HYDRO-PNEUMO CAR problem statement
PREMISE In ancient days, it took years for people to move from one place to another. With the advancement of technology, many means of transportation have come into being such as cars, buses, trains, airplanes etc. Easy transportation has revolutionized our society. Most of these vehicles run on fossil fuel. Fossil fuel like coal, petroleum and natural gas are formed over a long period of time deep under earth s surface over a long period of time. Millions of years ago, lots and trees and animals were buried under earth s surface due to geological disturbances. Over these years, these fossils were subjected to great pressure under high pressure to nally turn into fuels. Sadly these fuels are limited and with increasing population, all the fossil fuels will be exhausted in another 100 years or so. That will halt most of the modern transportation. Imagine, we ll be back to ancient era. We have to look for alternative sources of energies to drive our vehicles. Water is a great source of energy and this energy can be harnessed to in a hydro-pneumo car to be used as a fuel.
PROBLEM STATEMENT •Find out the number of car users in your locality and the amount of fuel consumed per day. Estimate the cost of the consumed fuel •Propose a cost effective business model in which all cars in your locality are replaced by hydro-pneumo cars considering above stated facts. What are the beneﬁts and drawbacks of the proposed model? •Design a basic layout of the hydro-pneumo car with an illustration elaborating its operation. •Conduct a survey of car users which includes their willingness to replace their car with hydro-pneumo car under following categories – Cost, Comfort, design and Miscellaneous reasons.
RAINWATER HARVESTING problem statement
PREMISE •At present, drinkable water is only 1% of earth’s water. Rest of the water is either saline or polluted. Many regions on the planet has very little rain or no water supply. Many people suffer from draught every now and then. Increasing pollution and global warming is turning earth from green plant to dry planet. We are dependent on water cycle on earth for constant regulation of water. •The water cycle describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of earth. In summer, surface water gets evaporated due to high temperature. These vapors are free from any chemical contaminants, because chemical elements do not evaporate at the atmospheric temperature. These vapors rise above the ground level and condense into form of clouds. These clouds then, pour water on earth in form of rain. Thus completing the water cycle. By transferring water from one reservoir to another, the water cycle puriﬁes water, replenishes the land with freshwater, and transports minerals to different parts of the globe. •Since, rainwater is free from any chemical pollutant, it can be used as drinking water and other household activities. But, as soon as rainwater falls on the ground, it starts seeping into ground. The collection of pure rainwater, before it reaches the aquifer is called rainwater harvesting.
PROBLEM STATEMENT •Analyze the average rain density of a locality in rainy season. Also analyze the average household water consumption per day in that locality. •Based on these ﬁgures, propose a cost effective business model of a rainwater harvesting plant in the given locality. •Design the basic layout of the rainwater harvesting plant run by the solar energy. The design should include plant site and the distribution of harvested water. •Estimate the capital investment of your model and compare it against the capital of existing water resources.
WASTE WATER TREATMENT problem statement
PREMISE •Water is a vital body ﬂuid which is essential for regulating the body processes such as digestion, transport of nutrients and excretion. Life on planet earth exists because 71% of its surface is covered with water. However, water is also required for many household and industrial processes. This water, once used, gets polluted with many harmful chemicals and salts and cannot be used for the purpose of drinking. Apart from that, many non-degradable and harmful materials such as plastic are also dumped in water bodies. These chemicals ultimately seep into the ground to pollute the underground freshwater too. •Apart from industrial waste, another factor which is causing the scarcity of water is global warming. With the increasing development of industrialization, number of vegetation is decreasing, which is causing the formation of green-house gases. With each passing year, the atmospheric temperature of earth is increasing. After 100O centigrade, water transforms into gaseous state and starts evaporating. Therefore, less availability of drinking water. •At present, only 3% of earth’s water is fresh, non-saline water and only 1% water is drinkable. With the present rate of increasing population and industrialization, all fresh water will be consumed very soon. And life on earth will not survive one day without drinking water. •To sustain the water on earth, we need to recycle the waste water and free it from harmful chemicals. This can be done with the help of a wastewater treatment plant.
PROBLEM STATEMENT •Propose a cost effective industrial model for wastewater treatment plant in your locality. Analyze the types of chemicals and pollutants present in the wastewater. Propose a safe method to remove these chemicals from the waste water and design a business model for it. •Propose a model to prevent the solid waste and non-degradable material from mixing into water. •Suggest methods for the efﬁcient use of clean water in household and industries. •Design the outlay of wastewater treatment plant using Archimedes' Pump. Elaborate the method of water treatment. •Why your model is the most effective wastewater treatment plant in the locality?
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WINDMILL POWER PLANT problem statement
PREMISE •Electricity is the main source of energy in modern world. It is produced by fossil fuels such as coal or nuclear plants, but fossil fuels or nuclear minerals are not going to last very long. Thus, we have to look for alternative sources of energy to keep the machinery of this world running. Solar energy and wind energy are two main sources of alternative energy. •Wind-ﬂow is one of the most important phenomenon in earth’s atmosphere. Our atmosphere contains air which is mainly comprised of gases like Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen and Carbon-di Oxide. When the temperature of earth’s surface is high, air expands and rises above. Thus, creating a vacuum there. To ﬁll this vacuum, the air from a cooler area ﬂows towards it. This movement of air is experienced as wind-ﬂow. In basic terms, wind-ﬂow is the ﬂow of energy from high potential to low potential area. •The energy tapped in wind ﬂow can be utilized produce electricity through a wind mill and thus eradicating the power crisis to some point.
PROBLEM STATEMENT •Find out the units of electricity consumption per day in an area and calculate the total cost of electricity consumption per day. •Design a windmill attached with a gear box to regulate the fan speed. •Design a layout of windmill power plant through an illustration showing its operation. •Propose a cost efﬁcient business model based on your wind power plant layout. Compare the cost of electricity consumption per day through your model to the existing cost.