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FRANK GEHRY (Frank Owen Goldberg) BORN: February 28, 1929 in Toronto NATIONALITY: Canadian-American ORIGIN: Polish Jew As a child he would build little cities out of scraps of wood with his grandmother. His use of material was partly inspired by spending time at his grandfather's hardware store. He spent time drawing with his father and his mother introduced him to art. In 1952, he married Anita Snyder. In 1954 graduated from the University of Southern California's School of Architecture and did numerous other jobs. He studied city planning at the Harvard Graduate School of Design for a year, leaving before completing the program. In his early work he fused Japanese and vernacular elements with the influence of painters and sculptors in a manipulation of distorted shapes, sculptural masses molded by light, and buildings that reveal their structures. Frank Gehry established his practice in Los Angeles, California in 1962 as Frank Gehry and Associates. This strategy developed through a series of small residential projects. In 1966 he and Snyder divorced. In 1978, when he built his own house in Santa Monica, his architecture career took off. He then started getting bigger projects. His famous projects include the Walt Disney Concert Hall and the Guggenheim Museum. In 1975 he married Berta Isabel Aguilera, his current wife. He has 4 children. He lives in Santa Monica, California, and practice out of Los Angeles.

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WORKS • Ronald Davis Studio & Residence, Malibu, California (1971-1972) • Sleep Train Pavilion, Concord, California (1975) • Gehry Residence (1978) • Air and Space exhibit building, California Museum of Science and Industry, Los Angeles, California (19821984) • Frederick Weisman Museum of Art, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (1993) • Fred and Ginger (currently Dancing House), Prague, Czech Republic (1995) • Guggenheim Museum Bilbao, Bilbao, Spain (1997) • Gehry Tower, Hanover, Germany (2001) • Walt Disney Concert Hall, Los Angeles, California (2003) • Ray and Maria Stata Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (2004) • Mariza show stage, at the Walt Disney Concert Hall (2007) • Art Gallery of Ontario (renovation), Toronto, Ontario, Canada (2008) • Gehry Building, Novartis Pharma A.G. Campus, Basel, Switzerland (2009)

Ammani Nair A/2022/2008 B Sec 3rd Yr. B.Arch. School of Planning and Architecture


DESIGN PHILOSOPHY

Much of Frank Gehry's work falls within the style of Deconstructivism. Deconstructivism, also known as DeCon Architecture, is often referred to as post-structuralist in nature for its ability to go beyond current modalities of structural definition. It is a development of postmodern architecture that began in the late 1980s. It is characterized by ideas of fragmentation, an interest in manipulating ideas of a structure's surface or skin, non-rectilinear shapes which serve to distort and dislocate some of the elements of architecture, such as structure and envelope. The finished visual appearance of buildings that exhibit the many deconstructivist "styles" is characterized by a stimulating unpredictability and a controlled chaos Its application tends to depart from modernism in its inherent criticism of culturally inherited givens such as societal goals and functional necessity. Because of this, unlike early modernist structures, DeCon structures are not required to reflect specific social or universal ideas, such as speed or universality of form, and they do not reflect a belief that form follows function. Gehry's own Santa Monica residence is a commonly cited example of deconstructivist architecture, as it was so drastically divorced from its original context, and, in such a manner, as to subvert its original spatial intention. Gehry is sometimes associated with what is known as the "Los Angeles School," or the "Santa Monica School" of architecture. Gehry’s style at times seems unfinished or even crude, but his work is consistent with the California ‘funk’ art movement in the 1960s and early 1970s, which featured the use of inexpensive found objects and non-traditional media such as clay to make serious art. Gehry has been called "the apostle of chain-link fencing and corrugated metal siding".

Guggenheim Museum, Bilboa

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8 Spruce Street, Gehry's remarkable titanium and glass tower in New York's lower Manhattan, completion 2012

Ammani Nair A/2022/2008 B Sec 3rd Yr. B.Arch. School of Planning and Architecture


WORKING METHODOLOGY Frank Gehry spends a lot of time talking to the client and visiting the site. He then starts making sketchs and models and thought his sketchs are loose and rough, they still capture the sence of motion and freedom of his finished buildings

Drawings and Model: Weisman Art Museum

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Ammani Nair A/2022/2008 B Sec 3rd Yr. B.Arch. School of Planning and Architecture


WALT DISNEY CONCERT HALL Location: Los Angeles, California Design: Commenced in 1997 Construction: Commenced in 1999 Status: Completed in 2003

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The Concert Hall is situated on historic Bunker Hill at the intersection of First Street and Grand Avenue, adjacent to the existing Music Center of Los Angeles. The project was launched in 1992. Frank Gehry delivered completed designs in 1991. Construction of the underground parking garage began in 1992 and was completed in 1996 According to Gehry, the WDCH was designed from the inside out. The most important issues were that "the musicians could come on stage, feel at home, and hear each other" and that "the orchestra and the audience would have an intimate connection with each other." He sought to create a "synergy" through intimacy and inclusion. The building's exterior which is made up of large stainless steel curve designs is typical to that of Frank Gehry. The interior has hardwood panelling in the main auditorium.

Ammani Nair A/2022/2008 B Sec 3rd Yr. B.Arch. School of Planning and Architecture


WALT DISNEY CONCERT HALL Though essentially a rectangle, one would never know it to sit inside the sculpted Douglas fir and cedar auditorium. Swooping concave walls of staggered wood panels hold terraced seating. The audience surrounds the stage, which is elevated slightly higher than the adjacent orchestra seats. The hall feels smaller and cozier than the number of seats might indicate. Protesting the usual concert hall elitism, Salonen and Gehry included no private boxes. There does not seem to be a bad seat in the house. Each location is visually and acoustically unique. A billowing wood ceiling hangs lightly over the space, strategically placed to achieve the early sound reflection that acoustician Toyota deemed so important. The warm wood, the molded forms, and the resultant vibrancy of sound combine to create the perception of being inside a living creature. As some visiting performers have noted, the only drawback is that the creature makes noises of its own. A dropped program, a closing door, or a simple cough becomes part of the symphony in this acoustically energetic hall. Controlling Chaos It also houses an underground parking garage, preconcert foyer, green room and support spaces, two outdoor amphitheaters, and California's smallest state park on the 3.6-acre (1.5-hectare) site.

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Ammani Nair A/2022/2008 B Sec 3rd Yr. B.Arch. School of Planning and Architecture


WALT DISNEY CONCERT HALL

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The middle zone between the central box of the auditorium and the spreading curves of the exterior walls holds many opportunities to nestle smaller spaces. The interior BP Hall (preconcert foyer) and the exterior W.M. Keck Foundation Children's Amphitheater are two inviting examples of such molded spaces. Both are swelling extensions of circulation paths, carved out of recesses in the walls, with comfortable yet reverential proportions. The BP Hall mimics the finishes of the main auditorium but elegantly substitutes acoustical wood panels for the Douglas fir. Undulating walls reach up to the roof, drawing light from one of the building's four large skylights. Many of the other lobbies and passages in the middle zone, however, simply seem like odd-angled leftover spaces. The public garden wraps around the western and southern sides of the site, providing panoramic views of the city while maintaining a sense of enclosure. The site is filled with a variety of trees, shrubs, and perennials — all selected to ensure that something will be in bloom yearround. DOWNFALLS Handprints of curious visitors are already beginning to mute the shine of the steel, the orchestra has begun to adjust to the vivacious auditorium, and press attention is waning. As architecture, the stainless steel exterior forms a stunning organic sculpture set on a deftly planned base of public spaces. As a concert hall, the rich wood interior allows musicians and listeners to dwell inside an instrument of exquisite craftsmanship. As a civic symbol, its very existence is a testament to the commitment of local planners and developers.

Ammani Nair A/2022/2008 B Sec 3rd Yr. B.Arch. School of Planning and Architecture


Ray and Maria Stata Center, MIT Campus, Cambridge, Massachusetts

CRITIQUE True to his style of Deconstructive architecture, Frank Gehry’s buildings do not relate to his context and follow the slogan of “form over function”. His use of material and manipulation of distorted shapes emphasize poststructuralism. His designs concentrate on the skin of the buildings and the angles of the shapes that he uses. The spaces that he creates are designed to keep the visitor and viewer awestruck. Despite having odd angles and shapes, his building always seem to have a flow. His buildings do not portray a social idea but are meant to draw attention. They bring attention to that place and indirectly or directly help the development of the area. In most of his designs the functions of the building have to be adapted to the form and a lot of his building required modifications after being built. They require the user to understand the building instead of the building being built around the human. His designs, whether hated or loved, are always noticed and remembered.

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Dancing House, Prague

Ammani Nair A/2022/2008 B Sec 3rd Yr. B.Arch. School of Planning and Architecture


SATISH GUJRAL

BORN: 25 December 1925 in Jhelum

WORKS • Daryani House, New Delhi (1977) • Modi House (1978, 1982) • Gandhi Institute (1979) • Datwani House (1990) • Belgian Embassy, New Delhi (1983) • Dass House, New Delhi (1983-85) • Goa University (1986) • CMC, Hyderabad (1986) • Palace AI-Bwordy, Dubai (1986) • Indian Ambassador's house in Jakarta, Indonesia (1986)

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At the age of eight, a sickness terminally impaired his hearing. During his early years of sickness, "entombed in silence", as he said, he read Urdu literature and went on doodling with a pencil on paper. In 1939 he joined the Mayo School of Art in Lahore to study Applied Arts. The School's curriculum included various techniques for stone and woodcarving, metal smithery, clay modeling, drawing and design, to which was added scale-drawing and copying of the ground plans and elevations of old buildings. About three years before the partition of India, Satish Gujral joined Sir J.J. School of Art in Bombay in 1944 to study Painting. During 1944-47 he came into contact with the Progressive Artists Group in Bombay. He could not accept the PAG's total adaptation of techniques and vocabulary of European Expressionism and Cubism. He searched for a kind of modernism rooted in Indian traditions. In 1947 he had to discontinue his studies at the J.J. School of Art because of recurring illness. In 1952 he left for Mexico on a scholarship for an apprenticeship with Diego Rivera (muralist) and David Sequeiros(painter). The social content dominated his paintings and graphics, and the anguish of the nations who lost their homes and families during the partition of the country came out in angry, sweeping gestural brushwork in his paintings. His search was on for what was living and life- giving in the traditional arts and crafts of India, and he diversified his sculptural materials with machined industrial objects in steel, copper, glass, often painted in strong enamel colors. Later he tried out junk sculptures, introducing light and sound in them. From 1952 t 1974, Satish Gujral had scores of solo shows of his sculptures, paintings and graphics. Since the late '80s up to the recent years, Satish Gujral's paintings and sculptures further diversified both in terms of materials and content. Satish Gujral's sculptures in burnt wood have come with a kind of visceral exposure of forms, human and otherwise. He executed commissions to make large murals, mostly in mosaic and ceramic tiles and later in machined steel elements, simulated his interest in their immediate architectural context. In the year 1977 Satish Gujral started actively exploring modem architecture

Ammani Nair A/2022/2008 B Sec 3rd Yr. B.Arch. School of Planning and Architecture


DESIGN PHILOSOPHY & WORKING METHODOLOGY “form follows culture” - Satish Gujral Satish Gujral is famous as an artist and his style has changed over the last 60 years from the textured and expressionistic style of his earlier paintings to a geometrized and codified style, finding roots in both language and his experiences . His interest in architecture was derived from his engrossment with the mural as a medium of public art. With this came the conviction that a mural, a painting or a sculpture to be successful in a building has to come form a single. With this came the conviction that instead of bringing art to the public place as through a mural, the need was to make the public place a work of art by itself Gujral says “modern architecture is built for nowhere and speaks of nowhere. But building is like a human being - it has its own identity and provides an identity to its inhabitants.” “When I sat down to design it, it was like I paint, without conscious thought that I want it to be like this or that- emotion finds its style. I introduced a sculptural element that was natural with my background. Where I used conscious thought was in the planning,” says Satish Gujral.

Ambedkar Samajik Parivartan Sthal ,Lucknow

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Ammani Nair A/2022/2008 B Sec 3rd Yr. B.Arch. School of Planning and Architecture


BELGIUM EMBASSY, NEW DELHI During the 1970s, the Belgian government commissioned a competition for designing a brand new Belgian Embassy in India which Satish Gujral won. Satish Gujral took the shape and location(Shanti Path) of the site as the starting point for his designs. It is a huge plot of 5 acres. The Embassy unlike most buildings is not oriented to the center of the plot. Instead the four major units are in all corners of the semi triangular shaped plot- the Ambassadors Residence, the Chancery, the Counsel's’ residence and the servant quarters. “By placing them in this way I created a tension between the buildings,” explains Gujral. Each building is placed in such a manner that they are all independent yet tied together by a series of passages and the landscape. The landscape is man-made as the original site was flat. The land rises in parts forming upper level gardens, gets cut out at parts forming tennis courts. In the middle is a elevated landscaped courtyard, so that it serves both as a physical link between the buildings, as well as a visual barrier for privacy. The complex has a rather late Mughal feel to it and is quite open, friendly and inviting.

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Ammani Nair A/2022/2008 B Sec 3rd Yr. B.Arch. School of Planning and Architecture


BELGIUM EMBASSY, NEW DELHI It is a multi domed, arched, brick complex with a two-storey atrium, sometimes used as an exhibition space, around which the offices are situated. All buildings are faced in local red brick and left exposed to create an organic ambience-born from things , combined with indigenous ash grey stones. Further, egg-shell white, brown and beige complete the range of colours. Bricks posed a problem as they allow for leakage unless the roofing has been properly treated, especially in context of the Embassy as the wall merges into the roof. The residence is organised around the axis in almost two equal halves: one for the ambassador’s private use and the other for the use of frequent visitors. Both areas are approachable by separate stairs and through a large lounge. Here, the eye catcher is a brass chimney designed by Gujral himself. Behind this lounge, there is the gallery of covered patios, accessible through arched openings on both sides of the lounge. Here, the landscaped garden begins.

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Ammani Nair A/2022/2008 B Sec 3rd Yr. B.Arch. School of Planning and Architecture


BELGIUM EMBASSY, NEW DELHI The hall is light and airy. The residence comprises of an intermix of the traditional, the contemporary and the stark. The Ambassador’s residence took inspiration from the domes of the typical Indo-Muslim domes of Northern India, although it is also reminiscent of the style of Rajasthan fortresses. There are not only oblong niches, long narrow windows and semi-circular doorways, but also Indo-Arabic architecture-style domes and arches and Aztec-style crisscross angular vents. In its entirety, the residence with its minimalist interior shows a strong modernist character. This bulding got a lot of regonition as it broke the norms of office buildings. For the first time exposed bricks were used for a formal building, bricks were usually considered and informal medium. The Belgian government honoured Gujral with the ORDER OF THE CROWN for designing the Belgian Embassy in New Delhi in 1983. The only nonBelgian architect ever to win this distinction

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Ammani Nair A/2022/2008 B Sec 3rd Yr. B.Arch. School of Planning and Architecture


CRITIQUE Satish Gujral’s artistic talent can clearly be seen in his buildings. There seems to be a constant flow between the open, landscaped areas and the built form. He once stated “forms follows culture” and that is clearly seen in his buildings which seem to merge with their surroundings and adapt to their context.

He designs buildings as pieces of art and wants people to experience them as such. His use of exposed brick give an earthy organic feel. This makes the spaces he creates inviting and open. His arrangement of spaces and used of archway and domes are done is such a way so as to connect with the user and make them feel comfortable. In certain ways, he also follows the ideology of form over function, but give more importance to human experience when one is inside or using the building, than when one is just viewing it. Goa University, Goa

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Ammani Nair A/2022/2008 B Sec 3rd Yr. B.Arch. School of Planning and Architecture


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