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Knowledge Centre Vol :1 Week 1

AMRT Educational Services

Knowledge Centre Weekly Interview News Letter


Knowledge Centre Vol :1 Week 1

Creating Excellence Through Innovative Learning

Editorial We welcome new and existing readers to this issue of the Knowledge Centre Newsletter and to the AMRT Network. The aim of the Newsletter has been to keep Network members and professionals more widely interested in the development of Interview Techniques.

AMRT Courses 1. Crack the Campus With US 2. Eklavya Program (Project Guidance) 3. Certification Guidance 4. Power Of We 5. Foundation Courses

Content 1. Operating System Overview 2. Aptitude Questions 3. Types Of Programming Languages 4. Seminar Topics

AMRT Team 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Tushar Agarwal Aniruddha Pathak Yash Ghelani Sandip Rathod Rahul Rajurkar


Knowledge Centre Vol :1 Week 1

Topic of the Week : Operating System Introduction : An operating system (OS) is a collection of software that manages computer hardware resources and provides common services forcomputer programs. The operating system is a vital component of the system software in a computer system. Application programs require an operating system to function. An operating system, or OS, is a software program that enables the computer hardware to communicate and operate with the computer software. Without a computer operating system, a computer would be useless. Operating system types As computers have progressed and developed so have the operating systems. Below is a basic list of the different operating systems and a few examples of operating systems that fall into each of the categories. Many computer operating systems will fall into more than one of the below categories. GUI - Short for Graphical User Interface, a GUI Operating System

contains graphics and icons and is commonly navigated by using a computer mouse. See the GUI definition for a complete definition. Below are some examples of GUI Operating Systems. System 7.x Windows 98 Windows CE Multi-user - A multi-user operating system allows for multiple users to use the same computer at the same time and different times. See the multiuser definition for a complete definition for a complete definition. Below are some examples of multi-user operating systems. Linux Unix Windows 2000 Multiprocessing - An operating system capable of supporting and utilizing more than one computer processor. Below are some examples of multiprocessing operating systems. Linux Unix Windows 2000


Knowledge Centre Vol :1 Week 1 Multitasking - An operating system that is capable of allowing multiple software processes to run at the same time. Below are some examples of multitasking operating systems. Unix Windows 2000 Multithreading - Operating systems that allow different parts of a software program to run concurrently. Operating systems that would fall into this category are: Linux Unix Windows 2000 Troubleshooting

question and answers. All other questions relating to an operating system in particular can be found through the operating system page. Linux and Variants Mac OS MS-DOS IBM OS/2 Warp Unix and Variants Windows CE Windows 3.x Windows 95 Windows 98 Windows 98 SE Windows ME Windows NT Windows 2000 Windows XP Windows Vista Windows 7

Common questions and answers to operating systems in general can be found on the below operating system To be Continued ‌‌.

Check Your Skills 1. First Operating System is ______ 2. First Mobile Operating System is :____ 3. What is mean by GRUB :

Answer : Next week


Knowledge Centre Vol :1 Week 1

Aptitude : 1. It was calculated that 75 men could complete a piece of work in 20 days. When work was scheduled to commence, it was found necessary to send 25 men to another project. How much longer will it take to complete the work? 2. A student divided a number by 2/3 when he required to multiply by 3/2. Calculate the percentage of error in his result. 3. A dishonest shopkeeper professes to sell pulses at the cost price, but he uses a false weight of 950gm. for a kg. His gain is ‌%. 4. A software engineer has the capability of thinking 100 lines of code in five minutes and can type 100 lines of code in 10 minutes. He takes a break for five minutes after every ten minutes. How many lines of codes will he complete typing after an hour? 5. A man was engaged on a job for 30 days on the condition that he would get a wage of Rs. 10 for the day he works, but he have to pay a fine of Rs. 2 for each day of his absence. If he gets Rs. 216 at the end, he was absent for work for ... days. 6. A contractor agreeing to finish a work in 150 days, employed 75 men each working 8 hours daily. After 90 days, only 2/7 of the work was completed. Increasing the number of men by ________ each working now for 10 hours daily, the work can be completed in time. 7.

what is a percent of b divided by b percent of a? (a)

a

(b)

b

(c)

1

(d)

10

(d)

100

8. A man bought a horse and a cart. If he sold the horse at 10 % loss and the cart at 20 % gain, he would not lose anything; but if he sold the horse at 5% loss and the cart at 5% gain, he would lose Rs. 10 in the bargain. The amount paid by him was Rs._______ for the horse and Rs.________ for the cart. 9. A tennis marker is trying to put together a team of four players for a tennis tournament out of seven available. males - a, b and c; females – m, n, o and p. All players are of equal ability and there must be at least two males in the team. For a


Knowledge Centre Vol :1 Week 1 team of four, all players must be able to play with each other under the following restrictions: b should not play with m, c should not play with p, and a should not play with o. Which of the following statements must be false? 1. b and p cannot be selected together 2. c and o cannot be selected together 3. c and n cannot be selected together.

10. Five farmers have 7, 9, 11, 13 & 14 apple trees, respectively in their orchards. Last year, each of them discovered that every tree in their own orchard bore exactly the same number of apples. Further, if the third farmer gives one apple to the first, and the fifth gives three to each of the second and the fourth, they would all have exactly the same number of apples. What were the yields per tree in the orchards of the third and fourth farmers?


Knowledge Centre Vol :1 Week 1 Aptitude Answers 1.

Answer: 30 days. Explanation: Before:

One day work = 1 / 20

The equation portraying the given problem is: 10 * x – 2 * (30 – x) = 216 where x is the number of working days.

One man’s one day work=1 / ( 20 * 75)

Solving this we get x = 23 Number of days he was absent was 7 (30-23) days.

Now:

6.Answer: 150 men.

No. Of workers= 50

Explanation:

One day work = 50 * 1 / ( 20 * 75) The total no. of days required to complete the work = (75 * 20) / 50 = 30

One day’s work = 2 / (7 * 90) One hour’s work= 2 / (7 * 90 * 8) One man’s work=2 / (7 * 90 * 8 * 75)

2.

Answer: 0 % Explanation: Since 3x / 2 = x / (2 / 3)

3.

Answer: 5.3 % Explanation:

He sells 950 grams of pulses and gains 50 grams. If he sells 100 grams of pulses then he will gain (50 / 950) *100 = 5.26 4.

Answer: 250 lines of codes

5.

Answer: 7 days

Explanation:

The remaining work (5/7) has to be completed within 60 days, because the total number of days allotted for the project is 150 days. So we get the equation (2 * 10 * x * 60) / (7 * 90 * 8 * 75) = 5/7 where x is the number of men working after the 90th day. We get x = 225 Since we have 75 men already, it is enough to add only 150 men. 7.

Answer: (c) 1

Explanation: a percent of b : (a/100) * b b percent of a : (b/100) * a


Knowledge Centre Vol :1 Week 1 a percent of b divided by b percent of a : ((a / 100 )*b) / (b/100) * a )) = 1 8.

From (1) 2 * 200 = x = 400 9.

Answer:

Cost price of horse = Rs. 400 & the cost price of cart = 200.

Explanation:Let x be the cost price of the horse and y be the cost price of the cart. In the first sale there is no loss or profit. (i.e.) The loss obtained is equal to the gain. Therefore = (20/100) * y = 2*y

y = 200

(10/100) * x

X -----------------(1)

In the second sale, he lost Rs. 10. (i.e.) The loss is greater than the profit by Rs. 10.

Therefore (5 / 100) * x = (5 / 100) * y + 10 -------(2) Substituting (1) in (2) we get (10 / 100) * y = (5 / 100) * y + 10 (5 / 100) * y = 10

Answer: 3. Explanation:

Since inclusion of any male player will reject a female from the team. Since there should be four member in the team and only three males are available, the girl, n should included in the team always irrespective of others selection. 10.

Answer: 11 & 9 apples per tree. Explanation:

Let a, b, c, d & e be the total number of apples bored per year in A, B, C, D & E ‘s orchard. Given that a+1=b+3=c–1=d+3= e–6 But the question is to find the number of apples bored per tree in C and D ‘s orchard. If is enough to consider c – 1 = d + 3. Since the number of trees in C’s orchard is 11 and that of D’s orchard is 13. Let x and y be the number of apples bored per tree in C & d ‘s orchard respectively. Therefore 11 x – 1 = 13 y + 3 By trial and error method, we get the value for x and y as 11 and 9


Knowledge Centre Vol :1 Week 1 Technical : Types Of Programming Language Low Level Language First-generation language is the lowest level computer language. Information is conveyed to the computer by the programmer as binary instructions. Binary instructions are the equivalent of the on/off signals used by computers to carry out operations. The language consists of zeros and ones. In the 1940s and 1950s, computers were programmed by scientists sitting before control panels equipped with toggle switches so that they could input instructions as strings of zeros and ones.

Advantages  Fast and efficient  Machine oriented  No translation required Disadvantages  Not portable  Not programmer friendly

Assembly Language Assembly or assembler language was the second generation of computer

language. By the late 1950s, this language had become popular. Assembly language consists of letters of the alphabet. This makes programming much easier than trying to program a series of zeros and ones. As an added programming assist, assembly language makes use of mnemonics, or memory aids, which are easier for the human programmer to recall than are numerical codes. Assembler An assembler is a program that takes basic computer instructions and converts them into a pattern of bits that the computer's processor can use to perform its basic operations. Some people call these instructions assembler language and others use the term assembly language In other words An assembler is a computer program for translating assembly language — essentially, a mnemonic representation of machine language — into object code. A cross assembler (see cross compiler) produces code for one processor, but runs on another. As well as translating assembly instruction mnemonics into opcodes, assemblers provide the ability to use symbolic names for memory locations (saving tedious calculations and


Knowledge Centre Vol :1 Week 1 manually updating addresses when a program is slightly modified), and macro facilities for performing textual substitution — typically used to encode common short sequences of instructions to run inline instead of in a subroutine.

ability of businesses, which stimulated business expansion. Advantages  Portable or machine independent  Programmer-friendly

High Level Language The introduction of the compiler in 1952 spurred the development of thirdgeneration computer languages. These languages enable a programmer to create program files using commands that are similar to spoken English. Thirdlevel computer languages have become the major means of communication between the digital computer and its user. By 1957, the International Business Machine Corporation (IBM) had created a language called FORTRAN (FORmula TRANslater). This language was designed for scientific work involving complicated mathematical formulas. It became the first high-level programming language (or "source code") to be used by many computer users. Within the next few years, refinements gave rise to ALGOL (ALGOrithmic Language) and COBOL (COmmon Business Oriented Language). COBOL is noteworthy because it improved the record keeping and data management

Disadvantages  Not as efficient as lowlevel languages  Need to be translated Examples : C, C++, Java, FORTRAN, Visual Basic, and Delphi. Interpreter An interpreter is a computer program that executes other programs. This is in contrast to a compiler which does not execute its input program (the source code) but translates it into executable machine code (also called object code) which is output to a file for later execution. It may be possible to execute the same source code either directly by an interpreter or by compiling it and then executing the machine code produced. It takes longer to run a program under an interpreter than to run the compiled code but it can take less time to interpret it than the total required to compile and run it. This is especially important when prototyping and testing code when an edit-interpret-debug cycle


Knowledge Centre Vol :1 Week 1 can often be much shorter than an editcompile-run-debug cycle. Interpreting code is slower than running the compiled code because the interpreter must analyses each statement in the program each time it is executed and then perform the desired action whereas the compiled code just performs the action. This run-time analysis is known as "interpretive overhead". Access to variables is also slower in an interpreter because the mapping of identifiers to storage locations must be done repeatedly at run-time rather than at compile time.

COMPILER

A program that translates source code into object code. The compiler derives its name from the way it works, looking at the entire piece of source code and collecting and reorganizing the instructions. Thus, a compiler differs from an interpreter, which analyzes and executes each line of source code in succession, without looking at the entire program. The advantage of interpreters is that they can execute a program immediately. Compilers require some time before an executable program emerges. However, programs produced by compilers run much faster than the same programs executed by an interpreter.

Every high-level programming language (except strictly interpretive languages) comes with a compiler. In effect, the compiler is the language, because it defines which instructions are acceptable.

Fourth Generation Language Fourth-generation languages attempt to make communicating with computers as much like the processes of thinking and talking to other people as possible. The problem is that the computer still only understands zeros and ones, so a compiler and interpreter must still convert the source code into the machine code that the computer can understand. Fourth-generation languages typically consist of Englishlike words and phrases. When they are implemented on microcomputers, some of these languages include graphic devices such as icons and onscreen push buttons for use during programming and when running the resulting application. Many fourth-generation languages use Structured Query Language (SQL) as the basis for operations. SQL was developed at IBM to develop information stored in relational databases. Examples of fourthgeneration languages include PROLOG, an Artificial Intelligence language


Knowledge Centre Vol :1 Week 1

Seminar Topics of the Week 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

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