Mag. Brigitte Mühlbauer Stoß im Himmel 1 1010 Wien | Austria Tel.: +43 (0)1 - 533 23 80 eMail:


NEWS & REPORTS Kleemann GmbH

Giant for large feeding capacities :

Kleemann constructs mobile jaw crushers with a capacity of up to 1500 t/h K

leemann demonstrates its competence in the construction of special plants with its largest mobile jaw crusher, the Mobicat MC 160.

Kleemann Mobicat MC 160:

Application in Chile

The Mobicat MC 160 is a first-class plant: An overall weight of almost 400 tons, over 9 m high and approx. 35 m long, it is designed for maximum efficiency. In order to be able to feed the planned charge quantities of up to 1500 t/h into the crusher, an apron conveyor is used as a feeding unit. This sits on a separate chassis with its own drive system and a hopper suitable for charging by dumper. The main unit consists of a grizzly using a double-deck roll screen and the SStR 1600 crusher, a single toggle jaw crusher with feed size of 1600 x 1250 mm, which already adds a good 80 tons to the weight.

From the start of next year the operation site of the machine will be an iodine production mine in the Atacama desert in northern Chile. Here huge quantities of stone containing iodine will be mined. Before the typical mining process of leaching and loosening, the MC 160 crushes the stone to a size of 0-250 mm. As a lot of material in the final grain size is already available in the charged material, efficient primary screening is particularly important. This is achieved using a double-deck roll screen in place of a conventional screen.

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NEWS & REPORTS Apron conveyor with XXL feed hopper The feeding unit already impresses with its dimension and performance details. A 225 kW diesel engine powers the hydraulics for the crawler running gear, and a separate generator makes available power for maintenance purposes and some auxiliary functions. The feed hopper is almost 8.5 m wide on the feeding side and can hold volumes of up to 200 m³. The apron conveyor itself has a working width of approx. 1600 mm; the length between the axes is almost 12 m.

Roll screens ensure efficient primary screening and the large crusher guarantees huge crushing capacity. On the main unit two back-to-back roll screens with a width of 1.60 m and an overall length of 5.60 m ensure efficient primary screening. The crusher unit is suitable for feed sizes of up to 1400 mm. Powered by a 250 kW electric motor, which is supplied by a 580 kW diesel engine, sufficient power is available for maximum feed capacities in all situations. Just like all the Kleemann machines used in quarries, the diesel-electric drive concept used here also allows the plant to be connected to an external power source. The crusher discharge conveyor is 1.80 m wide and over 12 m long and thus offers sufficient capacity to safely and reliably discharge the material into stockpiles.

The feeding unit is one step further and almost complete.

Assembly of the individual components. The SStR 1600 jaw crusher has already found its home.

FOR MORE INFORMATION AND CONTACT: Kleemann GmbH Mark Hezinger Manfred-Wörner-Str. 160 73037 Göppingen | Germany Tel.: +49 (0)71 61 - 20 62 09 Fax: +49 (0)71 61 - 20 61 00 eMail: Internet:

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Kleemann GmbH Kleemann GmbH is a member company of the Wirtgen Group, an expanding and international group of companies doing business in the construction equipment industry. This Group includes the four well-known brands, Wirtgen, Vögele, Hamm and Kleemann, with their headquarters in Germany and local production sites in the United States of America, Brazil and China. Worldwide customer support is provided by its 55 own sales and service companies.


NEWS & REPORTS BEUMER Maschinenfabrik GmbH & Co. KG

Strong Position in Mexico!

BEUMER establishes an Office:

Beckum, 2010 – The BEUMER group has established an office in Mexico. With this office the intralogistics supplier is not only planning to increase its sales, but more importantly it will significantly support its costumers. The BEUMER group (Beckum), which is the leading supplier in the areas of conveying, storage and loading, as well as in sorting and distribution techniques, has established an office in Mexico. This was not only done to increase the sales of new machines in this area. Due to a targetted presence on site and the removal of language barriers it is better possible to supports clients on site, and to provide a quick supply of spare parts and an improved service. „First and foremost we want to tailor our customer-service to the needs with which we are confronted every day“, says Roberto Romero, general director of the Mexican office. In order to achieve this target, the subsidiary company receives full support of the BEUMER cooperation in the US. The most recent office is located in Santa Fe, a business district in Mexico City. Up to now the paramount business priority in Mexico has been in the cement business. With the new establishment BEUMER is pursuing the goal of generating clients for its palletizing and packing techniques, as well as for its sorting and distribution systems. „We have received excellent feedback during

our participation in last year’s Expo Pack in Mexico City“ says Romeo. Therefore BEUMER de Mexico S. de R. L. de C. V. has decided to concentrate more on other markets with a promising future – for example on the beverage, food and consumer goods industry, or on the mining sector. Romeo confirms: „therefore we are represented again this year on the Expo Pack in Mexico“.

WEITERE INFORMATIONEN UND KONTAKT: BEUMER Maschinenfabrik GmbH & Co. KG Oelder Str. 40 59269 Beckum | Germany Distribution conveyor technology Tel.: +49 (0)25 21 - 24 0 eMail: Internet:

The BEUMER Group The BEUMER Group is an internationally leading manufacturer of intralogistics in the conveying, loading, palletizing and packing technique with sorting and distribution systems. Together with its afficliated companies and authorized agencies, BEUMER is globally present with 2,000 employees and a volume of sales of approximately 375 million Euros. For further information please refer to :

The BEUMER robotpack series palletizes and depalletizes various packing pieces through specifically developed gripping elements/tools.

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NEWS & REPORTS HAVER & BOECKER Wire Weaving and Machinery Division

Haver & Boecker: Bernhard Pagenkemper named Machinery Division Sales Director Haver & Boecker The previous manager of the business unit Cement at Haver & Boecker in Oelde/Germany, Dipl. Ing. Bernhard Pagenkemper, has been named as the Sales Director of the entire Machinery Division, effective 1 July 2010. The 46-year old, multilingual mechanical engineer has been employed at Haver & Boecker for over 20 years, first as a project engineer, then later as a group and department manager and, since 2001, he has been the manager of the business unit of Cement. Bernhard Pagenkemper is known globally by customers and has made a name for himself through numerous publications and lectures in the field. Now he takes over the responsibility of the business units of Cement, Building Materials and Minerals, Chemicals, Mineral Processing Technology and Technical Customer Service, and is thus responsible as a whole for sales. His successor in the Cement business unit is his substitute Wolfgang Bednarz, thus assuring continuity.

Dipl. Ing. Bernhard Pagenkemper, Haver & Boecker, has been named as the Sales Director of the entire Machinery Division, effective 1 July 2010..

to establish even closer ties with the customer, improve efficiency in acquiring new markets and to deliver technologies for the future.

FOR MORE INFORMATION AND CONTACT: HAVER & BOECKER WIRE WEAVING AND MACHINERY DIVISION Carl-Haver-Platz 59302 Oelde | Germany Public Relations Office, Machinery Division Andrea Stahnke Tel.: +49 (0)25 22 - 30 820 Fax: +49 (0)25 22 - 30 710 eMail: Internet:

Tel.: +49 (0)25 22 - 300 Fax: +49 (0)25 22 - 30 403 eMail: Internet:

The overall sales structure is further streamlined by the appointment of Bernhard Pagenkemper. The target is

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MB’S NEW JAPANESE BRANCH OPENS! Operative as from March, its offices and warehouses will be available to Japanese customers. MB S.p.A. travels across the ocean and lands in one of the most advanced countries in the world: the new subsidiary of the Vicenza-based company, world leader in the production and sale of crusher buckets, has been operative in Japan since the beginning of March.

In addition to the above, in fact, the extremely demanding Japanese customer expects a touch of creativity, innovative solutions, continual improvement of performances and work process, and intrinsic product beauty: all of which MB has shown to possess and make the most of.

Located in Tokyo‘s modern and downtown neighbourhood of Shinagawa, the new branch will also be equipped with a warehouse where to store goods and manage the after-sales service.

The opening of the Japanese subsidiary represents, on the one hand, the conclusion of a thorough market analysis that has lasted a few years and, on the other, a bridgehead in the world‘s reference market in terms of technological excellence applied to every aspect of man’s life.

On the very first day the subsidiary was open for business, MB’s success did not take long to show itself: the office received 26 telephone calls and 311 congratulatory letters! Not bad for a company founded not even ten years ago and which, in just a short time, has managed to reach borders throughout the world, last but not least Japan, the most technological country on the planet. In fact, only a handful of Italian companies can boast a direct presence in the Land of the Rising Sun, where punctuality, service, focus on the customer, precision and assistance represent the necessary yet not sufficient requirement for doing one’s business.

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So, MB’s challenge will be to satisfy the requests of a constantly changing market such as the Japanese one, in a country where 120 million people move at a relentless pace, with huge areas entirely covered by skyscrapers, office buildings, homes and plants that have to be torn down and rebuilt every thirty years in order to comply with extremely tough anti-seismic regulations in a country with the largest number of volcanoes in the world, sitting on one of the most active faults on Earth.



The Tokyo office is in a strategically central area from both a technical and logistical standpoint, and it is well connected to the Italian headquarters by means of optic fibres, for perfect management of the many information systems. From this position, Japanese customers are well served both in terms of before-sale assistance and after-sale technical support by qualified, Japanesespeaking personnel, with offices hours from 8 o’clock in the morning to 8 o’clock at night. From MB’s Tokyo-based office, it will be possible to implement marketing campaigns, collect marketrelated information, and schedule demonstrations and road shows for all possible customer segments. However, the most important factor is that the new Japanese branch will make it possible to have the buckets on site, ready to be delivered to the construction yard as quickly as possible, thus avoiding long transit times by sea.

In addition, spare parts are made available through a just-in-time warehouse with on-line booking, thanks to which the requested part can be delivered to the construction yard within 24 hours. Efficiency, determination, seriousness and reliability: this is how MB presents itself to the world and it is how the company has conquered the Japanese market, bringing work and innovation to this area, without forgetting to be humble and the ability to listen to and implement advice and suggestions provided by these very precious observers, careful and thorough. So, MB has no intention of stopping now, and it is counting on further improving products and services already at the top in terms of reliability and performance, competing with different markets and cultures on a daily basis, thus strengthening and maintaining its position as unquestionable world leader in the production and sales of its awardwinning crusher buckets.


MB S.p.A. MB S.p.A., the Vicenza-based company world leader in the production and sale of crusher buckets continues to amaze by always occupying a place in the front lines in the demolition and recycling sector, and the constant research by a competent team ensures that the company is always one step ahead by offering work tools that are an absolute must at construction sites. The equipment offered by the company has made it extremely competitive and well-known at the international level in just a few years.

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NEWS & REPORTS Geo-Konzept GmbH


The GeoDarmstadt 2010 will take place in Darmstadt, Germany, from the 10th to the 13th October 2010. This congress will gather - in the attractive congress center “Darmstadtium”- nearly all geo-societies and institutions that are working and conducting research in Germany. A miscellaneous agenda and a large number of lectures will give you the opportunity to inform about the topic “geoscience”. geo-konzept will be the main sponsor of the GeoDarmstadt 2010. If you want to know more about geo-konzept and our products, visit us at booth No 2

Geo-Konzept with extensive range of products

Blast design solutions

geo-konzept offers you a large variety of products. The portfolio comprises systems for blast and delay sequence design and GPS-surveying as well as products for remote sensing and laser scanning.

To conduct blasting operations profitable, an accurate design is indispensable. To capture precise data of your rock face, geo-konzept offers you a simple 2D system, a low-cost starter´s version as well as advanced automatic 3D scanning systems. Those systems are rugged and easy to use. A range of software solutions complete the systems. Therefore not only the design but also the documentation is optimized. What’s your benefit?

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Rock face profiling



Remote sensing: Make harvest predictions easier.

An optimized blast with maximized blasted volume, minimised vibrations, well fractured rock and more safety for you and your personnell.

Borehole measurement Our hole probes are lightweight and easy to use. They are especially developed to check blastholes rapidly and accurately. Incorrect drill angle, false drilling depth and deviations from the intended hole create serious problems. Borehole measurement by the use of hole probes is a fast and efficient possibility to get measures based on which you can make better decisions on how to charge your blast holes.

Remote sensing - make harvest predictions easier Multispectral cameras are ideal for critical narrow band digital photography on the ground or in the air. The primary use is to analyse biological activity and biomass. Using image information, consisting of red, green, blue and near infrared channels it becomes relatively easy to create harvest predictions as well as vegetation and stock controls. Information provided by multispectral images is a powerful aid for cost-benefit-calculations. Management decisions become a lot easier.

GPS-surveying system: For highest requirements

Laserscanning - capture every dimesion geo-konzept provides you laser scanners for every application area. Those modern scanners setting the benchmark and give you the opportunity to scan remote and most differing surfaces fast and precisely.

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GPS surveying system - for highest requirements For every measurement challenge we have an individual solution with a high degree of accuracy and flexibility. Even for GIS data logging, Stake-Out (e.g. of blastholes) or machine guidance applications â&#x20AC;&#x201C; we have the adequate solution!

FOR MORE INFORMATION AND CONTACT: geo-konzept GmbH Gut Wittenfeld 85111 Adelsberg | Germany Tel.: +49 (0)8424 - 8989 0 | Fax:+49 (0)8424 - 8989 80 eMail: Internet: Public Relations Nadine Mutzhas Tel.: +49 (0)8424 - 8989 77 Fax: +49 (0)8424 - 8989 80 eMail: Internet:

Blast design solutions: Solutions for Rock face measurement



Laserscanning: Capture every dimesion.

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The company

The geo-konzept Company was established in 1992 and is a reliable partner in measurement, planning and control of large diameter bore hole blastings. The applied technologies reach from highly accurate terrestrial laser scanning through adapted planning software to processing of geo-referenced data. The application of the bore hole probes and high expertise in application of GPS-systems perfects the picture. Further business areas are the application of precise GPS in the agriculture, remote sensing (multi-spectral aerial photographing and assessment), mobile GIS, as well as provision of services and software development.


NEWS & REPORTS Sandvik Mining and Construction Central Europe GmbH

Sandvik to deliver

AutoMine-Lite™ and LHDs

to Boliden’s Garpenberg Mine. Sandvik Mining and Construction is pleased to announce they have signed a contract to deliver three AutoMine-Lite™ automation systems and two Sandvik LH517 loaders with Boliden Mineral AB’s Garpenberg mine. Two of the AutoMine-Lite™ control stations will be mobile and located in the vans and one control station will be mounted in an office location. The system installations, to start in late 2010, are scheduled to be completed for full production in the early 2011. In addition, the agreement includes a supervisor contract for the automation system with on-site and remote support

Peter Lundmark,

Country Segment Manager Underground Mining Sweden of Sandvik Mining and Construction said, „We are happy to announce another significant achievement in the mine automation. The signing of the agreement with the Boliden Garpenberg mine further solidifies our positive relationship with Boliden. We are very proud to be providing the development opportunities that our mine automation offering have brought and will continue to bring to the mining industry.“

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With its set of functionalities and adaptive system, the AutoMine-Lite™ provide unique opportunities in the field of automated mining, it opens new windows onto the safety and productivity that cannot be achieved with existing set-up. The Sandvik AutoMine-Lite™ will also play a key role in the creation of a more continuous mining process.


NEWS & REPORTS AutoMine-Lite™ is an advanced alternative for teleremote and radio remote control (RRC) systems. AutoMine-Lite™ is based on the proven AutoMine® core technology and is available for vast range of the Sandvik loaders. A flexible and modular system offers complete working safety, ease of operation and high level productivity making loader automation available for even more mining applications.

About Boliden Boliden is a leading European metals company whose core competence is in the fields of exploration, mining, smelting and recycling. Boliden‘s main metals are zinc and copper. Other important metals extracted and refined include lead, gold and silver. The operations are conducted in two Business Areas: Mines and Smelters. The number of employees is approximately 4,400 and the turnover amounts to approximately SEK 28 billion annually. Its shares are listed on NASDAQ OMX Stockholm, segment Large Cap and on the Toronto Stock Exchange in Canada. Boliden’s mine in Garpenberg, in the county of Dalarna, is the oldest operating mine in Sweden. Garpenberg has approximately 280 employees and employs a further 70 or so contractors. Boliden Mineral in Garpenberg is the biggest private sector employer in Hedemora municipality in Sweden.

FOR MORE INFORMATION AND CONTACT: Sandvik Mining and Construction Country Segment Manager Underground Mining Sweden Peter Lundmark eMail: Internet:

Sandvik Mining and Construction Sales Support Manager, Mine Automation, Sandvik Underground Mining Petri Vuorenpää eMail: Internet:

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Sandvik is a global industrial group with advanced products and world-leading positions in selected areas – tools for metal cutting, equipment and tools for the mining and construction industries, stainless materials, special alloys, metallic and ceramic resistance materials as well as process systems. In 2009 the Group had about 44,000 employees and representation in 130 countries, with annual sales of nearly SEK 72,000 M. Sandvik Mining and Construction is a business area within the Sandvik Group and a leading global supplier of equipment, cemented-carbide tools, service and technical solutions for the excavation and sizing of rock and minerals in the mining and construction industries. Annual sales 2009 amounted to about SEK 32,600 M, with approximately 14,400 employees.


NEWS & REPORTS DigiCore Germany GmbH, Garmin

Garmin Expands its Professional Vehicle-fleet Management System:

Cooperation of Garmin and DigiCore Germany GmbH


unich (Gräfelfing)/Bissendorf, 2010 – Tailored solutions: With immediate effect Garmin, together with Digicore Germany company, is offering modular vehicle fleet management solutions, which can exactly be adapted to different fields of application, the size of the fleet not being a factor. The new solution is based on the C-Track Solo Box and can be combined with all Garmin nüvis, so that a suitable navigation device is available for any budget and each application area. With this move the global market leader in the mobile navigation sector further expands its vehicle-fleet management portfolio. Due to the high adaptability of the solution the company can for example integrate its recorded data into its Back-Office systems, so that the management can have a detailed insight into external business processes, and can directly transfer working time and operation costs into accounting and costumermanagement systems. „The combination of navigation and telematics helps enterprises to cleverly use opportunities for savings in their vehicle-fleet. Hereby the Garmin nüvis act as navigation devices and mobile data terminals, through which the driver has continuous contact with the main office“, adds Sayed Maudodi, product manager Automotive with Garmin Germany.

Increasing Efficiency of Fleet and Optimizing Processes The new solution is a modular one and can be adjusted at any time. Vehicle-fleet enterprises can start with the simple and cost-effective C-Track solution and can modularly be added-on, based on needs.

Issue 03 | 2010

„Our costumers can now grow further with C-Track and can board the intelligent vehicle-fleet management with real-time vehicle tracking“, this is how Ralph Ebbinghaus, managing director of DigiCore Germany, welcomes the cooperation. „The enterprises have the opportunity to expand the range of functions with modules from our add-on system. This enables the solution to be carefully integrated into the own individual working process. At this point Garmin is a valuable building block for C-Track. The navigation further increases the efficiency of the fleet.“ The basic modules of the fleet management solution consist of C-Track Solo, as well as of a mobile navigation device from the nüvi- series. C-Track solo is a GPSsupported vehicle-fleet management system, which is installed into the vehicle by DigiCore according to the clients wishes, whereas nüvi is easily attached through a suction cup mount. In addition to its actual function of


NEWS & REPORTS route calculation, with the C-Track solution the driver can keep in touch with the central office and can administer his tasks, as the navigation device serves as communication monitor. As an example the controller can send the driver an SMS to inquire, whether he has checked the green insurance card for the trailer. The driver can respond to the questions on the touch screen by touching either the “yes” or the “no” button. At the same time the C-Track Solo sends the positioning data and assignments through GPRS to the fleet management central office. On a software page, the client can choose between a web-based or high-performance server-client version. The data analysis in the user-friendly C-Track reports particularly assists to reduce costs in personnel and vehicle fleet, as well as to apply the vehicle fleet more efficiently.

The driver can respond to the questions on the touch screen by touching either the “yes” or the “no” button. At the same time the C-Track Solo sends the positioning data and assignments through GPRS to the fleet management central office.

Prices and Availability With immediate effect, the fleet management solution can be obtained through Digicore Germany company (http://www.digicore-deutschland. de/). The C-Track Solo Box costs 549 Euros (plus taxes) and can be combined with any Garmin nüvi. Furthermore there is the possibility of leasing the individually compiled fleet management solution, in cases of a minimum of ten vehicles. For the C-Track connect Basic Version, which includes the internet portal, as well as the hosting and communication charges, a monthly fee of 19.95 Euros needs to be paid.


Garmin Germany GmbH Marc Kast Lochhammer Schlag 5a 82166 Gräfelfing | Germany Tel.: +49 (0) 89 85 / 83 64 925 Fax: +49 (0) 89 85 / 83 64 44 eMail: Internet:

Media contact: Schwartz Public Relations Tel.: +49 (0) 89 211 871 37 / - 38/ -40 Fax: +49 (0) 89 211 871 50 eMail: : / / Internet:

About Garmin Garmin is a global market leader in mobile positioning systems for the automotive, outdoor and fitness, marine and aviation. Established in 1989 by Gary Burrell and Dr. Min Kao (Garmin), the enterprise, which currently has almost 9,000 employees and locations in the US, Taiwan and Europe, is known as one of the most experienced manufacturers in GPS technology. One of the characteristics of Garmin is that both development, as well as production is done in-house. This significantly contributes to securing the high standard of quality. Garmin manufactures its aviation products in the global company headquarters in Olathe, Kansas, USA. All consumer-electronic products for the areas of street navigation, outdoor, sports and marine are manufactured in the three Garmin manufacturing plants Shijr, Jhongli und LinKou in Taiwan. Globally Garmin employs over 1,400 engineers and thus secures high technical competency within the enterprise. Over 30 million Garmin navigation devices have globally been sold since 1989. Garmin has been making profit since its establishment, and since the year 2000, it has recorded a yearly turnover gain of 36 percent. In Europe, Garmin is represented through offices in Southampton, München, Paris, Barcelona, Milan, Lissabon, Graz, Brussels, Lohja und Copenhagen. In other European countries Garmin sells its products through exclusive importers, which are responsible for service and support in the respective countries. The Garmin Germany company with headquarters in Graefelfing near Munich is responsible for the German market. The company employs almost 100 staff in the field of marketing, sales, product management, cartography, as well as support to dealers and end-users. The supply to German dealers is done through the Garmin-owned logistic center near Munich.

Issue 03 | 2010

DigiCore Germany GmbH Christine Hillenkötter Gewerbepark 18 49143 Bissendorf | Germany Tel.: +49 (0) 54 02 / 70 28 25 Fax: +49 (0) 54 02 / 70 28 28 eMail: Internet: Media contact: Beate Wand Tel.: +49 (0) 177 838 94 16 eMail:

About DigiCore DigiCore Germany company and DigiCore Europe belong to DigiCore Holdings Ltd., high-tech listed enterprise, which is leading in the vehicle fleet management sector since 1987. Today DigiCore is counted as one of the premium manufacturers of vehicle positioning systems. A wide range of specialized knowledge and a comprehensive body of experience has led to the fact that globally over 400,000 systems have been installed. By now the DigiCore/C-Track group of companies is represented by offices in 35 countries on 5 Continents.


NEWS & REPORTS Komatsu Europe International N.V.

Komatsu: One of the best-sellers of Komatsu, the hydraulic excavator PC210NLC-8 in use application

Komatsu crawler excavators top the worldwide market! Vilvoorde, 2010 – In 2009 Komatsu was again the world’s largest producer of crawler excavators according to estimates by Off-Highway Research, the renowned international research institute. With a total global output of more than 23,500 units in the year, Komatsu’s performance placed it significantly ahead of its competitors in the “over 6 tonne” class.

Komatsu Europe’s high quality “Maintenance Plus” service agreement also appealed to many customers. Designed to bring them complete peace of mind, it entrusts all regular service and maintenance work to Komatsu-trained expert mechanics. Machines are kept in top condition and at peak performance levels for the lowest possible price with Komatsu Genuine Parts and lubricants.

KOMTRAXTM is a major factor of this success. Komatsu‘s exclusive satellite monitoring system, which was launched in Europe in 2006 on Dash 8 hydraulic crawler excavators, is now standard on most Komatsu machines and is activated on more than 20.000 of them in Europe alone. It provides genuine business solutions to all Komatsu customers.

Komatsu Hanomagstrasse 9 30449 Hanover | Germany Internet:

FOR MORE INFORMATION AND CONTACT: Komatsu Europe International N.V. Contact Europe: Kevin Broman Tel.: +32(0) 2 25 - 52 458 email: Internet:

Issue 03 | 2010

Komatsu Contact Germany: Bettina Meeuw Hanomagstrasse 9 30449 Hanover | Germany Tel.: +49(0) 5 11 - 45 09 212 email: Internet:



Kiesel: Kiesel office in Lingen with generous administrative buildings and workshop sheds.

Construction and Handling Machines impress the Audience in Lingen

Kiesel TechnologY Days North 2010 Approximately 1,000 guests visited the Kiesel Technolgy Days North 2010 in Lingen and were impressed by the Kiesel- branch. In line with the Kiesel slogan „better handling“, both the exhibition of machinery, as well as the live-demos focused on system solutions. Embedded in a master plan, the machines function as multifunctional support equipment and as such offer maximum cost-effectiveness. .

Kiesel – A Passionate Service Provider In addition to its construction and handling machines from Hitachi, Kiesel presented its comprehensive service program. The complementing service packages of Kiesel are as variable and extensive as the Kiesel range of machines, and are available nationwide, due to the areawide Kiesel service and network of operations. The motto is: everything from a single source – whether financing, product development, renting, full-service packages, guarantees for replacements, 24- hours industrial service or IT services. With an area of approximately 25,000 square meters, its generous administrative buildings and workshop sheds the Kiesel office in Lingen offers optimum preconditions for such events.

Kiesel: In the construction machine demonstration area Hitachi machines show how flexible Kiesel system solutions are.

Issue 03 | 2010


NEWS & REPORTS Kiesel: In the construction machine demonstration area Hitachi machines show how flexible Kiesel system solutions are.

Machines Live in Action Both demonstration appealed to the visitors:



Two Terex Fuchs machines, which are equipped with Fuchs Quick Connect or Genesis Quick Connect and are masters of handling, demonstrated their capabilites in the handling area. Apart from Terex Fuchs, which is an exclusive partner of Kiesel in nine countries, the range of handling products is replaced by large-scale machines of Mantsinen, which are mainly used in the harbour area. The second exhibition area impressively proved the flexibility of application of Hitachi construction machines: From a mini dredger, a mobile dredger up to a big chain dredger â&#x20AC;&#x201C;the attached equipment can easily be changed in seconds through a fully hydraulic quick-change system from the cabin. This allows for an optimum, efficient employment of machines, and the tools are spared due to a correct application.

Complete Solutions from One Source For many years Kiesel has been focusing on development of business-system solutions and special solutions for costumers. This is due to the fact that economic and efficient system solutions result from a right combination of high-quality machines with equipment options, quick changers and accessory equipments. Accordingly, numerous Kiesel system partners like Allu, Bema, Dappen, Darda, Demarec, Genesis, HGT, Intermercato, Lehnhoff, MB Crusher, MSP, MTB, OilQuick and many others show their performance spectrum.

The Kiesel team, which consists of sales representatives, application engineers and product developers, together with system partners, works out individual solutions, which respond to the requirements of each respective costumer. This is a clear advantage for the costumer: You receive perfected system solutions from one source.

Kiesel: In the construction machine demonstration area Hitachi machines show how flexible Kiesel system solutions are.

Issue 03 | 2010



Kiesel: For material handling Kiesel offers various system solutions, which do justice to the tough requirements of handling, and as such optimize the handling performance.

FOR MORE INFORMATION AND CONTACT: Kiesel GmbH Baindter Strasse 29 88255 Baienfurt | Germany Tel.: +49 (0)751 - 500 40 Fax: +49 (0)751 - 500 48 88 Internet:

Kiesel GmbH Alexandra Schweiker Tel.: +49 (0)751 - 50 04 45 Fax: +49 (0)751 - 50 04 50 eMail: Internet: Kiesel: For material handling Kiesel offers various system solutions, which do justice to the tough requirements of handling, and as such optimize the handling performance.

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NEWS & REPORTS R O T E C GmbH & Co. KG Rohstoff-Technik


The Natural expanded silicate is unbeatable in its eco-logical and Versatile properties:

nhanced Natural expanded silicate upgrades end-products environmentally, making it user friendly and versatile. ROTEC GmbH & Co. KG makes it possible. The company mines the mineral raw material, refines it, and supplies almost all industry branches with specific granulates. Customers preferably use the lightweight aggregate from ROTEC, since it is a purely mineral natural product whose specific properties positively enhance each finished product and significantly improve the focus on the eco-balance of final products.

ABased on the former studies and calculations for the LCA according to ISO 14040 by the Institute for Polymer Testing and Polymer Science (ICM) and the Institute of Construction Materials (IWB) through the University of Stuttgart results a primary energy consumption of around 805 MJ / m³. For the pure „expanded silicate-share“ for extraction, reclamation and removal only around 150 to 200 MJ / m³ are presumed.

Some 15 years ago, studies as part of the research project „Life Cycle of building materials and buildings” were underway by the Institute for Polymer Testing and Polymer Science (ICM) and the Institute of Construction Materials (IWB) at the University of Stuttgart. At that time, 50 companies and associations of the construction industry were involved: in the areas of earth and stones, insulation materials and thermal insulation systems, roof, window and facade technology, heating and building services (MEP), including the professional association of the pumice and lightweight concrete industry. Today, analogous studies and environmental declarations are issued by the Institute of Building and Environment Association (IBU).

Issue 03 | 2010


NEWS & REPORTS Under the brand name Rotocell Rotec sells a completely dry and ultra light granulate in 8 grains sizes from 0.04 to 4.0 mm, and from 0.09 to 0.3 mm with a bulk density of, say, 390 k/m³.

ROTOPOR The product Rotopor are custom designed and manufactured plant substrate mixtures.

Natural expanded silicate in lightweight concrete blocks is an ecological example

Material and surface condition of the naturally expanded silicate ensure a unique combination of properties: high footfall and stratification stability, absolute frost resistance, balanced water storage and aperture ratio. Globally active and well-known system suppliers rely on Rotopor when used for: drainage layers, leveling fill, green roofs and gardens, plant pellets, water reservoirs, filter materials and fleeces.

As per the outcome of the past studies and calculations for the LCA according to ISO 14040, results show a primary energy consumption of around 805 MJ / m³.

Holistic view

For the plain „expanded silicate-share“ for excavation, reclamation and removal only around 150 to 200 MJ / m³ are presumed.

ROTOCELL Under the brand name Rotocell Rotec sells a completely dry and ultra light weight granulate in 8 grains sizes from 0.04 to 4.0 mm and from 0.09 to 0.3 mm with a bulk density of 390 kg/ m³, for example. Current use and areas of application are: plasters, mortars, fine concretes, construction chemical products, facades and lightweight concrete panels, bulks, oil absorption systems, water filters and bioreactors. Due to many inquiries from all over the world and continuous research, new applications consistently develop.

Based on technical and economic requirements the environmental impacts of products, systems or services must be analyzed and evaluated over the entire product life cycle. The expanded silicate as a lightweight natural product excels. It is exclusively mined in the open pit and transported by truck to be processed at the Rotec plant where it is freed from impurities by sieving and rinsing. In the process, the washing plant is working with a closed water cycle.

Returned to nature Under federal regulations that have been established over time beginning in 1949, extractions of raw materials including pumice have been strictly controlled. The law has protected the balance of ecology and the economy for over 60 years such that only suitable sites are licensed to be excavated with requisite re-cultivation of the impacted land.

FOR MORE INFORMATION AND CONTACT: PR-Office Last & Partner (DH) R O T E C GmbH & Co. KG, Rohstoff-Technik Dielinger Straße 42B Bubenheimer Weg 49074 Osnabrück | Germany 56220 Urmitz | Germany Tel.: +49 (0)5 41 - 58 04 699 Tel.: +49 (0)26 30 - 95 57 40 Tel.: +49 (0)2 61 - 34 06 0 Fax: +49 (0)26 30 - 95 57 49 email: lastpr&, Internet: Internet:,

Issue 03 | 2010



Cat-Maschines build

infrastructure for the 2012 APEC summit

The summit of APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation) taking place on Russky island, close to Vladivostok, Russia, in 2012 has prompted a myriad of construction projects in the area. The massive construction site includes hotels and conference centre, airport reconstruction, highway construction and reconstruction, an opera and ballet theatre, sea facade including port structures and infrastructure, and the Eastern Bosporus Straight Bridge, which will link the continent to the island. The bridge will be the world’s largest cable-stayed bridge upon completion. The works are under way and scheduled to finish by the end of 2011. Several Cat machines are clocking up hours as part of the project. Last year the local Cat dealer Amur Machinery supplied 12 Cat machines and rented 10 additional units to Crocus ZAO, the general contractor laying the groundwork for the summit’s facilities. In February this year, another 17 machines were purchased: four 428E backhoe loaders, a D5NXL, a D6T, a D7G and two D6NXL and two D9R tracktype tractors, three CS56 vibratory soil compactors as well as a 320DL, a 325DL and a 330DL hydraulic excavator. Cat Financial funded the entire mix of track type-tractors and excavators. Crocus ZAO was nominated as the general contractor to fulfill the U.S. $2.5 billion contract in early 2009.

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Caterpillar CIS Industry Sales Manager Robert Thiel commented participation in the construction works: „This project is unique due to the large construction volume in the very limited timeframe. Reliable Cat machines together with world-class product support from Amur Machinery and attractive finance terms from Caterpillar Financial were major drivers for the project. We are proud to be part of this major infrastructure project in Russia,“ The APEC forum includes 21 member economies that are home to more than 2.7 billion people and represent approximately 55 percent of world GDP and 49 percent of world trade.



Caterpillar For more than 80 years, Caterpillar Inc. has been building the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s infrastructure and, in partnership with its worldwide dealer network, is driving positive and sustainable change on every continent. With 2009 sales and revenues of $32.396 billion, Caterpillar is a technology leader and the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s leading manufacturer of construction and mining equipment, diesel and natural gas engines and industrial gas turbines. More information is available at

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FOR MORE INFORMATION AND CONTACT: Press Inquiries Europe, Africa and Middle East Mia Karlsson Tel.: +41 (0) 22 849 46 62 Fax: +41 (0) 22 849 99 93 eMail: Internet:



Kiesel delivers Hitachi EX1900-6 to the Amberg Kaolin Works

Kiesel: An efficient Kiesel system solution: The Hitachi EX1900-6 with the Locmatic rock ripper bucket and sprocket system of Esco during tough operation in the kaolin pit.

End of June 2010 the time had come: The new Hitachi EX1900-6 started its operation in the open cast mine of the Kaolin plant Hirschau/Schnaittenbach of the Amberg Kaolin work. The 190 ton dredger with the backactor equipment mines raw kaolin in breaking- and loading operations, and the Kaolin is processed and refined right on site. . Raw Kaolin is a fine, iron-free white rock, containing kaolinite as the main component, which is a weathering product of feldspar. By receiving approximately two thirds of the globally produced kaolin, the paper industry is its biggest user.

Kaolin for all of Europe One of the most significant Kaolin-, quartz sand- and feldspar deposits is located in the Hirschau-Schnaittenbach dip. In Schnaittenbach, industry minerals have already been mined since 1833, and in Hirschau since 1901. In 1993 both works merged to form the Kaolin works of Amberg, which a few years later turned into a subsidiary company of the quartz works company in Frechen. The most modern technologies are used to efficiently separate the raw earth into the industry minerals kaolin, feldspar and quartz, with a complex classification.

Issue 03 | 2010

Kiesel: The residents were invited to see the dredger. Up to now, they had felt the vibrations of the loosening blasts in the kaolin pit. This will not be the case with the Hitachi EX1900-6.



Kiesel: The residents were invited to see the dredger. Up to now, they had felt the vibrations of the loosening blasts in the kaolin pit. This will not be the case with the Hitachi EX1900-6.

Hitachi Power Pack starts operation When the decision was to made to purchase a new dredger for extraction of raw earth, the Amberg Kaolin works chose the Hitachi EX1900-6 from Kiesel. Then, in June 2010, the large excavator produced in Japan was delivered with nine trucks to its site. â&#x20AC;&#x201C; The EX1900-6 is one of the few 200 ton dredgers that currently can be operated in Germany. It took the Kiesel experts one week to assemble the individual parts to a real power pack. The 1.086 PS Hitachi EX1900-6 with the 8,30-m-BE-boom and 3,60-m-BE-shaft will operate on a 5,60 m undercarriage with 800 mm wide base plates. The Hitachi machine is mainly characterized by its excellent hydraulic function, which ensures a quick and highly productive loading process. Furthermore it is characterized by highest quality undercarriages, slew ring and drive section, which ensure cost-effectiveness during its long life time. In addition, the comfortable cabin and numerous improvements in operation and safety lead to further ease of operation and maintenance. One more truck was needed for the transport of the 16.5 ton heavy rock ripper bucket of Loc-matic, which, due to its specific construction and the used high-strength material, promises first-class breaking loads and highest fillingtorque. The strengthened channel wall (inner bar) absorbs the forces at the protruding middle sprocket, which occur in extreme breaking operations. For this operation, the sprocket system 85SV2 of the Kiesel system partner Esco was lined with a tungsten carbide layer, therefore it is characterized by an outstandingly high wear resistance and highest cost-efficiency.

Issue 03 | 2010

Kiesel An efficient Kiesel system solution: The Hitachi EX1900-6 with the Locmatic rock ripper bucket and sprocket system of Esco during tough operation in the kaolin pit.

Provision of services Among others, the decision of purchasing a Hitachi was made by the Amberg Kaolin company because of the availability of support and comprehensive consultation for operations. With its comprehensive service concept, Kiesel guarantees a non-bureaucratic and competent service at any time. Currently the Kiesel service team comprises of 350 technicians, as well as approximately 50 trainees as construction- and agricultural machinery technicians. A further 100 staff of the Kiesel group take care of the accessories and spare parts distribution field. In order to ensure an efficient and smooth workflow for its clients, Kiesel focuses on an excellent service. FOR MORE INFORMATION AND CONTACT: Kiesel GmbH Baindter Strasse 29 88255 Baienfurt | Germany Tel.: +49 (0)751 - 500 40 Fax: +49 (0)751 - 500 48 88 Internet:

Kiesel GmbH Alexandra Schweiker Tel.: +49 (0)751 - 50 04 45 Fax: +49 (0)751 - 50 04 50 eMail: Internet:




THE AMS-EVENT CALENDER October 2010 04 - 08 Okt 2010 Electra Mining Africa 2010

Johannesburg, South Africa

05 - 07 Okt 2010 iPAD DRC: Mining and Infrastructure Exhibition

Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo

05 - 07 Okt 2010 INTERGEO 2010

Köln, Germany

06 - 09 Okt 2010 IV International Mining Fair

Medellin, Colombia

Freiberg, Germany

10 - 13 Okt 2010 GeoDarmstadt2010

Darmstadt, Germany

19 - 21 Okt 2010 Intensive seminar geothermal energy: Development of geothermic-projects

Munich, Germany

24 - 27 Okt 2010 MEMO 2010 - The Maintenance Engineering/Mine Operators‘ Conference

Ontario, Canada

26 - 29 Okt 2010 China Coal Expo

Beijing, China

28 - 29 Okt 2010 7. Sächsischer Geothermietag

Torgau, Germany

28 - 29 Okt 2010 TBM Conference

London, England

03 - 04 Nov 2010 The Africa Mining Conference

London, England

SITP Algier - 8th International Trade Fair for Public Works and Construction 07 - 10 Nov 2010 Machinery

Algier, Algeria

09 - 12 Nov 2010 Metal-Expo 2010

Moskau, Russia

11 - 11 Nov 2010 Process Mineralogy ´10

Cape Town, South Africa

10 - 13 Nov 2010 IMME 2010, 10th International Mining & Machinery Exhibition

Kolkota, India

11 - 14 Nov 2010 Mining Turkey

Istanbul, Turkey

08 Okt 2010 39. Geomechanik-Kolloquium

November 2010

14 - 16 Nov 2010 Cleanmining 2010

Santiago, Chile

16 - 18 Nov 2010 China Mining 2010

Tianjin, China

23 - 26 Nov 2010 MINE CLOSURE 2010

Santiago, Chile

23 - 25 Nov 2010 Symposium Mines Guinée 2010 (SMG 2010)

Conakry, République de Guinée

23 - 26 Nov 2010 Bauma China 2010

Beijing, China

Aachen, Germany

25 - 29 Nov 2010

Issue 03 | 2010

7th WBI-International Shortcourse Rock Mechanics, Stability and Design of Tunnels and Slopes




THE AMS-EVENT CALENDER December 2010 VII Congresso Suramericano de Mecรกnica de Rocas - ISRM South American 02 - 04 Dez 2010 Regional Symposium 2010

Lima, Peru

05 - 11 Dez 2010 4 Courses in Rock Mechanics/Engineering Geology

Lima, Peru

06 - 07 Dez 2010 Open Cut Operators 2010

Mackay, Australia

08 - 09 Dez 2010 2nd Indonesia Mining 2010

Bali, Indonesia

28 - 30 Dez 2010 2010 IEEE International Conference on Physics Science and Technology

Hong Kong, China

07 - 09 Jan 2011 2011 International Conference on Life Science and Technology

Mumbai, India

08 - 14 Jan 2011 23rd Colloquium of African Geology

Johannesburg, South Africa

18 - 19 Jan 2011 Drill & Blast Europe

Stockholm, Sweden

21 - 22 Jan 2011 17th Drill- and Blast engineering colloquium 2011

Clausthal, Germany

21 - 23 Jan 2011 2011 International Conference on Advanced Material Research - ICAMR 2011

Chongqing, China

25 - 26 Jan 2011 Regional Mining Metals and Minerals Summit - Turkey

Istanbul, Turkey

January 2011

free of charge

digital informative

Issue 03 | 2010


EVENTS Rohstoffversorgungstechnik

Rohstoffgewinnung, Aufbereitung und Veredlung

Weiterbildungsangebot Lehrgang für Fachund Führungskräfte in der mineralischen Rohstoffindustrie

16. - 18.02.2011 Mittwoch, 16. Februar 2011

Planung und Projektierung - Einführung in die Tagebautechnik - Lagerstättenerfassung und -bewertung - Rechtliche Rahmenbedingungen der Rohstoffgewinnung im Tagebau - Tagebauprojektierung - Tagebauzuschnitt und Abbauplanung - Hauptprozesse der Rohstoffgewinnung im Tagebau Donnerstag, 17. Februar 2011

Betriebsmittel und Prozesse der Rohstoffgewinnung - Auswahl und Dimensionierung von Tagebaugeräten - Lösen, Laden, Transportieren - Betriebsmittel im Lockergestein (Sand und Kies, Braunkohle, Ton) - Betriebsmittel im Festgestein (Naturstein und Kalkstein) - Betriebsmittel in der Nassgewinnung Freitag, 18. Februar 2011


Univ. Prof. Dr.-Ing. habil. H. Tudeshki Dr.-Ing. K. Freytag Dr.-Ing. V. Vogt Dipl.-Ing. T. Hardebusch


Der Tagungsbeitrag von Euro 1300,- (zzgl. ges. MwSt.) beinhaltet die Teilnahme an der Lehrveranstaltung. Der Selbstkostenbeitrag für Getränke, Mittagessen und eine Exkursion mit Abendveranstaltung beträgt Euro 150,- (zzgl. ges. MwSt.). Veranstalter und Organisator

Lehrstuhl für Tagebau und Internationaler Bergbau Institut für Bergbau, TU Clausthal Erzstraße 20 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld Telefon: +49 (0) 53 23 / 72 22 25 Telefax: +49 (0) 53 23 / 72 23 71

Rohstoffaufbereitung - Aufbereitung und Veredlung von Steine-und-Erden - Analyse - Zerkleinern, Klassieren, Sortieren - Entwässern, Trocknen Issue 03 | 2010



Metso legt nach: Ähnlich groß wie schon auf der steinexpo 2008 wird die Präsentation des Ausstellers auch zur 8. Steinbruchdemonstrationsmesse im nächsten Spätsommer ausfallen.

steinexpo 2011 –

Drehscheibe für Neuheiten in der Aufbereitung mineralischer Rohstoffe! September 2010: Führende Anbieter von Aufbereitungstechnik planen bereits jetzt ihren Auftritt auf der 8. steinexpo, Internationale Demonstrationsmesse für die Roh- und Baustoffindustrie. Motiviert durch den Erfolg ihres Messeauftritts während der vorangegangenen Veranstaltung, haben beispielsweise die Metso Minerals (Deutschland) GmbH und die Sandvik Mining & Construction Central Europe GmbH vergleichbar groSSe Areale wie beim letzten Mal für die Präsentation und Demonstration ihrer Produkte und Prozesse gebucht.

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Gerüstet für drinnen und draußen: Fachlicher Austausch und Demonstrationen spielen auch am Sandvik-Stand wieder eine Hauptrolle.

Die Vermietung von Messeflächen an Aussteller, bei klassischen Messeveranstaltern eher ein unspektakuläres Standardgeschäft, gestaltet sich im Steinbruch um einiges abenteuerlicher. In den seltensten Fällen kann dem Buchungswunsch: „Wir belegen genau die gleiche Fläche wie beim letzten Mal.“ eins zu eins entsprochen werden. Schließlich geht der Gewinnungsbetrieb zwischen den Messen, die im dreijährigen Rhythmus stattfinden, regulär weiter. Allerdings hat die Mitteldeutsche Hartsteinindustrie (MHI) als Betreiber des „Messesteinbruchs“ mittlerweile auch viel Erfahrung darin, Gewinnung und Platzbedarf der steinexpo geschickt miteinander zu verknüpfen. Dank dieser eingespielten Kooperation ist es ein gutes Jahr vor dem Start der steinexpo in 2011 möglich, interessierten Ausstellern genau ihre Wunschfläche zu realisieren, selbst wenn an die Größe hohe Anforderungen gestellt werden. Schließlich wollen Unternehmen wie die Metso Minerals (Deutschland) GmbH und die Sandvik Mining & Construction Central Europe GmbH während einer steinexpo nicht kleckern, sondern sich in gleichermaßen beeindruckender Weise präsentieren, wie sie dies bereits während der Demo-Show 2008 getan haben. Das Management beider Unternehmen unterstreicht mit diesem Engagement letztlich, was die AusstellerUmfrage in 2008 belegte, nämlich höchste Zufriedenheit mit dem Messeergebnis: Der hohe Fachbesucheranteil von rund 90 %, ausgestattet mit erstklassigem Wissen und hoher Entscheidungskompetenz macht die Demonstrationsmesse im Steinbruch zu genau dem Ereignis, das sich Aussteller und Besucher, die im gleichen Marktumfeld agieren, wünschen.

Klassische Branche mit neuen Nachfrageschwerpunkten Die passende Technik, um aus großen Steinen kleine Steine in definierten Körnungen herzustellen, ist in ausgereiften Generationen längst verfügbar. Dennoch hat auch gute Technik immer einen Feind; und das ist die noch bessere Technik. Mit ihrer Hilfe lassen sich Brechstufen zusammenfassen oder auch dem Trend zur Spezialisierung auf besonders nachfragegerechte Körnungen folgen. Nicht zuletzt neue Baustoffrezepturen im Asphalt- und Betonbereich sind dafür verantwortlich,

Metso legt nach: Ähnlich groß wie schon auf der steinexpo 2008 wird die Präsentation des Ausstellers auch zur 8. Steinbruchdemonstrationsmesse im nächsten Spätsommer ausfallen.

Issue 03 | 2010



WEITERE INFORMATIONEN UND KONTAKT: Fachlich: Geoplan GmbH Josef-Herrmann-Straße 1-3 76473 Iffezheim | Deutschland Tel.: +43 (0)72 29 - 606 - 30 Fax: +43 (0)72 29 - 606 - 10 eMail: Internet: Redaktionell: gsz-Fachpressebüro Pestalozzistr. 2 13187 Berlin | Deutschland Tel.: +43 (0)30 - 47 37 62 25 Fax: +43 (0)30 - 91 20 38 04 eMail:

Gerüstet für drinnen und draußen: Fachlicher Austausch und Demonstrationen spielen auch am Sandvik-Stand wieder eine Hauptrolle.

dass die Nachfrage nach wachsenden Mengen höherwertiger Körnungen anzieht. Um dieser Spezialisierung zu folgen, reicht das Gewohnte nicht aus. Doch nicht nur die großen Produzenten folgen diesem Trend, auch Mittelständler und kleine Unternehmen nutzen den Weg zum Spezialisten, um ihre Wertschöpfung zu erhöhen. In diesem Fall sind es vor allem mobile Anlagen, an die nochmal neue Anforderungen gestellt werden. Doch ob nun mobil oder stationär – eines gilt für alle aktuellen Möglichkeiten in der Aufbereitung mineralischer Massen: Die Automatisierung ist auf dem Siegeszug! Dadurch sind ganze Prozesse kontrollier- und korrigierbar, besser vor unerwarteten Ausfällen geschützt und sie werden auf eine Weise optimiert, die sich durch bloße Mechanik nicht erreichen ließe.

Gerade diese Entwicklung führt letztlich dazu, dass sich klassische Techniklieferanten in einem Parallelzweig zu Dienstleistern entwickeln. Zur Hardware wird üblicherweise ein gestuftes Wartungsund Serviceportfolio aufgebaut und angeboten. Dieser recht neue Aspekt für die Branche lässt sich natürlich als weicher aber sehr wesentlicher Faktor für eine Investitionsentscheidung schwer ausstellen – oder gar demonstrieren – er lässt sich allerdings gerade im Rahmen einer Demonstrationsmesse wie der steinexpo anhand der dargestellten Prozesse in seiner Bedeutung sehr gut erklären und für die Besucher überzeugend nachvollziehen. Sehr viele Aussteller aus dem Bereich Aufbereitungstechnik werden mit ihren Angeboten genau dieser Markt- und Nachfrageentwicklung mit ihren aktuellen Exponaten gerecht.

steinexpo Als größte und bedeutendste Steinbruchsdemonstrationsmesse auf dem europäischen Kontinent feierte die steinexpo im September 1990 im Steinbruch Niederofleiden ihre Premiere. Die Messe wird im Drei-Jahres-Turnus durchgeführt. Im Rahmen eindrucksvoller Live-Vorführungen vor der Kulisse eines beeindruckenden Steinbruchs zeigen Hersteller und Händler von Bau- und Arbeitsmaschinen, von Nutzfahrzeugen und Skw sowie von Anlagen zur Rohstoffgewinnung und -aufbereitung ihre Leistungsfähigkeit. Einen weiteren Schwerpunkt der Messe bildet das Recycling mineralischer Baustoffe. Veranstaltet wird die steinexpo von der Geoplan GmbH, Iffezheim.

Issue 03 | 2010



Institut für Bergbau

Ja, wir möchten ausstellen. Bitte setzen Sie sich mit uns in Verbindung.

17. Kolloquium

Anmeldung zum Kolloquium per Fax: +49 (0)5323 72-2371 • per E-Mail: • im Internet unter per Post: Institut für Bergbau, Erzstraße 20, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Bitte für jeden Teilnehmer eine eigene Anmeldung ausfüllen. Die Rechnung wird Ihnen nach der Anmeldung per Post zugesendet)

Name, Vorname:







Institut für Bergbau

Bohr- und Sprengtechnik 21. und 22. Januar 2011 in Clausthal- Zellerfeld

rs e ap p r o f l l a c

Zeitplan und Fristen Abgabe der Kurzfassungen der Vorträge: 1. August 2010 Bekanntgabe der Vortragsthemen: 1. September 2010 Abgabe der Druckversion zur Veröffentlichung des Vortrages: 1. November 2010 Kolloquium: 21. und 22. Januar 2011

17. Kolloquium

Veranstalter und Kontakt

Bohr- und Sprengtechnik

Technische Universität Clausthal Institut für Bergbau Erzstraße 20 D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld Telefax: (0 53 23) 72-23 71 E-Mail: info@bus2011 Internet: Dipl.-Vw. Mirco Kappler Lehrstuhl für Tagebau und Internationaler Bergbau Telefon: (0 53 23) 72-21 59 Dipl.-Wirtsch.-Ing. Heiner Berger Abteilung für Maschinelle Betriebsmittel und Verfahren im Bergbau unter Tage Telefon: (0 53 23) 72-31 79 Veranstaltungsort Aula der Technischen Universität Clausthal Aulastraße 1 D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld

21. und 22. Januar 2011 in Clausthal- Zellerfeld

rs e ap p r o f l l a c




Im Jahre 1632 kam es zur ersten belegbaren Anwendung der Sprengtechnik im Oberharzer Bergbau. Nicht nur die sehr frühe Anwendung der Schießarbeit, sondern auch die Verwendung des brisanten Sprengstoffes, im Jahre 1866, im selben Jahr, in dem Alfred Nobel das Dynamit erfand, zeugen vom Ideereichtum und der Durchsetzungskraft früher Generationen von Harzer Bergleuten.

Unserer 35-jährigen Tradition folgend, möchten wir den Teilnehmern auch dieses Mal hochkarätige Vorträge sowohl aus Wissenschaft und Forschung, vor allem aber aus der betrieblichen Praxis bieten.

Im Rahmen des Kolloquiums wird ebenfalls eine Fachausstellung stattfinden. Hierzu stehen Ausstellungsflächen für 80 €/m² zur Verfügung.

Wir wollen Sie daher auffordern, selbst aktiv mit einem Vortrag an der Veranstaltung teilzunehmen. Interessant sind vor allem Vortragsthemen, die die Anwendung der Bohr- und Sprengtechnik in den verschiedensten Einsatzgebieten aus Anwendersicht vorstellen und besondere Herausforderungen oder die Anwendung neuer Technologien schildern.

Alle Beiträge des Kolloquiums werden in einem Tagungsband sowie in dem Magazin AMS ONLINE Advanced Mining Solutions veröffentlicht.

Seit 1976 kommen traditionell alle zwei Jahre Experten aus dem nationalen und internationalen Bergbau aber auch verwandten Branchen in Clausthal zusammen, um Erfahrungen, Erkenntnisse und Entwicklungen zum neuesten Stand der Technik im Bohr- und Sprengwesen auszutauschen und zu diskutieren. Mit dem 17. Bohr- und Sprengtechnischem Kolloquium am 21. und 22. Januar 2011 wird rund 380 Jahre nach der ersten Anwendung der Sprengtechnik im Oberharzer Bergbau auch dieses mal eine Diskussionsplattform für Vertreter von Unternehmen, Behörden, Hochschulen und anderen Einrichtungen geschaffen werden. In den vergangenen Jahren konnten wir durchschnittlich 300 Fachbesucher in Clausthal anlässlich unseres Kolloquiums und der begleitenden Fachausstellung begrüßen.

Das Paper sollte mind. 1 Seite, aber höchstens 8 Seiten umfassen. Eine kurze Zusammenfassung am Beginn des Beitrags wäre hilfreich, ebenso Tabellen, Grafiken und Bilder. Zusätzlich sollten Angaben zur Person des Vortragenden, idealerweise ein kurzer Lebenslauf sowie die Kontaktdaten ergänzt werden. Alle akzeptierten und präsentierten Beiträge der Konferenz werden in einem Tagungsband und im Magazins AMS ONLINE Advanced Mining Solutions veröffentlicht. Bitte richten Sie Ihre Vorschläge unter dem Stichwort „BUS 2011“ bis zum 1. August 2010 an die angegebene Kontaktadresse.

Tagungsgebühr • Teilnehmer 250,-€ (zzgl. 19 % MwSt.) • Bergbehörden 100,-€ (zzgl. 19 % MwSt.) • Studenten 20,-€ (zzgl. 19 % MwSt.) Die Tagungsgebühr beinhaltet: • • • •

Tagungsmaterial Pausengetränke Mittagsimbiss an beiden Tagen Teilnahme am Bergmännischen Abend auf dem Haus des Corps Montania (21.1.2011).

Zimmerreservierung Bitte wenden Sie sich für Zimmerreservierungen direkt unter dem Stichwort „BUS 2011“ an: Hotel Goldene Krone Harzhotel zum Prinzen Landhaus Kemper Pension am Hexenturm

(0 53 23) 93 00 (0 53 23) 9 66 10 (0 53 23) 17 74 (0 53 23) 13 30

Oder an die Tourist Information: Telefon: (0 53 23) 8 10 24 Email: Internet:

Issue 03 | 2010



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Issue 03 | 2010

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The Professional Journal for the Mining Business