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MARA UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY (SERI ISKANDAR) AP 213 BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (B.SC.) ARCHITECTURE DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE, PLANNING AND SURVEYING

MARCH 2015 - JULY 2015

AAR 635 TOPICAL STUDIES: ADAPTION USAGE OF BUILDING, CASE STUDY AT PLAN B, JALAN PANGLIMA, IPOH PERAK

MOHD. AMIR ASYRAAF BIN ZULKIFLI 2012235376


ADAPTION USAGE OF BUILDING, CASE STUDY AT PLAN B, JALAN PANGLIMA, IPOH PERAK

This report has been submitted to the Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture, Planning and Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA PERAK (Seri Iskandar), to fulfill the requirement of AAR 635 TOPICAL STUDY.

Prepared by

:

Mohamad Amir Asyraaf Bin Zulkifli

UiTM No.

:

2012235376

Program

:

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN ARCHITECTURE AP213

Year/ Semester

:

6/2015

Session

:

March2015 – July 2015

Faculty

:

Faculty of Architecture, Planning and Surveying

Supervisor

:

Pn. Afiqah Bt Ahmad

II


DECLARATION I hereby declare that this research paper and the research to which it refers are the product of my own work and that any ideas or quotations from the work of other people, published or otherwise are fully acknowledged in accordance with the standard academic practices.

Name

:

Mohd Amir Asyraaf Bin Zulkifli

UiTM No.

:

20126235376

This research had been checked by: Supervisor

:

Course Coordinator :

Pn. Afiqah Bt. Ahmad Prof. Madya Dr. Ismail Bin Samsuddin

__________________________

__________________________

Signature of Supervisor

Date

__________________________

__________________________

Signature of Course Coordinator

Date

III


ACKNOWLEDGMENT

All praises and thanks to Allah the Almighty for his blessing and kindness towards me by providing the appropriate time to finish this dissertation of AAR 635 Topical Study and

lending me His strength and wisdom to ease

the process despite the challenges to completing the given task.

First, I would like to sincerely express my gratitude to my supervisor that is my thesis coordinator, Pn Afiqah bt. Ahmad for her patience, motivations, understanding, and the relentless support with his immense knowledge for this research study throughout the semester in ensuring for me to complete the task immaculately.

A great thanks to my respected inspire, Pn Suzana Said, my PA, Mr. Izat as my practical advisor and AR. Badrul HIsham the principle of Badrul Hisham Architect for inspire me in handing and broaden up my gaze on the topic of my study. They are the most wonderful people for driving my passion in my journey as an architecture student. I do appreciate it.

One thing that i would not forget until the end of my life is i always appreciate is my beloved parents for the endless love and supports regardless the condition. By being there for me in all the time especially the hard time really moves me to strive harder and keep moving. IV


Not forgetting, all the participant that have taken part in helping me in my research, a big thanks for the great and most helpful responds given and cooperation that helps me in collecting sufficient information during my visits.

Finally, big thanks to all my friends for the suggestion, moral support, prayers and thousands of ideas to me in making this a success researches. I really appreciate their compassion and confidence towards me.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS DISSERTATION

I

DECLARATION

II - III

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

IV - V

TABLE OF CONTENTS

VI - VII

LIST OF TABLES

VIII

LIST OF FIGURES

IX

ABSTRACT

XII

1.0

CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

1 2

1.1

Statement of Problem

1.2

Purpose of Study

1.3

Aim and Objective of Research

1.4

Scope of Study

3 3 3

2.0

CHAPTER 2 : LITERATURE REVIEW

4

2.1

Background of Ipoh

4

2.2

Background of Plan B

5

2.3

Types of shophouse in Ipoh

6

2.4

Adaptation of building

7

2.5

Case Study

11

VI


3.0

4.0

5.0

CHAPTER 3 : METHODOLOGY

17

3.1

Observation

17

3.2

comparison

17

CHAPTER 4: DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS

18

4.1

Enclosure

18

4.2

External / Wall

19

4.3

Roof

20

4.4

Faรงade

24

4.5

Five-Footway

26

4.6

Roof Covering

28

4.7

Stairs

29

4.8

Rear Faรงade

30

4.9

Flooring

31

4.10

Ceiling

33

4.11

Wall And Buttress

34

4.12

Air Well

36

4.13

Mechanical And Electrical System

38

4.14

Sanitary, Piping And Drainage

43

4.15

Modification

45

4.16

Addition

47

CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

BIBLIOGRAPHY

51 52

VII


LIST OF TABLES Table 4.1

PAGE

Shows the information about the enclosure of Plan B 23 compare with guidelines provide by MBI.

Table 4.2

Shows the comparison between MBI guideline and the Plan 24 B building.

Table 4.3

Shows the comparison about the subject on roof as tiles, the structure, ridge, skylight, roof projection and the rain water

25

down pipes. Table 4.4

Shows the comparison the faรงade of Plan B and the MBI 29 guideline.

Table 4.5

shows the comparison of the spec of five-foot way provide by 31 MBI and the plan B.

Table 4.6

Shows the comparison of Plan B roof covering and MBI 33 guideline specification.

Table 4.7

Shows the stairs specification from MBI and the stairs being 34 adapt to use the Plan B concept.

Table 4.8

Above shows the aspect of windows, doors, air holes and 35 boundary walls in compare to MBI guidelines.

Table 4.9

Shows the comparison of Plan B flooring and finishes to 36 compare with MBI guideline specification.

Table 4.10

Shows the specification of Plan B ceiling in compare with 39 MBI guidelines.

Table 4.11

Above shows the aspect of partition walls in compare to MBI 40 guidelines.

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Table 4.12

Shows the specification of Plan B ventilation in compare with 42 MBI guidelines on air well.

Table 4.13

Shows the Plan B mechanical and electrical systems on electrical channels, kitchen exhaust fan and AC unit in

44

compare with MBI guideline. Table 4.14

shows the comparison between the Plan B sanitary, piping, 50 and drainage systems to the guideline provide by the MBI,

Table 4.15

shows the specifications allowed by MBI guideline in 52 compare with Plan B

Table 4.16

Shows the comparison on the addition made by Plan B with 54 the MBI.

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LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2.3.1

PAGE

From A to D above shows the types of shophouse found in

12

Ipoh. Figure 2.5.1

Shows the facade of Reichstag building.

13

Figure 2.5.2

Show the entrance to the Reichstag building.

14

Figure 2.5.3

Shows the decoration created on the wall

14

Figure 2.5.4

Above shows the interior cafĂŠ of Reichstag.

15

Figure 2.5.6

Shows the picture of open cafĂŠ of Reichstag

15

Figure 2.5.7

Shows the view of Reichtag dome

15

Figure 2.5.8

Shows the view of Reichtag roof

15

Figure 2.5.9

Shows the dome of Reichtag view from the inside of the

16

building. Figure 2.5.10

Shows the dome of Reichtag view from the inside of the

16

building. Figure 2.5.11

Shows the adaptation done into the Reichtag building.

16

Figure 2.5.12

Shows the adaptation done into the Reichtag building.

16

Figure 4.2.1

Shows material use for Plan B finishing

24

Figure 4.3.1

Shows the type of roof use at Plan B as covers.

25

Figure 4.3.2

shows the structure of the Plan B roof

25

Figure 4.3.3

shows the structure of the Plan B roof

26

Figure 4.3.4

Shows the Plan B as single unit building.

26

Figure 4.3.5

Shows the adaptation of using skylight applied in Plan B

27

Figure 4.3.6

Shows the roof projection of Plan B

27

X


Figure 4.3.7

Shows the rain water down pipes systems use in Plan B

28

Figure 4.3.8

Shows the rain water down pipes systems use in Plan B

28

Figure 4.3.9

Shows the rain water down pipes systems use in Plan B

28

Figure 4.4.1

Shows the façade of Plan B

29

Figure 4.4.2

Shows the façade of Plan B

29

Figure 4.4.3

Shows the façade of Plan B

29

Figure 4.5.1

Shows the floor finishing in Plan B café

31

Figure 4.5.2

Shows the floor finishing in Plan B café

31

Figure 4.5.3

Shows the floor finishing in Plan B café

31

Figure 4.6.1

Shows the type of roof covering applied in on Plan B.

33

Figure 4.6.2

Shows the type of roof covering applied in on Plan B.

33

Figure 4.8.1

Shows the front and back façade of Plan B.

35

Figure 4.8.2

Shows the front and back façade of Plan B.

35

Figure 4.8.3

Shows the boundary wall of Plan B

35

Figure 4.10.1

Shows the ceiling use in Plan B roofing system.

39

Figure 4.11.1

Shows the uses of metal partition

40

Figure 4.11.2

Shows a partition build from brick.

40

Figure 4.12.1

Shows the ventilation system of jack roof use in Plan B.

42

Figure 4.13.1

Shows the wiring applied in the concept of Plan B café.

44

Figure 4.13.2

Shows the AC units and the concept applied on it in order to

45

make it unseen from people‟s sight. Figure 4.13.3

Shows the AC units and the concept applied on it in order to

45

make it unseen from people‟s sight. Figure 4.13.5

Shows the AC units and the concept applied on it in order to make it unseen from people‟s sight.

XI

45


Figure 4.13.6

Shows the image of Plan B with the exhaust fan installed

49

Figure 4.13.7

Shows the image of Plan B with the exhaust fan installed

49

Figure 4.13.8

Shows how plan B adapt to use the natural lighting of sun

50

light. Figure 4.13.9

Shows how plan B adapt to use the natural lighting of sun

50

light. Figure 4.14.1

Shows the plumbing system use in Plan B concept.

50

Figure4.14.2

Shows the plumbing system use in Plan B concept.

50

Figure 4.14.3

Shows the floor traps designed in one of the plan B toilets.

50

Figure 4.14.4

Shows the drainage system use to flow the rain water from the

51

café. Figure 4.14.5

Shows the drainage system use to flow the rain water

51

Figure 4.15.1

shows the additional futures add in front of the Plan B façade.

53

Figure 4.15.2

shows the additional futures add in front of the Plan B façade.

53

Figure 4.16.1

Shows the roof systems use in Plan B structure.

54

Figure 4.16.2

Shows the roof systems use in Plan B structure.

54

Figure 4.16.3

Shows the roof systems use in Plan B structure.

54

Figure 4.16.4

Shows the additional landscape seated on the front façade of

56

Plan B that once are used as the main entrance to the Chinese theatre. Figure 4.16.6

Shows the new wall of the Plan B. it‟s show how the new

57

owner controls the material use in doing renovation on the building. Figure 4.16.7

Shows the existed column that connects to the foundation of the building.

XII

58


ABSTRACT

This study will be presented on the adaption usage of colonial shophuse, case study at Plan B, Jalan Panglima, and Ipoh Perak. As state by Langston et al.(2008) “Most buildings have an effective life span and once exceeded, two options exist, demolition or revitalization.� Observation and comparison be used as the method of study to gather information on the adaption usage of colonial shophouses at Jalan Panglima, Ipoh Perak. The procedure will be took place at Plan B as the case study and other few colonial shophouse nearby as reference. In observing the site, taking photos for reference and record information are needed. From the images that have been captured, comparison of the pictures will take place in identify the adaption use by Plan B in using the existing structure. From the comparison, a table will be produced to present the data. From the study, can be conclude that the guideline provide is not fully obeyed. There is still leeway in complying with the guidelines provide by the Badan Warisan Negara. It can be conclude that the guideline should be fully complied by Majlis Bandaraya Ipoh in allowing any renovation on the buildings that should be classified as heritage building.

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1.0 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION Ipoh is the capital city of Perak, Malaysia. This city was once dominated by tin mining. Located in a valley known for its mining of tin, the Kinta Valley used to be the famous and the biggest tin mining area on earth in the 19th century. Not only just tin mine, but Ipoh are also famous with its mysterious lime stone caves and beautiful mountain ranges, delicious food, friendly citizen and attractive history. Used to be the second in Malaysia that gain the status of city in year 1988 after Kuala Lumpur, Ipoh is one of the major cities in Malaysia with the population around 700,000. Began as a small village in 1870's, tin mining industry, which has become a major industry in the world has opened the door to immigration from China and India, which have boosted the city's development since 1890's. The town later becomes to be the capital of Perak on the Japanese occupation `in World War II. A rich source of tin has brought prosperity to many Ipoh miners that while formerly known as the City of Millionaires.

This development happened so fast. Many blocks of pre-war shop houses in the centre of Ipoh can remain completely untouched. However, the current owners just do not appreciate the architecture of the building before the war, or have any interest in restoring old buildings and chose to tear them down. This is exactly the same "tragedy" that has happened to the shophouses of Chung On Siew Street, Ibis Style Hotel last location, and blocks of shops in Hume Street. If the business man or the wealthy corporate keeps aside the heritage building and destroy it clearly for the growth of the city, it will be meaningless if

we tell future generations and visitors about the history of

1


Ipoh but there's only the pictures of it left. Many think that the preservation of heritage just to maintain some famous buildings. This reason alone is equivalent to letting a tree remained, while entire of the forest being sweep off.

2


1.1. Statement of Problem Adaptation of buildings is one of the solutions to the problem of disposal of the historical building. This adaptation is to meet the new function of the buildings in replace of the original purpose of the building why it was built. Adaptation was done to accommodate the new functionality of existing building structure of the building. This is done in order to appreciate and preserve the original appearance of the buildings as it is important in history.

Most buildings have an effective life span and once exceeded, two options exist, demolition or revitalization. (Langston et al. 2008)

Adaptive reuse is often identified as a preferred revitalization option. (Langston et al., 2008 and Yung and Chan, 2012)

Proponents of adaptive reuse argue it can extend the useful life of buildings, may be more cost effective than demolition and rebuilding, and has the added benefits of reducing material, transport and energy costs associated with new builds. (Ball, 1999, Bullen, 2007 and Bullen and Love, 2010)

Its benefits also extend well beyond the building's footprint to help revitalize existing neighbourhoods, reduce land consumption and urban sprawl, create a valuable community resource and, importantly, retain the character of existing neighbourhoods to enhance place attachment and lead to the aesthetic continuity of urban landscapes.(Ball, 1999 and Bullen, 2007).

3


1.2. Purpose of Study The purpose of this study is to identify the purpose why the adaptation is done at shophouse building in the city of Ipoh. Next study will compare the buildings renovated with the guidelines provide by the Badan Warisan dan Budaya. This comparison is aimed at ensuring that the guidelines provided are fully complied with by the city council to approve any application for the addition and renovation of buildings that are considered as the historic building to our country and Ipoh it self

1.3. Aim and Objective of Research ď Ź

Identify the adaptation made at the colonial shophouse in Ipoh.

ď Ź

To study the guideline from Badan Warisan dan Budaya Malaysia that controlled by Majlis Bandaraya Ipoh (MBI)

1.4. Scope of Study The study will be focused on the renovation made at the colonial shophouse at Ipoh Perak.This study focuses only on the changes made by the new owners of the building in the creation of new functions to the buildings without destroying, altering or eliminating the historical value of the buildings should in this respect. Therefore, the new owner should maintain the original structure of the building and every material use to build the building for its renovation.

4


2.0 CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Background of Ipoh Ipoh is a town that grew between two rivers.

The date Ipoh founded was

not known, but in the 1880, they laid the foundations of „the town that tin built‟. Belongs to Malay legend, Dato Panglima Kinta owe their origin to a certain sea captain from Sumatra. He and his men are on their way up the Kinta River until they came to Gunong Cheroh. They stopped there as it is not possible to pole further up the stream. While resting, they encountered a genie whose home was in the hill. It revealed to the sea captain the name of the river and bade him to take the name of Kulop Kinta and call himself Lord of Kinta. The origins of the story are obscure. In fact the founder of the family of Dato-datoPanglima Kinta was a certain Tun Saban Balik, who came to the district in the fifteen century or earlier. There is little evidence to support the historical authenticity of the tale but the story of Ipoh must start somewhere and since it is quite impossible to give precise time and circumstance to the foundation of the town. In the legend, important facts that emerge, first, the link established between Ipoh and the family of DatoPanglima Kinta, and other, is the link between Ipoh and the river. There is no doubt that Ipoh grew up on the land belonging to the DatoPanglima Kinta. In 1888, Edward Brewster, the Acting District Magistrate and Collector reported, “the land upon which the town is built was formerly a kampong land, the greater part of which belonged to the DatoPanglima Kinta. With the approval of the Collector and Magistrate, the

5


Dato divided his land into building lots and sold them to Chinese at $25 a lot”. In conclusion, inference remains, that Ipoh was situated in the heartland of the DatoPanglima Kinta‟s domains.

2.2 Background of Plan B Plan B is a cafe at 75, Jalan Panglima, 31650 Ipoh. The building was belongs to the Far View company that has headquarters at Bangsar, Kuala Lumpur. The 90th century building originally built as a Chinese theatre and subsequently converted into a hawker centre and subsequently closed before reopening as a furniture store. After few periods passed, the buildings at 75, Jalan Panglima, 31650 Ipoh, this was then again left unoccupied. In around 1990, the buildings purchased by the Far Sight company which then rents the building site to The BIG Group cooperation. The cooperation then sent a petition to the city council to make the buildings as a cafe and it then named The Plan B.

This area was once famous as it is the focus of the family. Adjacent to “Kedai Kopi Kong Heng” is so well known in Ipoh, is where Plan B cafe located. The area was also known as the row of Chinese eatery. Until now, this area is filled with visitor especially the Chinese who want to experience the luxury of great food.

6


2.3 Types of shophouse in Ipoh

Figure 2.3.1: from A to D above shows the types of shophouse found in Ipoh. 7


2.4 Adaptation of building

By referring the oxford online dictionaries, adaptation is the action or process of adapting or being adapted. In biology, it is the process of change by which an organism or species becomes better suited to its environment.

A building is a structure with roof and walls referred to the oxford dictionaries

and

from

Wikipedia,

they

state, building is

a

man-made structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place.

Adaptation adjusts or repair buildings adjusted to the conditions. Boyd and Jankovic showed that the factor of adaptation to the building can be seen from the five factors: the condition of the occupants, the impact that affects adaptation, policy planning, and sustainability of the building (Avelyn and Guang Min. 2011).

In adapting to building occupants to adjust the financial condition of the house and benefits for the future. (Gann and Barlow, 1996)

8


From Adams, in his writing in Revitalization on Building: Strategies, Needs and Heritage, he said that, “The preservation and conservation of heritage building are importance because this is an historical heritage of a country. Without such evidence is likely to apply to a country to lose the history of their own identity and if this continues another nation that has strong ties with the country are able to colonize the country due to evidence the original inhabitants of the country had already disappeared.�

The thesis clearly state thatâ€&#x;s it is important in conserving our heritage building because the building itself is the proof and it may tell us a story of that place at a moment. History is important to help the new generation to understand who they are. A society without a clear history is likely to lose direction or even more worrying is to losing themselves.

In the ensuring the history, thus, the maintenance of heritage buildings is important to ensure that evidence of a history everlasting. By applying and use the concept of adaptation of buildings should be implemented to ensure that the building is protected and conserved.

9


As state by NurZulaika Bt. Atrah in her writing in Revitalization of Malaysia Old Town: Strategies and Consideration of Urban Fabric Intervention

“A

building can tell us many things such as the cultural value as well as the sense of place that helps to strengthen the place identity. Thus, these indicators will intrigue the anxiousness within one self to know more about the people and culture of the particular place. Historic preservation is always related to the values, including of architecture value, cultural value, social value, aesthetic value, the value of sense of place, and value of functional diversity”

The article tells us that the architecture of a building do relate with the culture and sense of place. This two factor do relate with the history of the country.

From the article, Zulaika also did mention about the Strategies for Revitalization of Historical Buildings. There Zulaika state that one of the factors is by rehabilitation. She state that “Whether with or without adaptive alterations, the best way of preserving building is to keep them in use. The original use is generally the best for conservation of the fabric, as it means fewer changes. However, in order to ensure the economic vitality, some of the old function of a building is turned into different function that has more potential of generating income.” She also said that “Adaptive Re-use (a form of adaptive alteration) defined as conversion of a building into a use other than that for which it was designed. For example, turning a block of

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shophouses into a boutique hotel. However, the architectural façade treatment is retained to preserve the heritage value of the historical building as well as to maintain the existing public realm.” There, she also mentions that Yusof et al, 2007 said that, “Urban conservation also helps to reduce urban sprawl and reduce the creation of new towns through the revitalization of old town and adaptive reuse of the old buildings. This is more sustainable than to open new land because in the old town, basic infrastructure and the amenities are established. Delaying the need to build new towns is also a good practice for sustainable development by preventing extensive clearing of forested areas for urban expansion”.

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It is said In the Revitalization of industrial buildings into hotels: Anatomy of a policy failure by, Lianping Ren, Louis Shih, Bob McKercher, there are six types of obsolescence ant that is; 1. Physical obsolescence where the building experiences natural decay over time. 2. Economic obsolescence where the building no longer generates the return on investment desired by the owner. 3. Functional obsolescence where current uses of the building no longer meet its needs. 4. Technological obsolescence where the building is no longer superior to alternatives. 5. Social obsolescence where the building no longer meets fashion or behavioural trends. 6. Legal obsolescence where the building no longer satisfies a variety of building ordinances.

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2.5 Case Study

Figure 2.5.1 shows the facade of Reichstag building. Reichstag, New German Parliament Berlin, Germany 1992 – 1999 By, Foster and Partners

Description The transformations of the Reichstag are rooted in four related issues: the Bundestag's significance as a democratic forum, an understanding of history, a commitment to accessibility and a vigorous environmental agenda. As found, the Reichstag was mutilated by war and insensitive rebuilding. The reconstruction takes cues from the original fabric; the layers of history were peeled away to reveal striking imprints of the past - stonemason's marks and Russian graffiti scars that have been preserved as a 'living museum'. But in other respects it is a radical departure; within its heavy shell it is light and transparent, its activities on view.

13


Public and politicians enter the building together and the public realm continues on the roof in the terrace restaurant and in the cupola, where ramps lead to an observation platform, allowing people to ascend symbolically above the heads of their representatives in the chamber.

Figure 2.5.2 show the entrance to the Reichstag building. Figure 2.5.3 shows the decoration created on the wall

The cupola is now an established Berlin landmark. Symbolic of rebirth, it also drives the building's natural lighting and ventilation strategies. At its core is a 'light sculptor' that reflects horizon light down into the chamber, while a sun-shield tracks the path of the sun to block solar gain and glare. As night falls, this process is reversed - the cupola becomes a beacon on the skyline, signalling the vigour of the German democratic process.

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Figure 2.5.4 above shows the interior café of Reichstag. Figure 2.5.6 shows the picture of open café of Reichstag

The building provides a model for sustainability by burning renewable bio-fuel – refined vegetable oil in a cogenerator to produce electricity: a system that is far cleaner than burning fossil fuels. The result is a 94 per cent reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. Surplus heat is stored as hot water in an aquifer deep below ground and can be pumped up to heat the building or to drive an absorption cooling plant to produce chilled water. Significantly, the building‟s energy requirements are modest enough to allow it to produce more energy than it consumes and to perform as a mini power station in the new government quarter.

Figure 2.5.7 shows the view of Reichtag dome Figure 2.5.8 shows the view of Reichtag roof

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Figure 2.5.9 and Figure 2.5.10 the inside of the building.

shows the dome of Reichtag view from

Figure 2.5.11 and 2.5.12 shows the adaptation done into the Reichtag building.

16


This building has been awarded, 

Awards Architekturpreis 2000 des BDA Berlin Auszeichnung The Design Sense Corporate

Award Preis des DeutschenStahlbaus 2000 Eurosolar „German Solar Prize in the field of

Renewable Energies‟ ECCS European Award for Steel Structures – New Dome at the

Deutscher Architekturpreis Architects‟ Journal and Bovis Europe Grand Award for

Architecture at the Royal Academy Summer Exhibition DuPont Benedictus Award – Special

Recognition Design Council Millennium Product Award

Sustainability of the building, 

Site and Climate

The design utilises natural light as an architectural feature. Careful attention was paid to the sun‟s movement around the building and how this could be used to bring light into the space.

Form and Massing

The renovation project sought to bring light and openness into the building. To accomplish this, a large dome shaped sky light was installed to help capture and reflect daylight deep within the structure.

17


Passive Design

The solar collector brings natural lighting into the heart of the building, whilst an automated solar shade protects against unwanted, direct solar gain. The main chamber of parliament is naturally ventilated via the cupola.

Environmental Systems

The building was designed to optimise the use of passive systems whilst minimising active systems. Both the artificial lighting and ventilation are controlled by a central BMS system and a heat exchanger recovers waste heat from the exhaust air.

Renewable Energy

A biofuel powered, Combined Heat and Power (CHP) provides approximately 80% of the annual electricity and 90% of the heat load of the building. A large Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) acts as a seasonal store of both heat and coolth. Photovoltaic‟s on the roof power the solar shade within the light sculpture.

Energy Infrastructure

The CHP and GSHP units, at peak operation, provide energy to both the Reichstag and surrounding government buildings.

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Mobility and Connectivity

There are public transport links near to the building and a large number of bike racks for both staff and visitors.

Materials and Waste

The design aimed to protect and maintain the masonry shell of the heritage building, whilst redeveloping some of the core areas. By retaining most of the original building structure, construction and demolition waste was significantly reduced.

Water

Inside the building low flow fixtures and fittings were selected to help reduce the potable water requirements. All landscaping is either low maintenance or hardscaping, to minimise water usage.

Land and Ecology

The bio-fuel used to power the CHP unit is derived from locally produced rapeseed vegetable oil. The Reichstag, next to the River Spree, is surrounded by landscaped areas, with a mix of biological diversity that is protected and managed.

19


Culture and Heritage

In stripping back previous reconstruction to the building, striking imprints from the past were unearthed, including graffiti left by Soviet soldiers. These discoverers influenced the design, creating a space that sought to become a „living museum‟ of German history. Drawing light into the heart of the building, helped to create an open and visible platform for the German democratic process.

Wellbeing

The design sought to bring light and fresh air into the heart of the Reichstag, improving user wellbeing. The additions of viewing galleries and breakout spaces have brought additional amenities to the building.

Prosperity

The use of a locally produced biodiesel has helped protect and enhance the local agricultural economy. Increased tourist numbers to the Reichstag, has bought added benefits to the immediate vicinity.

Planning for Change

Creating a building that was open and honest about its past has helped it become open-minded and forward-thinking about its future. The Reichstag has now become a beacon, signalling the vigour of the German democratic process.

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

Performance in Use



The operational energy profile for The Reichstag, shows that it uses 57% less primary energy than typical existing buildings, and 39% less than the requirements for new buildings.

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3.0 CHAPTER 3: METHODOLOGY 3.1 OBSERVATION Identify the change made by the Plan B owner in adapting the place to be a faรงade by maintaining existed structure.

3.2 COMPARISON From the observation, comparison with the guideline provide by the Badan Warisan dan Budaya are conducted and the difference will be the

point of

the conclusion either the adaptation done is according to the guidelines provided.

22


4.0 CHAPTER 4: DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS Table below shows the comparison between the case study and the guideline provided by the Majlis Bandaraya Ipoh.

4.1 ENCLOSURE Plan B

MBI guideline

Note

Original materials,

Plan B is a cafĂŠ that is

designs and finishes

being adapted in an

should be used. Original

abundant furniture store.

size and decoration on

The structure is actually

the doors and walls must design to be a Chinese be maintained and

theatre.

rebuilt as the original or a material that matches the original material. The colours used should be appropriate and additions of new structures in the area are not allowed Table 4.1 shows the information about the enclosure of Plan B compare with guidelines provide by MBI.

23


4.2 EXTERNAL / WALL Plan B

MBI guideline

Note

Finishing and Materials

The building use glass

colour, designs and

wall and brick walls as to

original packaging

separate the space. The

should be used. Original

brick wall made by the

size and decoration on

original specification by

the doors and walls must using red brick, lime be maintained and

plaster and lime mortar.

rebuilt as the original or

The usages of

a material match to the

transparent glass wall are

Figure 4.2.1 shows material original material. The use for Plan B finishing

allowed because it does

colour scheme used

not affect the origin

must be suitable and

scenery.

harmony with the character of the heritage buildings and the streetscape. Only water-based paint type can be used. Table 4.2 show the comparison between MBI guideline and the Plan B building.

24


4.3 ROOF Plan B

MBI guideline

Note

Tiles The originality of the

Plan B failed to comply

installation method and

with the specifications;

tiles should be preserved

they use a transparent

and maintained.

plastic and metal roof

V or U profile does not

deck instead.

Figure 4.3.1 shows the type glossy, natural clay of roof use at Plan B as colours are allowed. covers.

It affects the external view, however, it

- Terracotta tiles, clay,

increase the architecture

Marseilles profile (Indian

value inside the

or French),

buildings.

- Slate Profile, steepness, height, original separation wall should be maintained

Figure 4.3.2

Structure of Main Roof

Plan B was constructed

Type of roof structure:

using steel beam and

- The construction

column construction

involves the construction

method where they can

of wooden shophouses

have a long spent and

purlin mounted

create a large space for

horizontally between the

people.

loads bearing wall that

The element and

25


Figure 4.3.3

acts as a binder between

function of the beam and

the structures of the

purlin is still there, but

separation wall.

the material use is steel

- Wood purlin installed

and it is allowed.

(roof beams) between the horizontal load bearing

Figure 4.3.2 and 4.3.3 shows the structure of the Plan B roof

wall - Use either truss system using wood or steel Roof Ridge Roof ridge up to the peak

As shown in the picture,

of the roof. Wall divider,

Plan B is a self-unit

finishes, decoration or

building and itâ€&#x;s not

details contained on the Figure 4.3.4 shows the Plan B as single unit building. ridge.

connected to the building around it,

- Shophouse in earlier divider wall is not going to raise the roof with neighbours - Houses transitional and eclectic shops – divider wall is raised

26


Skylight The new skylight is not

Plan B building do use

allowed. Original design if

sky light but it was not

there is to be maintained.

sure if they was an existing structure when it was still a theatre.

Figure 4.3.5 shows the adaptation of using skylight applied in Plan B Roof Projection Shophouses building shall The roof projections are Figure 4.3.6 shows the roof projection of Plan B

maintain the faรงade,

maintained.

including all the elements contained in the projection of the roof and the elements that support the roof projection

27


Rainwater Drains / Gutters And Downpipes Installation of a new gutter The gutter is place

Figure 4.3.7

for better building

because the design for

maintenance is allowed.

the rain water drainage

Gutter installation in a

is not good enough.

heritage building and an

Other than that, it

additional building is in

improves the view of the

the displacement of 1.2

place.

meters between the two buildings. This is aimed at The placements of gutter ensure the historical

are done as written in

building walls dry from

the guideline.

moisture. Figure

4.3.8

Figure 4.3.9

Figure 4.3.7, 4.3.8, and 4.3.9 shows the rain water down pipes systems use in Plan B

Table 4.3 shows the comparison about the subject on roof as tiles, the structure, ridge, skylight, roof projection and the rain water down pipes.

28


4.4 FACADE Plan B

MBI guideline

Note

Facade Front, Side and Rear

Figure 4.4.1

Figure 4.4.2

Figure 4.4.3

The original facade

They do retain the origin of

should be retained and

the façade and they do use

repaired or rebuilt.

the same material to

Demolition, renovation,

renovate the building. It

the addition is not

canâ€&#x;t be ensure either if

allowed. Original

they did any demolition to

material, mortar, and

the building because they

plaster must be

only rent the place from far

maintained. Only works

sight.co.

repair and restore the original appearance is

In my study, the renovation

allowed. The original

done on the wall and the

facade is meant the

facade of the building are

original facade as built.

followed the guideline

Restoring the original

provide.

material is required. The Figure 4.4.1, 4.4.2, and 4.4.3shows the façade of Plan B

missing element must be in accordance with the original design of the original wood and

29


canopy tiles must be maintained and preserved and according to the original design as a historical document elements that can be used as a reference. Table 4.4 shows the comparison the faรงade of Plan B and the MBI guideline.

30


4.5 FIVE-FOOTWAY Plan B

MBI guideline

Note

Gloss ceramic tile is not

There is no changers

allowed.

done on the most surface

This element is essential of the floor, they are

Figure 4.5.1

to sustained for study

maintaining the existed

and recommendation by

finishes.

experts. These elements should be maintained and restored. If damaged must installed with a new one. Traditional Finishing, eg; Terracotta tiles, terrazzo tiles, and mosaic represents the era of the

Figure 4.5.2

building. Sometimes there messages and information to be conveyed to the public by the designer. This

Figure 4.5.3

element is necessary for maintained. The original

Figure 4.5.1, 4.5.2, 4.5.3 shows the floor finishing in shape and colour should Plan B cafĂŠ

31


be maintained (salvage). Terracotta tile finishes is recommended. The original ceiling profiles, design and decoration should be maintained. Table 4.5 shows comparison of the spec of five-foot way provide by MBI and the plan B.

32


4.6 ROOF COVERING Plan B

MBI guideline

Note

New roof profile at the

The owner of the Plan B

back of kitchen is

does maintain some of

permitted subject to the the originality of the roof. Figure 4.6.1

Figure 4.6.2

ceiling height

Today, they use

requirements.

transparent and metal

Note: Refer to the

roof as the roof covers for

guidelines to allowable

the Plan B. The

building height. Figure 4.6.1 and 4.6.2shows the type of roof covering applied in on Plan Roofing materials must B. correspond to the main roof. Materials such as

transparent roofing might not from the original design, but itâ€&#x;s match with the design of Plan B

zinc, asbestos, metal deck, etc.is not allowed. Table 4.6 shows the comparison of Plan B roof covering and MBI guideline specification.

33


4.7 STAIRS Plan B

MBI guideline

Note

The original main

Plan B does not have

staircase should be

stairs to the upper floors,

maintained at the

however, close to the

original location.

study area there are several buildings that use

Figure 4.7.1

1. The main staircase

the adaptation and same

should be maintained, if

concept as plan B. refers

the new household is

picture taken, this

allowed to an

adaptation seems match

emergency and to

with the concept that has

comply with the

been used and it does not

requirements of the MBI. appear deviate 2. Building materials and significantly even using a new design and location

material other than wood.

of the stairs must correspond to design of Figure 4.7.2

the original building. 3. A new staircase can

Figure 4.7.1and 4.7.2 shows the structure of suggested to comply stairs present near the Plan B. with the statutory bodies and can be adapted to the design. Table 4.7 shows the stairs specification from MBI and the stairs being adapt to use the Plan B concept.

34


4.8 REAR FACADE Plan B

MBI guideline

Note

Windows, doors and

Figure 4.8.1

air holes (vents)

They did some renovation

The material should be

on the front façade but

preserved.

not the rear façade. In this

1. If the development or

case, the façade are

renovation is allowed,

block by the trees while

the rear façade shall be

the back façade is left

appropriate with the front untouched. façade. 2. The back lane must be restored and improvise. 3. Placement of bins Figure 4.8.2 Figure 4.8.1 and 4.8.2 shows the front and back façade of Plan B.

must be in an enclosed space. Rear boundary wall Exist as wall

The wall is preserved, no

decorations.

modification done.

The original height and design should be Figure 4.8.3 shows the boundary wall of Plan B

preserved and restored.

Table 4.8 above shows the aspect of windows, doors, air holes and boundary walls in compare to MBI guidelines.

35


4.9 FLOORING Plan B

MBI guideline

Note

Lower Level 1. Level and the original

There is no upper level in

structure should be

Plan B cafĂŠ.

maintained

Therefore the original

2. The difference in level

structure and level are

between the floor of the

maintained.

main room with a kitchen Those level assigned and area or rear court can be approved, are follow By customized

Law.

3. The difference in level between the main floor and the air wells floor should be maintained. 4. The study from qualified engineer is required to work with the heavy burden of structure on the original structure. 5. Repairs are allowed. 6. Upgrading work on the plumbing system must be minimized if

36


such working involves scraping and damaging the original structure

37


Upper Level The original packaging

There is no upper level in

must be retained.

plan B

Replacement of damaged material must be equal to or Close to the original material and size. For wet areas as examples the toilet and kitchen, concrete floor with a damp-proof layer can be used. The original design must be preserved and restored. Wooden floors in good condition shall be Maintained. Compliance with the requirements of fire brigade should be done sensitively. Table 4.9 shows the comparison of Plan B flooring and finishes to compare with MBI guideline specification.

38


4.10 CEILING Plan B

MBI guideline

Note

Upper and Lower Floor

Figure 4.10.1 shows the ceiling use in Plan B roofing system.

Ceiling

Plan B does not have

The existing ceilings and

upper or second floor,

decorative profiles should

but the triple volume

be restored.

space do use ceiling to

New ceiling is allowed if

cover the metal roof and

the total interior space is

absorb the sound of rain

maintained and original

hitting the roof.

features such as cornices, arches, capitals and stucco decorative unprotected. The appropriate type of paint to be used. Painting methods and provided surface that needs to be paint properly done. Installation of aluminium or metal frame is not allowed.

Table 4.10 shows the specification of Plan B ceiling in compare with MBI guidelines.

39


4.11 WALL AND BUTTRESS Plan B MBI guideline

Note

Partition Wall Repair work are allowed

The original partitions are

but must be in

left untouched.

accordance with the

Figure 4.11.1 shows the uses of metal partition

original design,

They do add some more

materials and

partitions to divide space of

construction methods.

the shop lot.

The materials used do not damage the integrity

The additional partition is

structural of the wall and

using metal and it followed

cause disruption to the

the concept of Plan B and

building next door.

Sekeping Kong Heng

Separation wall and the

Hotel.

wall - The walls are load Figure 4.11.2 shows a partition build from brick.

bearing walls. Disruption in any part will weaken

Figure 33 and 34 shows the the structure. wall that function as partition wall to separate The walls should be the spaces. preserved and restored with the proper method of using the same materials and traditional

40


methods. Disturbances in the original structure are not permitted unless the design method that has been approved by a qualified engineer. Table 4.11 above shows the aspect of partition walls in compare to MBI guidelines.

41


4.12 AIR WELL Plan B

MBI guideline

Note

These elements are

Plan B does not have any

essential for ventilation

air well, but they have big

systems in buildings.

openings. Triple volume

This system allows the

space and big ventilation

internal space constantly window at the roof that comfortable.

makes the ventilation runs perfectly.

This space recommended to be Figure 4.12.1 shows the ventilation system of jack roof use in Plan B.

keeping as it is works well to reduce the use of mechanical ventilation. Size Depending on the size of the premises. Need to be restored and maintained. Floor Finishing Replacement of damaged or installation of new material to be the same as the original material. Slippery and

42


glossy floor finish are not recommended Windows, shutters, vents, facial board, carving, balustrade mouldings and other Shall be restored as the damaged object be replacement or install with new material as same as the original material. Roof Coverings Adjustable roof, light or flexible for this area could be considered on safety aspects as subject to the design and construction materials used. Permanent structures from concrete material are not allowed.

Table 4.12 shows the specification of Plan B ventilation in compare with MBI guidelines on air well.

43


4.13 MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL SYSTEM Plan B MBI guideline

Note

Safety Supervision Position and location of the installation of CCTV and other monitoring system should not disrupt the façade and cable installation shall be made in a sensitive and unobtrusive building fabric. Not allowed in the five-foot way. Electrical channels

Some of the cables are

The wires must be put

left to be seen with

with metal clips, and use

purpose. The cable itself

colours that match the

will increase the value of

colour of the walls.

the space in Plan B

Figure 4.13.1 shows the wiring applied in the concept of Plan B cafĂŠ.

44


Figure 4.13.2

Air Conditioner Unit

Interesting things adopted

Not allowed in front of

by this cafe is they paint

the facade of either the

their air conditioner

ground floor or upper

compressor in black.

facade or side facade. Roof space can be used

One of the reason is the

to put the compressor

theme of the cafĂŠ itself is

and should be well

black.

planned to keep the Figure 4.13.3

Figure 4.13.5

Figure 4.13.2, 4.13.3 and 4.13.5 shows the AC units and the concept applied on it in order to make it unseen from people’s sight.

existing roof structure

In my opinion it is done

and control the moisture

because it hard to be

generated by the

seen if it is painted in

system.

black.

Placement of the unit should NOT be done on the existing wall as it will cause the moisture in the walls. Designers and engineers must propose an appropriate system. For the construction of a new cooling tower is not allowed.

45


TV Transmitter Place the transmitter on

There is no TV transmitter

the front facade is not

or antenna seen.

allowed. Water Tank or Solar Panel

There is no water tank or

Water tanks and other

any solar panel visible.

outdoor installations

As a cafĂŠ that provide

shall be prevented from

food and water is

visual views by using

important to them to cook

baffle wall / screen and

n cleaning, they do have

covered.

water tank.

The water tank should

The water tank is

be hidden from visual

perfectly hidden from

view.

human sight.

Steep roof or trellis is recommended. Installation of a new roof is allowed depending on size and technology more appropriate to heritage environment. Elevator Installation of an

Plan B does not have

elevator to the top space elevator as it is only

46


air wells or beyond

single floor building.

annexed building is allowed. A motor that stands out from the roof is not allowed. Pit holes, the size and structure of the elevator that need additional support should be minimal and does not interfere with the structure of the floor, walls and others. The use of the elevator should be restricted to those with disabilities only. Kitchen Exhaust Fan The exhaust fan should

Even though the exhaust

be placed on the back of

fans spoiled the view of

the kitchen courtyard or

Plan B faรงade, it is need

back lane.

to be use because they

Duct size should not be

have minimum openings

too large and cause

in the kitchen.

47


Figure 4.13.6

significant noise.

From Jalan Panglima, the

Installation of air

exhaust fans can easily

conditioning is not

be seen, but from Jalan

recommended.

Bandar Timah, even the

However, if the natural

façade is hidden by the

ventilation system and

trees from public view.

fans are less efficient, air conditioning installations Figure 4.13.7

are allowed but the use of 'ducting' is prohibited.

Figure 4.13.6 and 4.13.7 shows the image of Plan B with the exhaust fan installed

New addition space at the back should be providing for the air conditioning compressor. (These elements should be shown in a plan on making an application to the Local Council) Lighting Minimum lighting on a

Unique skylight and bulbs

pole / wall is allowed.

that use exposed wired is

Hot temperatures can be one of the characters

Figure 4.13.8

used minimally on the

adapt in the cafĂŠ.

facade.

They minimize the use of

48


Installation must be

pole, and do minimize the

done carefully and

damage in installing the

minimize damage to the

lighting.

building fabric.

Some bigger volume

Lighting installation can

space use spotlight to

be done as part of the

minimize the number of

street furniture elements

light source itself.

and is not attached to Figure 4.13.9 Figure 4.13.8 and 4.13.9 shows how plan B adapt to use the natural lighting of sun light.

the facade of the building. Installation of lights and lighting systems with modern and fancy is not allowed.

Table 4.13 shows the Plan B mechanical and electrical systems on electrical channels, kitchen exhaust fan and AC unit in compare with MBI guideline.

49


4.14 SANITARY, PIPING AND DRAINAGE Plan B MBI guideline

Note

Plumbing Water supply pipes must

In some parts, pipe

be hidden in the wall or

connections are

installed in the wall surface

hidden, but in some

by using metal clips.

other, the pipes are exposed and it is to

Figure 4.14.1

The installation must be

increase the quality

done with care and

of the space.

minimize the damage to the fabric and bricks in the wall.

Figure 4.14.2 Figure 4.14.1 and 4.14.2 shows the plumbing system use in Plan B concept.

The pipeline should be installed at suitable locations. Sanitary Pipeline

Figure 4.14.3 shows the floor traps designed in one of the plan B toilets.

Waste pipe and floor traps

The design and

should be in accordance

installation of the

with regulatory

waste pipe and floor

requirements. The

traps do follow the

installation should be done

regulatory

with caution, engineers

requirements.

involved shall ensure that

50


the damage is minimal and at the appropriate location. Drainage

Figure 4.14.4

Provides proper drainage

The drainage

at the perimeter of the

system doesnâ€&#x;t

building with the

seem effective

appropriate size.

because of the

The existing drains should

depth of the

be maintained and

drainage, but there

repaired.

is no renovation took

All types of drains and

place on it.

drainage, existing scupper

Therefore I conclude

drain should be maintained

that the drainage is

and repaired.

effective enough

New drains must have

actually.

suitable design and depth. Figure 4.14.5

Figure 4.14.4 and 4.14.5 shows the drainage system use to flow the rain water from the cafĂŠ.

Table 4.14 shows the comparison between the Plan B sanitary, piping, and drainage systems to the guideline provide by the MBI.

51


4.15 MODIFICATION Plan B

MBI guideline

Note

Basement Basement is not the

The cafe does not have

character of heritage

basement.

building. Renovation to build it is unpermitted. Water Features Indoor water feature

There is no water

may increase moisture

features install in the

and encourage mold and building. harmful bacteria it is allowed depending on the design, location and size.

52


Additional Features

Figure 4.15.1

Additional features that

As shown in the images,

fully closed the building

there are trees blocking

facades like wire mesh,

the front faรงade of Plan

billboard advertising

B. the trees do function

boards or other

as the shading device as

temporary structures

the building facade are

that do not correspond

constructed using glass.

to the heritage buildings and environments are Figure 4.15.2 not allowed. Figure 4.15.1 and 4.15.2 shows the additional futures add in front of the Plan B faรงade.

Table 4.15 shows the specifications allowed by MBI guideline in compare with Plan B

53


4.16 ADDITION Plan B

MBI guideline

Note

Addition of Roof

Figure 4.16.1

Addition to the front

Some parts of the roof

facade is not allowed.

have been replaced with

Addition of steep roof at

transparent roofing. This

the back facade that

is to allow the natural

compliance with the

lighting to occur.

height guidelines is

There is no addition of

allowed.

roof on the front façade,

Materials and steepness

even at the side or its

for the new roofing

rear façade.

should be in accordance

Plan B café do use jack

with the main roof in

roof to allow natural

terms of colour,

ventilation to occur.

steepness, texture, Figure 4.16.2

material, profile and the internal structure. Flat roofs are allowed only for green roof garden.

Figure 4.16.3

For construction works

Figure 4.16.1, 4.16.2, and 4.16.3shows the roof systems use in Plan B structure.

involving structural work below ground level, a study on existing

54


buildings and its environments need to examine the level of the existing structure. Jack roof allowed if adjacent buildings have jack roof. Dormer window and Skylight are not allowed.

55


Additional Facades Amendments to the

The faรงade of the place

facade to comply with

are blocked by the trees

the guidelines are

in front of it.

allowed other than repair Even thou there is trees, work.

we still can see they use

Additional on the rear

glass as to separate two

facade that complies

space.

with the height

Actually using glass is

guidelines must

forbidden but they do

harmony with the

allow it in some cases.

existing building.

As this case, transparent

Modern materials are

glass is used to reflect

allowed but must form

the activity inside the

harmony design and

space.

Figure 4.16.4

Figure 4.16.5

correspond to the

Figure 4.16.4 and 4.16.5 shows the additional landscape seated on the front faรงade of Plan B that once are used as the main entrance to the Chinese theatre.

heritage facade and around in terms of texture, profile, colour and performance. Traditional roofing material should be used. Materials such as metal or PVC sheet asbestos are not allowed.

56


Finishing Appropriate finishing and in compliance with the existing building is required. Use of shiny material and glass is not recommended. Figure 4.16.6 shows the Floor finish must be the new wall of the Plan B. it’s show how the new owner controls the material use in same as the existing doing renovation on the textures, colours and building. materials.

They do use the same type of material but different type of brick texture and size compared to the original one,

Finishing materials of the same or close to the original is required.

57


Pile and Foundation Method excavation for

There is no changes

new foundation (piles for done to the existing building two levels) is

foundation and there is

subject to approval by

no addition of pile and

the engineer.

foundation for the

The methods of

function of the space.

statement to support and Figure 4.16.7 shows the existed column that connects to the foundation of the building.

ensure the neighbourhood structure are well-kept need to be approved before the work start. TELECOMMUNICATIONS TOWERS Telecommunications

There is no tower or any

tower or any other on the other objects that roof or side of the

function as it can be

building gantries in line

seen from peopleâ€&#x;s

with or behind the

sight, all of are properly

facades of the site is not

hidden.

allowed. Table 4.16 shows the comparison on the addition made by Plan B with the MB specification.

58


5.0

CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

Conclusion The buildings that have been renovated or extended are in accordance with the guidelines provided by the Badan Warisan dan Budaya and the renovation itself are monitored by the Majlis Bandaraya Ipoh.

Recommendations It is strongly recommended for the Majlis Bandaraya Ipoh to ask the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) for the declaration of Ipoh town as the one of the historical cities in Malaysia because it also has various historic building that needs to be preserved.

59


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Book Background of Ipoh 

Riwayat Kinta by A.Talib bin Haji Ahmad, Pustaka Rusra, 1953.

IPOH- The Town That Tin Built, Mayor of Ipoh City Council 1995, Haji Ahmad Saleh Bin Haji Sarif.

IPOH- When Tin was King, Ho Tak Ming, 2009

Riwayat Kinta by A. Talib bin Haji Ahmad. Pustaka Rusra, 1963

Adaptation 

Garis Panduan Kawalan Kerja-Kerja Pemuliharaan Bangunan Warisan Kategori 2.(Rancangan Kawasan Khas Pekan Ipoh –Bandar Warisan Bijih Timah)

Chen Strategic assessment of building adaptive reuse opportunities in Hong Kong

Build. Environ., 43 (10) (2008), pp. 1709–1718, by Langston et al., 2008, C. Langston, F. Wong, E. Hui, L.

Revitalization on Building: Strategies, Needs and Heritage, Deborah Page-Adams, PhD, assistant professorReceived September 12, 1996. Accepted December 6, 1996.

Revitalization of Malaysia Old Town: Strategies and Consideration of Urban Fabric Intervention by NurZulaika Bt. Atrah, B.Arch., Department of Build Environment, Uni. Technology of Malaysia

60


Internet adaptation 

Riska, Novia. "Adaptasi Bangunan." Academia.edu. Web. https://www.academia.edu/5594998/Adaptasi_Bangunan

1800

24-05-2015 

http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/adaptation 1800 24-05-2015

Revitalization of industrial buildings into hotels: Anatomy of a policy failure by, Lianping Ren, Louis Shih, Bob McKercher, http://www.sciencedirect.com.ezaccess.library.uitm.edu. my/science/article/pii/S0278431914001030 (Available online 28 June 2014)

building 

http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/building1429 23-05-2015

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Building1429 23-05-2015

61

Profile for Amir Asyraaf Zulkifli

ADAPTION USAGE OF BUILDING, CASE STUDY AT PLAN B, JALAN PANGLIMA, IPOH PERAK  

This study will be presented on the adaption usage of colonial shophuse, case study at Plan B, Jalan Panglima, and Ipoh Perak. As state by L...

ADAPTION USAGE OF BUILDING, CASE STUDY AT PLAN B, JALAN PANGLIMA, IPOH PERAK  

This study will be presented on the adaption usage of colonial shophuse, case study at Plan B, Jalan Panglima, and Ipoh Perak. As state by L...

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