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Showrooms and Training Centers Building Analysis Project – AENG321

Group members:

Amira Abdel Rahman Aya Fayez Hadeer Salma Samir Sarah Mokhtar

To the attention of:

Dr. Ahmed Sherif


AENG 321 Project 1

Building Analysis Project

Showrooms and Lecture Halls

Table of contents Title page

1

Table of contents

2

Introduction

3

Literature Review A. Lecture Halls

4

B. Showrooms

12

Analyses A. Local Showroom Case Study

BMW Showroom, Cairo-Alexandria Road

27

B. International Showroom Case Study I

Autostella Showroom, Thailand

35

C. International Showroom Case Study II

BMW Showroom, Netherlands

42

D. Local Lecture Hall Case Study

Mansour Hall, AUC campus

Comparative Analysis

53

63

Conclusion: Checklists of Optimum Designs

65

Works Cited 67 Appendices Appendix 1: Appendix 2:

Sections of BMW Showroom, Cairo-Alexandria Road Construction phases of BMW Showroom, Cairo-Alexandria Road

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AENG 321 Project 1

Building Analysis Project

Showrooms and Lecture Halls

Introduction: The purpose of this report is to investigate the different aspects that should affect the design of both a showroom and a lecture hall. Consequently, analyses of existing showrooms and lecture halls were carried out while investigating both local and international cases. Several design issues were discussed such as the site plan analysis, the plan analysis, circulation, zoning, lighting, acoustics, landscape, ventilation, parking, security and safety, structure and interior. Showroom case studies included the BMW Showroom on CairoAlexandria Road, BMW Showroom in Netherlands and Autostella showroom in Bangkok. The lecture hall case study considered was that of Mansour hall at the American University in Cairo.

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AENG 321 Project 1

Building Analysis Project

Showrooms and Lecture Halls

Literature Review:

Lecture Hall

A. General characteristics:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

 Location The location of the lecture hall in the building should ensure the easy access and flow of students, faculty and equipment (“Lecture Hall Design”). It should be isolated from possible noisy spaces such as dining facilities ( “Lecture Hall Design, General Assignment and Yale and Classroom Design”). It should be located within the lower floors of the buildings to make it easier for students to access it (“Lecture Hall Design and Guidelines for Yale”). Direct air paths should be taken into account while choosing the location of the lecture hall (“Lecture Hall Design”). The location of the lecture hall should be near the entrances of the main building in order to decrease the students’ travel through the building (“General Assignment”). Restrooms should be located as close as possible to the lecture hall but with no common wall (“General Assignment”).

 Entrances 1. The student traffic areas should be set away from the location of entrances (“Lecture Hall Design”). 2. Quick and efficient changeover between lecture halls could be achieved by providing few doubleswing doors with at least one near the rear of the theatre. This should allow for a maximum clearance time of 5 minutes (“Lecture Hall Design”). The possible organization of doors’ locations is shown below in figure 1. Figure 1: Entrances to the lecture hall

(Design Requirements)

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AENG 321 Project 1

Building Analysis Project

Showrooms and Lecture Halls

3. Doors should be recessed into the room, but it should swing into the hallway not to cause any kind of obstruction of traffic in the hallway (“Guidelines for Yale”). 4. One entrance should be in the front to allow for wheelchair access (“Large lecture”).  The following diagram shows the plan for a good 200 seat lecture hall in which nearly all the factors and characteristics of a good lecture hall is applied. Regarding the entrance, it is wide enough to allow the access of a large number of people at the same time. Regarding the disabled, there is a ramp that leads directly to the places where they are supposed to sit. Figure 2: Good Example of a Lecture Hall

Ma terials:  Col ors of walls and furnishing should be sui table for the eye to ha ve the mos t comfortable vision and keep the audience in the comfort zone. Front walls a re the a reas of highlight and demonstra tion, a white color would be the bes t. As for side walls and furni ture they a re preferred to be of da rker color and finall y the back wall of bri ght color. Tha t’s to ha ve contras t between the i tems in the hall and for the eye not to mi x them up. Tha t also helps in improvi ng the lighting of the hall.  Ceiling is preferred to be of a sound reflecting material , since in mos t cases i t is being used to reflect sound, amplify i t a nd spread i t on the hall.  The side and the ba ck walls should do the same job plus tha t they should be of a sound absorbing ma terial as well , to prevent the sound produced from the a cti vi ty in the hall to rea ch outside and ha rm others .  Reflecting ma terial should be chosen such tha t the di fference between the ori ginal sound beam and i ts echo is less than 0.2 sec, so as that people won’t feel the repetition of sound.

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AENG 321 Project 1

Building Analysis Project

Showrooms and Lecture Halls

1.

2.

3. 4. 5.

6.

 Seating, Capacity The number of expected occupants should be reflected in the size of the room (Lecture Hall Design). The amount of space that should be provided per student is on average 60x80cm=55x75cm, and for additional comfort is 70x65cm (Neufert). Additional space should be provided that allows for audio-visual equipments, circulation space, etc… (“Lecture Hall Design”). The area needed per student including all spaces in the lecture hall is 0.60 meters squared (Neufert). Lectures halls are generally spaces having sloping floor surface with tablet arm chairs ( “Lecture Hall Design”). An unobstructed view to the board, the screens and the lecturer should be present from all seats located in the lecture hall (“Lecture Hall Design and Classroom Design”). The riser height is recommended to be in-between 6” and 12” while the riser depth should include the minimum row-to-row spacing in addition to around 8” to 12” (“Lecture Hall Design and Hall Planning”). Arm chair tablets usually follow one of the following illustrated dimensions. However, it is recommended to use the oversized tablet for note taking and laptop use. Figure 3: Arm Chair Tablets Dimensions

(Hall Planning)

B. Space planning and layout: 

Proportions and Physical Access

1. No columns should be included in the lecture hall (“Lecture Hall Design and Classroom Design”). 2. The size and proportions of the hall should take into account the flow of students within the room in addition to the need for the lecturer to move around in the front part of the lecture hall ( “Lecture Hall Design”). 3. The location of all seats should be within a 90 degree viewing angle from the screen’s center, i.e. within 45 degrees from both sides of the perpendicular to the screen’s center ( “General Assignment, Large Lecture and Guidelines for Yale”). 4. There are two types of possible learning spaces, “wide and shallow” shape and the most used in lecture halls being the “long and skinny” shape of the room. The “long and skinny” should be narrow enough to ensure that a 90 degree viewing angle to the front wall is present for all seats. On the other hand, narrow learning spaces decrease the student-lecturer interaction and may create visibility challenges (“General Assignment and Guidelines for Yale”). 5. The lecture hall’s slope should be lower than a one twelfth ratio (“Large lecture”) as shown in the diagram below.

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Showrooms and Lecture Halls

Figure 4: Maximum slope of lecture hall

C. Architectural and environmental standards:  Floors, Walls, Ceiling 1. Colors used for the finishes should be neutral and should suit the space ( “Lecture Hall Design”). 2. Because of the use of projection screens in lecture halls, the ceiling height should be higher than the standard 8 feet (“Lecture Hall Design and General Assignment”). A table 1 below shows the relation between the distances to the last row to the ceiling heights of the lecture hall as shown below. Distance to last row 50 ft 75 ft 100 ft

Table 1: Ceiling heights Rear of lecture hall 10 ft 10 ft 10 ft

Front of lecture hall 17 ft 22 ft 28 ft

(Yale) 3. To project the lecturer’s voice from the front to the rear of the lecture hall, the ceiling section over the sending end should be inclined toward the students, and should be as well angled upward from the sending end (“Lecture Hall Design”). This is shown in the diagram below. Figure 5: Section of a Lecture Hall/Bent Ceiling

(Neufert) 4. If moveable seats are used; corridors, cross aisles and rows should be covered or made from nonslip surfaces (“General Assignment”). 5. The painted walls should be washable and resistant (“General Assignment”).

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Building Analysis Project

Showrooms and Lecture Halls

 Furniture 1. Approximately 10% of the total number of tablet arm chairs should be made for left-handed (“Lecture Hall Design, General Assignment and Large Lecture”). 2. Seat numbers should be visible in all fixed seats (“Lecture Hall Design”), and seat dimensions are shown in the following diagram. Figure 5: Dimensions of Seats

(E. Neufert and P. Neufert) 3. A lecture hall usually includes writing boards. However, as the size of the room increases, the use of writing boards would not be useful because distant students might not be able to read (“Lecture Hall Design”). 4. Windows are not required in a lecture hall. However, if present, they should be placed at the sides of the room and effective control of natural lighting should be achieved through thick curtains for example. A complete blackout should be possible to achieve (“Lecture Hall Design and General Assignment”). 5. Lecture hall doors should be placed at the rear of the hall, must be noise-free and must control sound (“General Assignment”). 6. Furniture item should suit a wide range of people, hence should be comfortable for use “from the 5th percentile female (4’ 11” tall, 113 pounds) to the 95th percentile male (6’2” tall, 246 pounds)”. Accordingly, the required seat width is between 23” and 24” (“General Assignment”). 7. If tables are used within the lecture halls, their depth should be at least 18” (“General Assignment”). 8. The door leaf’s width should be not less than 36” and should include a vision panel, with a maximum area of glass of 100 square inches (“Guidelines for Yale”).

1. 2.

3. 4.

 Lighting In the case of using projection screens, the lighting system should provide darkening while keeping sufficient light for note taking (“Lecture Hall Design, General Assignment and Classroom Design”). Lighting should be provided in a minimum of four zones: full lighting for general use (adequate for reading), note taking lighting (should not shine on screens or on students’ eyes), controlled lighting for writing boards and lighting highlighting lecturer’s area (“Guidelines for Yale”). Lighting’s controls should be present at the room’s entrance and neat the lecturer’s area. Both controls should not lock out each other (“Classroom Design”). Natural lighting is not desirable in lecture halls, because most of the times it causes glaring which leads to decreasing the concentration level of the audience (“Guidelines for Yale”).

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Building Analysis Project

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 The following diagram shows an example of indirect light rays from one of the light sources to one of the audience. Figure 6: Dimensions of Seats

5. “Generally, there certain things that come up when talking about lightening in lecture halls: a) Glare: direct glare definitely annoy the audience, and combating glare; because of the color of the spot lights. b) Modeling: A case where a speaker is made to look grotesque due to the bad modeling. This may be solved by adding luminaries which have the ability to direct light towards the speaker and not down on him. Figure 7: Dimensions of Seats

c) Direct light on the board or the projecting screen is not recommended since it may cause blare and inaccurate sight” (“Classroom Design”)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

 Acoustics Heavy curtains or roman blinds contribute to acoustic insulation by damping sound reflections in the space itself (“Lecture Hall Design”). Room materials should provide the reflection of the sound from the front to the rear (General Assignment). Walls should be treated to insulate from noise coming from adjacent corridors (“General Assignment and Classroom Design”) Effective voice amplification should be considered and could be provided by audio speakers and wireless microphones (Large Lecture). Sound isolation from adjacent classrooms and corridors (“Classroom Design”)

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Building Analysis Project

Showrooms and Lecture Halls

 Electrical supplies and Technologies 1. The position of the projection screen should follow the following rules shown in figure 8 below: i. The projection screen should not be placed further than six times the height of the screen (Lecture Hall Design, Guidelines for Yale, Classroom Design and General Assignment). ii. It should not be placed closer than two times the height of the screen (“Lecture Hall Design and Large Lecture”). iii. A 45 degree horizontal viewing angle should be provided for students starting from the centerline of the screen (“Lecture Hall Design”). iv. The screen’s base should be placed above 1.35 meters from the ground level (“Lecture Hall Design”). v. The vertical viewing angle should be limited to 15 degrees head tilt excursion over the horizontal (“Lecture Hall Design”). vi. The top of the screen should not rise more than 35 degrees from the students’ sight lines (“Guidelines for Yale and Large Lecture”) Figure 8: Positioning of the projection screen

2. The writing boards should be positioned with a sufficient distance from the screen so that the light targeting the writing board would not be spilling on the screen (“Guidelines for Yale”). 3. The projection screen’s size should have a ratio of 1:4 (“Large Lecture”). 4. The lecturer’s consoles should be placed such that they do not obscure the students’ sight lines (“Classroom Design”).

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Building Analysis Project

Showrooms and Lecture Halls

 Ventilation 1. The climate of the lecture hall should be controlled in order to provide the students with an appropriate environment that promotes learning (“Lecture Hall Design”). 2. Natural ventilation could be provided through the process of cross ventilation. 3. The AC should provide the lecture hall with similar temperatures at different places of the room.  Safety and Security 1. The design should take into account some aspects of safety in the Building Code requirements such as distance from seats to escape routes, lighting of emergency exits, aisle widths, exit doors, etc… (“Lecture Hall Design”). 2. For permanently installed multimedia equipment within lecture halls, a security system must be on, keeping the room secured and monitoring the air flow, climate and use of windows ( “Classroom Design”).  Special planning issues for the disabled: 1. The entry doors should be on the same level as well as adjacent to the front row of seats for the disabled people (“Lecture Hall Design”). 2. For less than 800 seats, at least four wheelchair spaces should be provided ( “Design requirements”). 3. Wheel chair seats should be placed in pairs and not entirely separated from the other ordinary seats in order to promote interaction between all (“Design requirements”). 4. The passage that links the entrance to the seats should have a minimum width of 1500mm (Design requirements). Some of the required dimensions for lecture halls for the disabled are shown in figure 9 below:

(Design requirements) 5. Sight lines for wheelchair seats should be similar to the normal ones. 6. Tablet arm chairs should contain a minimum of 5% that are ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act) accessible (Large Lecture).

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Building Analysis Project

Showrooms and Lecture Halls

Literature Review:

Showrooms

Introduction: Car showrooms should be a Universal high space with special form having contemporary finishing and complicated structure/ glazing system. It should accommodate different zones with different levels to display cars in different categories and classes; the more expensive cars always have the prime and higher exposed locations. Other than cars, the main showroom should accommodate floating desks for sales persons, insurance companies’ representatives, bank auto loan officers in addition to a desk for vehicles registration officer. Showroom for branded cars always include display cabins for small gift items such as key chains, small car models, glass and crystal souvenirs, belts, T shirts, etc… that people can buy. Also car accessories display units are provided such as 4X4 bumpers, special lights, seat covers, floor mats, etc. Car Showrooms should be carefully illuminated, use of intensive white illumination is recommended at evening. Each showroom should have separate entrance doors for customers and vehicles. Usually having colorful showrooms should be avoided in order to leave the colors for the cars, since the target is to show and sell the car not the space.

Figure 10

Demographics:  The daytime and nighttime population within the determined trade area indicates the sales potential that operate within the showroom (Wiley). 

Figure 11

Pedestrian flows: the numbers and movement of people on the streets, in different parts of the centre at different times of the day and evening, who are available for businesses to attract into showrooms. To be effective this indicator should be monitored regularly as it is the relative values (rather than absolutes), which are important together with clear evidence of changes over time (“Retail Planning”).

Location  Easily accessible to at least one existing or shortly to be constructed major highway, preferably to two or more major highways. A location literally bordering on one or more major highways is desirable for its advertising impact on passing cars, but this is not necessary if suitable access roads exist between the highway and the site (Callender and Chiara).

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Attractions supports the place by consisting of the range and diversity of shopping and other activities, which draws in customers and visitors (“Retail Planning”). A healthy town centre should be a pleasant place to be in. It should be attractive in terms of environmental quality and urban design, safe, and it should have a distinct identity or image (“Retail Planning”). For car showrooms, the ideal would be a wide, level, rectangular lot on the corner of a primary thoroughfare. If an interior lot must be used, it should have Figure 12 wide frontage for display purposes and sufficient depth for future expansion (Callender and Chiara).

Access:

Figure 13: Sample of a Car Showroom Access

 

If a site is not easy to enter and safe to leave it must have the potential to be made so (Wiley). Successful showrooms need both to be accessible to the surrounding catchment area via a good road network and public transport facilities, and to encompass good local linkages between car parks, public transport stops and the various attractions within the centre (“Retail Planning”).

Visibility:    

Car showrooms need to be located on highly visible sites with good access to main transport routes and an eye-catching frontage. Display of the car range is paramount and the layout and orientation of sites and display areas will have a major impact on sales (“Cost Model”). Heavy traffic also prevents potential shoppers from easily seeing tenant signage and points of access (Wiley). The desire for the forecourts to be illuminated for as long as possible, especially relevant in suburban locations (“Cost Model”). For car showrooms, the showroom should be located in a position of unobstructed visibility-one that will readily attract the attention of people passing by (Callender and Chiara).

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If the building site is on a corner, the showroom should be on the corner facing both streets for maximum visibility of its interior. On an inside lot the showroom should be projected in front of the major portion of the facilities to increase visibility and exposure time (Callender and Chiara). Additional new unit display, if desired, can be provided outside the showroom under a canopy or roof extension, adjacent to the customer service reception area or through use of a landscaped patio display area (Callender and Chiara).

Figure 14

Shape:  Adequate size and suitable shape to permit proper planning of the merchandising area and a proper number of parking spaces (Callender and Chiara).  The site should be regular in shape and unified, undivided by highways of dedicated streets. Very few successful centers exist on divided sites (Wiley).  A site with a regular shape- no acute angles, odd projections, or indentations- is most amenable to an efficient layout. If an irregularly shaped site is used, it still needs adequate frontage so that the center is visible from Thoroughfares (Wiley).

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Shading Devices:  Additional new unit display, if desired, can be provided outside the showroom under a canopy or roof extension, adjacent to the customer service reception area or through use of a landscaped patio display area (Callender and Chiara). 

These types of new unit display areas are relatively inexpensive to provide and can be very effective. The minimum space guide for inside showroom display is 500 square feet per unit. Leave at least 5 ft open around each car. This will allow space so that the customer may walk around and open the hood, doors, and trunk freely. Allow as much extra space as possible around the display, so that customers can stand back and get a good view of the car from all angles (Callender and Chiara).

Parking Space:  The standard car parking space is 4.8m x 2.4m.  The minimum space for wheelchair and car is 4.8m x 3.6m.  The precise amount of car parking will be determined according to the specific characteristics of the showroom and its location.  Specific parking limitations should apply to the location of the showroom.  The parking place of the showroom should provide for maneuvering space to enable vehicles to exit the site in forward gear.  The parking space should also serve as a pedestrian access. 

The parking area should provide 0.75 spaces per 100m site area plus 6 spaces per service bay.

Figure 15

2

Topography:  The ideal site has minimal subsoil complications, neither solid rock nor a high water table, and a slope of less than 3 percent (Wiley).  Ground that is fairly level of gently sloping to the street is easily adaptable to showrooms (Wiley). Noise:  In order to reduce noise we could have walls, solid fences, plantings of evergreens to buffer the showroom’s sound and illumination level (Wiley).

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Security:  With the value of the stock on display, security is a major concern. Showrooms should have comprehensive access control, alarms and sophisticated Closed-circuit television (CCTV) (“Cost Model”).  Discreet physical security measures such as forecourt bollards and perimeter fencing are also necessary to prevent unauthorized vehicle entry and exit, but must not interfere with customer views of vehicles on display (“Cost Model”). Design Concept:  “One of the significant challenges in the designing large scale, multitenant, mixed used projects is the difference in the goals undertaken by both developers and architects to create a project that is both unique and distinctive, as well as one that complies with all the tied-and-true formulaic rules of the industry.  Much of what makes a project distinctive lies in the basic design concept or the main idea behind the project. The designer has to search for a key idea or story that will help him shape the design and thereby give the project its own character.  If concept design is compelling and evocative enough, it can inform most of the key decisions for the project, from the smallest architectural details to overall layout and leasing.  The architect has to begin by looking at the context of the site as the starting point for your concept design.  If a designer wants to create the quintessential “there” of a place, it is best to start with what is unique about the site, its history, geography, culture, scale, and so forth-its essence.  For instance, if a location is known for its brick architecture, try to make use of the material in the project, which may be realized in a contemporary interpretation of a historic style.  Sometimes, there is no physical or historical feature of a site to use as the basic concept. Then it is the best to create a sense of character.  These design concepts can be categorized by two types; formative and transformative:  Formative Design Concepts: They come from various sources of inspiration, for instance nature is an important informing concept. Projects that are often sited in Greenfield areas or very recent habitation and development follow formative design concepts.  Transformative Design Concepts: Retail and mixed-used architecture reaches its highest and best purpose when used to transform dilapidated underused or economically Fall 2010

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depressed urban areas. Architects look forward to working on these types of projects because they can reanimate a vacant and derelict downtown into a vital center of social and commercial interaction. With a city as a context, there is usually a wealth of inspiration for a transformative design concept” (Wiley). Basic floor planning Guidelines: Six basics plans:  Curved Plan: The curved theme can be emphasized with walls, ceiling, and corners. To complete the look, specify circular floor fixtures (Wiley).  Varied Plan: The varied plan is highly functional. Typical of the varied plan is a "below" effect, a tapering of the space that focuses on a special purpose area in the rear (Wiley).  Straight plan: The straight plan is economical and can be adapted to any type of showroom. The straight plan lends itself well to pulling customers to the back of the showroom, to define transition from one section of the showroom to another; displays can be placed to help lead shoppers. For a change of pace. Floor levels can be elevated (Wiley).  Pathway plan: Applicable to virtually any type of showroom, the pathway plan is particularly suited Figure 16: Different Floor Plans to showrooms of more than 5000 sq ft and on one level. A good architectural organizer, it pulls shoppers smoothly from the front to the rear without interruption by the floor fixtures. The floor and ceiling can be used as directional elements off the path (Wiley).  Diagonal plan: It permits angular traffic and design interest around the showroom's perimeter and encourages movement to all areas (Wiley).  Geometric plan: The geometric plan is the most exotic of the six basic plans. The designer created forms and shapes derived from showcases, racks, or gondolas and can use wall angles to restate the shapes dominating the sales floor. Ceilings and floors can be lowered or raised to create different zones (Wiley).

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Layout planning tips:  Use 100 percent of the space allocated in the lease (Wiley).  Do not sacrifice function to aesthetics. Successful plans combine both to the fullest (Wiley).  Do not create a maze (Wiley).  As part of the fit-out, additional space may be given over to financial services companies providing loans, insurance and similar products (“Cost Model”).  The site selected should contain sufficient usable space to provide for an adequate building and the necessary outside lot area. Ordinarily, the space allocation is approximately 60 percent outside area and 40 percent inside or under roof area. The inside space of a dealership is ordinarily apportioned into four major areas approximately as shown in the following table: Figure 17

Space Analysis: The illustrated building layout was prepared as an example for an automobile dealer center, in accordance with recommendations for a conventional dealership building design.

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Figure 18

The Entrance:  In air-conditioned showrooms, in order to maintain the conditioning systems efficiency at a maximum, a seal between indoor and outdoor air may be needed (Callender and Chiara).  Vestibules offer such protection, and may be made removable in summer months (Callender and Chiara).  Revolving doors are often essential where wind pressures are high, when volume of traffic is great, or when air conditioning is used (Callender and Chiara).

Figure 19

Show Windows  The current trend is for a double-height display area with the main frontage in full-height glazing, providing high visibility (“Cost Model”).  Patented systems, which eliminate reflections, are available; so are types of glass suited to special conditions, such as heat resisting glass (Callender and Chiara).  Show windows attract passersby. They may be opened up to display the shop's interior. Door locations require study in relation to pedestrian traffic flow, grades of sidewalks and store floors, and interior layout of the shop (Callender and Chiara).  Show windows must be induced to enter the shop (Callender and Chiara).

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Show-Window Lighting  Showroom lighting – which reinforces brand identity, displays cars in the best light and creates the right mood – is a useful sales tool (“Cost Model”).  For exterior lighting distributing light in order to produce a semicircular light meant for mounting on the sides of the showroom and walls. The intensity of this distribution lighting has the same intensity at angles from 90 degrees to 270 degrees (Fiorentino).  Employing highly specialized lighting techniques such as fiber optics, the artificial lighting or neon to energize the space (Fiorentino).  Adding daylight via simple skylights or more complex architectural expressions (Fiorentino). Interior Lighting  For interior lighting, using architectural lighting techniques like cove lighting and wall washing to reveal or reinforce the merchandise (Fiorentino).  Recessed lighting is very popular and if chosen correctly is excellent for display. (Jewelry of Architecture)  Wall washing produces a flat, even wash of light for a wall. (Jewelry of Architecture)

Figure 20

Showroom Ventilation  In ventilation systems, operators must understand the variations to know how to provide occupants with adequate outdoor air in all spaces throughout the year (“HVAC”). 

It should be that a portion of ventilation air supplied to occupied spaces is outdoor air and a portion is recalculated air (“HVAC”).

It can be that variations in the thermal requirements of a space are satisfied by varying the temperature of a constant volume of air delivered to the space at a constant (“HVAC”).

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Organizing Showroom Spaces: Interiors  Easy circulation and exposing the customer to the maximum amount of merchandise are part of good design (Callender and Chiara).  Avoid monotony in circulation and display of merchandise (Callender and Chiara).  Determine what customer accessories are required: seating in general. 

Location of stock rooms, or of reserves, must be carefully considered so that the salesperson does not have to leave a customer for too long a period (Callender and Chiara). The choice of materials, such as timber flooring in lieu of tiling, is a way for a manufacturer to reinforce the showroom’s visual image (“Cost Model”).

Figure 21

Departmentalization :

Figure 22

   

Impulse, or luxury, cars are usually high in price, so they shall have the prime and higher exposed locations. Leave at least 5 ft open around each car in order to allow space so that the customer may walk around and open the hood, doors, and trunk freely. Classifications may overlap; dividing the showroom or having different levels is possible in order to differentiate between the different categories. Signs are not always necessary (Callender and Chiara).

Customer Flow (circulation)  What a customer sees is more influenced by the arrangement of the space and the walking habits of customers, than by the intrinsic quality of the objects exhibited (Callender and Chiara).

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Figure 23

  

Tendencies to turn to the right, to be attracted by doorways, to choose the wider of two aisles are all of utmost importance to the showroom planning. Offices must also be analyzed in relation to customer flow (Callender and Chiara). The most common pattern for the direction of the flow of customers are: Entrance to exit, front to back, side to side, diagonal (Wiley).

Showroom Sizes  Heights: Basements 8 to 9 ft high, in the clear, permit economical stock storage. Ground floors are preferably approximately 12 ft high if no mezzanine is included; mezzanine at least 7 ft 6 in. above floor level will accommodate most fixture heights. Height from mezzanine floor to ceiling may be as low as 6 ft 6 in., if used for service space only 7 ft is the preferred minimum for public use (Callender and Chiara).  The minimum space guide for inside a car showroom display is 500 square feet per unit. Typical Counter and Case Layouts  

Center Island Type illustrated, L = 13 ft avg. min. ; W = 9 ft 6 in . to 13 ft . Islands composed of showcases only, L = 10 ft min. ; W = 5 ft 10 in . t o 6 ft 3 in . For floor tables, L = 4 to7ft; W=2ft6in.to 3ft. (Callender and Chiara). Aisle Widths For clerks, min. = 1 ft 8 in. ; Desirable, 2 ft to 2 ft 3 in . For main public aisles, min. ~= 4 ft 6 in.; avg., 5 ft 6 in. to 7 ft; usual max., 11 ft. Secondary public aisles, 3 ft to 3 f t 6 in. See Figs. 2 and 3. (Callender and Chiara).

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Figure 24

Displays  Staple items are often placed at the rear to draw the traffic from the front to the back of the store. Merchants count on customers getting to view additional (Callender and Chiara).  Locating display surfaces perpendicular to the line of entrance may result in angular plans, or in the use of screens or freestanding display cases (Callender and Chiara). Structure:  Always avoid having structural columns in this hall and depending on other structure systems such as space frames, space trusses, tension tent structure, glazed domes, etc. Space frames: A three-dimensional steel building frame which is stable against wind loads.    

Benefits: “Minimum structure weight. Accommodates concentrated loads. Suits irregular supports or plan geometry. Frame can be a feature without ceiling” (“Space Frames”). Figure 25

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Space trusses: It is used like a plate or slab, particularly for long span roofs where the plan shape is square or rectangular, and is most efficient when the aspect ratio (the ratio of the length and width) does not vary above 1.5. A space truss can support weight and loads in any direction.

Figure 26

Scale  An important factor in display is the relation between the possible viewing distance and the scale of the merchandise (Callender and Chiara).  It is possible to dramatize objects on display, to make them stand apart from their neighbors and in this way suggest that they are more desirable (Callender and Chiara).

Figure 27

Work Areas 

Car showrooms should accommodate floating desks for sales persons, insurance companies’ representatives, bank auto loan officers in addition to a desk for vehicles registration officer (Callender and Chiara). Most dealers have their own preference for the location offices (Callender and Chiara).

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Service department:  Overall organization and appearance determines the operating efficiency of the service department. Dealers have to create a balanced service environment that serves the customer's needs as well as the dealer’s (Callender and Chiara). 

The following are features that should be considered basic elements in the service environment: the covered, out-of-the-weather reception area, well-positioned signs that spell out traffic flow, the service tower that provides visual control, including a view through the service entrance and into the street and over the reception area and into the work areas, the customer lounge and cashier at one location, convenient access to the lounge without the need to wander through the service department to find it, wide entrance and exit lanes, and uncrowned write -up areas with sufficient room for customer convenience (Callender and Chiara).

Figure 28

The type of building shown in the following figure requires 120 sq ft per stall for access area which results in an average of 420 sq ft per stall. (Work area plus access area.) An average of an additional 80 sq ft per stall is required for other nonproductive service-related areas such as a tool room, locker room, service manager's office, and other utility areas (Callender and Chiara).

The reception area should be immediately inside the service entrance, decorated, well lighted, and equipped to create the best possible impression and selling atmosphere (Callender and Chiara).

It is strongly recommended that the customer reception area be removed from the productive service area (Callender and Chiara).

This concept has the following advantages : (1) keeping vehicles out of the productive area until they are ready to be worked on ; (2) outside (canopy) reception area can be considered, which is less expensive than inside roof area ; (3) customers prefer a clean, quiet atmosphere to the normal noise, dirt and congestion of the shop area (Callender and Chiara).

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Climate control  

 

Today virtually all commercial spaces are maintained the year round within certain limits as to temperature and relative humidity (Callender and Chiara). In most climates this means heating and humid. The problem of cooling is proportionately more important than heating, even in relatively cold climates, because of the necessity to compensate for the body heat and moisture emitted by crowds of people and the heat from electric lighting, especially the incandescent type (Callender and Chiara). The developer would supply the minimum heating required by the code (Callender and Chiara). For most motor dealerships, sustainability is not a major business driver, but delivering buildings that meet manufacturers’ design codes could be a challenge. Although occupancy-related cooling loads are not a major issue, loads related to solar gain are.(“Cost Model”).

Measures taken to mitigate loads, energy use and carbon emissions include:  Use of roof lights to provide basic levels of illumination without adding to cooling loads  Enhanced insulation for solid cladding and roofs 

Lighting control

Offsetting relatively high carbon emissions in a mechanically cooled showroom across the total floor area of the scheme, which includes areas such as workshops with lower loads. (Cost Model)

Stairs:  In a car showroom, if only the first floor is used for displaying cars while the second floor is for the offices then the stairs are better placed where they aren’t seen by the client; away from the entrance.  Fire and building codes devote a lot of space to stairs. (Stairs)  The 1996 Council of American Building Officials (CABO) and the 2000 International Code Council recommendations call for unit runs to be not less than 10 inches and unit rises not more than 7¾ inches. (Stairs)  Most fire codes do not allow stairs to rise more than 12 feet without providing a landing. The length of the landing should be at least equal to the width of the stair tread. (Stairs)  According to the 1996 CABO code, the openings between balusters are to be no greater than 4 inches. (Stairs)  According to 2008 New York State Stair Code the minimum [stair] tread depth shall be 9 inches (229 mm). (Building Code Guide to Stairways)  Fire stopping for stairs is required to slow the spread of building fires between floors and to assist in emergency exit. (Building Code Guide to Stairways) Fall 2010

Figure 29

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Emergency Exit:  “Exit discharges must lead directly outside.  Exit stairs that continue beyond the level on which the exit discharge is located must be interrupted at that level by doors, partitions, or other effective means that clearly indicate the direction of travel leading to the exit discharge.  Exit route doors must be unlocked from the inside.  Ceilings of exit routes must be at least 7 feet, 6 inches high.  An exit access must be at least 28 inches wide at all points.  Exits must be separated by fire resistant materials” (Occupational Safety).  The entrance door for the customer reception area should be 16 ft wide and 12 ft high. Two-lane traffic door should have a minimum width of 24 ft. Wide doors make it easier to move cars into the stalls just inside the entrance. Single exit doors should be 14 ft wide and 12 ft high.

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Local Case Study:

BMW Showroom

A. Site Analysis: i. 

ii. 

Climate The showroom is located in the desert on Cairo-Alexandria Road. The temperatures are very high during day time. The architect placed the building in the south-west direction prioritizing the availability of natural lighting and the show windows on the high way side over the possible increase in temperatures within the showroom and the consequent increase in the use of artificial cooling systems. However, to minimize these risks, the show windows were not used extensively in the façade. Site Accessibility The location of the showroom in relation to the high way and surroundings is shown in the map below. Figure 30: Showroom and surroundings

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Accordingly, the site is accessible by one major high way in Egypt, the Cairo-Alexandria road. The showroom is as well placed near other car showrooms and a popular megastore and mall. Private parking areas are well present.

B. Architectural aspects: i.

Plan Analysis: 

Analysis of different aspects related the use of spaces in the ground floor is shown in the diagram below. Figure 31: Ground Floor Plan analyzed

The depth of the showroom makes the customers feel the wideness of the space and makes the visit of the showroom longer, and thus increasing the time that the customers spend on thinking consequently increasing the probability of them buying something.

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

Analysis of different aspects related the use of spaces in the basement and first floors is shown in the diagram below. Figure 32: Basement and First Floor Plans analyzed

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ii.

Circulation and Zoning: 

Spaces of the showroom were well designed taking into account the relationships between all the different elements as shown below in diagram below. Figure 33: Relations between spaces, Ground Floor Plan



Although not clear on the plan, the circulation spaces between cars within the showroom are appropriate allowing the customers to move freely in all directions. This is shown in the photos below. Figure 34: Circulation within the showroom

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The randomness of cars’ locations makes the circulation within the showroom a multi-paths space because it does not direct the customer to specific spaces, but gives him the freedom of moving around in all directions according to their preferences. This means that customers may skip some of the cars displayed. The different zones of the space are shown in the diagram below, showing that each floor targets a certain function of the building. Figure 35: Zoning

iii.

Entrance and Show Windows:  

The entrance to the showroom is placed on the side of Cairo-Alexandria highway which makes it very likely to be noticed while driving beside it. The use of show windows was not extensively used because of the location of the showroom in the desert in which the temperature can rise really high. However, show windows were used partially to show some of the displayed cars in order to attract customers as shown below. Figure 36: BMW Showroom facade

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 

Few stairs were placed leading to the showroom and the entrance was protruded to cause self shading thus decrease the amount of sun rays entering the building. The complete façade of building is shown in the main elevation below. Figure 37: BMW Showroom main elevation

iv.

Interior: 

The interior of the showroom is quite simple with the dominant color being the white to put emphasis on the cars rather than the building itself. Few illustrations are hung in different locations within the building to break the monotony, but all illustrate BMW cars again to make customers focus on the displayed cars. This is shown in the photos below. Figure 38: Interior of the showroom

v. 

Unlike Autostella showroom, the relation between the scale of the product and the viewing distance is appropriate because of the big surface area of the showroom. Structure: Car showrooms in general try to avoid the presence of columns if possible in order to facilitate the placement of cars within the showroom. In this showroom, there are only few columns within the showroom space for structural purposes.

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C. Environmental aspects: i.

Lighting: 

The showroom was intended to use natural lighting during daytime through the use of show windows. However, since the show windows are not large enough and the showroom is deep, the lighting within the space was not successfully achieved in a way that values the cars displayed. This is shown below in the photo. Figure 39: Insufficient lighting in the showroom

Artificial lighting is used for night time use as well as to increase the intensity of light when natural lighting appears to be insufficient.

ii.

Acoustics: 

iii.

The building is placed near a highway which could cause a significant level of noise; however, background noise does not represent a major problem as visiting showrooms is not an activity that requires high concentration levels. Placing the offices in the upper floor in complete isolation from the showrooms may be an attempt to minimize the noise to offices in which some concentration is necessary. On the other hand, sales offices were placed in the ground floor because the designer prioritized the availability of workers to customers over the possible drawback in concentration levels. Landscape:

The showroom is located within the desert on a highway making it impossible to provide an appropriate view. This is why few spots of greenery were created to attenuate the sense of dryness as shown below. Figure 40: Greenery spots

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iv.

Climate control/Ventilation: 

The climate control is provided by air conditioning within all rooms of the building. The need for cooling systems is maximized here because of the hot weather, the use of show windows and the desert location of the building.

D. Security and safety: 

Alarms and surveillance cameras are used to ensure the security of the showroom.

E. Parking 

A wide parking area is provided in front of the showroom building. This parking has two functions: provide park areas for customers and provide park areas for BMW cars that will not be displayed within the building as shown below. Figure 41: Parking area

Overall analysis:

The design successfully planned both the circulation and the zoning within different spaces in the building. Different relations were forms according to the nature of showrooms. Environmental features were moderately taken into consideration. Since the desert makes it impractical to use natural lighting and ventilation, the design should have emphasized these through the use of preventative elements. Parking area was provided while security of the building was not complexly designed.

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International Case Study I:

Autostella Showroom, Bangkok, Thailand

A. Site Analysis: iii.

Land and Topography:  

iv.

The showroom is located in Bangkok, Thailand around Eakamai-Ramintra expressway. The site area is 1565 square meters while the project area is 496 square meters (archi). The city of Bangkok is located in the basin of the Chao Phraya River and has no mountains. The land is crisscrossed with canals and rivers. It is situated 2 meters above the sea level which could lead sometimes to floods (info). This high level of water makes the availability of underground parking impractical. The showroom does not provide a formal parking area, but provides a space in front of the entrance for cars to park. This limits the number of possible customers; but this may be compensated by free parking spaces within the showroom nearby streets.

Climate 

“There are three seasons: rainy (from June to October), hot (from March to May), and cool (from November to February). The annual average temperature is about 29° C with the monthly averages ranging from 35° C in April to 26° C in December” (info). The design of the space allowed for high temperature as the use of windows was limited , limiting the heat entering the space. However, this meant that the use of natural lighting was limited. Rainfalls were taken into account in the design as walls were tilted pushing rain away from windows.

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v. 

vi.

Site Accessibility The showroom is located near a high way (Eakamai-Ramintra expressway), making it faster to reach the showroom. It is as well located in a corner of two streets making it easily noticed by potential customers. Cultural implications and Surroundings

Bangkok became nowadays a mixture of traditional architecture and high tech/fancy architecture, making the showroom a normal part of such a heterogeneous city.

B. Architectural aspects: iii.

Plan Analysis: 

Analysis of different aspects related the use of spaces is shown in the diagram below. Figure 42: Floor Plan analyzed

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iv.

The spaces are organized in a way that does not keep the customer during a long time. From the entrance door, the customer can scan all the cars presented in the showroom. This was due to space constraints. On the other hand, the customers will be able to access all cars easily and quickly, which may consequently make them at ease and give them enough time to think about the products displayed. Circulation and Zoning:

Spaces of the showroom were well designed taking into account the relationships between all the different elements as shown below in diagram. Figure 43: Circulation Analysis and Zoning

The circulation within the showroom allows for a maximum of two paths from which one is most likely. A regular customer is pushed to take his right then visit showroom 1 then 2 then 3 then rests sometime in the sitting area. The exact opposite path could as well be taken. Customers usually like to have alternatives, which may frustrate the customer. However, a one-path design ensures that the customer will take a look at all the cars.

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vi.

Entrance, Façade and Windows: 

The entrance to this showroom takes place at the opposite side to the road. One has to go up stairs to access it. A fish pond is present besides the entrance adding nature to the already present greenery. This could lead to sense of relaxation and comfort to customers. This is shown in the figure below. Figure 44: Entrance to showroom

No entrance doors are available at the side of the road but instead stand large windows that allow customers to see the cars displayed and attract them to visit the showroom. This is shown in figure below. Figure 45: Façade (street side)

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vii.

Interior: 

The organization of the spaces allows for minimal about of flexibility in terms of changing of interior design, movement of cars, etc… However, there is an extremely efficient use of spaces and no space is wasted as shown below. Display cars consist of all the cars present within the showroom. Figure 46: Interior of the Showroom

  

viii.

Yellow, orange, red, black and grey colors are used in a way that accentuates the architectural style of this showroom that is very modern. However, the white color is the dominant color used as it helps the customer concentrate on the traits of the cars and not be distracted by the design of the showroom. The bathroom follows the same architectural style of the building hence gives the customer a sense of homogeneous space. Spot lighting is extensively used to highlight the cars displayed and sitting areas are placed at different places in the building. An important relation that is lacking in this building is the adequate relation between the possible viewing distance and the scale of the product. Cars are relatively big products which could not be seen entirely in details if the viewing distance is small, which is the case in this showroom because of its small size. Structure:

ix. 

The showroom is not an open space but rather separate spaces that are linked to each other. This semi-closed space gives the customer the feeling of narrowness, but made the structural design easier as it didn’t require steel structures to keep the space open with no columns. Concept and Shape The project was “accessed *…+ by neglecting the stereotype aspects of automobile that people connect themselves with, which is “Speed” and its “Dynamic” look. But it is designed like a small bakery and cafe’ that has small cars park right in the middle of the shops. Imagine a car is one of the furniture in the living room…Their potential clients are those lifestyle concerned people (who sometimes emotional buy rather than logical buy things.) Cars become part of people’s lifestyle, like mobile phone. They are not only transportations like when they were invented anymore” (archi). The concept can be easily observed within the space: scattered sitting areas, a homogeneous interior design that unifies the toilet, showrooms, cars and sitting areas.

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The shape of the building is non-uniform adding to the uniqueness of its design. “The flat and long red box is pushed-pulled, deformed and divided in to 4 different (but connected) rooms. Each room has windows in different sizes facing the street. Each of the windows is different in size according to the size of the room” (archi). This is well observed in the elevations of the building below. Figure 47: Elevations of Autostella Showroom

C. Environmental aspects: v. 

 vi.

Lighting: The design of the building does not put emphasis on natural lighting. Unlike other showrooms, large windows are not extensively used to show products. Even in the side facing the street, the windows are not large enough to lighten the showroom. This could be due to climate issues discussed earlier. There is extensive use of spot lighting as mentioned before in the interior section. Acoustics:

 

vii.

The building is placed at the corner of two streets and near a highway which could cause a significant level of noise; however, background noise does not represent a major problem as visiting showrooms is not an activity that requires high concentration levels. Placing the offices in the upper floor in complete isolation from the showrooms may be an attempt to minimize the noise to offices in which some concentration is necessary. Landscape:

viii.

As already mentioned in previous sections, the greenery around the building as well as the fish pond help maintain a good view to customers. Climate control/Ventilation:

There is no available information about that issue.

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D. Security and safety:   

A safety rail is placed near the fish pond in order to avoid possible accidents to customers. Because of the small scale of the building, a lower number of surveillance cameras will be needed. There is only one entrance and exit door which could make it difficult to escape in case of emergencies.

E. Parking 

As mentioned earlier, the high levels of water make it impractical to build an underground parking so this could not be used in this design. However, no formal parking space is available.

Overall analysis:

The design planned reasonably acceptable both the circulation and the zoning within different spaces in the building, despite the small area constraint of the showroom. Major components of showrooms are existent within the building. Environmental features were moderately taken into consideration as well. Natural lighting was prevented within the space due to climatic reasons. Sound and ventilation were not significantly considered by the designer. Formal parking area was not provided while security of the building was not complexly designed.

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International Case Study II:

BMW Showroom, Utrecht, Netherlands

A. Site Analysis: i.

Climate

Generally, the weather is rather cold in Utrecht, Netherlands. All over the year the temperature varies from 0 to 25 degree Celsius; ranging from 0 to 12 degree Celsius in winter and reaches 25 degree in its hottest summer days. That makes the use of the glass facades very convenient to the climate.

The Netherlands is located in the northern half of the earth, which means that the maximum intensity of the sunlight would be on the southern part of the building. And since the building is located in the Figure 48, Sunrays Direction. north west quadrant, the sun hits its the southern part, which is the glass façade in the indicate building, allowing direct sun rays in most of the day for natural heat and lighting purposes.

ii. Site Accessibility

A customer could access the showroom through the main entrance overlooking the Proostwetering Street (Fig.49) or the garage staircase. The Staircase on the northern part of the basement is the one for customers.

Employees parking is also in the basement but they have their own staircase right next the Security office and it directs towards the offices zone

It’s an advantage to separate the customers’ path from the employees’. iii. 

Figure 49. Pedestrians Entrance

Location The twin headlight showrooms are seen from the A2 highway near Leidsche Rijn behind the Acoustic Barrier and the Hessing Cockpit, but seen from the commercial area itself placed in front of the Cockpit building.

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B. Architectural Analysis i.

Plan Analysis  Zoning -

Parking

-

Maintenance

-

Outdoor Display

-

Indoor Display

-

Offices: The offices are located on both the ground and first floor. They’re not in a quiet zone but rather overlooking the showroom, which could be the loudest area. Figure 501, Basement Floor Plan

-

Wet Zones

Figure 51, First Floor Plan

Figure 22, Ground Floor Plan

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 Customers Circulation  As shown in Figure 55 and 56, the customers’ circulation starts on the ground floor from the pedestrians’ entrance. The customer could head in two directions; he will also find a large number of cars distributed on the floor. However, the distribution is not even as the right side has more cars than the left one. This could confuse the customer and make him concentrate more on one part more than the other. But this is also a technique to emphasize special or rare edition products. Figure 54, Products Display.

Figure 56, Ground Floor circulation.

 

Figure 55, First Floor Circulation.

On the first floor plan, the cars are places right in front of the staircase causing a very narrow circulation. The arrangement of cars in both showrooms is the same. It’s shown in the ground and first plan of right headlight building (Fig. 51 and 52).

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The cars are spaced enough to allow an easy circulation and examination of the products. They’re also assembled according to types (Fig. 56) However, the cars are not placed in a technique that directs the customer into a certain way.

Figure 57, Display of Products According to Type.

 Cars Circulation

Figure 58, Cars Circulation.

There are ramps surrounding the building to allow an easy circulation for cars.

The cars enter from the Proostwetering Street to a wide lane that separates the twin buildings. This is the only entrance for both cars and pedestrians. It would’ve been better if the main entrance were located on the highway to attract more customers.

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There’s a service zone at the northern part of the building on the ground level (Fig.59). As shown in figure 9 the circulation for the cars passageway is rather narrow and could only accommodate one car at a time.

The outdoor cars display is located between the two buildings (Fig.60). The lanes are wide enough to accommodate both product display and cars circulation in and out of the parking. Figure 3, Maintenance Service.

Figure 60, Outdoor Display.

ii. Show Windows 

The entrance of both Headlight showrooms is overlooking the street and a commercial area (Fig. 61) so it’s highly noticeable. Revolving doors are used because wind pressures are high.

The main façade is partly glazed curtain walls and partly steel, forming the headlight shape and allowing catching display. In addition to that the difference in materials allows direct sunrays access only in the products display area. But the glass facades have a slight blue shade, which causes color distortion and could mislead the customer.

Figure 61, Show Window.

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The cockpit’s show window displays the cars through a glass façade Stretched along 150 meters of the A2 highway in the direction of the cars’ flow. This technique allows the display of a huge number of cars just by passing next to the showroom’s glass façade. The glass facades are facing north; this is a drawback, as it doesn’t benefit from natural heat meanwhile, the region has a very low temperature throughout the year.

Figure 62, Hessing Showroom from Highway.

C. Structural Analysis Given that auto showrooms cannot have columns in the display area, the architects used space frame trusses (Fig.64) to support the ground and first level then used columns in the basement (Fig.63) because it’s only used for parking thus, it doesn’t obstruct the display or circulation. Figure 4, Parking Structure.

Figure 64, Space frame Trusses.

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D. Environmental Analysis i.

Lighting Figure 65, Southern Elevation.

The headlight twin buildings have their main elevations facing south. These southern elevations are in all glass curtain walls, allowing direct sunrays penetration to provide natural lighting and heating. (Fig.65)

In order to decrease energy consumption, the architects used the Revit model for lighting analysis. They placed the lights on the steel connectors of the curtain system (Fig.66) and then examined on the model the lighting levels. The designers were ascertained that the lighting levels are sufficient and avoided installation of a secondary lighting grid for the showroom lighting.

However, the architects failed to use sunrays for natural lighting in the cockpit building. They used steel facades on their southern elevation and glass on the northern. This is not beneficial energy wise but had they done the opposite the view on the highway would’ve been obstructed which would’ve ruined the building’s concept. (Fig.67) Figure 5, Close Up View of The Supporting Structure.

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Figure 67, Cockpit showroom Different Material Use.

ii. 

Climate Control/Ventilation

The showroom is located in averagely low temperature region throughout the whole year. Therefore, we assume that the glass facades transmit heat. There should also be a heating system installed. It’s also very windy in Utrecht, Netherlands, that’s why it’s not possible to use natural ventilation. There should be a ventilation system all over the building and the glass facades should have a very small number of open able windows. Revolving doors are used because wind pressures are high.

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Ventilation

iii.

Figure 68

Acoustics

Figure 69, Acoustic Barrier.



In order to decrease the intensity of the noise coming from the A2 highway, an acoustic barrier was built on both sides of the cockpit to work as a buffer.

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However, the offices are not placed these in a quiet zone. They’re actually overlooking the showroom, which could decrease the concentration needed for office employees to do their work during the presence of a big number of employees in such a big showroom.

Furthermore, the first floor is overlooking the floor below making it more harder to create quite zones.

Yet, This could be an advantage for salesman whose job is focused on interaction with clients.

iv.

Landscape Since the building overlooks a main street and is seen from a major highway, it’s located in a highly commercial area. Thereby, it needs a catching frontage to match the significance of the location. Some green spaces were added to give a pleasing view (Fig.71). The layout shows how the lanes between the three buildings are properly planned

Figure 70, Greenery Spots

Figure 71, Project Layout.

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E. Security and Safety Due to the expensive value of the cars displayed, there should be an intense security system, including surveillance cameras and alarm systems on entrances and for each car.

Figure 72, Products Display.

F. Parking

Both of the headlight buildings offer a wide space for parking in their basement floor (Fig.74). The plan shows the spacing between each car and an easy passage giving enough space for two cars to move in the main lane. There are other parking slots all around the building but they’re all designated for cars on sale display.

Figure 73, Parking

Figure 74, Parking Entrance.

Concept: This built project is a twin-facility car showroom for Ekris Utrecht, the largest BMW dealership in the Netherlands. ONL, the design office, named the project “Ekris Headlights” because the design was inspired by the shaped headlights of a car, which over the years have been transformed from a nonintegrated element in the grille of the car to an integral part of the shaped body. The two volumes together form a coherent image that is reminiscent of two BMW grilles with slightly tilted bars. The glass facade literally rounds the corner of the building, just like the headlights of a new BMW. There’s a Rolls Royce and Bentley car showroom at the back of the Ekris Building, it’s called the cockpit Hessing Showroom. It’s inspired from the shape of the plane’s cockpit. The Cockpit lies on the A2 highway and show its products for 150 meters. The analysis was made for both showrooms as they were both affected by the same site issues and were related in some key factors.

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Local Lecture Hall Case Study:

Mansour Hall, AUC campus

A. General characteristics:

1.

2. 3. 4. 5.

 Location Mansour Hall is located at the ground floor the back of a building, 14 meters from the main entrance of the building. That means that it is isolated from any noisy caused by students’ activities at the main entrance of the building, however, that would increase the students’ travel through the building. Being at the ground floor makes it easy access to the hall and facilitates the task of locating it. The corridor leading to the lecture hall is relatively a wide one, allowing the follow of a couple of students at a time. Also, the hall can be accessed via a stair leading to a different part of the university it is in, which allows access from different parts and decrease the conjunction at a part. The bathroom is 11 meters away from the hall which is a suitable distance and convenient for the users of the lecture hall, since it means a 2 minute walk.

North

Afternoon sunrays

Sun direction

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 Entrances 1. There is one entrance for the hall, the entrance have three doors in the middle the re is a double door which allows access to wheel chaired persons and one the side two single door for the access of the maximum number of people at the same time.

2. The doors are designed so as that they open to the outside, which facilitates access to the hall, since the audience won’t find something that would obstruct their way while they are  Seating, Capacity 1. Mansour Hall has 15 rows; the first two of it have 14 chairs while the other rows have 15, which give us a total capacity of the hall of 223 persons.

Notice … the arrangement of the chairs, here they are arranged in a way that they are all aligned with each other, unlike other hall that have chairs having different aligned. Different is good because it allows a person to see through the distance between the shoulders of those in front of him. However, alignment in Mansour is due to its shape of the 2.

The standards mention that the row-to-row distance should be from 20.4 cm to 30.5 cm. the rowto-distance in Mansour hall is 55 cm, which gives extra space for the user and can be considered as a waste of space.

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Distance between back to back for each row is 1 m

Distance between the rows 50 cm

3.

Arm chair tablets usually follow one of the dimensions previously illustrated at the literature review of the lecture halls. However, it is recommended to use the oversized tablet for note taking and laptop use. While that in the Mansour hall is relatively small and is not that convenient in usage, there is a difference of 3 cm from the standards.

21 cm

B. Space planning and layout: 1. Plan Analysis:

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2. Proportions and Physical Access:  There are no columns in the Mansour hall, since it is not preferable to have columns in any lecture hall.  According to the standard design, to project the lecturer’s voice from the front to the rear of the lecture hall, the ceiling section over the sending end should be inclined toward the students, and should be as well angled upward from the sending end. However, that wasn’t applied at Mansour Hall since the ceiling is a straight one not having any inclination in it.

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3.      

Furniture There is no special seat s for the left-handed. The seats are not numbered. It doesn’t have a white board, sine it is relatively a bid lecture hall and thus students at the back would be able to see what’s written on the board. There are no windows in Mansour hall; however a window is not required at a lecture hall. The doors are at the back of the hall, to avoid interruptions for possible late comers. The seat distance is 42 cm which is below the standard which is 48 cm.

7 cm

4. Materials:  The ceiling’s material: there were two materials on the ceiling tiled and plaster in order to reflect either light or sound.  The side’s material was wood having circular openings in it, when looking in it foam like material would be noticed, most probably used to isolate the sound produced by the hall’s activities.

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Pores in th e wooden side of the hall



The floor has two materials as well, the first one is the is the one used for the stairs and which is wood (smoothed one ) and the other one is a paint like material, there is something that should be taken into consideration which is that these materials are slippery and could cause a serious problems in the future.

5. Stairs:  The stairs in the lecture hall are even greater than the normal standards. The length of the step extended to reach almost 50 cm, but the depth and the nose were of normal measurements. 6. Lighting  Generally, nature light is not desirable at the lecture halls, but at sometimes of the day sunlight penetrates into the hall and that causes glare and decreases the concentration level of the students sitting at the back rows of the hall.

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Lighting must provide a level of room darkening to view projections on the front screen that also provides sufficient lighting for note taking and Mansour hall have different zones of lightening controlled by a unit.   

One zone controls the hall’s general-use fluorescent lights to provide full brightness for general activities. One zone controls low level lights for note taking. These lights don’t shine on the screens and don’t shine in the eyes of the audience. These should be fully dimmable. A zone controls incandescent spot lights that highlight the stairs, for people not to slip if the room is dark and there is something projected.

In the picture below, it is shown how the sunlight penetrating the hall through the glass on its window annoys the rows at the back.

7. Acoustics  Mansour hall is very good and efficient regarding sound proof and isolation from the outside. The kind of glass that is used on the doors and the structure of its walls make the hall totally sound proof.  Regarding the sound system within Mansour hall itself, there are several speakers in the hall, exactly 3 speakers on each side and 6 on the ceiling. These acoustical devices help in providing the best sound for students. Fall 2010

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This is an attempt to simulate the possible case of the sound reflection in the room, the only trick is the angle of incidence and the angle of reflection.

Ceiling Speakers

Speaker s

Side speakers 8. Safety and Security  There are two emergency exists at the front of the hall, near the area where the lecturer stands, which lead to the plaza.  That supposes that if a person is sitting at the back of the hall and an emergency happened, such as it is not possible for him to exit from the back / main entrance, it would be risky and rather hard for him to try to escape through an exit door located at the front and vice versa, since that would mean running more than 10 meters on a highly sloped ground and entering a narrow emergency exist.

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 

 

The architect tried to overcome that problem by having two emergencies exists one of which has a double door which allows the flow of a bigger number of people. Suggested Solutions: since there are boundaries around Mansour hall, an emergency exist on the left side of the hall would be another possible solution leading directly to the plaza.

There is a fire extinguisher for fire emergencies near the door (main entrance) The main entrance can be used as an emergency exit beside the other two ones at the front.

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9. Electrical Supplies and technologies:  Mansour hall is supplied with a large number of technologies and electrical devices.  To begin with it has a huge projector screen and a very sophisticated projector, there is an IT unit that has access to the internet and can work as a control unit for the sound and the projector as well. Some Problems regarding Mansour Hall: During our research about Mansour hall and aiming at critically analyzing it, some of the group members attended a movie that was shown on Mansour hall’s screen. It was noticed that sight from the first four rows is terrible and hurts the back to a great extent that one gets aches from the first couple of minutes he sits there. Sight only begins to improve starting the fifth row and above, since that’s the height at which the standard is fulfilled and the Screen Position is correct compared to the eye sight. The base of the screen should generally be at least 1.35 m clear of the floor at the front of the lecture screen. Also, regarding the Vertical Viewing Angle, Students should be limited to 15 degrees maximum head tilt excursion above horizontal, to reference the center of the projection screen. Another point is the sound, although Mansour hall theoretically has all the qualifications to have a good sound, the sound of the movie wasn’t good at all. To proof our theory, we tried to watch different types of movie to attain the credibility of our analysis and they all showed that sound were not as good as expected. Light was another thing, since the movie was project at 5:00 pm and at that time the sun is at the west which means that it is facing the entrance of the hall and glaring would be a disastrous problem. What they did was that the stuck papers on the windows of the door to prevent light. But a possible solution for that is putting shading portions or simply curtains on the windows.

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Comparative Analysis: Factors

BMW, Cairo 1 car access to the site.

1 car access to the site, close to a highway, corner of two streets.

Desert.

High levels of water within the land. Fitting within Bangkok which is a heterogeneous city.

Site Accessibility

Land and Topography Cultural implications and surroundings

Circulation

Autostella, Bangkok

Quite considerate. Minimal use of windows, entrance shading, similar surrounding buildings. Appropriate spaces for customers’ circulation. Multi-paths plan.

BMW, the Netherlands 1 car access through the underground parking, to the upper floors. An employee access and guests access On a side of a high way, of dry nature. Usage of curtain walls due to cold weather and need for sun

Appropriate spaces for customers’ circulation for mostly all spaces. Two paths plan.

Not all the display cars have appropriate spacing between them

Noise coming from the near highway. Offices separated from showroom for minimum noise levels.

Near the high way, put the services area facing it and showroom and offices away from it. Offices in the middle. The main display window faces the S direction, thus benefits from the sunlight most of the day. Artificial lighting used day and night.

Zoning

Acoustics

Lighting

Interior

Noise coming from the near highway. Admin offices separated from showroom for minimum noise levels. Natural lighting partially used as: windows face the SW direction while the building is deep so does not allow light access to the entire floor. Natural lighting is prevented from the entrance by a protrusion. Artificial lighting used in day and night time. Simple white interior Viewing angle vs. cars’ size relation is appropriate.

Limited use of natural lighting because of little use of show windows. Tilted exterior walls for sun shading and protection from rainfalls. Artificial lighting used in day and night time.

Mostly white interior, but multiple colors are used for minor areas. Viewing angle vs. cars’ size relation is inappropriate.

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Mostly grey interior with a clear look of the main material steel and glass. Viewing angle vs. cars’ size relation AENG 321

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Structure

Landscape

Climate control

Security and safety

Rounded supporting columns utilized, but do not obstruct cars’ transportation. Desert, artificial greenery.

Semi-open space, almost divided into spaces making the structure easy with no need of columns within. Natural greenery, artificial fish pond.

No use of natural ventilation systems because of the hot location. Only artificial ventilation by air conditioning. Regular security precautions (video surveillance cameras, alarms). Only one entry/exit.

No use of natural ventilation systems because of the hot location. Only artificial ventilation by air conditioning.

Wide parking space for customers’ cars and informal cars’ display.

No formal parking space, only limited space for few cars.

Regular security precautions (video surveillance cameras, alarms). Only one entry/exit.

Parking

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differs from a place to another. Having the shape of quarter a circle, no columns used within but rather space frame trusses Greenery and a twin building giving the shape of a car’s high lights No use of natural ventilation systems because of the cold location. Only artificial ventilation by air conditioning. Regular security precautions (video surveillance cameras, alarms). two entry/exist, one for cars and other for pedestrians A fairly big underground parking for employee and some guests are allowed. A parking space outside beside it for customers’ cars and informal cars’ display.

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Checklist for Optimum Car Showroom Design: 

A showroom is best located on two or more major highways in order to be accessed easily.

It needs to be accessible to the surrounding via good road network and public transport facilities and to have good local linkages between car parks and public transport stops.

For car showrooms, the showroom should be located in a position of unobstructed visibility.

The site selected should contain sufficient usable space to provide for an adequate building and the necessary outside lot area.

In car showrooms, the show windows are better a double-height display area with the main frontage in full-height glazing, providing high visibility.

The showroom should be designed providing easy circulation and exposing the customer to the maximum amount of merchandise.

The space of the car showroom should accommodate different zones with different levels to display cars in different categories and classes; the more expensive cars always have the prime and higher exposed locations.

Always avoid having structural columns in this hall and depending on other structure systems such as space frames, space trusses, tension tent structure, glazed domes, etc.

Car showrooms should accommodate floating desks for sales persons, insurance companies’ representatives, bank auto loan officers in addition to a desk for vehicles registration officer.

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Checklist for Optimum Lecture Hall Design: 1. Being easily reached and smoothly accessed. 2. Presence of enough isolation from the outside whether from light or sound perspective. 3.

Achieving a human’s ease and keeping him in the comfort zone; through taking care of the affecting environmental factors such as the lightening, the temperature and the ventilation of the hall.

4. Offering a comfortable seating facility, with careful dimensions with which almost anyone can sit comfortably. 5. Projection screen should be of a particular height to achieve suitable angle between the audience and the screen. 6. Sound and technological facilities plays a very important role in the success and the failure of any lecture hall, since a lecture hall’s main aim is to present something the people ought to see and listen to well. 7. Emergency exists: like any other facility there must be emergency exists in case a something went wrong during one of the lectures.

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Works Cited Benya, James. "Jewelry of Architecture." Home. Benya Lighting Design, 2005. Web. 04 Oct. 2010. <http://www.benyalighting.com> "Building Code Guide to Stairways, Railings, Landing Construction & Stair Safety Inspections." InspectAPedia.com Building & Environmental Problem Diagnostic & Repair Encyclopedia. Web. 02 Oct. 2010. Callender, J. H., and J. De. Chiara. Time-saver Standards for Building Types. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1973. Print. Classroom Design Standards. Publication. University of Connecticut. Web. 19 Sept. 2010. <http://fas.uconn.edu/Masterplan/10.%20Classroom%20Design%20Standard/Classroom%20Fin al%20rev11.%20033005.pdf>. "Cost Model: Car Showrooms | Magazine Features | Building." Construction Industry News from the UK's Leading Construction Magazine - Building. Web. 29 Sept. 2010. DeChiara, Joseph, Julius Panero, and Martin Zelnik. Time-saver Standards for Interior Design and Space Planning. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2000. Print. Design Requirements. Publication. Web. 19 Sept. 2010. <http://www.bd.gov.hk/english/documents/code/bfa2008/Division1.pdf>. "Emergency Exit Routes." Occupational Safety and Health Organization (OSHA). U.S. Department of Labor, 2003. Web. 3 Oct. 2010. Fiorentino, Catherine. "Lighting Distribution Types | EHow.com." EHow | How To Do Just About Everything! | How To Videos & Articles. Web. 30 Sept. 2010. General Assignment Classroom Design Standards. Publication. University of Iowa. Web. 19 Sept. 2010. <http://www.facilities.uiowa.edu/pdc/designstandards/ClassroomDesignStandards.pdf>.

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Guidelines for Yale Learning Spaces. Publication. Yale University, 16 May 2007. Web. 19 Sept. 2010. <http://www.yale.edu/its/media/classroom/classroom_guidelines.pdf>. "Heating, Ventilation, and Air-conditioning (HVAC) | Text Modules | US EPA." US Environmental Protection Agency. Web. 30 Sept. 2010. Karlen, Mark, and James Benya. Lighting Design Basics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley, 2004. Print. "KI Education - Auditorium/Lecture Hall Planning." KI Education. Web. 19 Sept. 2010. <http://www.kieducation.com/issues.aspx?ar=106>. "Large Lecture Hall Design." CRLT : Center for Research on Learning and Teaching. University of Michigan. Web. 19 Sept. 2010. <http://www.crlt.umich.edu/learningspaceguidelines/largelecture.php>. Lecture Hall Design Standards. Publication. University of Maryland, Baltimore County, 29 Aug. 2000. Web. 19 Sept. 2010. <http://www.umbc.edu/oit/classroomtechnology/about_files/LH_Standard.pdf>. Neufert, Ernst, and Peter Neufert. Architects' Data. Oxford: Blackwell Science, 2008. Print. "Parking Requirement Guidelines." Wagga Wagga City Council Internet. Wagga Wagga Development Control Plan 2005, Dec. 2005. Web. 04 Oct. 2010. <http://www.wagga.nsw.gov.au>. Retail Planning Guidelines for Planing Authorities. Ireland. January 2005. Print. "Space Frames." Triodetic. Web. 03 Oct. 2010. "Stairs" Sizes of Things and the Units Used to Describe Them. Web. 02 Oct. 2010. "Wiley::Building Type Basics for Retail and Mixed-Use Facilities." Wiley::Home. Web. 25 Sept. 2010.

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Appendices Appendix 1:

Side Elevation and Sections of the BMW showroom, Cairo-Alexandria Road

Section B-B

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Appendix 2:

Construction Phases of the BMW showroom, Cairo-Alexandria Road

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AENG 321- PROJECT 1