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TASK 1: Construct a concept map on this topic using the mind map software. Safe the file in the followings format: pdf, image files (jpg, png) OR copy the URL in WORD and submit in the ASSIGNMENT (Concept Map of Marine and Fresh Water) in PutraLMS. TASK2: Answer the following questions and save the file under your name and submit to the ASSIGNMENT in PutraLMS.


Partially enclosed coastal regions where a river meets the sea called estuaries have a characteristic salinity profile called a salt wedge where freshwater floats on denser seawater


When nutrients are added to a lake, it can become eutrophic (nutrient rich) and this can degrade the quality of the lake.


Lakes can be thermally stratified. The warm upper layer is called the epilimnion and the deeper colder layer is called the hypolimnion. These two are separated by a zone of rapid temperature decrease called the thermocline.


If the amount of organic material added to a river or stream is not excessive, algae grow and produce oxygen during the day. At night, the oxygen is consumed, resulting in diurnal oxygen shifts.


Aquatic environments are termed . low-oxygen diffusion environments because oxygen diffuses slowly through water. Furthermore, the solubility of oxygen in water is limited. This can lead to the formation of hypoxic (low oxygen levels) and anoxic (oxygen-free) zones, which allow specialized microorganisms to grow.


Photosynthetic microbes and small plants suspended in water are called create organic matter that enters the

microbial loop




, a complex process that cycles

organic matter from dissolved forms to particulate forms and then back to carbon dioxide and other materials.; 7.

To supplement ATP production some microbes in the oligotrophic ocean areas use


in the same way that archaea use bacteriorhodopsin. Other bacteria will use


anoxygenic phototrophy

, although it is not true photosynthesis since carbon is not fixed. Others

acquire energy from inorganic compounds while using organic carbon sources in the process of lithoheterotrophy 8.


Lakes vary in nutrient status. Some are oligotrophic (nutrient poor) and some are


(nutrient rich). 9.


The release of inadequately treated wastes and other materials at a single location on a river or stream is a type of point source pollution. Runoff from fields and feedlots is a type of nonpoint source pollution. 1

B. TERMS AND DEFINITIONS Place the letter of each term in the space next to the definition or description that best matches it.



A nutrient-enriched environment



A nutrient-poor environment



Environments with high flux rates for oxygen







Planktonic photosynthetic microorganisms and small aquatic plants



Planktonic viruses



Depleted in oxygen



The zone where light penetrates an aquatic system



Clumps of organic matter that escapes the photic zone and falls to the seafloor



Nutrients that enter from outside of streams



Nutrients produced by in-stream processes



The upper warmer layer in thermally stratified lakes



The colder bottom layer of thermally stratified lakes



The process primarily responsible for buffering the pH of oceans



The photic zone of deep lakes



Organisms adapted to high physical pressure environments

A columnar set-up designed to resemble a naturally occurring aquatic ecosystem Ratio of C:N:P; it is impacted by nutrient dynamics and is used to monitor these processes

A. allochthonous B. autochthonous C. carbonate equilibrium system D. epilimnion E. eutrophic F.

high-oxygen diffusion environments

G. hypolimnion H. hypoxic I.



marine snow

K. oligotrophic 


L. photic M. phytoplankton N. piezophilic O. Redfield ratio P. virioplankton Q. Winogradsky column



This is what I commented in LMS

What I know about proteobacteria is that all species are gram-negative bacteria which literally means that all of them have the same characteristics in terms of their cell wall structure. However, I cannot relate wether they have the same mechanismof metabolismd or not. Therefore, when I found out, then I only know that actually proteobacteria have many different major groups i.e. Purple phototrophs Methanotrophs Enteric Sheated proteobacteria Nitrifying bacteria Acetic acid bacteria Bioluminescent and related bacteria Phyla: Acidobacteria Deltaproteobacteria Epsilonbacteria Alphaproteobacteria Zetaproteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Betaproteobacteria



Flashcard human ecosystem

flashcard microbial metabolism



AN HOUR AT YAKULT FACTORY May 17, 2013. It has been a tiring day but full of excitements. Thanks to everybody who has fulfilled my day. What has been the most exciting is the trip of my classmate who are taking Microbial Ecology course this semester under Dr Wan Zuhainis Saad a.k.a DWZS, to Yakult Factory in Seremban which is the only one branch factory of Yakult in Malaysia. Well, basically, this trip has widened my knowledge about probiotics even more. Maybe because before this I only have been exposed to probiotics through reading and formal teaching lessons which have been ‘passing’ through me just like that which I do not even took care of it seriously. Even if I sick I would always prefer taking antibiotics without even truely realise the side effects of taking antibiotics in the future. From this trip, now I know, consuming probiotics can be considered as one of the effective ways to enhance our immune system activities and to replace usage of chemicals medications. So, after this, whenever I get sick, instead of taking antibiotics, I’ll try to replace it by drinking Yakult. Well anyway, sorry for the introduction. Yes, it was only an introduction, not yet the contents of my report. Actually, starting from last night, I was sick. I was having fever – a mild one and I cannot sleep well because I coughed really hard. In the morning when I wake up, I felt weak and almost had difficulty in breathing since my throat hurts and I had runny nose. But then, I tried to get up and pray. After I get my shower then only I felt refreshed. Without ironing my clothes, I put them on and drove to the faculty along with my friends. When I arrived, everybody was there already and were heading to the bus. The bus was nice, so do the driver. About an hour journey felt like a minute since I doze off due to fatigue. When we arrived, first thing first, DWZS took our picture right just before entering the lobby. How excited ‘la’ everybody! Then, we sat in the ‘presentation’ room for some briefing and introduction about Yakult. After that, we have been given with a free bottle of Yakult Ace Light which contains lower amount of sugar than Yakult Ace. Maybe, I am one of the typical Malaysians who cannot tolerate with the taste yet. It tastes more sour than the original Yakult Ace. Then, the tour. Nothing much to say. But what can I say, I do not want to work at Yakult. I can only be a loyal customer of Yakult product but not to work there, since all machinse are doing their work. It’s so boring. I think that’s all that I can say about my trip to Yakult Factory with my friends and lecturer. Thank you. Sincerely, Amirah Adibah binti Abdul Wahid

May 17, 2013


ADIBAH 162586