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Woro Ayu Sekararum

Kevin Eliezer Ferdinandus

Rahman bin Anwar

Hsiang Yun

Bek mirova Alina

Rana Ghareeb

Yeke Yu

Usakorn Cheawdamrongchai

Jeevan Ghimire

Daniell Edward Raharjo

Srinidhii Murugappan

Sekar Ratna Arnovita


FAIZ ULURRO SYAD Faiz Ulurrosyad is currently in his 4th year of medical studying in Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia. He is eager to meet new people, learn new and different ideas, and he is really intrigued to be a part of something bigger. He has been ac ve in numerous AMSA ac vi es in his university and in AMSA-Indonesia since his first year and his now driven to dedicate his me and knowledge to AMSA Interna onal.

ANALIA LEV INA Analia Levina is a Liaison Officer Associa on of Medical Doctors of Asia for Asian Medical Students’ Associa on Interna onal (LO AMDA for AMSA Interna onal) for tenure 18/19. Before being LO AMDA, she had several experiences on liaising between organiza ons. She was a liaison officer for several events and organiza ons before and also managing partnership with other NGO. Levina is currently being a vice leader for a charity associa on called @spread.project. Levina is recently a fourth year of a medical student at Pelita Harapan University, Indonesia. When she is not occupied by her school works she likes to travel. This passion of hers is also what drives her to apply as an execu ve commi ee for AMSA Interna onal.

FIANT I RAT NA D EW I Fian Ratna Dewi is currently a fourth-year medical student in University of Indonesia. Born and raised in Indonesia, the country of diversity, Fian has grown to be an open-minded person who is also passionate about social and charity works. She also loves the English language and enjoys connec ng with people. In her leisure me, she enjoys traveling and going to music fes vals, keeping all experiences documented on her personal social media. If you want to know more regarding AMSA Interna onal and the IFMSA's collabora on, feel free to contact her. In


NIC HO LAS C ALV IN Nicholas Calvin is currently a third-year medical student in University of Indonesia. His journey in AMSA started since he was a first-year medical student, he was a member of Membership and Development Team in AMSA-Indonesia. Since then, he discovers his passion to connect with many new people around the globe and create a rela onship - for us, together, to contribute for the be erment of medical field and humanity around the globe. Currently, he is entrusted to become an LO to European Medical Students’ Associa on (EMSA), in which he firmly Eu believes AMSA could bigger its scope - together with EMSA - giving the upmost benefits for medical students and medical field, both in Asia and in Europe. If you have any inquiries regarding EMSA and AMSA Interna onal, feel free to contact him!

G ABR IELLA ANINDYAH Gabriella is an outgoing, bold, and cheerful person who would light up the room. Born and raised in Jakarta, Indonesia, she is currently studying her 4th year in Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia. With her extensive interest, form music, travel, movies, and art, she enjoys having conversa ons about everything. As for social and academic ac vi es, she has experience in debate, has interest conferences and exchange programs. Feel free to contact her if you have ques ons about ALSA and AMSA Interna onal. AM

M . P R IM A C AKRA RANDANA Muhammad Prima Cakra Randana is a fi h-year medical student, class of 2014. He is from Palembang, Indonesia and currently trusted as the Liaison Officer to Asia-Pacific Dental Students Associa on (APDSA). He has been ac ve in AMSA since his second year by becoming the Execu ve Board (Secretary of Academic and Research) in his local university and becoming a part of the Na onal Team (Academic Team) in his local chapter. In his free me, he loves to watch soccer games, both the na onal team and club managed to a ract his interest.


MYTH BU

Fives myths ab that you didn’t k in the fir

Doing eye exercises will delay the need for glasses.

Eating carrots is good for the eyes.

TRUTH:

TRUTH:

It’s b not to glasses tim

TRU

Eye exercises will not improve or pre-

There is some truth in this one. Carrots,

If you need glasses f

serve vision or reduce the need for

which contain vitamin A, are one of

ing, use them. Attem

glasses. Your vision depends on many

several vegetables that are good for the

out reading glasses

factors, including the shape of your eye

eyes. But fresh fruits and dark green

your eyes and tire th

and the health of the eye tissues, none

leafy vegetables, which contain more

glasses won’t worsen

of which can be significantly altered

antioxidant vitamins such as C and E, are

with eye exercises.

even better.

to any eye


USTING:

bout eye health know were myths rst place.

best o wear s all the me.

UTH:

Staring at a computer screen is bad for the eyes

Reading in dim light will worsen your vision

TRUTH:

TRUTH:

for distance or read-

Although using a computer will not

Although dim lighting will not adversely

mpting to read with-

harm your eyes, staring at a computer

affect your eyesight, it will tire your eyes

s will simply strain

screen all day will contribute to

out more quickly.

hem out. Using your

eyestrain or tired eyes. People who

n your vision or lead

stare at a computer screen for long

e disease.

periods tend not to blink as often as usual, which can cause the eyes to feel dry and uncomfortable.

Read more at: https://www.health.harvard.edu/ healthbeat/safeguarding-your-sight


THOUGHTS AND OPINIONS ON WORLD SIGHT DAY


AMSA-China

“Volunteer services can

effectively reduce medical costs, enabling low-income people to take eye screening

1.

Zheng Qiao Fudan University, Shanghai, China

�


PROMOTING EYE SCREENING: WHY NOW AND WHAT WE CAN DO Good eyesight is indispensable in both work and daily life. Visually received information accounts for 80% of overall information received. So, it’s rather important that we should raise awareness of eyesight protection worldwide, especially in developing countries, due to their lack of routine eye screening and social support system for eyesight-compromised community. World Sight Day is a global event that focuses on bringing attention on blindness and vision impairment. It is observed on the second Thursday of October each year[1]. The upcoming World Sight Day offers an opportunity to promote eye protection. Advocating regular eye screening is an important part of promoting vision protection. According to studies, medical intervention in the early stages of visual impairment can effectively improve the prognosis. In case of some ophthalmic emergencies leading to blindness, such as acute angle-closure glaucoma, an early diagnosis can prevent disease progression and acute exacerbations, greatly reducing rate of visual impairment. Speaking of some chronic diseases such as cataracts, early diagnosis and regular review can delay or prevent the disease from developing to the point where surgery is the only choice.

Early screening and diagnosis of ophthalmic diseases can not only benefit the health of the population, but also reduce the medical expenses for treating ophthalmic emergency and ophthalmic surgery. Therefore, it is also feasible to promote eye screening from the perspective of health economics. Recognizing the importance of eye screening is only the first step in making a change, acting matters more. As medical students, we can take the following actions:

Promote eye screening in our own community. Thanks to community education, smoking and blood pressure control have drawn more attention in China in past years. Now it’s rare to see someone smoking in public in Shanghai; more and more patients are presented to clinic, complaining of high blood pressure instead of stroke or heart attack. These changes are inspiring. Likewise, if we spare no effort promoting eye screening, public awareness can be lifted. We could distribute flyers, or brochures, put up slogans, or even talk people into routine eye screening door to door.

Volunteer in local ophthalmologic clinics

hospital

or

Volunteer services can effectively reduce medical costs, enabling low-income people to take eye screening. Although operations such as fundus examinations require high-yield doctors, trained medical students are competent for basic eye exams.

Call help from government and NGO Many NGOs are devoted to providing accessible health care, and governments are responsible to pay medical bills. It’s crucial for us to reach out and get help.


RAISING PEOPLE’S AWARENESS ABOUT EYE HEALTH: WHY IS IT IMPORTANT? Imagine one day, you wake up lying on your cozy bed and feel the warmth of the sun shining onto your body. You realize that today is your day. But suddenly, when you open your eyes, all the things you see dissolve into nothingness. What would you do?

light, a n d resting the eyes after long usage.

1.

Eyes as one of the important sense organs of our body play an important role for us to live our daily lives. There is a part of the Holy Bible in the book of Matthew 6:22-24 that states,

“So if your eye is well and shows you what is true, then your whole body will be filled with light.” This can be implied that people with good vision are more likely to see something better than who do not, resulting in personal development in many aspects.

Nowadays, there are a large number of cases of visual impairment around the world and the number will increase in the future, according to studies. I think that if people become more aware of their eye health, there will be a lot of benefits for individuals and society, such as being able to live their lives happily and lessening the number of patients with eye diseases.

Having good vision is something that is not hard to have, but keeping it in a good condition is. A lot of factors can worsen your vision, such as genetics, technology, and behavior; however, only the individual can determine whether their eyes will remain in good condition or not, depending on personal habits. There are many ways to keep eyes healthy; for example: eating food that is rich in vitamin A, avoiding staring directly to bright light sources, wearing glasses that reduce the number of blue

Another reason why raising eye health awareness is important is that if one feels that there are some symptoms indicating visual impairment, they should go to the hospital for early diagnosis and early treatment, both of which will reduce the opportunity of permanent eye damage. This is one way that can help lessen the amount of patients with chronic eye disease; moreover, it can reduce the financial and time strain for the patient, insurance companies, health professionals, and society. As a medical student, I realize that there are many ways to prevent people from developing visual impairment, but the most efficient way is to teach them the right way to take care of their eyes and the signs and symptoms of visual impairment that can occur. As you can see, eyes are one of the most vital organs that allow us to see the gorgeous world as it is today. Thus, we should be aware of the diseases that can occur by using our eyes the right way and also be aware of its early detection. As a result, our eyes will shine brightly, not only with health but with knowledge of the world.


AMSA-Thailand

“the most efficient way is to

teach them the right way to take care of their eyes and the signs and symptoms of visual impairment that can occur

2.

�

Achitpol Thongkam Chulalongkorn University, Thailand


AMSA-Thailand

“It is easy to forget that we

have the opportunity to learn in-depth about various disorders

�

3.

Benyapa Wongsaravit Rangsit University, Thailand


BENYAPA’S THOUGHTS AND OPINIONS ON EYE HEALTH

Visual impairments usually are 90% avoidable or treatable if eye health becomes a matter of public interest. Eye health is considered a global health concern and according to World Health Organization (WHO), it is now estimated that approximately 1.3 billion people have some form of visual impairments. Currently, we live in the 21st century also known as the Information Age. The abundant consumption of information especially by computer and computer networks will likely increase the percentage of visually impaired individuals especially with the increasing availability of technology like computers, phones, and tablets which lead to several symptoms of eye stress. Both from a global and personal perspective, eye health and vision care are crucial. The lack of action to increase the public’s knowledge concerning vision care is detrimental to public health care system since it has a deep impact on not only the affected individual but to his or her families and friends as well.

Personally, I feel that there should a sense of personal and social responsibility to raise awareness of the lack of knowledge in eye health care. As a medical student, eye health care is viewed as a common knowledge within the healthcare community thus, the idea that eye health is still treated as a global health issue should be concerning. This serves to highlight that there is yet enough spread of knowledge between physicians and the common populace. It is easy to forget that we have the opportunity to learn in-depth about various disorders and learn about their appropriate treatments and diagnosis. Meanwhile, the public has slight knowledge about these exclusive medical topics therefore it is imperative for future medical students and current physicians to raise awareness of these topics to their patients and offer suggestions to preserve their long-term eye health such as recommending taking an eye screening test, practicing simple eye exercise to alleviate eye fatigue or wearing protective eyewear like sunglasses to defend against ultraviolet radiation.


MAKE IT CLEAR— VISION SCREENING AND EYE CARE IN TAIWAN Do you have clear vision with your naked eyes? To know if one has clarity of vision, he or she can receive a visual acuity test. People can assess the visual acuity, which shows the clarity of vision, by undergoing vision screening. |In fact, Taiwan government provides school-aged students with free vision screening service every semester. Once a student gets visual screening data with the number below 0.9, he or she will be considered having failed the test and a further eye examination in clinics will be suggested. Surprisingly, up to 25.64% first grader and 77.35% ninth graders in Taiwan in 2017 failed their vision screening test, reported by Ministry of Education in Taiwan. This data has apparently showed how prevalent the problem of poor vision is among school-aged children and teenagers in Taiwan nowadays. Here comes the question—what’s the role of vision screening for the eye care? Vision screening at school helps indicate cases with present or potential vision problems. Those who have failed screening tests will be suggested an optometrist for further examinations. A common concern related to vision in school-aged students in Taiwan is myopia, also known as nearsightedness. According to Ministry of Health and Welfare in Taiwan, last year, the rate of ninth graders whose spherical equivalent objective refractive error lower than–0.50 diopter in either eye is 89.3%. Since students with early onset of myopia tend to suffer from greater myopia progression, followed by high myopia and many other severe visual impairment, including retinal detachment, cataract, etc, vision screening test is crucial to find out students in need of early treatment as a precaution. Visual acuity tests in schools also provide integrate and annually-updated data on a national

population base. Not only students themselves but their parents will be informed of their failure of the vision screening, raising the awareness of eye care from individual to nationwide level. However, we should also bear in mind that passing vision tests does not 100% guarantee one’s good eye health. The main purpose of vision screening is to raise people’s awareness of their eye problems and remind patients to receive proper treatment as early as possible; rather, good habits of eyes-using and regular visual care and tests are keys to our clear vision. Therefore, for those who have met the criteria of vision tests, to avoid misuse of eyes is fairly important. Vision screening helps to find out students with potential vision risks at the early stage. With appropriate referral to medical professionals for further examinations and treatments, progression of little eye problems, like myopia, to worse illnesses can possibly be prevented. Furthermore, nationalbased screening for students also provides statistics for research and raises the public’s awareness of eye care. All in all, beneficial impacts of visual acuity tests for students provided by the government have played an important role in the health field and deserved our attention.

1.


AMSA-Taiwan

“good habits of eyes-using and regular visual care and tests are keys to our clear vision”

4.

Hsiao Chun Huang National Yang Ming University, Taiwan National Statistic Macro Database中中中中中中中中中. (2018.04.30). Failure rate of vision screening for student中中中中中中中. Retrieved October 16, 2018, from http://statdb.dgbas.gov.tw/pxweb/Dialog/varval. asp?ma=ER0109A1A&ti=%BE%C7%A5%CD%B5%F8%A4O%A4%A3%A8}%B2v-%A6~&path=../PXfile/Education/&lang=9&strList=L

Ministry of Health and Welfare in Taiwan. (2018.05.04) 中中中中中中中中中中中中中中123中中中中中中中中中. Retrieved October 16, 2018, from https://www.mohw.gov.tw/cp-16-41061-1.html.


AMSA-Thailand

“early detection for signs of

visual impairment can prevent irreparable damage in the long run

�

5.

Benyapa Wongsaravit Rangsit University, Thailand


BENYAPA’S THOUGHTS AND OPINIONS ON EYE SCREENING have no visual complications that could interfere with school performance and damage a child’s educational career. An early check-up can preserve the children healthy eye conditions and the ophthalmologist can prescribe glasses if needed. For adults and the elderlies, it is recommended that may

a routine check-up is favorable since it increases the

seem intimidating and too

chance to discover early signs of a visual disorder.

much of a hassle, however,

Based on statistics, adults over the age of 40 are

eye screening serve as a basis for

recommended to have a routine check-up every

an ophthalmologist to determine and

two years and elderlies over 65 are recommended

Eye

screening

detect early signs of visual impairment

for an annual check-up.

and disorders. Different from a detailed eye examination, eye screening is a relatively short

Eye Screening is accessible to everyone and is not

exam that indicates the presence of visual problems.

too costly. Many assume that an eye screening

This includes simple tests such as shining a penlight

is only needed when someone is experiencing

in the eye to test for pupil abnormalities or reading

ongoing eye pain or migraines. It is important to

a visual acuity chart to test for short-sightedness

understand that the early detection for signs of

and long-sightedness. The eye or vision screening

visual impairment can prevent irreparable damage

test is commonly a precursor test and if there are

in the long run. Eye screening is recommended

any signs of vision problem then usually there is a

to everyone and hopefully, in the future, the idea

follow-up comprehensive eye exam.

of eye screening can become a public knowledge thus lowering the percentage of visually impaired

The vision screening is applicable to all ages ranging from infants to the elderlies. For an infant, eye screening is used to determine the infant’s focusing ability, color vision, and depth perception. For children, visual screening is extremely valuable as early eye examinations ensure that children

individuals in the Thai population.


HOW EYE SCREENING CAN CHANGE THE WORLD Our eyes are the window to the world. They let us see our surroundings, differentiate colors, observe others’ expression and many more. In fact, our eyes are the most developed sensory organ in our body as there is a far larger part of our brain dedicated to our vision than to hear, taste, touch, and smell combined[1]. Despite this, we tend to overlook the importance of our vision and eye screening. According to the WHO, over 1.3 billion people around the world are estimated to be living with some form of vision impairment, and 80% of the vision impairment can be prevented or cured[2]. This indicates the importance of eye screening and how early detection of eye impairment can improve the quality of life of over billion people across the world.

For t h e general adult eye check, eye diseases correlated with aging, such as cataract, diabetic eye disease and age-related macular degeneration (AMD), are checked thoroughly. Since the majority of people with vision impairment are over 50 years old and the leading causes of vision impairment are uncorrected refractive errors and cataracts, eye screening for adults can greatly reduce the number of people with impaired vision and help them to have a better life.

1.

Common eye screening methods involve visual acuity test for near and far vision, intraocular eye pressure test, color vision test and a general check of anterior and posterior eye health. However, there is a slight difference between early childhood, general adult and glaucoma eye screening.

Early childhood eye screening emphasizes on identifying children who are at risk of developing amblyopia or lazy eye disease, which can lead to blindness if not treated at an early age. This has a huge impact on a child’s life as vision plays a key role in his development and ability to learn. Moreover, children with impaired vision are normally not aware of their impairment so they do not tell others about their blurred or distorted vision. However, with eye screening, this problem can be prevented and solved before it’s too late.

Glaucoma is one of the major eye diseases in adults. It is related to the damage of the optic nerve which can result in vision loss and blindness. However, early eye screening, which focuses on the visual field test, optical coherence tomography (the imaging of the optic nerve and retina) and fundus photography, can alleviate and prevent severe vision loss. Eye screening can facilitate the life of people of all ages as we can prevent and cure all sorts of eye diseases. By performing such a simple screening, we can save a child from learning deficit, save a man from vision loss and change someone’s life forever.


AMSA-Thailand

“Eye screening can facilitate

the life of people of all ages as we can prevent and cure all sorts of eye diseases.

�

6.

Weeraya Pruktanakul Chulalongkorn University, Thailand

[1]Understanding Vision Problems -- the Basics. (n.d.). Retrieved October 17, 2018, from https://www. webmd.com/eye-health/understanding-vision-problems-basics#1 [2] Blindness and vision impairment. (n.d.). Retrieved October 17, 2018, from http://www.who.int/newsroom/fact-sheets/detail/blindness-and-visual-impairment General eye screening. (n.d.). Retrieved October 17, 2018, from https://atlaseye.sg/treatments/general-eye-screening Congenital Cataracts in Children. (n.d.). Retrieved October 17, 2018, from https://pediatricretinoblastoma. com/congenital-cataracts-children/ American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www. aapos.org/terms/conditions/107 Facts About Glaucoma. (2015, September 01). Retrieved October 17, 2018, from https://nei.nih.gov/health/ glaucoma/glaucoma_facts


AMSA-Malaysia

“take a break every 20 mins by

looking at something 20 feet away for 20 seconds

�

7.

A Rahman bin Anwar Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia 1.https://opto.ca/health-library/the-20-20-20-rule 2.https://www.healthline.com/health/eye-health/20-20-20rule#research 3.https://www.juststand.org/blog/prevent-eye-strain-with-the-2020-20-rule/


20

As a medical student, the one thing we face more than the medical books are screens, let it be computers or laptops. Screen time is one of the necessities of a student either to search for information, complete your assignments or just having a stress free time. However, as we all know, too much of screen time can lead to irritated eyes and other major effects. The American Academy of Ophthalmology has stated that looking at digital devices do not necessarily damage the eye. Then why the fuss? In general, humans blink approximately 15 times each minute. However, this reduces by half or even to a third when we look at digital devices. This causes unnecessary eye strains

3

which can often lead to dry, irritated and tired eyes. To alleviate this problem, Dr Jeffrey Anshel, has popularized the 20-20-20 rule. The core of the rule is to take a break every 20 mins by looking at something 20 feet away for 20 seconds. A simple habit as this can help our eyes a lot by giving it the necessary rest that it requires. Obviously, not many people can remember to look away every 20 minutes. Fear not, because there are various software out there that keeps tract of this for you.

20

20

mins

feet

20

secs


AKRAWIT’S THOUGHTS AND OPINIONS ON WEARING GLASSES If you wear glasses, chances are you’ve been at least a little bit tempted to investigate the infomercials and books promoting eye exercises. Because, no matter the source, they all advertise an improvement to worsening eyesight without surgery. Reader, if you are both bespectacled and mortified at the thought of surgery, then this is a medical godsend. In addition to this, the occasional program will even suggest that strong advocates may even be able to give up their glasses. If this sounds too good to be true, that’s because it is.

1.

The initial problem of various eye exercise programs is that they have yet to conduct controlled randomized trials, which must be done to establish program effectiveness. A clear lack in trials translates into a significant lack of medical evidence to support their claims that wearing lenses will weaken the eyes and require progressively stronger prescriptions. Moreover, one must also be wary of some programs, as their methods may not have strong foundations in the basic anatomy and physiology of vision. However, with dedication and faith, eye exercises may help delay the need for glasses. This can be done simply and without the need for programs that focus on visual gymnastics. For instance, the fatigue of eye strain – such as excessive close-up screen time, can be easily remedied by taking visual breaks to focus on objects that are further away. Medically, this is supposed to be beneficial, but sometimes, I find it best to retain a positive demeanor and positive outlook on your eyesight. Unfortunately, exercising eye muscles will not eliminate the most common abnormalities that necessitate corrective lenses — namely, nearsightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism, and presbyopia (Age-related farsightedness caused by a loss of elasticity of the lens of the eye).

Eye exercises also, most importantly, have little impact on the risk reduction of glaucoma and macular degeneration. Despite this, the question still stands ‘Will using a weaker prescription than normal somehow train your eyes to see better?’ Arguably, this could be seen as a form of eye exercise, because you are trying to train the eyes to see clearly, albeit on a lower prescription. This is absolutely possible, as some people could be wearing a stronger prescription that they need, so they may be able to tolerate a weaker prescription without much trouble. Since this varies from one person to the next, individuals should experiment with their prescription to find a balance. Ultimately, critics of eye exercises will continue to argue that eye exercise regimens have no scientific support and advocates will encourage eye exercises for its simplicity and large benefits. After numerous hours of research and detailing both sides of the argument, the author still remains against the idea of eye exercises being regarded as a necessity. Regardless of your opinion, I encourage all readers to protect and enjoy your most important sense – your eyesight.


AMSA-Thailand

“The initial problem of various

eye exercise programs is that they have yet to conduct controlled randomized trials

�

8.

Akrawit Viriyavejakul Thammasat University, Thailand


AMSA-Thailand

“Volunteer services can

effectively reduce medical costs, enabling low-income people to take eye screening

9.

Benyapa Wongsaravit Rangsit University, Thailand

“Do Eye Exercises Really Improve Vision?” All About Vision, www.allaboutvision.com/buysmart/see_clearly.htm. “What About Eye Exercises?” FSI | REAP, reap.fsi.stanford.edu/research/ what-about-eye-exercises. “中中中中中中中中中中中中中中中中中中中中.” 中中中中中中中中中中中中中中中中中中中中 | Laservisionthai, laservisionthai.com/treatment/中中中中中中中中中中中中中中中中中中中中-中中中中中中中中中中中中. “中中中中中中中中中 中中中中中中中中中中中中中中中中中中 中中中中中中中中中中中中中中中中中中中 20 中中中中.” Thairath, 30 Aug. 2017, 17:30, www.thairath.co.th/content/1053970.


BENYAPA’S THOUGHTS AND OPINIONS ON EYE EXERCISES According to Associate Professor Dr.Ngarmjit Kasetsuwan, Chief of Refractive Surgery Center at Chulalongkorn Hospital in Thailand, she states that the number one cause for serious vision problems is dry eyes. The amount of time staring at the screen decreases blinking rate which causes eye dryness. This can lead to other symptoms like headaches, eye muscle strain or eye irritation. Serious the

symptoms can lead to problems like haemorrhagic

concept of eye exercise whether

conjunctivitis commonly known as pink eye, caused

it’s from the internet, a book or even

by the overuse of eye drops leading to an infection

Everyone

has

heard

from an advert you encountered while

of a conjunctivitis virus.

scrolling through Facebook. Some may doubt its validity to treat and combat vision problems

Eye exercises is a natural treatment to alleviate

but it is also important to understand that it does

visual-related symptoms and are used as an

bring forth real health benefits. There are many

alternative solution for medicinal prescriptions.

misconceptions that exist about natural eye

For example, nowadays, yoga and meditation

exercises, for instance, some believe that it can slow

commonly incorporated eye exercises into the

down myopia or is a “safety, healthy alternative

poses. Whereas an eye exercise helps alleviate

to glasses.” The reality is that these rumors are

and ease minor headaches and eye strain, it won’t

completely untrue and has no little to no scientific

solve eye pains or any vision-related discomfort.

evidence to support the claims. However, these

If you encounter any ongoing pain or visual loss,

eye exercises can be helpful since they do indeed

we recommend going see an ophthalmologist or

improve eye health and sustain long-term visual

an optometrist for a further comprehensive eye

health. Eye exercises allow your eyes to take a

examination.

break which is especially important in today’s era of technology where everyone has easy access to a phone, laptop or a computer.


NA DAN’S DO’S AND DON’TS ON EYE HEALTH Nowadays, as a medical student, I am very glad to see that many authoritative associations are trying hard to enhance people’s awareness on the importance of health. Eyesight, as an essential component of human health, is getting more and more attention as well. However, we are facing a worsening condition where a huge number of people are having poorer eyesight. Behind this health issue, there are three main reasons:

D o ’s list: •Keep doing eye exercise twice a day. •Keep proper distance from your reading materials. •Pay attention to your diet, carrots or vegetable rich in vitamins like VA/VD will do good to eyes.

1.

•First, when writing documents, we did not obey the “three ones”, as well as the correct posture. This will probably lead to myopia, astigmatism, distance or strabismus •Second, watching TV and using computers excessively, resulting in eye muscle fatigue that will lead to decreased vision. This is especially the case when digital technology is becoming more and more popular around the world •Third, reading, writing and even staying under strong light without proper protection will also cause visual problems, which is ignored by many people Factors above are really the basic causes of visual lost. The protection against them is also easy to learn. Check the following steps so that you can better protect your eyes: Don’ts List: •Stop reading books or using mobile phone under strong light. •Don’t use your digital items for more than one hour each time. Try to get some rest for your eyes once in a while. •Briefly speaking, if anything you are currently doing makes your eyes uncomfortable, stop it! (or just go and find some protections)

The second Thursday of October, October 11th for this year, is the World Eyes Day. As the health condition of eyes is not getting enough attention, we would like to take this special day as a chance to promote public’s awareness of eye-protection. Not even just eyes, we have other organs that we should protect. Eyes are just one of them. These organs are not just organs. They are the foundation of you so that you feel the wonderful world. Similarly, your eyes are not just eyes. It keeps you see the wonderful world and explore the best of your life.” Health is the best wealth.” So, stand up and learn, and don’t wait till everything is too late. We use our eyes to observe the world, create arts, and appreciate the beauty. We use our eyes to judge right from wrong. Eyes are the windows to see the world and the connection between us and everything around us. Not only should you treasure nature and life, you should, first of all, treasure the tools which enable you to see all these masterpieces. Wish you all have bright eyes and bright life.


AMSA-China “Eyes are the windows to see

the world and the connection between us and everything around us.

10. Na Dan

Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, China

http://www.icoph.org/enhancing_eyecare/diabetic_eyecare.html https://www.idf.org/images/site1/content/IDFIAPB-ICO-WCO-declaration-2017.pdf


AMSA-India

“Millions of individuals are

diagnosed with different eye diseases daily.

�

11. Varnik Goel

Caudhary Charan Singh University, Meerut. India


YOUR EYES ON MY RETINA

“I opened two gifts this morning, they were my eyes” To see a more beautiful world, first keep your eyes beautiful and healthy. With over 285 million visually impaired and 39 million blind individuals worldwide, vision wellness concern has gained its importance up to the priority. But, what actually is vision wellness? Vision wellness is not just the absence of any eye related disorder but is also characterised by the absence of those culprit factors which may lead to an eye injury, constant exposure to harmful radiations, to say one. Millions of individuals are diagnosed with different eye diseases daily. Unfortunately, many common eye diseases such as glaucoma, diabetic eye diseases, and age-related macular degeneration often have no warning signs. A dilated eye exam is the only way to detect these diseases in their early stages. A vision screening is a relatively short examination that can indicate the presence of a vision problem or a potential vision problem. Vision screening can indicate you, “Mr! Be ready to have an appointment with your favourite ophthalmologist for a more comprehensive dilated eye examination”. During a comprehensive eye exam, your eye doctor will not only determine your prescription for eyeglasses or contact lenses but will also check your eyes for common eye diseases. A well-known and a well-established fact- “Prevention is better than cure”, holds good every time. In case of

your eye health also, it can’t be ruled out. Well, I may not be your favourite ophthalmologist, but, I can give you some tips, for sure, which will happily suit your beautiful eyes. The best thing you can do to look after your sight is to go for regular eye tests and beware of any spot eye injury. And of course, eat right to help your sight. Dark leafy greens, particularly those containing lutein and zeaxanthin, help to prevent the formation of cataracts. Carrots, grapes, fishes such as tuna, sardines, and salmon improve ocular surface inflammation and irritation. People working with chemicals, in close proximity to dangerous radiations when welding, working with lasers, involved in construction, mining, woodwork, car and truck repair, electrical work, plumbing, etc should wear safety glasses that have shields along the sides too. Remember a 20-20-20 rule of National Eye Institute. For every 20 minutes you spend staring at a screen, look at something 20 feet away for 20 seconds to reduce eye strain. Eye exercises, though simple, but are very effective. Palming your eyes with warm palms, blinking eyes constantly, rotating your eyeballs to make a figure of eight, are some interesting and effective eye-exercises that may well increase your productivity. “Eye cover and eye test, exercise and eye rest, Eat green with full zest, will keep your eyes best”. Being medical students, creating awareness programmes for better eye care, is also an objective our profession demands. Making our relatives and friends acquainted of proper eye caring measures, conducting free eye care tips to individuals via several informative sessions of medicos in our locality, schools, colleges, and various institutions, and distributing general safety eye drops, are some of the most effective awareness programmes which should be carried by we, medical students. “Join hands and get unite, Many are waiting for a healthy sight”


TIPS ON HOW TO PROTECT YOUR EYES FROM DIGITAL DEVICES Eye health is very important since having good vision leads to happiness, success and good well-being. Nowadays, modern technology drives us into the “digital era” when gadgets such as smartphones and tablets play a significant role in our daily life.

1.

Living in the “digital era” has both pros and cons. Transferring information becomes more convenient and real time. New things can be learned easily through just one simple click. Since it makes life easy, some people start their day with digital devices and cling onto it until when it is time for bed. However, the more you use social media, the more you spend time on digital devices. It means you spend excessive time starring at these devices and end up having eye problems like strained eyes and visual discomfort. These are the common symptoms of dry eye. Now, a dry eye is among the most common eye problems. Moreover, staring at digital screens can cause various vision problems and vision disorders. These conditions are called Computer Vision Syndrome or CVS. Luckily, CVS condition can be prevented by limiting the screen time which many find difficult to do. As a medical student, I spend a large part of my day in front of my tablet studying and my laptop working on my assignments. Here are some of the tips that I find useful to myself to avoid eye problems which I would like to share so we promote our vision wellness:

1.Follow the 20/20/20 rule: Take a 20-second eye rest every 20 minutes of working on the device. Look at something at least 20 feet away. 2.Make the font big enough so you can see comfortably from a distance. 3.Try to blink! Blinking will ensure that eyes are covered with a tear film and stay moist. Blinking is essential to the overall health of your eyes. 4.Reduce the overhead and surrounding lights that compete with the device’s screen. 5.Consult with an eye care professional if you feel that you are at risk. 6.Computer eyewear with an anti-reflective lens with specially formulated coating can block and selectively absorb blue light which is harmful to your eyes. 7.Lastly, if the eyes become dry, use the right artificial tears which will keep your eyes moist and reduce discomfort. Choose the one without preservatives. It is good to keep in mind that prevention is always better than remedy. Take good care of your eye because good vision is very important!


AMSA-Thailand

“However, the more you use social media, the more you spend time on digital devices.�

12.

Pepon Chuenwiwatsakul

Chulalongkorn University, Thailand


AMSA-Thailand

“Common symptoms consist of

eye strain, blurred vision, dry eyes, and neck and shoulder pain.

13. Pornnapat Manum Chulalongkorn University, Thailand

n.d. http://www.bluelightexposed.com/#where-is-blue-light-found (accessed October 18, 2018). Amy L Sheppard, James S Wolffsohn. “Digital eye strain: prevalence, measurement and amelioration .” BMJ Open Ophthalmology , April 16, 2018. Chemists discover how blue light from digital devices speeds blindness. August 8, 2018. www.sciencedaily. com/releases/2018/08/180808093907.htm (accessed October 18, 2018). Kasun Ratnayake, John L. Payton, O. Harshana Lakmal & Ajith Karunarathne. “Blue light excited retinal intercepts cellular signaling.” Scientific Reports 8, July 5, 2018. National Eye Institute (NEI). Facts About Age-Related Macular Degeneration. September 2015. https://nei. nih.gov/health/maculardegen/armd_facts (accessed October 18, 2018). North Carolina Optometric Society. Digital Eye Strain. n.d. https://www.nceyes.org/digital-eye-strain (accessed October 18, 2018).


THE DARK SIDE OF LIGHT MAY LEAVE YOU IN DARKNESS

Look away from the screen for a moment. Yes, I am talking to you respected readers. How long have you been staring at the screen? Perhaps the whole day? For Thai medical students, iPads have become a part of our body known as the ‘external brain.’ With such a wonderful innovation, it is not a wonder that many switch from the traditional penpaper usage to using electronic devices for educational purposes. However, the threats from light-emitting screens are far darker than one may imagine. Blue light is one of the shortest wavelengths ranging from approximately 380 nm to 500 nm, classifying it as high energy visible light. Sources of blue light include the Sun, LED lighting and of course, digital screens. Apart from affecting circadian rhythms, blue light contributes to various eye problems that may even lead to vision loss. Digital eye strain, also known as computer vision syndrome, refers to eye problems caused by computers. Common symptoms consist of eye strain, blurred vision, dry eyes, and neck and shoulder pain. To reduce these problems, several measures could be carried out, for instance working in an ergonomic environment, frequent blinking and following the 20-20-20 rule: take a 20 second break every 20 minutes by looking at something 20 feet away.

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is an increasingly common condition in people aged 50s and 60s. It is caused by deaths of photoreceptor cells in the retina, and can result in blindness. A recent study by the Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Toledo, published in the journal Scientific Reports, identifies the connection between blue light and AMD. Retinal, present in photoreceptors, absorbs blue light. Through a chain of reactions, blue light excited retinal (BLE-retinal) induces irreversible perturbation of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP₂), mobilization of stored calcium, influx of extracellular calcium and gradual incorporation of propidium iodide (PI) into the cells. This leads to death of photoreceptors by apoptosis and necrosis. In simple words, the signalling molecule on the membrane dissolves and the cell dies. AMD is found in older people due to weaker immune system, therefore less able to utilize α-tocopherol, a Vitamin E derivative and a natural antioxidant that may prevent photoreceptors from dying. Currently, there is no cure for AMD as photoreceptors do not regenerate. Before the dark side of light leaves you in darkness, it is important to avoid these issues. Ways to slow down the adverse effects include wearing glasses that filter bluelight and limiting uses of screens in the dark. Keep the uses of screens to a minimum (Instagram can’t be more important than your eyesight! Actually, do we medical students even have the time?) And don’t forget to look away from the screen once you’ve finished reading!


RECENT CHAPTER ACTIVITIES Japan and the Phillipines


Japan Medical S

Hatsune Kido

Kumamoto University Japan

We, AMSA Japan, held Medical Students’ Cam 26th August 2018. The was Sapporo Medical U the theme of the JaMS community-based heal global health. As you k AMSA events are AMSC both events overlappe our biggest examinatio neither AMSA Japan m to participate in AMSC were they able to stay to participate. So, we h


Students’ Camp

JaMSC (Japan mp) on 24th to e main venue University and SC was about lth care and know, the biggest C and EAMSC but ed with one of on time. Hence, members were able and EAMSC nor away from school held JaMSC which

duplicate AMSC and EAMSC, supposedly the Japanese medical students can feel the ambiance of both events. During the JaMSC, we asked many medical doctors to deliver a keynote lecture, held a workshop and become the guide to the hospital we were visiting. On the first day, the participants were divided into two groups. One group got to visit Teine Keijinkai Hospital where they were given a tour of the hospital, delivered a lecture and had a workshop about medical examination in English.

The other group visited Sakaemachi Family Clinic where they observed an examination, went along with the doctor to go for a home-visit treatment and to go on a condolence visit. On the second day, a keynote lecture was delivered by Dr. Yoshihito Ujike and a workshop was held by Dr. Hirotake Mori. Last but not least, of course, the participants went sightseeing in the city and also partying. We think almost all participants enjoyed the program and I think we could reproduce AMSC or EAMSC in Japan.


This is the very first time for us to hold JaMSC and we could not prepare well in some parts of the program. But I think all participants were satisfied with JaMSC and able to experience fruitful three days of the event. We could find many points to reflect from this event, so if we are going to have the next JaMSC, we want to improve those points and also spread the news about AMSC, EAMSC, and JaMSC throughout Japanese medical students.


EAMSEP Phillipines x Germany


Last September 29th to October 4th of 2018, AMSA-UST hosted the very first EAMSEP Philippines for Germany with 8 delegates from Julius-Maximilians-University. The oneweek exchange was filled with knowledge and excitement as the Filipino medical students shared their culture, traditions, food, and most especially, the Philippine health care system and education to the German delegates. The delegates visited the University of Santo Tomas Hospital (USTH) and Philippine General Hospital (PGH) to learn about the Philippines’ medical education, practices, and health care system in order to show them the difference between private and public hospitals in the country. Furthermore, they also went to the Research Institute on Tropical Medicine (RITM) where they explored the different labs and facilities, and learned about current researches on Microbiology, Botany, and Parasitology. They also participated in an ultrasound workshop and attended lectures on Infectious diseases to further understand the different diseases prevalent in our country. Together with their Filipino friends, the delegates visited some historical sites such as Intramuros, Rizal Park, and National Museum of Natural History. They went on a five-hour drive to the Surfing Capital of the North, La Union where they got to enjoy the pristine waters of Tangadan Falls and surf on the big waves of Urbiztondo Beach. From the adventurous charm of the water to the serenity of nature in the

city of pine trees, all eight delegates had a memorable weekend. In the city of Baguio, the delegates got to enjoy the overlooking scenery of the high mountains, and experience wearing the Igorot’s traditional attire. The fun didn’t stop there as they went to Nuvali and experienced the thrill of wakeboarding. Back in Manila, they went out on a night doing karaoke, which is a very popular form of entertainment among Filipinos. Everyone had a blast singing and dancing their hearts out to the songs of Mariah Carey, Katy Perry, Sam Smith, and Michael Jackson. The delegates did not miss out of getting a taste of some Filipino cuisine such as Halo Halo, Sisig, Pusit ala pobre, Sinigang, Kare-Kare, Pancit Malabon, Taho, and different types of kakanin. Jollibee, a popular fast food restaurant in the country was also one of their favorites as we held our welcome dinner there. With a brave heart and strong stomach, some of them tried out balut, an 18 weeks old boiled fertilized duck egg, which is known as one of the exotic foods in the country. From the spontaneous 2am snacks to the tears and laughters during the farewell party, these brought everyone to a different level of closeness. One week might have been short but it was definitely a memorable one of a kind experience that created a friendship that would cross borders and last a lifetime.

Ma. Eloisa Marie L. Briones

University of Santo Thomas, the Phillipines


Winning the AMSA Song Competition Alysandra Rae R

West Visayas State University, the Phillipines

challenge, and that we will leave our mark in this world hopefully by making healthcare available and accessible to everyone.

Process I feel like the music is inspired by two songs that I personally feel are extremely empowering: This is Me from the Greatest Showman and Brave by Sara Bareilles. I can’t say I know a lot about music so I probably won’t be able to explain this the best way possible, but if you listen to the chords, This is Me and the AMSA Song sound very similar, and that’s because they use I think almost the same chords, but placed in different orders. I love singing to This is Me and the passion that was put in into writing that song and singing it; I wanted that to reflect onto the AMSA Song I prepared. My first inspiration for writing the song was actually Brave and I think that that’s where I felt like this is the pace I want to go for. Of course, the words are heavily based on the original AMSA Song. I decided not to change it too much because I wanted to stay rooted to the original message of the song, so I wrote it in a way that the message of the original one was still very much there, but I also added a little bit of what I wanted to say in there, and of course made it all fit into the new tempo and general structure of the music. I did change “are we just gonna stand in silence” to “break the chains keeping us in silence” because instead of asking ourselves if we should do something about the problems we see, I wanted to show that there are factors that contribute to us staying silent about a particular subject and we have to act and get rid of those restrictions to work for the things that matter. For the chorus I added “making our way unfazed, watch our trail blaze” as if to say we are medical students more than ready to face whatever

I was able to come up with the music through phone apps and then put that music in with my voice with computersoftware. I had to be very resourceful because I didn’t play any instruments and had no access to a recording studio. Especially for the background noise, I had to rely on software to remove things like wind and static noises.

Struggle

What I definitely found most difficult was recording myself singing. I live very near the main road, and right next to a commercial building that was also under construction, so I had to record multiple times until I got my small window of silence.

Winning

I was ecstatic when I found out I had won the competition. I entered the contest knowing I could be up against a number of other countries. In the end it was just two, but I’m still beyond grateful that most people liked my song. With regard to the prize, I look forward to maybe using that to take me to another AMSA-Intl event.

Hopes for AMSA International

I am grateful for the opportunity to do something that I’ve always wanted to do. I have always felt that I didn’t have much talent or skill to come up with a song and this competition not only allowed me to do just that, but it also let me reach out to a wide audience that I hopeto inspire, as a medical student. To end, I want to encourage everybody to make the most of the opportunities presented to you. Despite my perceived lack of skill to do exactly what this competition entailed, I gave my submission the best I could and it all turned out excellent.


วัฒนธรรม kultura culture संस्कृति văn hóa 문화 budaya ‫هراضح‬ соёл madaniyat វប្បធម៌


CULTURE CORNER


MODERN MEDICAL MYTHS IN EGYPT Nour Raafat

Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University


I

n the Middle Ages, Europeans believed that lice were beneficial to your health, since there would rarely

be any lice on sick people. The reasoning was that the people got sick because the lice left. The real reason however is that lice are extremely sensitive to body temperature. A small increase of body temperature will make the lice look for another host. The medical thermometer had not yet been invented so this was rarely notice. This is an example of how correlation does not imply causation. Many of the false beliefs and pseudoscience center on the idea that they must be real because they work, when that is not necessarily the case. Egypt, like the rest of the world, is not exempt from such beliefs and practices based on those fallacies.

1.

Female Genital Mutilation

One of the major damaging false beliefs in Egypt

that FGM is a religious requirement. Common

is the idea that Female Genital Mutilation (FGM)

short-term complications include swelling, exces-

will make a girl chaster. Under the false pretense of

sive bleeding, pain, urine retention, and healing

health benefits such as a lower risk of vaginal can-

problems/wound infection. Late complications

cer, fewer infections from microbes gathering un-

include the formation of scars and keloids that lead

der the hood of the clitoris, and protection against

to strictures and obstruction, epidermoid cysts that

herpes and genital ulcers, the practice carried on

may become infected. Neonatal mortality is also in-

for many years but three cornerstones sustained its

creased. The WHO estimated in 2006 that addition-

perpetual existence: Support from women, social

al 10–20 babies die per 1,000 deliveries as a result

obligation, poor access to information, and Reli-

of FGM. Several small studies have concluded that

gion.

women with FGM suffer from anxiety, depression

Dahabo Musa, a Somali woman, described infib-

and post-traumatic stress disorder. Thankfully

ulation in a 1988 poem as the “three feminine

the practice has dropped

sorrows�: the procedure itself, the wedding night

significantly in Egypt as

when the woman is cut open, then childbirth when

the public has become m

she is cut again. Despite the evident suffering, it is

ore aware of

women who organize all forms of FGM. Common

its repercussions.

reasons for FGM cited by women in surveys are social acceptance, religion, hygiene, preservation of virginity, marriageability, and enhancement of male sexual pleasure. Because of poor access to information, and because circumcisers downplay the causal connection, women may not associate the health consequences with the procedure. Surveys have also shown a widespread belief, particularly in Mali, Mauritania, Guinea and Egypt,


2.

Flour: A Burn Remedy

A common urban legend is the idea that flour can

It stands to reason that covering burned skin with

be used as a burn remedy. Many people in Egypt

refrigerated flour might produce some of the same

claim covering burned skin with plain white flour

benefits, but it could also cause complications such

will immediately stop any pain and promote heal-

as skin infections. There’s no scientific reason to

ing without so much as a blister. A century-and-a-

suppose (and certainly no peer-reviewed studies to

half ago, to be exact—dredging a minor burn with

prove) that plunging your scalded limb into a bag

ordinary wheat flour was considered an acceptable

of cold flour will lead to a better prognosis than

medical treatment, even by some physicians. But

immersing it in cool water and applying a proper

so were dressing the wound with white lead paint,

bandage.

greasy poultices, and turpentine-soaked cotton.


3.

Cupping Therapy: A Pseudoscience Dates from as Early as 3000 BC

There is reason to believe that cupping therapy

infection, panniculitis, abscess formation, pain

dates from as early as 3000 BC. The Ebers Papyrus,

at the cupping site, and systemic adverse events

one of the oldest medical textbooks in the Western

including: anemia, dizziness, vasovagal attack,

world, describes the Egyptians’ use of cupping,

insomnia, headaches, and nausea. Fire cupping can

while mentioning similar practices employed by Sa-

sometimes result in minor to severe burns at the

haran people. The method was also highly recom-

cupping site, and may lead to hospitalization and

mended by Muhammad and hence well-practiced

may even require skin grafting to repair the injury.

by Muslim scientists who elaborated and devel-

Other burns can also occur due to carelessness

oped the method further.

with the flammable substances being used, such

Cupping therapy is a form of alternative medicine

as spills and over application. A common theme

in which a local suction is created on the skin. Cup-

of lack of enough information, outdated beliefs,

ping has been characterized as a pseudoscience.

and a placebo effect proves that cupping therapy

There is no solid evidence that it has any health

is another practice in Egypt that carries no health

benefits, and there are severe concerns it may be

benefits.

harmful to the epidermal, circulation and nervous

There are many other practices in Egypt that take

system. Cupping is poorly supported by scientific

place under the name of medicine. It is important

evidence.

to recognize their origins and what foundations

Cupping therapy adverse events can be divided

they stand upon before claiming they are of ben-

into local and systemic adverse events. The local

efit. A myth remains so even if it has somehow

adverse events were scar formation, burns, skin

carved its way to the modern world.


THE DELICIOUS HANGZHOU Yanzhi Pan

Zhejiang University Hangzou, China


Hangzhou, an intriguing city lying in Southeast China, is witnessing over 2200 years of history, and serving as a prosperous economic center nowadays. The best-known part of the city, West Lake, is attracting tourists from home and abroad with her picturesque scenery. However, to me, Hangzhou is always warm and soothing, with her delicious impression deep in my heart.

A household documentary, “China on The Tip of

You may ask, what Hangzhou’s special delicacies

The Tongue”, introduced Chrysan The Mum noodle

are? West Lake vinegar fish, longjing tea prawns,

restaurant, for the best authentic Pian Er Chuan.

Dingsheng cake, Pian Er Chuan, onion-wrapped

Today, hungry and expecting tourists and locals,

birch, Dongpo meat, lotus root powder, clear soup

are queuing up for long outside the restaurant,

fish balls, cat’s ears, sweet Osmanthus, you name

to taste the “Hangzhou on the tip of the tongue”.

it.

Yet, let me tell you a secret. Instead of Chrysanthe-

Among them, my favorite is Pian Er Chuan. Being a

mum, the tastiest noodles in my mind are in: Puppy

famous daily delicacy in Hangzhou, it refers to noo-

noodles, Fang Lao Da noodles and Hui Juan noodle

dles cooked with lean pork slices, bamboo shoots

restaurant. Welcome to Hangzhou, and I will take

and pickled vegetables.

you there!

The meat slices are fresh and tender, and the shoots of snow vegetables are clear and bright, and the beauty of food is refreshing. When you take a bite of the smooth noodle, remember to sip a spoon of the warm soup, in which all the distinguish flavors of meat and vegetables are blended, you will feel the joy expanding from your tongue, to overwhelm your whole body.


HANGZHOU, CHINA


PHO GRA


OTOAPHS


Nadifa Kartika Dewi Universitas Pembangunan Nasional ‘Veteran’ Jakarta, Indonesia

Don’t let blue lig make you feel bl


ght lue!

The display screens of smartphones, computers and other digital devices emit significant amounts of blue light. Frequent use of these devices may cause eye strain! So, take a break once in a while before it causes serious damage to your eyes.


Patricia Alika Universitas Gajah Mada (UGM) Indonesia

Tick Tock One day, these eyes will no longer lead our paths and sights are blurred. Time is ticking, vision is not forever. Take good care of your eyes before it is too late.


Shubhankar Panwar JSS Medical College, Mysore India

The only thi but no visio


ing worse than being blind is having sight on


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Twenty-fourth Edition

AMSA International eNewsletter Issue #24  
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