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Mathematics Aid for Rural Multi-grade Schools Guide Prof.Anirudha Joshi Project done by Amrutha Krishnan, 09633801, 6th January 2011 IDC, IIT Bombay

Overview • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

What are Multi-grade Schools? Characteristics of Multi-grade Schools Benefits of Multi-grade Schools Why Mathematics? User Studies General Observations Issues faced in Maths Insights Initial Concepts Understanding the teaching-learning process Technology as enablers for Learning Evaluating role of computers in Education Exploring the Multi-mice Paradigm Project Brief User Feedback Acknowledgements References

What are Multi-grade Schools?

Zilla Parishad School, Chandip Village

Characteristics of Multi-grade Schools

• • • •

Less number of teachers Low student enrollment Dead time management Effective space organization

Benefits of Multi-grade Schools

• • • •

Increased time for schema assimilation Aids in retention Peer Learning Peer Tutoring

Low Infrastructure Teacher Absenteeism

Low Student Enrollment

Multi-grades Schools in India

Typical Scenario

Zilla Parishad School, Chandip Village

Teacher teaches only one grade at a time

Dead Time Management The other grade is given work in that time

Why Mathematics?

Hierarchy of Abstraction

Required in most Professions

Lack of Interest

Why Mathematics? Hard to Visualize

Frequently Used Often Hard to comprehend


User Studies VIDYA Balwadi,Phule Nagar area

Zilla Parishad School, Chandip Village

Zilla Parishad School, Karanjon Village

Zilla Parishad School, Chandip Village

VIDYA Balwadi,Phule Nagar area

General Observations • Lack of enough teachers • Teachers do not have much time to teach

• Language issues • Group work rare

Issues faced in Maths

• • • •

Understanding concept of place value Understanding carry and borrow concepts Unitary concept application for solution to problem The way in which manipulatives were used was not aligned with the base ten concept

Issues related to similar looking numerals

Issues with unitary Concept application for solution to problems

Issues with Place Value

Issues related to borrow


• • • • •

Design needs to help children visualize numbers Need to aid in understanding operations Design should be multi-lingual It should help link procedure with concept The design should provide effective hints and prompts

Initial Concepts

Digital Board Game

Graphical Calculator

Photo for reference

Educational Videos

Understanding the teaching-learning process

• Contextual Understanding • Conceptual Understanding • Procedural Understanding

• Contextual Understanding

• Conceptual Understanding Use of Manipulatives

Manipulatives to understand the concept of base ten

• Procedural Understanding 10 Units

1 Ten

(Carry Forward 1 ten)

1 Ten

10 Units

(Borrowing 10 units)

Technology as enablers for Learning

Evaluating role of computers in Education

• • •

Display Board Teacher More Knowledgeable Other (MKO)

Evaluating role of computers in Education

• •

Display Board

• •

Display operations

Teacher • • •

Visual manipulatives

To teach Provide feedback Enable effective participation using multi-mice paradigm

More Knowledgeable Other (MKO)

Provide hints and help

Exploring the Multi-mice Paradigm

• • • • • •

Voting Model Racing Model Turn Taking Model Directed MCQ Model Split Screen Model Unity Model

Project Brief

Design a computer based learning aid, to teach 2-digit addition and subtraction to students aged 6-8years, by simulating the classroom environment using multi-mice paradigm in a turn taking mode

User Feedback •

Children were able to identify the place value of a given numeral

Students sitting in close proximity with the child who’s turn it were attentive while others were less attentive

Emphasis on the garland of ten flowers was important

Children were able to understand carry and borrow

Children at times lost track of the question so it was important to display that while solving the problem

Issues related to borrow were with regards to borrow involving difference

Children needed feedback about the the answer box Children from VIDYA Phule Nagar Balwadi, Powai Photos Courtesy Ms.Reeta


• • • • • •

Prof. Aniruddha Joshi Prof. Uday Athavankar Pof. Ravi Poovaiah Prof. Pramod Khambete My Family Samiksha, Hrushi, Arnab and Prerak

References • [p1] UNESCO in collaboration with the Royal Ministry of Education research AND church Affairs, Norway, and Edited by John Allen: ‘Enhancing the Effectiveness of Single teacher schools and Multi-Grade Classes’ • [p2] Andrea Moed, Owen Otto, Joyojeet Pal, Udai Singh Pawar, Mathew Kam, Kentaro Tayoma: ‘Reducing Dominance in Multiple-Mouse Learning Activities’ • [p3] Udai Singh Pawar, Joyojeet Pal, Kentaro Toyama: ‘Multiple Mice for Computers in Education in Developing Countries’ • [p4] Udai Singh Pawar, Joyojeet Pal, Apurva Joshi, Mohit Jain, Sai Gopal Thota Sai Teja P, Sukumar Anikar: From Pilot to Practice: Creating Multiple-Input Multimedia Content for Real-World Deployment • [p5] Karen C. Fuson :‘Conceptual Structures of Multiunit Numbers: Implication of Teaching Multidigit Addition, Subtraction, and Place Value’ • [p6] ‘CREATE’ (Consortium for Research on Educational Access, Transitions and Equity: ‘Small Multigrade Schools and increasing Access to Primary Education in India: National Context and NGO Initiatives’ • [p7] Bethany Rittle Johnson, Kenneth R. Koedinger: ‘Designing Knowledge Scaffolds to Support Mathematical Problem Solving’

Thank You

Mathematics Aid for Rural Multigrade Schools  

The aim behind this project was to create a mathematics aid for children belonging to such rural multi-grades. In order to teach them basic...

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