AU Mission Washington, DC - Invest in Africa 2019, Vol. 2

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Africa 2019 Vol. 2







elcome to the second edition of Invest in Africa 2019. Our Mission in Washington, DC, is pleased to bring you this edition following the July 7 launch of the most transformational initiative in our continent’s recent history—the African Continental Free Trade Area agreement. This edition focuses on all the sons and daughters of Africa who were either displaced within the continent or left the continent willingly or unwillingly (in recent times or historically), and their role in Africa’s development. The theme we chose—The Year of Return—is thus in line with the African Union Commission’s theme for the year 2019—The Year of Refugees, Returnees, and Internally Displaced Persons: Towards Durable Solutions to Forced Displacement in Africa. The topics and stories were specifically chosen to educate, promote dialogue, and engage our African Diaspora and friends in the Americas. I hope you enjoy this latest edition. It’s The Year of Return.

H.E. Dr. Arikana Chihombori-Quao Permanent Representative to the United States


Africa 2019 Vol. 2


An official publication of the African Union (AU) Representational Mission to the United States of America, under the editorial guidance of H.E. Dr. Arikana Chihombori-Quao Published by AMIP News, Washington, DC

The African Union Representational Mission to the United States is the first bilateral diplomatic mission of the A ­ frican Union. Officially launched on July 11, 2007, in Washington, DC, its mandate is to undertake, develop, and maintain constructive and ­productive institutional relationships between the African Union and the executive and legislative branches of the U.S. government, the African Diplomatic Corps, Africans in the Diaspora, and the Bretton Woods Institutions. The Mission was established by the decision CM/ DEC. 367 (LXVII) taken during the 67th Ordinary Session in February 1998, authorizing the ­secretary general to open an office in Washington, DC. Africa House, the permanent home of the mission, was officially ­inaugurated on August 3, 2014, by H.E. Dr. Nkosazana Dlamini Zuma, then chairperson of the African Union Commission. KEY MANDATES ❉❉ Radio and TV Station ❉❉ Grand Africa Tour ❉❉ Diaspora Mobilization ❉❉ Improving AGOA Utilization

© 2019. This publication in its entirety and all its contents are protected by international copyright laws. All rights reserved. No part of it may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means: electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publisher. The views and opinions expressed by independent authors and contributors in this publication are provided in the writers’ personal capacities and are their sole responsibility. Their independently authored articles and contributions do not necessarily reflect the views of and opinions of the African Union or AMIP News and must not be regarded as or interpreted as constituting advice on any matter whatsoever. The reproduction of advertisements in this publication does not in any way imply endorsement by the African Union or AMIP News of products or services advertised.

❉❉ AU African Diaspora Centers of Excellence Africa House, 1640 Wisconsin Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20007 Tel: +1 (202) 342 1100 Fax: +1 (202) 342 1114 Email: Web:

CONTENTS ttPresident


Abdel Fattah El-Sisi (Chairperson, The African Union) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi


Moussa Faki Mahamat (Chairperson, African Union Commission) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii


Thomas Kwesi Quartey (Deputy Chairperson, African Union Commission). . . . . . . . . . x


Dr. Arikana Chihombori-Quao (Permanent Representative to the United States). . . . . xi

2 The African Union

t tKnow

Your African Union. . . . 2–9, 14–15, 32, 34–35, 40–43

t tRefugees,

Returnees, and Internally Displaced Persons. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10–13

t tThe

R400 Decision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16–17


AU, UN, and EU Join Forces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22–23

t tThe

African Continental Free Trade Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26–29, 36–38


t tAU

Mission Commissions New Diaspora Chapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46–47

t tAU

Mission Collaborates with Hollywood’s Boris Kodjoe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

t tAU

African Union Mission, Washington, DC

Mission on the Go. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52–53

t tHistorically

Black Colleges Come Home to Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54–55


Director and Delegations Visit the U.S. . . . . . 56–57

58 Invest in Africa

t tIs

the World Bank Still Relevant to Africa? . . . . . . . 60–61

t tIgnore

IMF: President Kagame Urges African Leaders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

t tInvest t tThe

Diaspora Centers of Excellence “Wakanda One” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70–71

t tInvest


in Morocco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64–65, 68–69

in South Sudan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76–77

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t tRaila

Odinga (AU) to Partner with Diaspora and AfroChampions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

t tAU

Citizens and Diaspora Directorate. . . . . . . . . . . . 88–89

t tReflections

on the African American Journey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96–99, 102

t tYou

Are Not White, I Am Not Black. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

t tThe

Last Call – Her Excellency Dr. Arikana Chihombori-Quao . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103

106 Africa–U.S. Engagement

86 Agenda 2063 and the Diaspora

t tSlavery,

Reparations, and 2020 U.S. Presidential Candidates. . . . . . . . . . 106–107, 128–129

t tAfrican

Women Receive International Women of Courage Awards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108–111


and Africa, Partners in Connect Africa and OPIC 2X Initiatives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116–117

t tLooking

Forward: U.S.–Africa Relations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112–115, 118–127, 133–135

t tSlavery

t tVisit

Madagascar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136–137

t tNew

African Ambassadors in Washington, DC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138–139

t tGood

as Gold: Fashioning Senegalese Women. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140

t tAddis

Ababa & Washington, DC Strengthen Ties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142–143

t tAn

is the Original Sin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132

136 Washington News

Evening with Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144

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FOREWORD As Chairperson, I intend to focus on priorities that stem from the African Union’s (AU) current Agenda 2063 and the work priorities already agreed upon within its framework.


irst, I would like to thank my brother Rwandan President Paul Kagame for his sincere effort to promote joint African action during his time serving as chairperson of the AU and the consequent significant progress made in the reform of the AU, thus making it more capable of fulfilling the important responsibilities entrusted to it within the context of regional and international conditions in which the challenges and risks facing African interests are intertwined. I would like to stress that Egypt will work hard to continue on the path we have embarked on together regarding the institutional, structural, and financial reform of the AU and will complete the achievements made so far, so as to emphasize the ownership of the member states to their continental organization and to develop the tools and capabilities of the AU and its Commission to meet the aspirations and hopes of the African peoples. The AU will continue to undergo the structural, organizational, and funding reforms championed by its outgoing chairperson, President Kagame. This year we will continue our endeavors to overhaul our Union as part of a deep reform that will be conducted and owned by the African states to achieve the expectations of African people. As chairperson, I intend to focus on priorities that stem from the AU’s current Agenda 2063 and the work priorities already agreed upon within its framework. With the 2019 theme set as The Year of Refugees, Returnees, and Internally Displaced Persons, I urge the heads of state to strengthen the basis of sustainable development to provide more jobs and opportunities for youth as a first step toward tackling high levels of emigration. I also declare my support for the expedited enforcement of the African Continental Free Trade Area, which would create the world’s largest free-trade bloc. We are not far from reaching the twenty-two ratifications needed for the agreement to become operational.

President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi Chairperson The African Union


Going forward, the importance of translating our words and decisions into specific practical steps will be emphasized in such a way that the world will be clear that we mean what we say and that African solidarity is a vital entity that can change situations and impose itself on events as opposed to just being a theoretical slogan. Long live Africa and long live its great peoples. Excerpt from his inaugural address delivered at the 32nd African Union Summit in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, February 10–11, 2019.

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Chairmanship Handing Over Ceremony—32nd AU Summit President Paul Kagame (Rwanda—left) to President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi (Egypt—right)

PRIORITIES OF THE 2019 CHAIRPERSON OF THE AFRICAN UNION Building bridges of cultural and civilizational communication among the African people Support African cultural events and expand such activities, as well as support cultural exchanges among African countries and develop African sports systems. Cooperating with partners Reinforce cooperation between the African Union and national, regional, and international peace development partners. Peace and security Reinforce African mechanisms for postconflict reconstruction and development. Establish and launch the African Union’s Center for Post-Conflict Reconstruction and Development (AUC-PCRD) in Egypt during 2019. Support the African Union’s efforts to complete an African peace and security system, reform the African Union Peace and Security Council, and reinforce continental cooperation to defeat terrorism and drain the sources of extremist thoughts. Continue efforts to prevent conflicts and promote mediation. Launch a high-level forum for continental dialogue under the name “Aswan Forum for Peace and Sustainable Development.”

Institutional and financial reform of the African Union Continue the process of institutional and financial reform of the African Union. Reinforce the capabilities of regional economic groups as the building blocks of the African economic community. Develop an integrated system to evaluate performance and accountability as well as reinforce transparency. Economic and regional integration Expedite the implementation of the African Continental Free Trade Agreement (AfCFTA) during Egypt’s chairmanship of the Union. Support the execution of infrastructure projects in Africa as a contribution to achieving economic and regional integration and promote intra-African trade. Economic and social development Work on providing decent employment opportunities and increased return from African youth. Develop the African manufacturing system and regional value-added chains. Develop the African agricultural system and expand fishery projects to contribute to achieving food security.

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ith Agenda 2063, Africa has developed a roadmap that clearly articulates the path forward for its emergence. The year 2019 offers the opportunity to move faster to break the multiple chains that hinder the actualization of Africa’s rich potential. The 32nd Ordinary Session of the Assembly, held in February this year in Addis Ababa officially launched the theme for 2019: The Year of Refugees, Returnees, and Internally Displaced Persons: T   owards Durable Solutions to Forced Displacement in Africa. This theme focuses on scaling up the continental response to this phenomenon. African solidarity, whether manifested among states or in favor of the most vulnerable, is one of the fundamental tenets of pan-Africanism. No country or region can tackle the issue of forced migration alone—it is a global phenomenon that requires concerted global action. However, an African focus is particularly important today, not least because the African continent hosts one of the largest numbers of displaced persons in the world. Forced to flee their homes due to conflict, natural disasters, the effects of climate change, and other factors, once self-sufficient communities, often comprised of just children, have suddenly lost the lives they have known and are facing the uncertain reality of living as refugees at the mercy of humanitarian assistance and international generosity.

For eight years of my life, I was a refugee. I know its effects firsthand and therefore urge policymakers to include the voices of those who have experienced forced displacement. The scale and scope of these crises and their protracted nature require innovative and robust approaches that tackle the root causes and implement and support durable solutions. However, we often find that resources for this process are limited, especially in areas where they are needed most. Countries that are recovering from a conflict, natural disaster, or economic crisis attract little global attention, but our search for solutions must also include assisting communities in their reconstruction efforts after they return home. The face of the refugee is often young and female. The solution must be no different. I would like to reiterate the continued commitment of the Commission in general and myself in particular to work toward achieving the goals for 2019 and beyond the lifespan of the theme of the year. I am pleased to state that in February 2019, at the 32nd Summit in Addis Ababa, the Commission presented for adoption guidelines on the design, production, and issuance of the African passport, the materialization of which will take us one step closer to the long-held dream of complete free movement across the continent. The Commission also continues to monitor the effective implementation of the African Charter on Democracy, Elections, and Governance. It submitted to the recent summit a draft of the Protocol on Specific Aspects of the Rights to Nationality and the Elimination of Statelessness in Africa.

H.E. Moussa Faki Mahamat Chairperson African Union Commission


I cannot stress enough how crucial integration is for the development of the continent and the fulfillment of its people’s aspirations to well-being. In conclusion, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to President Paul Kagame for the dynamism with which he chaired our Union. While thanking him, I also wish to welcome our new chairperson, President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi. I look forward to working with him and all our stakeholders.

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frica is quite simply our home, our beautiful home, which we intend to develop by 2063.

We want to develop our home, Africa, so that we can live comfortably there and so that our youth, the most valuable part of us, our very future—our incredibly talented, energetic, and creative youth—do not out of desperation feel compelled to vote with their feet and flee from home across the Sahara Desert and risk getting drowned in the Mediterranean Sea in a vain and fruitless attempt to seek a nonexistent El Dorado in a Europe that does not want them. What then is our vision for Africa, and what kind of Africa do we want? Kwame Nkrumah, the first President of Ghana, the first African country south of the Sahara to win genuine independence, addressed this question in May 1960 at a symposium held by the English-speaking African Union (AU) in Westminster, London, and I quote him since his statement is relevant today as it was then. “Above all, they desire to regain their independence and to live in peace. They desire to use this freedom to raise the standard of living of their peoples. They desire to use their freedom to create a union of African states on the continent, and thus neutralize the evil effects of the artificial boundaries imposed by the imperial powers and promote unity of action in all fields. These are Africa’s ideals.”

The AU is particularly committed to tackling the health challenges facing the African continent in order to protect its citizens from premature aging, premature death, and disability, thus laying a strong foundation for achieving Agenda 2063—an ambitious target of an African population that is healthy, well nourished, and enjoying a life expectancy of about seventy-five years. The prolonged life expectancy that comes with a healthy lifestyle will no doubt consolidate the African-driven response that aims to reduce the burden of diseases through health interventions, intersectoral action, and empowered communities as stipulated in the Africa Health Strategy 2016–2030. The AU declared 2019 as The Year of Refugees, Returnees, and Internally Displaced Persons in Africa. This is coming at the right time because the exorbitant costs of managing noncommunicable diseases have been a contributing factor to the forced displacement of people from and within Africa.


H.E. Thomas Kwesi Quartey

Additionally, the conditions in which refugees, migrants, and internally displaced people travel and live exacerbate and cause life-threatening deterioration in health. Therefore, there is the need for concrete steps to address the health needs of refugees, migrants, and internally displaced persons.

Deputy Chairperson African Union Commission

Excerpts from speeches delivered at the 55th Commemoration of Africa Day in Ankara, Turkey on May 25, 2018, and Africa Healthy Lifestyle Day in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, on March 7, 2019.

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other Africa has everything she needs to develop—the only missing ingredient is her displaced children within the continent and her children in the Diaspora. There is strength in numbers, and Africa at this point in her history is taking steps to maximize her human capacity by intentionally including her displaced natives within the continent as well as the African Diaspora around the world. As the African Union (AU) Permanent Represen­ tative to the United States, one critical role I have in my overall mandate is to promote Africa in the Americas and mobilize the African Diaspora to participate in the development of Africa. The AU defines the African Diaspora as all people of African descent living outside Africa. This sixth region of the continent is as significant and as important as the other five regions, which are North Africa, West Africa, East Africa, Central Africa, and South Africa. The AU feels very strongly that its children in the Diaspora must come back home. This edition is thus an invitation to Africa’s children to return to the continent, which is the first step in investing into the world’s most vibrant economic frontier. The Year of Return is not just a slogan; it is the path that leads to restoration for the displaced (refugees, returnees, and those who are internally displaced) and healing and wealth for those who chose to emigrate from the continent and those whose ancestors were forcefully removed from the continent through slave trade. I applaud Black Hollywood and Boris Kodjoe for setting an example with the Full Circle Festival hosted in Accra in December 2018 through January 2019. Through such historical homecomings by private citizens and through my Mission’s Grand Africa Tour program and several other initiatives, we expect thousands of Africans and people of African descent to return to their home countries and homelands in 2019 to find rest and wealth on the continent that is rightfully theirs. I am glad that you have decided to read this special edition, and I trust that you will find it exceptionally informative whether you are on the African continent or in the Diaspora.

H.E. Dr. Arikana Chihombori-Quao African Union Permanent Representative to the United States

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KNOW Y   OUR AFRICAN UNION Constitutive Act of the African Union


he Constitutive Act of the African Union sets out the codified framework under which the African Union (AU) is to conduct itself. It was signed on July 11, 2000, in Lomé, Togo. Article 3 of the Constitutive Act states that the objectives of the AU shall be to: 1. Achieve greater unity and solidarity among the African countries and the peoples of Africa 2. Defend the sovereignty, territorial integrity, and independence of its Member States


First” is the slogan that should drive our commitment to the delivery of our continental mandate of integration.


of us are required to be pan-Africanists representing no other interest but the interest of Africa and its people.


are all ambassadors representing and protecting the integrity and well-being of our beloved continent.

3. Accelerate the political and socioeconomic integration of the continent


4. Promote and defend African common positions on issues of interest to the continent and its peoples


5. Encourage international cooperation, taking due account of the Charter of the United Nations and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 6. Promote peace, security, and stability on the continent 7. Promote democratic principles and institutions, popular participation, and good governance 8. Promote and protect human and people’s rights in accordance with the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights and other relevant human rights instruments 9. Establish the necessary conditions that enable the continent to play its rightful role in the global economy and in international negotiations 10. Promote sustainable development at the economic, social, and cultural levels, as well as the integration of African economies 11. Promote cooperation in all fields of human activity to raise the living standards of African people 12. Coordinate and harmonize the policies between the existing and future Regional Economic ­Communities (RECs) for the gradual attainment of the objectives of the AU 13. Advance the development of the continent by promoting research in all fields, in particular in science and technology 14. Work with relevant international partners in the eradication of preventable diseases and the promotion of good health on the continent


AU Shared Values

should not be divided based on any consideration. all should speak with one voice in promoting our continental agenda.


are not Anglophones, Francophones, Lusophones, or Arabophones. We are Africans. The official languages we speak should not be used to divide or segregate us. See these languages as a medium of official communication in expressing and transmitting your inherent African intellect.

Pense que l’Afrique avant tout!!! Afrique

d’abord» est le slogan qui devrait motiver notre engagement à s’acquitter de notre mandat continental d’intégration.


devons tous être panafricanistes et ne représenter aucun autre intérêt que celui de l’Afrique et de son peuple.


sommes tous des ambassadeurs représentant et protégeant l’intégrité et le bien-être de notre continent bien-aimé.


ne devrions pas être divisés sur la base d’une quelconque consideration.


devrions tous parler d’une seule voix pour promouvoir notre agenda continental.


ne sommes pas anglophones, francophones, lusophones ou arabophones. Nous sommes des Africains. Les langues officielles que nous parlons ne devraient pas être utilisées pour nous diviser ou nous séparer. Voyez ces langues comme un moyen de communication officielle dans l’expression et la transmission de votre intellect inhérent africain.

Follow us on Twitter: @AfricanUnionUS Facebook: @AfricanUnionUSA Flicker: African Union USA YouTube: African Union USA

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AFRICA 101 5. Assembly Heads of States and Government

1. Member States and Regional Economic Communities

Activity # 5: Determine AU’s policies, establish its priorities, adopt and monitor its annual programs Body Responsible: Assembly Individuals / Officials Off icials Responsible: Heads of States and Governments

African Citizens & Member States Activity # 1: Fa Facilitate regional economic integ integration between members of the th individual regions Body Responsi Responsible: Member States and Regional Econo Economic Communities

4. Executive Council Ministers of Foreign Affairs

Activity # 4: Coordinate and take decisions on policies in areas of common interest to Member States Body Responsible: Executive Council Individuals / Officials Off icials Responsible: Ministers of Foreign Affairs

3. Permanent Representatives Committee Ambassadors Activity # 3: Conduct the day-to-day business of the African Union and make recommendations on areas of common interest

Individuals / O Off icials Responsible: African Citizens and Member States

2. AUC, AU Organs, Specialised and Tec Technical Agencies, Bodies and oth other Institutions, and Special Technical Committees Specia AU Staff Activity # 2: Prepa Prepare and coordinate African Union projects pro and programs Body Responsible Responsible: African Union Commission, Afric African Union Organs, Specialized and Te Technical Agencies, bodies and other iinstitutions, and special techni technical committees Individuals / Off icials Responsible: African Union Staff

Body Responsible: Permanent Representatives Committee Individuals / Off icials Responsible: Ambassadors

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Addis Ababa, Ethiopia—February 2019 The Year of Refugees, Returnees, and Internally Displaced Persons


he 32nd Ordinary Session of the Assembly of the African Union (AU) took place in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, from February 10 to 11, 2019. The African Union Assembly comprises the Heads of State and Government of all fifty-five African countries. The theme of the summit was The Year of Refugees, Returnees, and Internally Displaced Persons: Towards Durable Solutions to Forced Displacement in Africa. The event also marked the end of Rwanda’s chairpersonship of the AU, and

President Kagame handed over the position to P ­ resident Abdul Fattah El-Sisi of Egypt. Key points on the agenda included the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA), including tariff liberalization, institutional reform of the AU, and progress on Agenda 2063. The Heads of State and Government received several reports, including a report on the outcome of the Leadership in Health Financing High-Level Meeting. AU Commission Chairperson H.E. Moussa Faki Mahamat reported on the implementation of the institutional

reform of the AU and the annual activities of the AU and its organs, as well as progress in democratic practices across the continent. He stated that in all elections in Africa, the Commission has endeavored to provide the necessary support and to ensure the best possible accompaniment to Member States engaged in often-difficult electoral processes. Outgoing Chairperson President Kagame welcomed H.E. Felix Tshisekedi of the ­Democratic Republic of the Congo and H.E. Andry Rajoelina of Madagascar to the

The Af r ican Uni on

The Assembly deliberated on the following agenda and made important decisions to advance the AU Agenda 2063: The African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) Institutional reform of the AU R400 initiative Post-2020 partnership with the European Union Election of the Bureau of the Assembly of the AU for 2019 Election of the Chairperson of the AU for 2020 Peace and security The High-Level Committee on Libya

assembly. He also commended Guinea-­ Bissau, Botswana, and Zambia for signing the instrument for the AfCFTA during this summit and encouraged those signatories who have not yet ratified to do so at the earliest opportunity. President Kagame remarked that the relaunched Peace Fund now stands at USD 89 million, with fifty member states contributing. President Abdul Fattah El-Sisi

State of governance in Africa Reform of the United Nation’s Security Council Health promotion and financing Debt cancellation Financing the AU Elimination of female genital mutilation Ending child marriage

of Egypt called for the creation of more job opportunities and encouraged investments. The United Nations (UN) Secretary General António Guterres addressed the assembly and announced that the AU and UN are working together successfully across the continent, “with Africa firmly in the lead.” The following leaders also addressed the assembly: Mr. Ahmed Aboul

Gheit, Secretary General of the League of Arab States; H.E. Mr. Mahmoud Abbas, ­President of the State of Palestine and the Palestinian National Authority; Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, Director-General of the World Health Organization; Mr. Bill Gates, Co-Chair of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; and Mr. Gianni Infantino, FIFA President.



stand before you today and aware of the great responsibility that you have already entrusted to Egypt to coordinate the joint African action in a critical international and regional circumstance that is ravaged by extremism and waves of terrorism, in addition to the growing challenges that face the concept of state of nation. Meanwhile, the peoples’ aspirations grow. More than half a century had passed since the meeting of the founding fathers who together laid the foundation stone of the African Unity in Addis Ababa in May 1963. On that day, the leader Gamal Abdel Nasser said, “This will be a charter for Africa, meetings will be held on all official and popular levels and let’s start our path in the economic cooperation towards a joint African market.” More than half a century has passed from these words but their echo is still ever-present before us. Since that historic moment until now, Africa has been able to go a long way and achieve most of the dreams. We have overcome most of the obstacles, faced the new challenges, get rid of colonialism, but still its aftermaths. We are still working hard to strengthen bases of peace, security, and stability as well as achieving the economic and continental integration for our countries and peoples to build the African human being. It is undoubtedly proven that common understanding and mutual respect among us are the greatest driving force for African unity. Moreover, by deepening our united will, our common action can take off to all prospects that we aspire for. The late Ghanaian leader Kwame Nkrumah said, “our division is our weakness but by our unity, Africa will be one of the greatest powers in the world.” Excerpt from inaugural speech President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi. The results of the election for the Bureau of the Assembly for 2019 were announced as follows: • AU Chairperson: Abdul Fattah El-Sisi, President of the Arab Republic of Egypt • First Vice Chairperson: Cyril Ramaphosa, President of the Republic of South Africa • Second Vice Chairperson: Félix Tshisekedi, President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo • Third Vice Chairperson: Mahamadou Issoufou, President of the Republic of the Niger • Fourth Vice Chairperson: Paul Kagame, President of the Republic of Rwanda (Rapporteur) • Chairperson of the African Union for 2020: H.E. Cyril Ramaphosa, President of the Republic of South Africa


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The Af r ican Uni on

President Abdel Fattah El-Sisi African Union Chairperson

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At the 32nd African Union (AU) Summit, the assembly made the following decisions regarding the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA): 1. Endorsed the recommendations of the AU Ministers of Trade regarding the Template on Tariff Liberalization, which will be used by Member States for preparing AfCFTA Schedules of Tariff Concessions, and the designation of a Sensitive Products and Exclusion List on the basis of the following criteria: food security, national security, fiscal revenue, livelihood, and industrialization. 2. Decided that Member States wishing to enter into partnerships with third parties should inform the assembly with assurance that those efforts will not undermine the African Union’s vision of creating One African Market. 3. Requested the AU Commission, with the assistance of technical partners, to undertake an assessment of the requirements for the establishment of a future common market, including steps to be taken as well as their implications and challenges, for consideration by the AU Ministers of Trade. 4. Requested the AU Ministers of Trade to submit the Schedules of Tariff Concessions and Schedules of Specific Commitments on Trade in Services in line with agreed-upon modalities to the July 2019 and January 2020 sessions of the assembly, respectively, for adoption and to conclude the negotiations on investment, competition policy, and intellectual property rights and submit drafts of the legal texts to the January 2021 Session of the Assembly for adoption through the Specialized Technical Committee on Justice and Legal Affairs.


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African Union Honors Emperor Haile Selassie

A statue of Ethiopia’s last emperor, Haile Selassie, was unveiled at the African Union headquarters in Addis Ababa on Sunday, February 10, 2019, during the 32nd Heads of State Summit. The commemorative statue is an important recognition of Emperor Selassie’s contribution to Africa’s liberation and unity leading up to the founding of the Organization of African Unity in 1963. The statue is the second to be erected at the African Union Headquarters, the first being of Ghana’s first leader, Kwame Nkrumah, who championed pan-Africanism. (AP Photo/Samuel Habtab)

Copyright © 2019 African Union Commission. All rights reserved

African Union Heads of State and Government and the leadership of the AU Commission during the unveiling ceremony.

More international migrants move within Africa than beyond the continent. One in four international migrants in Africa is a child—6.5 million in total. The largest numbers of child migrants live in South Africa and Nigeria. More than half of all refugees in Africa are children—4 million in total. An estimated 7 million children in Africa are internally displaced. Almost 2 million former refugees and internally displaced persons returned to their homes in 2017.

Source: United Nations Children’s Fund, 2019


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President El-Sisi, Chairperson, The African Union WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE?


he number of refugees is about 8 million, 90 percent of whom are refugees within the continent. The number of the displaced persons is about 18 million. This urges us to adopt a development approach that includes mega continental and regional projects to provide job opportunities to the citizens of the continent, innovative reconstruction programs that rehabilitate the communities to provide proper conditions for bringing back the displaced to their homes, and a medium-term development plan that will create integrated and attractive economic zones throughout the continent to employ the African workforce and keep them in their motherland. In this context, we should intensify our scientific cooperation to take advantage of the natural resources of the continent to diversify energy sources by supporting renewable and clean energy projects, thereby contributing to mitigating the ecological impacts of climate change that affect the lives of our peoples. Africa, which is committed to protect our planet in accordance with the Paris Climate Agreement, calls on the developed countries to abide by their commitments, especially as these countries have the most influence on the Earth’s climate, and they benefit most from its resources.

Returnee: A person who returns to a place, especially after a prolonged absence. Refugee: A person who has been forced to leave their home country in order to escape war, persecution, or natural disaster. Displaced Person: A person who is forced to leave their home country because of war, persecution, or natural disaster; a refugee. Internally Displaced Person: A person who has been forced to flee, or leave, their home or place of habitual residence as a result of armed conflict, internal strife, and habitual violations of human rights, as well as natural or man-made disasters involving one or more of these elements, but remains within their own country and has not crossed an internationally recognized state border. Source: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

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ub-Saharan Africa hosts more than 6.6 million refugees according to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. This population represents the second-largest number of refugees in the world. Africa’s leaders met in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, in February 2019 during the African Union Summit, to look for lasting solutions to the pressing issue of displaced persons on the continent.

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AGENDA 2063 The Africa We Want We, the people of Africa and her Diaspora, united in diversity, young and old, men and women, girls and boys from all walks of life, deeply conscious of history, express our deep appreciation to all generations of pan-Africanists. In particular, to the founders of the Organization of African Unity for having bequeathed us an Africa with exemplary successes in the fight against slavery, colonialism, and apartheid. Agenda 2063, rooted in pan-Africanism and African Renaissance, provides a robust framework for addressing past injustices and the realization of the twenty-first century as the African Century.”



African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA)

Silencing the Guns by 2020

Accelerating intra-African trade and boosting Africa’s trading position in the global market by strengthening Africa’s common voice and policy space in global trade negotiations. A minimum of twenty-two ratifications have been received, and the AfCFTA is now on its way to being implemented.

Ending all wars, civil conflicts, gender-based violence, and violent conflicts, as well as preventing genocide across the continent by 2020.

Free Movement of People

Generating an estimated 43,200 megawatts of power to support current regional power pools and their combined service to transform Africa from traditional to modern sources of energy and to ensure access to clean and affordable electricity.

Removing restrictions on Africans’ ability to travel, work, and live within their own continent by transforming restrictive laws and promoting visa-free travel to enhance movement of all African citizens in all African countries.

Single African Air-Transport Market (SAATM) Promoting intra-regional connectivity between the capital cities of Africa by creating a single unified air transport market in Africa as an impetus to the continent’s economic integration and growth agenda. Open air arrangements boost traffic, drive economies, and create jobs. To date, thirty-two countries have signed the SAATM, and one Member State has ratified.

0.2 Levy African Union (AU) Member States implement a 0.2 percent levy on eligible imports to finance the AU. Fourteen Member States are already collecting the levy.

The African Passport The AU Commission presented information on the design, production, and issuance of the African passport at the 32nd African Union summit. Passports will be issued by individual countries.

The Grand Inga Dam Project

Integrated High-Speed Train Network Connecting African capitals and commercial centers through a high-speed train network; facilitating the movement of goods, factory services, and people, as well as reducing transport costs and relieving congestion of current and future systems through increased rail connectivity.

African Commodities Strategy Transforming Africa from a raw materials supplier by enabling countries to add value, extract higher rents from commodities, integrate into global value chains, and promote diversification anchored in value addition and local content development.

AFRICAN ASPIRATIONS FOR AGENDA 2063 1. A prosperous Africa based on inclusive growth and sustainable development 2. An integrated continent, politically united, based on the ideals of pan-Africanism and the vision of Africa’s Renaissance 3. An Africa of good governance, democracy, respect for human rights, justice, and the rule of law 4. A peaceful and secure Africa 5. An Africa with a strong cultural identity, common heritage, and shared values and ethics

6. An Africa whose development is people-driven, relying on the potential of African people, especially its women, youth, and children 7. An Africa as a strong, united, resilient, and influential global player and partner These seven African aspirations were derived through a consultative process with the African citizenry. They reflect Africans’ desire for shared prosperity and well-being; for unity and integration; for a continent of free citizens and expanded horizons where the full potential of women and youth, boys and girls are realized; and for freedom from fear, disease, and want.

DID YOU KNOW? Gorée, Senegal The island of Gorée (background photo) lies off the coast of Senegal, opposite Dakar, the capital city. From the fifteenth to the nineteenth century, it was the largest slave-trading center on the African coast. Ruled in succession by the Portuguese, Dutch, English, and French, its architecture is characterized by the contrast between the grim slave quarters and the elegant houses of the slave traders. Today it continues to serve as a reminder of human exploitation and as a sanctuary for reconciliation. The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) designated the island as a World Heritage Site in 1978.

LOOKING FORWARD African Economic Forum

African Virtual and e-Universities

Multi-stakeholder meetings bringing together Africa’s policymakers, private sector, academia, and civil society to reflect on accelerating Africa’s socioeconomic development and transformation by harnessing its vast resources.

Using ICT-based programs to increase access to tertiary and continuing education in Africa by reaching large numbers of students and professionals in multiple sites simultaneously.

African Financial Institutions Accelerating integration and economic development through the establishment of organizations that will play a pivotal role in the mobilization of resources and management of the African financial sector.

Incorporating emerging technologies in Africa’s development plans and ensuring these technologies are used for the benefit of African individuals, institutions, and nation states by providing data protection and safety online.

A Pan-African e-Network

Great African Museums

Transforming Africa into an e-society by implementing policies and strategies that will lead to transformative e-applications and services in Africa, such as a broadband terrestrial infrastructure, cyber security, and revolutionary biotechnology and nanotechnology industries.

Preserving and promoting African cultural heritage by creating awareness of Africa’s vast, dynamic, and diverse cultural artifacts and Africa’s continuing influence on world cultures in the arts, music, language, science, etc.

Cyber Security

Africa Outer Space Strategy Strengthening Africa’s use of outer space to bolster development in critical sectors such as agriculture, disaster management, remote sensing, climate forecast, banking and finance, and defense and security.

Douglas Henderson Photo: Door of No Return Collection



he African Union (AU) Heads of State and ­Government and the leadership of the AU Commission agreed to a resolution or declaration recognizing the common destiny of all African people throughout the world and calling for a strengthening of cultural, political, and economic linkages going forward. WE, the Heads of State and Government of the AU, assembled from February 10 to 11, 2019; Evoking the unity of all African people, bound together by neighborliness, cultural affinity, historical experiences, our common struggles for independence and dignity, our civilizational heritage, and our common destiny with all people of African descent; Recalling the depredations and evils of the transatlantic slave trade, its industrialization of racism, dispossession, discrimination, and dehumanization; Further recalling, with pride, the strong spirit of resistance that responded to the evils of the slave trade, the rise of the pan-African movement in multiple continents and its continued inspiration to us African peoples; Reaffirming our commitment to the unity of ­African people, to building an integrated Africa, and to forging cultural, political, social, and economic linkages that further the pan-Africanist dream among all peoples of African descent; Request that the AU Commission develop well-organized and well-meaning initiatives to commemorate the 400th anniversary of the transatlantic slave trade in 2019 by holding and participating in events and engaging African states to send appropriate representatives; Urge all people of African descent to make this a year of reconnection and reengagement with our African identities and collective interests and to seek to forge practical and ambitious initiatives that will build our unity and offer prosperity to our peoples; and


Urge all member states of the AU to consider immigration, economic, cultural, and social policies that will allow the Africans descended from the victims and survivors of the transatlantic slave trade to reconnect and reengage with their brethren on the African continent.

OTHER SUPPORT ACTIVITIES A. A breakfast meeting on February 11, 2019, hosted by H.E. President Uhuru Kenyatta, on how the continent can concretely engage with its worldwide diaspora and to consider participating in a major event of commemoration and investment promotion in North Carolina in the United States in late 2019. B. Asking the AU Representative in the United States to give every assistance to the R400 Initiative and its events in 2019 and 2020 to engage with African states and their representatives, including the following: Memorializing the past four hundred years in 2019 using a major event in October in the United States that will bring together Africans in the United States and African Americans to acknowledge the fortitude, resilience, and progress made by all those of African descent. Launching an Africa-focused international trade hub in tandem with the October event at the Park Expo and Conference Center in Charlotte, North Carolina. Connecting businesses and African and African American business leaders in different sectors (called “cohorts”) from Africa and the United States to develop business partnerships. RATIONALE: By making special note of 2019 with a declaration, the Heads of State and Government Summit will remind Africans and the world of the unique experiences of the African continent. It will further provide historical resonance for today’s refugees, returnees, and internationally displaced people that could impact the search for longer-term solutions.

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Photo Credit: Tyrus Ortega Gaines TOGaines Photography

From left to right: H.E. Wilson Mutagaywa Masilingi, Ambassador of Tanzania; H.E. Soorooj Phokeer, Ambassador of Mauritius; Bishop Claude R. Alexander, Jr.; Mayor Vi Lyles (Charlotte); H.E. Robinson Njeru Githae, Ambassador of Kenya; H.E. Arikana Chihombori-Quao, Ambassador, African Union Mission; Mr. Manuel Nascimento Junior, Commercial Representative of Angola; Ms. Akosua O. Badoo, Head of Diaspora Affairs, Representative from Ghana

R400 is now officially an AU initiative.

➣➣Mauritius: H.E. Sooroojdev Phokeer

The African Union Mission in the United States is tasked with executing the initiative in conjunction with partners and stakeholders.

➣➣Angola: H.E. Agostino T. da Silva Neto

Implementation will be executed by the respective African diplomatic missions and ambassadors in the United States. The African Ambassador’s Group in Washington, DC, has constituted an R400 Committee comprising the African Union Permanent Representative to the United States and the following countries: ➣➣Kenya (chair): H.E. Robinson N. Githae ➣➣Tanzania: H.E. Wilson Masilingi

➣➣Ghana: H.E. Dr. Barfour Adjei-Barwuah ➣➣Liberia: H.E. George S. W. Patten, Sr. The R400 Committee is partnering with the Park Expo and Conference Center in Charlotte, North Carolina, to establish an African products distribution and exhibition center in the United States. The center will be launched on February 28, 2020, with several African Heads of State in attendance. A gala that same day will call on the Diaspora to return to Africa. The center will also host an annual Africa–U.S. trade fair. The R400 implementation will be possible in part due to the recent ratification of a single African market.

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Fact: From approximately 1526 to 1867, some 12.5 million slaves were shipped from Africa, and 10.7 million arrived in the Americas.



uring the Atlantic slave trade, from approximately 1526 to 1867, some 12.5 million slaves were shipped from Africa, and 10.7 million arrived in the Americas. The Atlantic slave trade was likely the most costly in human life of all of long-distance global migrations. The first Africans forced to work in the New World left from Europe at the beginning of the sixteenth century, not from Africa. The first slave voyage direct from Africa to the Americas probably sailed in 1526. The volume of slaves carried off from Africa reached 30,000 per year in the 1690s and 85,000 per year a century later. More than eight out of ten Africans forced into the slave trade made


their journeys in the century and a half after 1700.

the Caribbean, left from mainly West Africa.

By 1820, nearly four Africans for every one European had crossed the Atlantic. About four out of every five females that traversed the Atlantic were from Africa.

More than 90 percent of enslaved Africans were imported into the Caribbean and South America. Only about 6 percent of African captives were sent directly to British North America. Yet by 1825, the United States was home to one-quarter of all blacks in the New World.

The majority of enslaved Africans were brought to British North America between 1720 and 1780. The decade from 1821 to 1830 still saw more than 80,000 people a year leaving Africa in slave ships. More than a million more—one-tenth of the volume carried off in the slave trade era—­ followed within the next twenty years. Africans carried to Brazil came overwhelmingly from Angola. Africans carried to North America, including

The Middle Passage was dangerous and miserable for African slaves. The sexes were separated, kept naked, and packed close together, and the men were chained for long periods. About 12 percent of those who embarked did not survive the voyage.

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merican plantations were dwarfed by those in the West Indies. In the Caribbean, slaves were held on much larger units, with many plantations holding 150 slaves or more. In the American South, in contrast, only a single slaveholder held as many as 1,000 slaves, and just 125 had more than 250 slaves. In the Caribbean, Dutch Guiana, and Brazil, the slave death rate was so high and the birth rate so low that they could not sustain their population without importations from Africa. Rates of natural decrease ran as high as 5 percent a year. While the death rate of U.S. slaves was about the same as that of Jamaican slaves, the fertility rate was more than 80 percent higher in the United States. U.S. slaves were more generations removed from Africa than those in the Caribbean. In the nineteenth century, the majority of slaves in the British Caribbean and Brazil were born in Africa. In contrast, by 1850, most U.S. slaves were third-, fourth-, or fifth-generation Americans. Slavery in the United States was distinctive in the near balance of the sexes and the ability of the slave population to increase its numbers by natural reproduction. Unlike any other slave society, the United States had a high and sustained natural increase in the slave population for more than a century and a half.

CHILDREN There were few instances in which slave women were released from fieldwork for extended periods during slavery. Even during the last week before childbirth, pregnant women on average picked three-quarters or more of the normal amount of cotton for women. Infant and child mortality rates were twice as high among slave children as among southern white children. Half of all slave infants died in their first year of

life. A major contributor to the high infant and child death rate was chronic undernourishment. The average birth weight of slave infants was less than 5.5 pounds, which is considered severely underweight by today’s standards. Most infants of enslaved mothers were weaned within three or four months. Even in the eighteenth century, the earliest weaning age advised by doctors was eight months. After weaning, slave infants were fed a starch-based diet, consisting of foods such as gruel, which lacked sufficient nutrients for health and growth.

HEALTH AND MORTALITY Slaves suffered a variety of miserable and often fatal maladies due to the Atlantic slave trade and to inhumane living and working conditions. Common symptoms among enslaved populations included blindness, abdominal swelling, bowed legs, skin lesions, and convulsions. Common conditions among enslaved populations included beriberi (caused by a deficiency of thiamine), pellagra (caused by a niacin deficiency), tetany (caused by deficiencies of calcium, magnesium, and vitamin D), rickets (also caused by a deficiency of vitamin D), and kwashiorkor (caused by severe protein deficiency). Diarrhea, dysentery, whooping cough, and respiratory diseases as well as worms pushed the infant and early childhood death rate of slaves to twice that experienced by white infants and children.

DOMESTIC SLAVE TRADE The domestic slave trade in the United States distributed the African American population throughout the South in a migration that greatly surpassed in volume the Atlantic slave trade to North America. Although the U.S. Congress outlawed the African slave trade in 1808, domestic slave trade flourished and the slave population in the United States nearly tripled over the next fifty

years. The domestic trade continued into the 1860s and displaced approximately 1.2 million men, women, and children, the vast majority of whom were born in America. To be “sold down the river” was one of the most dreaded prospects of the enslaved population. Some destinations, particularly the Louisiana sugar plantations, had especially grim reputations, but it was the destruction of family units that ultimately made the domestic slave trade so terrifying.

PROFITABILITY Prices of slaves varied widely over time due to factors including supply and changes in prices of commodities such as cotton. Even considering the relative expense of owning and keeping a slave, slavery was profitable. In order to ensure the profitability of slaves and to produce the maximum “return on investment,” slave owners generally supplied only the minimum food and shelter needed for survival and forced their slaves to work from sunrise to sunset. Although young adult men had the highest expected levels of output, young adult women had value over and above their ability to work in the fields as they were able to have children who by law were also slaves of the owner of the mother. Therefore, the average price of female slaves was higher than that of their male counterparts up to puberty. Men around the age of twenty-five years were the most “valuable.” Slaveholding became more concentrated over time, particularly as slavery was abolished in the northern states. The fraction of households owning slaves fell from 36 percent in 1830 to 25 percent in 1860. During the Civil War, roughly 180,000 black men served in the Union Army, and another 29,000 served in the Navy. Three-fifths of all black troops were former slaves. Source: The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History

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COMING HOME A Poem by CeLillianne Green Lawyer, Poet, Teacher, Mediator, Playwright, Speaker

We will look back through the “Door of No Return” We will look from the ship’s bow, not the stern

400 years ago Africans were removed Removed by terror, force, and violence For those Africans, there can be no silence

And, we are ready to learn To learn more about who Africans were before Before they were forced through that door

We are the generation to use our voice We are descendants who have made a choice

Before the shackles, the ships, the shame Before the colonizer’s rapes and replacement names

We have chosen to set a new course No terror, no violence, no force

Before institutionalized slavery was skin-color-based Before attempts to have African history erased

We are coming home.

Pre-colonial history we cannot ignore Africa has always had more than one door

For introspection and a new direction A homecoming for culture and connection Sisters, mothers, fathers, brothers It will be a homecoming like no other Throughout the African Diaspora, we have learned It is important to return We must return through that door That door our ancestors could not ignore

Doors to Timbuktu libraries, universities, and schools Doors in the ancient Songhai Empire, the African jewel In Dahomey, warrior women guarded doors for their king Mansa Musa’s wealth opened doors to many great things There are more doors to open when we return There is more about Africa to study and to learn We are coming home.

That door for captured Africans, the hue-man fuel Africans shipped like cargo to a colonizer’s first jewel

We are coming with the spirit of those who arrived Enslaved Africans who suffered and survived

The British colony of Virginia The settlement named Jamestown In 1619, enslaved Africans were cruelly bound

We embody 40 generations of those who prayed Prayed for a future they would not see Prayed for their descendants to be whole, to be free

Bound for colonial America in its infancy With generations to come forced to work for free

400 years have now passed Countless achievements we have amassed

Enslaved Africans resisted Enslavers persisted

Science, agriculture, engineering, math Our world contributions created a path

Through centuries of the Middle Passage up to 2019 The effects of a slave-based economy can still be seen

A path created by us, originated in you It’s time to pay homage.It’s long overdue.

It has been 400 years and now is the time We must see what enslaved Africans left behind

We are coming home in 2019 Angola, Guinea, Côte d’Ivoire, Benin

We are coming home.

Lappa, Dashiki, Buba, and Tubey Kente and Mud Cloth, a Kufi and a Gele

Home is the place for which our souls yearn To honor our ancestors, we must return We must return to those ports of call Africans held like animals in a stall We must pay our respects and never forget Pour libation for the ancestors, one and all Goree Island, Senegal We are coming soon—Bimbia, Cameroon Because we love you and we care Elmina, Ghana—We are coming there

The colors, the weavings, the textures, the prints Sierra Leone, Congo, and Nigeria’s scents Wood carvings, bronze sculptures, and tribal masks African form and function eases the task We are coming home.

By CeLillianne Green

Copyright © 2019 All Rights Reserved

Across centuries-old Middle Passage waves The Atlantic Ocean is an ancestral grave For the men, women, and children who died enroute We stand and proudly salute We are coming home. We are coming as Africans in every shade of Black Like the Sankofa, we will look back Background Photo: Door of No Return Goree Island

(Continued on page 131)

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The African Diaspora consists of peoples of African origin living outside the continent, irrespective of their citizenship and nationality and who are willing to contribute to the development of the continent and the building of the African Union.




n December 2018, Hollywood actor Boris Kodjoe took Black Hollywood to Ghana when he led a delegation of African American stars for the Full Circle Festival he hosted in Ghana, an event dedicated to honoring “our ancestry by celebrating our heritage and generational legacy.” The Full Circle Festival is just one of the activities planned in the “Year of Return.” Ghana’s President, Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo (right, with Boris Kodjoe), officially proclaimed last October that 2019 was the year of return for all Diasporan descendants of Africans who had been captured and transported to the Americas as slaves in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Titled “Year of Return, Ghana 2019,” the proclamation

was made at a ceremony at the National Press Club in Washington, DC, to formally launch a program of activities marking the 400th anniversary of the arrival of the first enslaved Africans to English North America in 1619. The proclamation recognizes Ghana’s unique position as the location for 75 percent of the slave dungeons built on the west coast of Africa and the current president’s policy of making it a national priority to extend a hand of welcome back home to Africans in the Diaspora. It also takes note of the fact that more African Americans live in Ghana than in any other African country. Ghana has a Right of Abode immigration law that grants freedom to persons of African descent the right “to live and to come and go into and from the country without let or hindrance.” The 115th U.S. Congress also passed a resolution (HR 1242) establishing the 400 Years of African American History Commission to commemorate the milestone.


Jean-Claude Juncker (President of the European Commission—L) Moussa Faki Mahamat (Chairperson of the African Union Commission—C) António Guterres (Secretary-General of the United Nations—R)

ON POST-2020 PARTNERSHIP WITH THE EUROPEAN UNION The African Union Commission recalled the decision that stressed the need to ensure that Africa speaks with one voice on the various platforms of partnership with the European Union and requested the Commission to ensure cohesion between the Post-Cotonou Agreement and the Post-2020 Continent-to-Continent Partnership so that continental priorities, as articulated in Agenda 2063 and other related instruments, are consistently reflected in both tracks.


Africa does not need charity, it needs true and fair partnership. And we, Europeans need this partnership just as much. I believe we should develop the numerous EU-African trade agreements into a continent-to-continent free trade agreement, as an economic partnership between equals.

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Jean-Claude Juncker

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The leaders reaffirmed their joint commitment to promote an effective multilateral system and expressed their readiness to take further action toward reinforcing synergies and coordination in tackling global challenges through international cooperation. They welcomed the cooperation and the results achieved by the African Union, the United Nations, and the European Union (AU-EU-UN) Taskforce to address the migrant situation in Libya launched in Abidjan in November 2017. They particularly noted the progress made in the protection of migrants and refugees, the voluntary return of close to 30,000 migrants since then, and the reintegration process. They encouraged further efforts to dismantle trafficking and criminal networks. They agreed that it is imperative to put youth at the heart of their joint action in order to respond to the challenges of tomorrow and to address the needs and hopes of the younger generations. They also stressed the importance of initiatives aiming at supporting women’s meaningful participation and leadership in political and peace processes, as well as peacebuilding activities.

Copyright © 2018 African Union Commission. All right reserved.


he Chairperson of the African Union (AU) Commission, Moussa Faki Mahamat; the President of the European Commission, Jean-Claude Juncker; and the Secretary-General of the United Nations, António Guterres, met on September 23, 2018, at United Nations Headquarters in New York on the margins of the United Nations (UN) General Assembly. They, together with other key leaders, discussed the ongoing cooperation between the three organizations and ways to better coordinate efforts in addressing global challenges. They concurred that peace, security, and stability are paramount not only to ensure decent living conditions for all citizens, but also to attract investments necessary for sustainable and inclusive growth.

The three organizations pledged to continue to work closely together in support of the Sahel countries, in line with their respective strategies. The leaders acknowledged the important role played by peace operations mandated or authorized by the AU and confirmed their resolve to enhance collaboration, coordination, and planning among their respective missions and operations. They intend to pursue together ideas on how to ensure the predictability, sustainability, and flexibility of financing for AU-led peace support operations authorized by the Security Council and under the Security Council’s authority consistent with Chapter VIII of the UN Charter. Meetings between the leaders are envisaged at least once a year to take stock of progress and provide guidance on further areas for cooperation.

UN SECRETARYGENERAL— António Guterres New York, New York In the search for durable solutions to forced displacement, the world—and, indeed, I personally—have drawn constant inspiration from African leadership, African vision, and African compassion. Africa hosts nearly a third of the world’s refugees and internally displaced persons. Despite the continent’s own social, economic, and security challenges, Africa’s governments and people have kept borders, doors, and hearts open to millions in need. Unfortunately, this example has not been followed everywhere. Unfortunately, generosity is not proportional to wealth. Africa has set the gold standard for solidarity. Five decades ago, the continent adopted the 1969 Organization of African Unity Refugee Convention, which goes beyond even the landmark 1951 Refugee Convention by expanding the definition of a refugee. Ten years ago, you took a step further in adopting the Kampala Convention on Internally Displaced Persons, the first and only regional convention of its kind. In 2015, the Abidjan Declaration was a pioneering moment in the global fight to eradicate statelessness. And last year, African leadership helped secure the adoption of two pivotal global compacts—on refugees and on safe, orderly, and regular migration. I have seen the words of these crucial Conventions and Declarations come to life in every corner of this continent through the spirit of African compassion. I will never forget seeing Liberian farmers share their seed rice for the next planting season to feed desperate newcomers fleeing civil unrest in Côte d’Ivoire. I will always remember the electric air of joy as I stood with Congolese returning from Tanzania, joined a repatriation convoy to South Sudan, or rode on a truck carrying Liberians home from Sierra Leone.

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Connor Boyd for the Daily Mail March 2019


he European Parliament has overwhelmingly backed a watershed resolution calling for reparations for crimes committed in Africa during European colonialism. The bill urges European member states to introduce a series of sweeping reforms aimed at tackling “structural racism” facing millions of Afro-Europeans. It calls on the countries to implement nationwide strategies to deal with discrimination in education, health, housing, policing, the justice system, and politics. The resolution—approved by 535 Members of the European Parliament (MEPs), with 80 votes against and 44 abstentions—also calls on European member states to declassify their colonial archives, covering the most disturbing periods of Europe’s colonial past, and issue public apologies. It urges the European Union (EU) to adopt “a workforce diversity and inclusion strategy” to address the underrepresentation of ethnic minority officials. As it stands, the EU does not share data on race, ethnicity, or religion because it’s considered contrary to equality, The Guardian reports. The text is not legally binding, but it was hailed as a watershed moment by campaign groups for specifically focusing on the discrimination faced on the continent by an estimated 15 million people. “Histories of injustices against Africans and people of African descent—including enslavement, forced labor, racial apartheid, massacre, and genocides in the context of European colonialism and the transatlantic slave trade—remain largely unrecognized and unaccounted for at an institutional level in EU member states,” the text states. The resolution was drawn up by British Labour MEP Claude Moraes and was inspired by the racist behavior experienced by Italian socialist MEP Cecile Kyenge (picture insert above), who served as Italy’s first black government minister. Pressure is now on the European Commission to fund the schemes in the EU’s next seven-year budget. Amel Yacef, the chair of the European Network Against Racism, told The Guardian that the vote was “a historic, watershed moment for the recognition of people of African descent in Europe.” She added, “The European parliament is leading the way and sending a signal to EU member states to tackle structural racism that prevents black people from being included in European society. The ball is now in their court: we need concrete action plans and specific measures now.”


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� The resolution was approved by 535 MEPs, with 80 votes against and 44 abstentions. � It calls on EU members to declassify colonial archives and issue public apologies. � It urges countries to adopt reforms to end discrimination against Afro-Europeans.

The Year of Return also applies to stolen artifacts, resources, wealth, land, people, currency, identity, heritage, rights, and so much more.

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H.E. Lamin Baali of Sahrawi Republic with Chairman Moussa Faki Mahamat

An integrated, prosperous, and peaceful Africa, driven by its own citizens and representing a dynamic force in the global arena.


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The Af r ican Uni on

AfCFTA will cover a market of 1.2 billion people and a combined gross domestic product (GDP) of USD 2.5 trillion, making it the world’s largest free trade area since the formation of the World Trade Organization seven decades ago.


n Addis Ababa on April 29, 2019, the Chairperson of the African Union (AU) Commission, H.E. Moussa Faki Mahamat, with the AU Commissioner for Trade and Industry, H.E. Albert Muchanga, received two deposits of instruments of ratification of the AfCFTA agreement. The instruments were from H.E. Dr. Brima Patrick Kapuwa, Permanent Representative of Sierra Leone to the AU (representing the twenty-first member state to do so), and H.E. Lamin Baali, Permanent Representative of the Sahrawi Republic to the African Union (representing the twenty-second ratification). The Chairperson hailed the two deposits as timely and significant steps toward removing the fragmentation of African economies and markets, a process that will create a large market that is critical to increasing trade and investments on the continent. The two deposits meet the minimum threshold of ratifications required under Article 23 of the AfCFTA agreement for it to enter into force thirty days after deposit of the twenty-second deposit made by the Sahrawi Republic. The AfCFTA Agreement will, in this regard, enter into force on May 30, 2019. All that is now left is for the AU and African Ministers of Trade to finalize work on supporting instruments to facilitate the launch of the operational phase of the AfCFTA during an Extraordinary Heads of State and Government Summit on July 7, 2019.

The Chairperson also paid tribute to the champion of the AfCFTA, H.E. Mr. Mahamadou Issoufou, President of the Republic of Niger, for his strong and sustained advocacy to have all African Union Member States sign and ratify the AfCFTA agreement. The trade agreement is set to become operational within a month after the required number of endorsements are deposited with the AU Chairperson’s office. Once in place, the AfCFTA will cover a market of 1.2 billion people and a combined gross domestic product (GDP) of USD 2.5 trillion—making it the world’s largest free trade area since the formation of the World Trade Organization seven decades ago. African leaders hope the agreement will eliminate current high tariffs, generate employment opportunities for a rapidly growing young workforce, and harmonize the work of alreadyexisting Regional Economic Communities (RECs). It could also enhance intra-African trade by 52.3 percent annually according to the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa.

The supporting instruments are Rules of Origin, Schedules of Tariff Concessions on trade in goods, an Online Nontariff Barrier Monitoring and Elimination Mechanism, a Digital Payments and Settlement Platform, and the African Trade Observatory Portal. The African Ministers of Trade are scheduled to meet in Kampala, Uganda, in the first week of June this year to review work on these supporting instruments ahead of the Extraordinary Summit on the AfCFTA.

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An Interview with H.E. Albert Muchanga, the African Union’s Commissioner for Trade and Industry Interviewer’s note: When Ambassador Muchanga compared the significance of the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) to the liberation of Africa from colonial rule around a dinner table on June 11, I first thought I did not hear right, or even that he misspoke. The merits of decolonization in Africa are simply incalculable. You simply cannot put any measurement on the value of an entire continent’s ability to self-govern and determine its own destiny—that is priceless. So, what did Ambassador Muchanga really mean by that remark? Ambassador Chihombori-Quao had scheduled an interview for me, and after dinner, I quickly learned that I had heard right and that Ambassador Muchanga had said exactly what he meant. Interview by Frederick Nnoma-Addison

tralac | trace law center These twenty-four countries have deposited their instruments of AfCFTA ratification with the AU Commission’s Chairperson. The AfCFTA agreement requires a minimum threshold of twenty-two ratifications for entry into force. As of May 2019, fifty-two of the fifty-five AU states had signed the agreement. Benin, Eritrea, and Nigeria are the only countries that have not yet signed the agreement.


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“This is Africa’s most ambitious development program, and each and every African must ask themselves, how do I contribute to ensure that we realize the vision of this program?” H.E. Albert Muchanga is going to be higher. Related to that is the low capacity to collect trade statistics. So, we are creating the African Trade Observatory to really assist us in the development of statistics and other tools. We will be able to record our statistics more accurately. IIA: So, on July 7, what happens in Niamey?

Invest in Africa (IIA): Sir, you made a very powerful statement when we were having dinner; you said that what just happened with the AfCFTA is comparable to Africans being liberated from colonialism. Can you elaborate on that? That’s a sweeping statement. His Excellency Albert Muchanga (AM): Yes, when we formed the Organization of African Unity, first of all, when the spirit of pan-Africanism came, Africa said we wanted to get rid of colonialism and the people fought and liberated the continent. Now we are saying we have been developing as fragmented economies with very little leverage in the international system. The terms of trade are always working against us, so we are saying to get out of this we need to aggregate our economies into One African Market; that is going to spur manufacturing and agroprocessing, and with that there will be increased intra-African trade and an increased share of Africa’s trade in the global trading system. That is going to generate an increased voice in our negotiations with the rest of the world. So that is a transformation going toward greater economic independence or true interdependence, where Africa can now choose the terms and conditions under which it is going to relate with the rest of the world. IIA: How is the world reacting to this? AM: The world generally is very happy because the message that Africa has signaled to the rest of the world is that we are committed to the spirit of multilateralism. The countries are able to come together, while the rest of the world is going toward protectionism and individualism, so we are really upholding the spirit of multilateralism in the international trading system, which is very good. IIA: You made another statement that “Africa is going to start trading together.” Briefly describe the current situation. How do we do business together? AM: There are two issues that you need to take into account in the current situation. One is that the levels of intra-Africa trade are very low, about 18 percent. Now, that level can be misleading. You should also factor in the fact that there is informal or unrecorded cross-border trade, and the African Export-Import Bank has estimated that that is in the range of 40 to 60 billion US dollars or more per year. Now Africa’s global trade and intra-African trade in valid terms is about 107 to 175 billion US dollars per year. Now when you compare these, $40 billion is about 23 percent, and the $60 billion is about 35 percent. You add that to the 18 percent, and you will find that the level of intra-African trade

AM: On July 7, what will happen in Niamey is that the Heads of State and Government will launch the operation of the African Continental Free Trade; and when they do that, they are saying we are ready to start trading. They are also going to come up with a date when we should do it, taking into account we need to undertake preparatory work, such as countries producing trade statistics and trading documents and distributing these to all parts where they are needed. The members also need to sensitize the business community so that they are ready to play a role in the market, as well as customs administration. Yes, all these preparatory activities need to be undertaken. We are the level of the African Union, who are the interim secretariat also need to collaborate with the regional economic communities to ensure very good trade facilitation across Africa. So there is going to be preparatory work, but the Heads of State and Government are going to do their work by launching it, and when they launch it, they are also expected to launch the supporting instruments—Rules of Origin, Tariff Concessions, Tariff Elimination and Reporting, the Digital Permits and the Settlement Platform, and the African Trade Observatory. These are the key instruments that are going to support intra-African trade. IIA: With the passage of the AfCFTA, should we expect that Africa will start doing less business with, say, the United States? AM: No. On the contrary, it will increase. Take the example of AGOA. The perennial problem is that most African countries are not able to produce to scale to satisfy the U.S. market. Now, when we create the AfCFTA, companies that are able to produce to scale will start investing in Africa, and that will give them the capacity to be exporting to larger markets because they invested a lot of money. So, by aggregating, we are also promoting a large-scale investment, which now can produce at a larger scale, satisfy Africa, and export products to the rest of the world. So, the AfCFTA is not closing Africa from the rest of the world—we are opening it to the rest of the world by creating the necessary capacity. IIA: You mentioned a 2020 Trade Fair. African Development Bank and the African Export-Import Bank? AM: Yes. When we started last year, basically the key collaborators were the African Export-Import Bank and the African Union plus the host country, which was Egypt. When we went to Kigali, it was the African Export-Import Bank, the African Union, and the host country of Rwanda. Now the African Development Bank has come on board, which actually now is very good because it enhances the spirit of pan-Africanism. Other African institutions are coming on board, which is very, very good.

IIA: How has Africa received this; you know, talking about the average person? Do we fully recognize the impact of what has happened? AM: Yes, yes. A lot of the youth from Africa have requested to interview me, and they said you’ve done something we’ve been waiting for. We are very excited to participate. A young man from Ghana said that he was going to mobilize money at his own cost to make a film on the AfCFTA so that ordinary people can understand it. The film will go on television, so it will inspire a lot of people. There is a member of the African Union Diaspora based in Canada who is working with us to come up with a continental platform on e-commerce. Then we have a lot of business people wanting to increase their investments across Africa. They call themselves the AfroChampions. They have entered into a memorandum of understanding (MoU) so that they can work with us to promote larger-scale investments across Africa. So, we have inspired a cross-section of Africans. IIA: How long did this whole process take? AM: Well, when we look at the history of economic integration in Africa, it is sad to see that way back in the 1970s we started creating a Regional Economic Community such as the Economic Community of West African States. Then in 1991, we came up with the Abuja Trade, which designated the Regional Economic Communites as building blocks. Then in 2012, the Heads of State and Government said that we needed to accelerate the process, so we came up with the Action Plan on Boosting Intra-African Trade. One of the components was to establish the AfCFTA. We settled the negotiations in 2015, finalized them in 2017, and signed the agreement on May 21, 2018. Today we have fifty-two signatures and twenty-four ratifications. We are encouraging the three that have not signed and the others that have not ratified to all ratify so that all the fifty-five African Union member states are part of the agreement so that we realize the vision of creating One African Market. IIA: Finally, what does this mean for the African Diaspora in the United States? AM: For the African Diaspora it means quite a lot. The World Bank estimates that the annual receivings of the African Diaspora throughout the world is about 300 billion U.S. dollars. All they need is to organize themselves to come up with a special purpose vehicle and promote investments on the African continent. They will not be disappointed. Psychologically, they’ll be very happy that they are contributing to the prosperity of Africa. So it’s also an opportunity for them to come on board. IIA: Any final comments you want to add? AM: The final thing I would like to add is that this is Africa’s most ambitious development program, and each and every African must ask themselves, “how do I contribute to ensure that we realize the vision of this program?” That’s the challenge to everybody. Wherever they are across the world. IIA: Sir, thank you very much. AM: Thank you. Okay, thank you, sir. Thanks a lot.

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Adem K. Abebe Lecturer and Editor of ConstitutionNet, International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance, University of Pretoria, Republic of South Africa June 7, 2019


he Peace and Security Council of the African Union (AU) has suspended Sudan from all organizational activities “until the effective establishment of a civilian-led transitional authority.” It has also threatened to impose punitive measures on individuals and entities obstructing the establishment of a civilian-led transitional authority. The AU has given the Sudan Transitional Military Council, which orchestrated the overthrow of Omar al-Bashir in April, a sixty-day deadline to do so. The AU’s suspension followed the forceful dispersal of the month-long sit-ins. The military action resulted in the death of more than one hundred protesters. Prior to the killings, the Transitional Military Council had cancelled all tentative agreements with the Forces for the Declaration of Freedom and Change, the coalition negotiating on behalf of the protesters. It had also suspended negotiations and announced plans to hold elections within nine months. The Chairperson of the AU Commission, as well as some western powers condemned the attacks on civilian protesters. There have also been calls for an independent investigation and restraint. The killings signified a lack of progress in the establishment of a civilian-led transitional government. It also showed the reluctance of the military council to hand over power. This had been set as a precondition by the AU Peace and Security Council for delaying the full suspension of Sudan, which is normally immediate.

Complex The AU declared the removal of longtime leader Al-Bashir in April a coup d’état, but it took cognizance of the legitimacy of the popular protests that preceded the military intervention. As a result, it granted the Military Council an initial two weeks to establish a civilian-led transitional authority. The period was subsequently extended by up to sixty days. The circumstances that justified initially granting the Transitional Military Council the benefit of the doubt have vanished with the deadly breakdown. The AU has justifiably cut the grace period short. Any other response would have undermined its longestablished norm and practice against military takeovers and the primacy of civilian rule. The AU has traditionally immediately suspended countries experiencing coup d’etats. This has been in line with the Lomé Declaration of 2000. However, responses to the military takeovers in Burkina Faso in 2014, Zimbabwe in 2017, and Sudan in 2019 showed the challenges that tail-end military takeovers in support of popular uprisings present. The engagement in Burkina Faso was a remarkable success. The AU gave the military an ultimatum to hand over power to a civilian authority. This was complied with and underpinned the approach in Sudan. But, in Sudan’s case, it has failed so far. Nevertheless, this need not discourage the AU from following similar approaches in the future. This could involve suspension that isn’t immediate, particularly where the military sides with popular protesters against authoritarian leaders. In granting time for transitions to civilian rule, the AU has resorted to creative flexibility. This recognizes the legitimacy of popular opposition to authoritarian rule. It has attempted to do this without undermining its zero-tolerance policy against military takeovers. This approach also shows its commitment to prioritizing engagement over confrontation. It ensures the swift transfer of power from military to a civilian-led authority.


Suspension, Not Disengagement In condemning the killing of civilians, the AU Chairperson affirmed the determination to engage and support the Sudanese people. Similarly, the Peace and Security Council noted that the “Sudanese stakeholders are the sole authors of their destiny.” The Council opposes any external interference. This is presumably in reference to allegations of support for the Military Council from Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. This emphasis on Sudanese ownership of the transition underlines the primacy of African-led initiatives through the AU and Intergovernmental Authority for Development. And, it calls for engagements to be scaled up to resolve the crisis. Hence, the Peace and Security Council emphasized the mobilization of “all the Sudanese stakeholders to dialogue, with a view to speedily establish a civilian-led Transitional Authority.” It also asked the Chairperson of the AU Commission to do everything possible to help facilitate dialogue among the principal Sudanese stakeholders. The military has since called for the resumption of talks. The initial response from the representatives of protesters was to reject this

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Members of Sudan’s Alliance of Opposition and protest groups in Khartoum in May REUTERS/MOHAMED NURELDIN ABDALLAH

call. On this score, Sudan’s suspension could provide useful leverage. The challenge now is to convince protesters that their cause is not all lost. This may require securing clear concessions from the military and an affirmation that it is committed to a civilian-led transition. This policy of suspension while continuing engagement is necessary to enable a relatively swift transition to civilian rule. Nevertheless, facilitating dialogue may be insufficient to break the impasse. The establishment of a transitional government is a tremendous exercise in institutional and (interim) constitutional design.

Continental Help Sudan’s Interim Constitution, adopted in 2005, has been suspended following the military takeover in April 2019. This means that a transitional constitutional framework is necessary to legitimize the continuing exercise of power. The military council has already released a draft constitutional document it wants to have as the basis for a transitional government. This was in response to an initial draft from the representatives of protesters.

However, agreement on the details of a framework has so far been elusive. Talks were deadlocked before demonstrators were killed this week. As ultimate expressions of sovereign decisions, constitutional choices must be made by Sudanese stakeholders and representatives of the people. Nevertheless, the negotiators can benefit from African and global expertise and experience. This could expand the horizon of alternatives and improve the chances for compromise. The planned AU facilitation team should include prominent facilitators and political personalities. In addition, it should include a select group of constitutional experts. The challenges presented by events unfolding in Sudan provide a great opportunity for the AU to refine and consolidate its approach to supporting countries in crisis. This is particularly true when the situation involves constitutional reform. Sources: Quartz Africa/The Conversation

. . . The sleeping giant is rising.

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WEST AFRICA TO DITCH THE COLONIAL CFA FRANC 2020 could mark the end of the colonial CFA Franc currency in 8 countries when ECOWAS introduces a new West African regional currency. It will be a win for ­African integration and a big loss for neo-colonialism.

Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire—June 19, 2019


fter two days of high-level discussions, West African ministers and central bank governors recently agreed on a draft report on the establishment of a regional currency. The report will be reviewed by Heads of State in July 2019 on the establishment of a new regional currency. Among the key issues agreed upon are the exchange rate regime and the monetary policy framework. The Ivorian Finance Minister, Adama Kone, told the press, “At a ministerial level, we’ve established a roadmap.” This means West Africa is on track to have a single currency, which will replace the problematic CFA Franc in eight countries in West Africa, provided they meet the convergence criteria. The franc de la Communauté Financière d’Afrique (CFA Franc) is a currency embroiled in controversy primarily due to its colonial roots. In January 2019, Italy’s populist Deputy Prime Minister, Luigi Di Maio, accused France of underdevelop­ing and colonizing Africa. He argued, “France is one of those countries that by printing money for 14 ­African states prevents their economic development and contributes to the fact that the refugees leave and then die in the sea or arrive on our coasts.” Maio added that “[if] Europe wants to be brave, it must have the courage to confront the issue of decolonization in Africa.”


The CFA franc is pegged against the Euro and proponents argue that this has brought stability to West Africa by insulating it from inflationary pressure. However, opponents have argued that the currency is a colonial relic and maintaining it is anachronistic. After all, the CFA Franc was created on the 26th of December in 1945 by General de Gaulle’s declaration. France intended to facilitate financial integration among its colonies, and it is unclear why the colonial currency lived beyond the end of colonialism.

The CFA franc is actually two currencies, the West African CFA franc, which is used in eight West African countries, and the Central African CFA franc, which is used in six Central African countries. Both currencies are guaranteed by the French treasury.

After independence, the Francophone countries of West Africa signed monetary cooperation deals which pegged the CFA Franc against the French franc and later, the euro. However, the states also had to deposit 50 percent of their external reserves to the French treasury. The French have retained economic control over their previous colonies, but that era is coming to an end. In the words of Guinea’s Alpha Condé, “I am a supporter of a regional currency and in 2020 we will have a single currency in the ECOWAS countries, whether they speak English, Portuguese or French, and CFA franc will become outdated.” Hopefully, the bloc does not postpone the process yet again as has happened since the adoption of the ECOWAS Monetary Cooperation Programme (EMCP) of 1987 in Conakry.

West African CFA Franc Countries Benin


� Burkina Faso


� Cote d’Ivoire


� Guinea Bissau


Central African CFA Franc Countries Cameroon

Central African Republic Democratic Republic of the Congo Gabon

Source: Tatenda Gwaambuka (African Exponent)


Equatorial Guinea

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ECOWAS Leaders—Photo courtesy of ECOWAS

Abuja Nigeria

—Saturday June 29, 2019


eaders of the fifteen-member states of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), formally agreed on Saturday to name a planned common currency the “ECO.” The bloc announced at the end of a summit in Abuja, the Nigerian capital, that “ECO was adopted as the name of the ECOWAS single currency.” They agreed to launch it in early 2020. The bloc, which represents an estimated population of about 385 million people, said it acknowledged a 2018 report that underlined “the worsening of the macroeconomic convergence” and urged member states to do “more to improve on their performance” as the deadline for the establishment of a monetary union approached. The 2018 report called, among others, for the promotion and liberalization of regional trade, the consolidation of the customs union, and the creation of a free trade area—all of which are yet to be met. Mahamadou Issoufou, ECOWAS chairman

and Niger’s president, said there was “a real firm political will” to increase efforts ahead of the January 2020 deadline. Leaders in the bloc have for decades held discussions and meetings on issuing a common currency amid efforts to boost regional trade and investment, without, however, making significant progress. This new development is therefore a historic breakthrough. Currently, eight ECOWAS countries—Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Senegal, and Togo—use the CFA franc, while the other seven—Cape Verde, The Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone— have their own currencies. “We are of the view that countries that are ready will launch the single currency and countries that are not ready will join the program as they comply with all six convergence criteria,” President Issoufou said.

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REGIONAL ECONOMIC COMMUNITIES (RECs) PROMOTE REGIONAL INTEGRATION The need to deepen integration and reinforce the AU is urgent. Africa is not sufficiently integrated and does not have sufficient weight on the international scene. The sovereignties of African States are threatened by the collective weakness of the continent and the weaknesses to contain foreign interferences and make the most of globalization for Africa. Salvation lies in integration.

H.E. Moussa Faki Mahamat Chairperson, AU Commission


ne of the key debates in relation to the achievement of greater continental integration is the relative priority that should be given to the integration of the continent as a unit in itself or to the integration of the subregions. The 1980 Lagos Plan of Action for the Development of Africa and the 1991 treaty to establish the African Economic Community (also referred to as the Abuja Treaty) proposed the creation of Regional Economic Communities (RECs) as the basis for African integration, with a timetable for regional and eventual continental integration.

The RECs are regional groupings of African states. They have developed individually and have differing roles and structures. Generally, the purpose of the RECs is to facilitate regional economic integration between members of the individual regions and through the wider African Economic Community (AEC), which was established under the Abuja Treaty (1991). The RECs are increasingly involved in coordinating AU member states’ interests in wider areas, such as peace and security, development, and governance. They are closely integrated with the AU’s work and serve as its building blocks. The relationship between the AU and the RECs is mandated by the Abuja Treaty and the AU Constitutive Act and is guided


by the 2008 Protocol on Relations among the RECs and the AU and the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on Cooperation in the Area of Peace and Security among the AU, RECs, and the coordinating mechanisms of the Regional Standby Brigades of Eastern and Northern Africa. Currently, there are eight RECs recognized by the AU, each established under a separate regional treaty. They are as follows: The Arab Maghreb Union (AMU) The Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA) The Community of Sahel-Saharan States (CENSAD) The East African Community (EAC) The Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS) The Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) The Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) The Southern African Development Community (SADC)

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We have thought it through carefully and it is now so obvious! It is time to return home; at a time when the Kingdom is among the most developed African nations and when a majority of member states looks forward to our return, we have decided to join our family again. A family we had not really left! King Mohammed VI

AFRICA, ACTIVELY PERFECTING ITS UNION Reflections on King Mohammed VI’s remarks when Morocco rejoined the African Union in January 2017 Excerpt of Speech delivered at the 28th African Union Summit—January 2017, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia


he massive, outspoken support Morocco has received is proof of the solid bonds that unite us. It was necessary to withdraw from the Organization of African Unity (OAU); it has enabled Morocco’s action to be refocused in Africa to show how indispensable Africa is to Morocco and how indispensable Morocco is to Africa. We have thought it through carefully and it is now so obvious!

It is time to return home. At a time when the Kingdom is among the most developed, African nations and when a majority of member states looks forward to our return, we have decided to join our family again. A family we had not really left! In fact, despite having been absent from the African Union (AU) institutions for so many years, our links, which have never been severed, have remained strong, and African sister nations have always been able to rely on us. Strong bilateral relations have thus been significantly developed: since 2000, Morocco has signed nearly a thousand agreements with ­African countries, in various fields of cooperation. By way of comparison, did you know that between 1956 and 1999, 515 agreements were signed, whereas 949 agreements have been signed since 2000? In other words, almost twice as many! During this period I, personally, was keen to give fresh impetus to this action, by making more visits to various African sub-regions. On each of the forty-six visits I paid to twenty-­ five African countries, numerous agreements

were signed involving the public as well as the private sector. My action has been particularly geared toward the field of training, which is at the heart of my country’s cooperation with sister nations. This has enabled a number of African students to continue their higher education in Morocco, thanks to the thousands of scholarships given to them. Furthermore, major strategic projects were set up during my visits to the following countries. Firstly, I had the pleasure of launching

the Africa Atlantic Gas Pipeline project with my brother, H.E. Mr. Muhammadu Buhari, President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria. This project will of course allow natural gas to be transported from gas-producing countries to Europe. But more than that, it will benefit the whole of West Africa. It will, indeed, contribute to creating a regional electricity market and be a substantial source of energy, which will help develop industry, improve economic competitiveness, and speed up social development. The project will thus create wealth for neighboring countries and populations, generating crucial momentum that will stimulate the emergence and the development of parallel projects. Moreover, it will help build more peaceful bilateral and multilateral relations and thus create an environment conducive to development and growth. Secondly, as part of projects aimed at

improving agricultural productivity and promoting food security and rural development,

fertilizer production plants have been set up with both ­Ethiopia and Nigeria. These projects will benefit the continent as a whole. Morocco is right to choose Africa. By doing so, my country has opted to share and transfer its know-how; in concrete terms, it is offering to build a safe, solidarity-based future. Morocco is not returning to the African Union through the back door but by the main gate. This is shown by the warm welcome extended to us today by our African brothers. We enthusiastically invite African nations to join our country’s dynamism and to give new impetus to the whole of our continent. It is time for Africa to benefit from Africa’s wealth. We must work to enable our land, after decades of looting, to enter an era of prosperity. Admittedly, colonialism is not the sole cause of Africa’s problems. However, its negative impact persists. For a long time, we have looked elsewhere to seek help in making a decision, a commitment. Is it not time for this tropism to be stopped? Is it not time to look toward our continent? Is it not time to consider its cultural wealth, its human potential? Africa should be proud of its resources, cultural heritage, and spiritual values, and the future should strongly support this natural pride. Your Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen, this is the path to solidarity, peace and union chosen by my country. We reaffirm our commitment to the development and prosperity of African citizens. We, peoples of Africa, have the means and the genius; together, we can fulfill the aspirations of our peoples. Thank you for your kind attention.

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At the Berlin Conference (1884–1885), the European countries divided up essentially all of Africa. It was one of the defining moments of African history for a number of reasons, the most important being that it changed (for the worse) the political boundaries of Africa.









he agreement establishing the African Continental Free Trade Agreement (AfCFTA) came into force on May 30, 2019, for the twenty-four countries that have deposited their Instruments of Ratification. This date marked thirty days after the initial twenty-two countries deposited their ratification instruments with the African Union Commission ­Chairperson— the designated depositary for this purpose, as stipulated in Article 23 of the agreement.



It’s impossible until it’s done.” Nelson Mandela

KEYS TO CHAPTER SUCCESS FOR THE AfCFTATITLE NEGOTIATIONS Landry Signé and Colette van der Ven, Africa Growth Initiative at the Brookings Institute Extract from a May 2019 Policy Brief



s of April 29, 2019, twenty-two countries have deposited their Instruments of Ratification of the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA) agreement to the African Union (AU), meeting the threshold for the agreement to come into effect. Now, the date for the entry into force for the AfCFTA has been set for May 30, 2019. The significance of the AfCFTA cannot be overstated: It will be the world’s largest free trade area since the establishment of the World Trade Organization in 1994. Landry Signé has estimated that under a successfully implemented AfCFTA, Africa will have a combined consumer and business spending of USD 6.7 trillion in 2030. He also finds that the AfCFTA will have a significant impact on manufacturing and industrial development, tourism, intra-African cooperation, and economic transformation. The United Nations Economic Commission for Africa has predicted that it will raise intra-African trade by 15 to 25 percent, or USD 50 billion to 70 billion, by 2040, compared to an Africa without the AfCFTA. The International Monetary Fund similarly projects that under the AfCFTA, Africa’s expanded and more efficient goods and labor markets will significantly increase the continent’s overall ranking on the Global Competitiveness Index. Increased market access, in turn, is expected to enhance the competitiveness of industries and enterprises, the exploitation of economies of scale, and the efficacy of resource allocation.

RECOMMENDATIONS The ratification of the AfCFTA presents a real milestone for African unity. Whether it will go beyond symbolism, however, depends in part on the depth and scope of the provisions and commitments currently being negotiated. The negotiation outcomes, in turn, will reflect the political commitment African nations show toward intra-African trade liberalization and continental unity. Negotiators must be cautious not to add additional layers of complexity to an already complex and overlapping network of trade agreements in Africa. They can do so by ensuring that the commitments they make in goods and services are as ambitious as possible within existing parameters. For instance, this process would ideally include committing to immediately liberalizing as many tariff lines as possible as well as adopting a liberal approach to negotiating reciprocal MFN. Moreover, to maximize the benefits derived from the AfCFTA, state parties must make commitments in line with their comparative advantage for diversification and value chain development. Such analysis should look at not only existing trade flows, but also nascent opportunities. Maximizing the AfCFTA benefits will


require that governments develop proactive national strategies that will identify opportunities and constraints and inform their tariff commitments for goods and services. When conducting this analysis, national governments must establish a close link with the private sector. Indeed, in setting their scheduling priorities, African governments must be sure to listen to the needs and concerns of the private sector, especially small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). From these discussions, negotiators must gain an understanding of the sectors that will be most conducive to liberalization and which sectors would benefit from being excluded or gradually liberalized. While most of the focus in the AfCFTA debate centers on goods, it is imperative that governments do not overlook the importance of the services industry, as Africa’s services exports grew more than six times faster than merchandise exports between 1998 and 2015, a trend that is likely to continue given the sector’s tremendous business opportunities. With respect to rules of origin (RoO), it is important that they are sufficiently flexible, with a view to enabling SMEs in the least-developed AfCFTA states to take advantage of AfCFTA preferential tariffs. Complicated and stringent RoO could risk straining the institutional capacities of African countries that are ill-equipped to manage complicated RoO, especially in the context of porous borders. Moreover, while the acquis and the existing RoO make full RoO harmonization impossible, negotiators should ensure, at a minimum, that the RoO are built upon existing regimes. In the context of the phase 2 negotiations, a number of key questions regarding scope and objective must be clarified. Given the vast disparity between the development of different African countries, questions regarding capacity building for phase 2 are especially critical. The AU, RECs, and international organizations should come to an agreement about who is going to foot the bill for the additional resources that will be required to make the regulatory protocols workable for all African countries, especially LDCs. Finally, the negotiators must clarify the numerous ambiguities currently present in the AfCFTA agreement. They could do so by creating a roadmap of the remaining unknowns, for example, who is negotiating what with whom, how reciprocal MFN is being approached, what will happen to customs unions if not all members have ratified/signed on to the AfCFTA, and how conflicts will be resolved. These additional clarifications will be critical for the AfCFTA’s successful implementation going forward. While the AfCFTA’s ratification is a cause for celebration, much work remains as critical parts of the agreement have yet to be completed, including countries’ Schedules of Tariff Concessions and Services Commitments, Rules of Origin, investment, intellectual property, competition, and a possible protocol on e-commerce. The extent to which the AfCFTA will reduce barriers to intra-­ African trade is largely linked to the ongoing negotiations. This piece explores the implications of those negotiations, with a particular focus on market access for goods and services and Rules of Origin. It also briefly touches upon the outstanding regulatory issues.

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Fellow Africans, dear brothers and sisters of the continent and the Diaspora, on this auspicious occasion as we celebrate the fifty-sixth anniversary of the birth of the Organization of African Unity (OAU), precursor of the African Union, I am pleased to convey to each and every one of you this renewed message of faith in the realization of our common vision, namely “The Africa We Want,” as enshrined in Agenda 2063. Indeed, it is here in Addis Ababa, following a protracted and heated debate, that the Heads of State and Government of thirty-two newly independent African States created the OAU. After centuries of domination, oppression, enslavement, and slave exploitation, Africa woke up and became aware of its strength and the underlying force behind that strength: its dignity in unity. It is the solemn affirmation of this imperative that we celebrate today.

2019 Washington, DC On this day in 1963, Africa founded the Organization of African Unity, OAU which brought the continent together. Since then, May 25 has been celebrated across the world, particularly in Africa, to signify Africa’s identity and unity.

African Ambassadors Group


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However, there are still many hurdles to overcome before ­Africa’s independence and unity fully blossom. This will only come about when every African lives in peace, has free access to quality universal education, to full physical and mental health, to a decent and remunerative job, to social and cultural development, and to good democratic governance in the strict respect of his fundamental rights. We celebrate this memorable day under the theme, The Year of Refugees, Returnees, and Internally Displaced ­Persons: Towards Durable Solutions to Forced Displacement in Africa. This theme in itself sufficiently demonstrates the acuteness of our challenges and the urgent and imperative need to work together to ensure to all African citizens the inalienable right to live free, dignified, and be productive. H.E. Dr. Arikana Chihombori-Quao, on behalf of H.E. Moussa Faki Mahamat, Chairperson of the African Union Commission

Patricia McDougall

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Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, and Tunisia

Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia, and Zimbabwe Benin, Burkina Fusa, Cabo Verde, Côte d’lvoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, and Togo Comoros, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Rwanda, Seychelles, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, and Uganda Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and São TomÊ and Pr�ncipe People of African origin living outside the continent, irrespective of their citizenship and nationality and who are willing to contribute to the development of the continent and the building of the African Union

The African Union Commission’s Representational Missions 1. Americas/United States—Headquartered in Washington, DC 2. Europe—Headquartered in Brussels, Belgium 3. Middle East—Headquartered in Cairo, Egypt 4. Southern Africa—Headquartered in Lilongwe, Malawi 5. Asia—Headquartered in Beijing, China 6. Permanent Representation at the United Nations in New York 7. Permanent Representation at the United Nations in Geneva


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ON AFRICAN UNITY We must unite now or perish . . . We must recognize that our economic independence resides in our African union and requires the same concentration upon the political achievement.”

Yet all stock exchanges in the world are preoccupied with Africa’s gold, diamonds, uranium, platinum, copper and iron ore. We have been too busy nursing our separate states to understand fully the basic need of our union, rooted in common purpose, common planning and common endeavor.” OAU Headquarters Addis Ababa, 1963

“Unite we must. Without necessarily sacrificing our sovereignties, we can forge a political union based on defense, foreign affairs and diplomacy, and a common citizenship, an African currency, a monetary zone and a central bank. We must unite in order to achieve the full liberation of our continent.” Organization of African Unity Headquarters, Addis Ababa, 1963

DR. KWAME NKRUMAH OAU Founding Member First Prime Minister and President of Ghana


As part of our mandate, the African Union Mission in Washington, DC, is constantly developing and strengthening institutional relationships with all branches of the U.S. government. We are pleased to enjoy the cooperation of our U.S. partners and look forward to deepening the African Union’s relationship with the United States. H.E. Dr. Arikana Chihombori-Quao AU Permanent Representative to the United States


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ood evening, my fellow members of the African Diaspora. My name is Ambassador Dr. Arikana Chihombori-Quao. I am the African Union Ambassador to the United States of America. I am I am here with two main mandates. The first one is to promote Africa in the Americas, and the second is to galvanize the African Diaspora to participate in the development of Africa. Who are the African Diaspora? According to the African Union, the African Diaspora are all people of African descent living outside Africa. The fifty-five African Heads of State understand very clearly that in order for Africa to take its rightful place on the world stage and in order for sustainable development to come to Africa, the African Diaspora must be at the front and center of that conversation. So, it is precisely why I am here to have a conversation with you all, my fellow brothers and sisters, sons and daughters. As you all know, I was appointed by Madam Zuma, the former chairperson of the African Union, and our new chairperson is His Excellency Moussa Faki Mahamat. He took office two years ago. Both of them are also very clear about the need for the African Diaspora to participate in the development of Africa. Madam Zuma, in my last conversation with her, jokingly said, “You know my sister, the African Diaspora are a very diverse population. Unfortunately, children of Africa, we don’t really get along. We don’t understand each other; we don’t like each other sometimes.” But, be that as it may, she did have hope that if we continue to engage each other and if we continue to understand each other, maybe, just maybe, we will see enough reason to come together, put aside our differences, and speak with one voice, one continent, one Africa. So that is why I am here, and in order for us to begin to understand each other, in order for us to begin to engage each other in a meaningful conversation, first we must ask ourselves the question, “How did we get here? How did Africa end up as the Africa it is? Allow me to take you to 1884 at the Berlin Conference. From November of 1884 to February of 1885, our colonizers met to discuss how to make sure that Africa and its children are forever defeated and dominated. Prior to 1884, they were going into Africa in a very haphazard way. They started stealing from each other what they had stolen from the Africans. They were getting ready to have a European war on the African soil . . . . Watch the full video on YouTube

Africa House, 1640 Wisconsin Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20007

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Delaware Ambrosia Mondoa (Chair)

Texas Benson Kasue (Chair)

Structure of Diaspora Chapters The Americas are now divided into twelve regions. Each region will have a chair and a board.

Illinois Olivier Kamanzi (Chair)

There are an average of four to seven states per region, with each state having its own chair and board. For example, in Region 6, the member states are Alabama, Kentucky, Mississippi, Tennessee, Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas. There will be subregional chapters, each with their own board (depending on the population density), within each chapter, and there will be subchapter boards according to the sectors. Each chapter is tasked with the responsibility of organizing the African Diaspora for the purposes of creating professional databases according to sectors (education, health care, agriculture, tourism, finance and IT, infrastructure, and energy).

Southern U.S. Adrienne Johnson (Regional Chair)


Appointment Process A state volunteer chair is required along with a five-member steering

committee. The steering committee is responsible for reviewing referrals of volunteers submitted by the civil society. The chair and steering committee members are temporary until full boards are constituted. They can become members of the board of the committee. It is recommended that the temporary board chair be part of the new board that is being created if the steering committee members meet the criteria. For more information visit the following websites:

Creating a Database A database is needed in order to keep the Diaspora informed about the opportunities on the continent so they can be in front of this line in order to claim what is rightfully theirs. The professional and company databases collected will be sent to the Citizens and Diaspora Directorate at the AU headquarters in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The purpose of this is to let the African Heads of State know that the Diaspora is now ready, willing, and able to participate in the development of Africa as a united front.

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arch 27, 2019 — H.E. Dr. Arikana ­Chihombori-Quao, African Union Ambassador to the United States, welcomed Austrian-born actor of German and Ghanaian descent Boris Kodjoe to Africa House for a conversation on African


tourism. Kodjoe recently hosted the Full Circle Festival in Accra, with the aim of “honoring our ancestry by celebrating our heritage and generational legacy.” The conversation on tourism in Africa took place with multiple African embassies’

Tourism Attachés in Washington, DC (below). In addition, the Hollywood actor and ­Ambassador Chihombori-Quao plan to lead a delegation of 500 celebrities to Ghana in December 2019.

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Pan-African Diaspora Youth Association


he Pan-African Diaspora Youth Association (PADYA) is the Diaspora youth outreach, sensitization, and mobilization arm of the African Union Mission to the United States. It has a vibrant

membership made up of Diaspora youth from fifteen to thirty-five years old representing the broad diversity of the African Diaspora. PADYA’s vision is to promote development in Africa and African unity

by integrating all youth of African descent toward the advancement of Africa and its Diaspora through effective mobilization of resources (human, capital, technical, technological, and financial).

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Contact us for more information. Email:

The “Grand Africa Tour” makes Africa the preferred destination for tourism. Tourism has the potential to accelerate Africa’s economic growth and create jobs. This sector also has the capacity to contribute significantly to the agenda for social inclusion, as cultural endowments and natural assets can be leveraged to create opportunities for local communities. One of the focuses of the African Union’s transformative Agenda 2063 is the promotion of tourism as an instrument for economic growth. This will consequently create jobs, particularly for the youth; connect the different sub regions; and showcase Africa’s natural wonders, exotic wildlife and plants, ancient cultures, historic relics, and rich cuisine.



RECENT EVENTS Boris Kodjoe Meets Tourism Attachés— March 27, 2019

expressed their interests to take more than fifteen MFL teams to different parts of Africa.

The African Union Mission hosted a dialogue between actor Boris Kodjoe and Washington, DC–based African embassies’ Tourism Attachés.

Howard University Students Visit Africa House—April 4, 2019

AU Mission Meets MFL Executives— April 4, 2019 The African Union Ambassador to the United States, H.E. Dr. Arikana Chihombori-Quao; Minor Football League (MFL) CEO/Chairman and founder, Richard Myles, Sr.; and Maryland Colts owner, Charles Olawole, discuss bringing American football to Africa. Richard Myles, Sr., and Charles Olawole


Ambassador Chihombori-Quao received students from Howard University in Washington, DC, at Africa House. The event was hosted in conjunction with the Department of World Languages and Cultures, the Department of Political Science, and The Ralph Bunche International Affairs Center of Howard University. From the Berlin Conference to Agenda 2063 and from the Pact for the Continuation of Colonization to the Continental Free Trade Area, Ambassador Chihombori-Quao explained how the African Union is strategically addressing past and present challenges.

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Diaspora Retreat Follow-Up—April 6, 2019 The African Diaspora retreat follow-up was held to help structure the regional network. H.E. Dr. Arikana Chihombori-Quao highlighted the major achievements of the African Union and stressed the importance and timely engagement of the Diaspora in all African-related matters. The African Diaspora had an extensive conversation on how to proceed with structuring the network. The conversation focused on the roles and responsibilities of

appointed chairs and cochairs, the roles and responsibilities of the steering committee, and the grievance policies and disciplinary and dismissal procedures, among several other topics.

Atlanta Diaspora Town Hall—April 23, 2019 H.E. Dr. Arikana Chihombori-Quao, African Union Ambassador, addressed the African Diaspora in Atlanta during a town hall meeting at the Robert W. Woodruff Library at Atlanta University.

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Kwabena Boateng, Founder and Co-President of African Diaspora Nation and Chair of the HBCU Africa Homecoming Organizing Committee with Ambassador Chihombori-Quao


n June 10, 2019, the African Union Diplomatic Mission and the African Diaspora Nation launched a partnership to expand educational and economic opportunity exchange between Africa and Black America. The event took place at the Africa House in Washington, DC, under the patronage of H.E. Dr. ­Arikana ­Chihombori-Quao, African Union Ambassador to the United States. Mr. Kwabena Boateng, founder and copresident of African Diaspora Nation


and chair of the HBCU Africa Homecoming Organizing Committee, described it as a “media-enabled convening platform that stands out as the most deliberate effort ever to network HBCU leaders, students, alumni entrepreneurs/businesses, African students, governments, corporations, and foundations in an atmosphere of oneness, access, celebration, storytelling, envisioning, technology/culture/opportunity exchange, sportsmanship, reflection, problem-solving, and empowerment.”

The program included official remarks from Morgan State University President, Dr. David Wilson; Dr. Ronald Johnson, a member of the U.S. President’s Advisory Board on HBCUs and immediate past president of Clark Atlanta University; Honorable Kojo Yankah, Chancellor of the African University College for Communication in Ghana; and representatives from Howard University, Delaware State University, and Albany State University, among several others.

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Dr. David Wilson President Morgan State University

Media personality Roland Martin speaking at the podium

Tonija Hope Navas Director, Ralph Bunche Intl. Affairs Center Howard University

Dr. Ronald Johnson Former President Clark Atlanta University

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he Permanent Representative and the AU Representational Mission welcomed the Director and other officials of the Citizens and Diaspora Directorate (CIDO) to the United States in the spring of 2019. The delegations engaged the Diaspora in critical conversations.

The African Union ambassador to the United States, Arikana Chihombori-Quao (center) and Nasibu Sareva of Minnesotta’s African Development Center (right) listen as the director of the AU’s Citizens and Diaspora Organizations Directorate (CIDO), Ahmed El-Basheer El Madani speaks during a Q & A at a AU luncheon on Monday, February 25, 2019 in Brooklyn Center, Minnesota Photo: Richard Ooga/Mshale


CIDO continues to work with the continent’s representatives around the world for the benefit of Africans on the continent and in the diaspora. El-Basheer A. El Madani


vv Strengthening the AU’s operational capacity vv Serving as a focal point vv Managing and coordinating interaction vv Enabling participation vv Promoting effective linkages; and vv Interfacing the African Diaspora

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In Washington, DC, Mr. El Madani engaged the Diaspora at a town hall meeting and later met with the African Ambassadors Group (AAG). The AAG renewed its commitment to support and facilitate the African Union Diaspora engagement efforts through its embassies.

In Los Angeles, where he and Ambassador ChihomboriQuao met the Group of African Consul-Generals, they pledged to “stand ready to mobilize the community on the U.S. West Coast in support of the continent.”

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Jim Yong Kim Immediate Past World Bank President July 2012–February 2019 —He oversaw a Bank-wide reorganization, an historic capital increase, the launch of the Human Capital Index, and a sizable investment in the fight against climate change.


“Regional integration is Africa’s most important task and infrastructure is its backbone. The World Bank Group’s Regional Integration Strategy, developed in consultation with the African Union, comes at a critical time when Africa is making steady progress on its economic integration instruments, namely the African Continental Free Trade Area, the Protocol on Free Movement of People, and the Single African Air Transport Market.”

Moussa Faki Mahamat Chairperson of the African Union Commission



n June 2018, the Board of Executive Directors of the World Bank Group endorsed a new strategy to partner with sub-­ Saharan African countries and regional bodies to deepen regional integration. This move repositioned World Bank Group support to help the continent realize fuller benefits from integration over the period of 2018 to 2023. Titled “Supporting Africa’s Transformation: Regional Integration & Cooperation Assistance Strategy,” the strategy will promote economic diversification and the strengthening of regional value chains, build subregional energy and digital markets, help create productive jobs for youth, and tackle cross-border health and climate change risks. The World Bank Group remains an important financier of regional integration initiatives in sub-Saharan Africa, with existing commitments of over USD 10 billion. Over the next three years, financing will increase by over USD 6 billion to assist the continent in addressing barriers to integration. In addition, the provision of technical assistance and better analytics will help facilitate collective action by countries in priority areas. The strategy has benefited from wide-ranging consultations with policy makers, regional bodies, and the private sector in Africa. The private sector has a large role to play in the regional integration agenda.

AND AFRICA “The World Bank Group brings a unique combination of financing, policy support, and convening power that can help facilitate collective action to address regional infrastructure gaps and policy and regulatory barriers to integration. We are buoyed by the high level of commitment of African leaders towards promoting the regional integration agenda.”

Makhtar Diop

World Bank Vice President for Infrastructure Former World Bank Vice President for Africa (2012–2018)

“The World Bank and the International Finance Corporation will bring together both public and private sector solutions to tackle integration challenges. Our joint efforts will notably target the expansion of regional markets and the diseconomies of scale which are holding back rapid development of the private sector.”

Sérgio Pimenta

Vice President of the International Finance Corporation for the Middle East and Africa



Ignore IMF warning and go ahead to implement African

The People’s News Africa

Free Trade Agreement


n May 2019, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) warned that African countries could face revenue shortfalls if the continent started the implementation of the African Continental Free Trade Agreement (AfCFTA) as planned. The IMF maintained that, although the agreement will boost trade on the continent, it will negatively affect earnings and employment opportunities in some sectors of the member countries’ economies.


In a quick rebuttal, President Paul Kagame urged his fellow African leaders to stay focused on the implementation of the policy since that will be in the positive interest of the African continent and the African people. “It is important that Africa gives the necessary considerations to the views and opinions by external entities and ‘development partners;’ it is also more important at the same time that Africa become aware of what we want for ourselves, pursue what is good for the

continent, and defend what is necessary for our collective development.” He noted that a lot of consideration went into the AfCFTA before it was agreed upon by Member States. Mr. Kagame expressed these opinions at a tripartite meeting attended by himself, President João Lourenço of Angola, and their Democratic Republic of the Congo counterpart and host, FelixAntoine Tshisekedi, on the sidelines of his father’s national mourning ceremony in the DRC capital of Kinshasa.

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As His Majesty’s Ambassador to the United States, I stand ready to fully accompany and support any endeavor that will help grow and deepen our blossoming relationship.

Her Highness Princess Lalla Joumala Ambassador of the Kingdom of Morocco to the United States of America

Presentation of Keys


Commissioner Jose “Pepe” Diaz Miami-Dade County, District 12

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Presentation of Moroccan Artifact

Invest in Af r i c a

Miami Dade College, Miami, Florida—Thursday, April 4, 2019


orocco’s ambassador to the United States, Her Highness Princess Lalla Joumala, reaffirmed her country’s commitment to strengthening business ties with American companies during the fifth U.S.-­ Morocco Trade & Investment Forum held in Miami, Florida. “As His Majesty’s Ambassador to the United States, I stand ready to fully accompany and support any endeavor that will help grow and deepen our blossoming relationship,” she said. This year’s forum, jointly organized by the Embassy of the Kingdom of Morocco, the U.S. Chamber of Commerce (U.S.-Africa Business Center), and Miami Dade College, highlighted Florida and Morocco as points of transatlantic connectivity linking Africa and the Americas. It was attended by a cross-section of government, business, and civic leaders from Morocco and the United States.

Eduardo J. Padrón, PH.D. President, Miami Dade College

The forum also profiled opportunities in sectors such as tourism, shipping, air transport, energy, industry, and finance for American companies interested in doing business in Morocco. Royal Air Maroc, Miami International Airport, Enterprise Florida, Port Miami, Greater Miami Chamber of Commerce, and Express Travel sponsored this year’s forum. The high-powered Moroccan delegation arrived at the Miami International Airport aboard Royal Air Maroc’s inaugural flight from Casablanca to Miami. The U.S.-Morocco Trade Forum is an annual conference designed to advance the U.S.-Africa commercial relationship. Past events were held in key markets like Dallas, Atlanta, Seattle, and Washington, DC. During the annual gathering, business leaders, government officials, and stakeholders discuss the development of trade between the United States, Morocco, and the rest of the African continent. During her keynote address, Her Highness Princess Joumala explained that the strategic positions of Morocco and Florida bring many advantages and challenges. She said, “We are uniquely placed to understand each other and can gain a lot from wider exchanges from all sectors. This is why we chose Miami for this year’s edition of the U.S.-Morocco Trade and Investment forum to focus on trans-Atlantic connections.” According to her, the traditions of warmth and hospitality, the values of openness, and the rich cultural diversity are just a few similarities that Morocco and Miami proudly share. She said that claiming Morocco is the gateway to doing business in Africa is not just a slogan, “but a reality verified on the ground by the success stories of U.S. investors.” Her Highness Princess Joumala later invited American companies to take advantage of Morocco’s business opportunities.

Salaheddine Mezouar President, General Confederation of Moroccan Companies

Myron Brilliant Executive Vice President and Head of Intl. Division, US Chamber of Commerce

During the event, Honorable Commissioner Jose “Pepe” Diaz of MiamiDade County presented Her Highness with a key to the county. “I am deeply honored and touched by this wonderful gesture which celebrates the growing relationship between Morocco and Miami Dade County. May this key open the door to a successful and far reaching partnership between us,” she responded. Her keynote address was followed by sector-specific panel discussions led by key U.S. and Moroccan government and private sector officials. Members of the panels also shared about the growth and expansion of Morocco as a major player on the African economic stage where Moroccan companies have invested in all regions and across all sectors on the continent. Morocco has a unique relationship with the United States dating back to 1787, when the U.S. Congress ratified a peace and friendship treaty with the Kingdom. Currently, she is the only African country that has a free trade agreement with the United States.

Honorable Othman El Ferdaous Secretary of State to the Minister of Industry, Investment, Trade, and the Digital Economy, in Charge of Investment

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Inve s t i n A fri ca as economic activity in advanced economies and emerging markets and developing economies (EMDEs) continues to decelerate, global industrial production declines, and global uncertainty related to trade disputes between the United States and China remains high. Although most industrial commodity prices recovered in the first three months of 2019 following sharp declines in late 2018 and the prices of metals and agricultural commodities are expected to stabilize, the oil market outlook remains highly uncertain and dependent on whether the production cuts among the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries and its partners will be extended. Financing conditions have eased for EMDEs, as the U.S. Federal Reserve has paused its policy rate increases.

Executive Summary


conomic growth in sub-Saharan Africa is estimated to have decelerated from 2.5 percent in 2017 to 2.3 percent in 2018, below the rate of growth of the population for the fourth consecutive year and a 0.4 percentage point lower than projected in the October 2018 issue of Africa’s Pulse. This slowdown was more pronounced in the first half of 2018 and reflected weaker exports from the region’s large oil exporters (Nigeria and Angola) due to falling oil production amid higher but volatile international crude oil prices. A deeper contraction in Sudanese economic activity and a slowdown among non–resourceintensive countries also played a role.

Recent data point to a moderate strengthening of growth in the region. Growth is projected to pick up to 2.8 percent in 2019 and 3.3 percent in 2020. This gradual recovery is supported on the demand side by exports and private consumption and on the supply side by a rebound in agricultural production and an increase in mining production and services in some countries. However, the 2019 and 2020 growth forecasts are still 0.5 and 0.3 percentage points, respectively, lower than predicted in the October issue of Africa’s Pulse. This downward revision reflects slower growth in Nigeria and Angola due to challenges in the oil sector and subdued investment growth in South Africa due to low business confidence. The external environment facing sub-­ Saharan Africa continues to be challenging,


To make their economies more resilient to risks in a challenging external environment, African countries need to strengthen their domestic conditions. Over the years, these conditions have weakened and contributed to the mediocre growth performance—especially among the region’s largest economies. For instance, macroeconomic policy frameworks remain a concern as some countries have not yet reconstituted an adequate fiscal space, have a costlier and riskier debt profile, and still register large current account deficits and double-digit inflation rates. Low business confidence, partly driven by the slow pace of structural reforms, is holding back investment growth in some countries, as is the case of South Africa. In addition, regulatory uncertainties are adversely affecting the oil sector in Angola and Nigeria. Significant heterogeneity persists in the region. Among resource-intensive countries, economic activity accelerated in some metals exporters thanks to an increase in mining production amid improving commodity prices and a rebound in agricultural production and public infrastructure investment (e.g., the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Guinea, Niger). Growth in other metals exporters remains subdued, as high inflation and high debt levels are influencing investor sentiment (Liberia and Zambia). The recovery in the Central African Economic and Monetary Community subregion has continued, although it remains fragile, as fiscal consolidation efforts have been relaxed in some countries. Among non–resource-intensive countries, growth remains robust but decelerated in several economies in 2018 due to a wide array

of factors, including foreign exchange shortages (Ethiopia), slow credit growth to the private sector (Tanzania), falling output in the cash crop sector (Côte d’Ivoire), and macroeconomic instability (Sudan). External and domestic risks to the regional growth outlook are tilted to the downside. On the external front, the main downside risks are a sharper than expected growth slowdown in the United States, the Euro area, and China; a sudden decline in commodity prices; and the escalation of trade tensions between major economies. Domestic risks include weaker fiscal consolidation, greater frequency of extreme weather events, and heightened security issues—especially in countries with fragility contexts. Addressing the challenges posed by fragility in sub-Saharan Africa is crucial to eradicate extreme poverty and boost shared prosperity. More than half of the world’s fragile countries are in the region. In 2017, 299 million people lived in countries with fragile situations in sub-Saharan Africa (about 28 percent of the total population), and economic activity in these countries amounted to USD 289 billion (nearly 17 percent of the region’s gross domestic product). Fragility conditions are weighing on economic growth in the region. Fragile states held back growth in the region by 0.52 percentage point per year from 2015 to 2018. Hence, the drivers of fragility may pull down economic growth by 2.6 percentage points over a five-year period. Fragility is a multidimensional and complex problem. Fragile situations include countries and territories where policies and institutions are weak and not functioning well enough to secure peace and stability and deliver basic services, such as security, health, and education. Fragile contexts include places where climate change is fueling conflict between communities and places at war within or across their borders. Conflict is no longer confined to communities, ethnic lines, or national borders, and it can potentially affect a larger number of people. Africa’s borders are typically porous and almost impossible to control due to weak state institutions, small armies, and poorly funded police forces. Tackling the factors that cause fragility is essential to economic recovery for many countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The successful transitions out of fragility in the region have been characterized by stronger institutions, enhanced policy environments, and improved services delivery. These

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Invest in Af r i c a efforts have led to stronger growth and a more attractive climate for private investors in some countries (Ethiopia and Rwanda). However, as the drivers and nature of fragility evolve, the approach to overcome it becomes more complex. It increasingly requires collective solutions. Regional and subregional institutions and/or arrangements are needed to address peace and security challenges as well as economic spillovers that go beyond national borders. The special topic of this issue of Africa’s Pulse argues that the digital economy can unlock new pathways for inclusive growth, innovation, job creation, service delivery, and poverty reduction in Africa. The continent has made great strides in mobile connectivity; however, it still lags behind the rest of the world in access to broadband. Only 27 percent of Africa’s population has access to the internet, few citizens have digital IDs, businesses are slowly adopting digital technologies, and only a few governments are investing strategically in developing digital infrastructure, services, skills, and entrepreneurship. The digital transformation of Africa would foster economic growth and reduce poverty. It has the potential to create more jobs, encourage entrepreneurship among the youth, increase farmers’ productivity, bring more women into the labor force, and create markets. Reaching the Digital Economy Moonshot Initiative targets would raise growth per capita by 1.5 percentage points per year and reduce the poverty headcount by 0.7 percentage point per year. The potential growth benefits and poverty reduction effects are larger in sub-Saharan Africa and especially among fragile countries. When complemented with appropriate human capital investments, these effects could more than double. Access to broadband is critical but not sufficient to materialize these digital dividends. The digital economy also requires a strong analog foundation consisting of regulations that create a vibrant business climate and that allow firms to leverage digital technologies to compete and innovate; skills that allow workers, entrepreneurs, and government officials to seize opportunities in the digital world; and accountable institutions that use the internet to empower citizens.

The Growth Outlook Remains Modest Growth in sub-Saharan Africa is predicted to recover to 2.8 percent in 2019 from the

slow down to 2.3 percent in 2018 and to rise to 3.3 percent in 2020. This upturn is supported, on the demand side, by exports and private consumption and, on the supply side, by a rebound in agriculture, an increase in mining production, and steady growth in the services sector in some countries. These forecasts are 0.5 and 0.3 percentage points lower than last October’s forecasts, respectively, reflecting slower growth in Nigeria and Angola due to challenges in the oil sector and subdued investment growth in South Africa due to low business confidence. Regional growth is expected to improve slightly to 3.4 percent in 2021 as activity strengthens in the region’s three largest economies. The external environment for the region remains challenging, as global growth continues to decelerate and global uncertainty related to trade disputes between the United States and China remains high. Although commodity prices improved in the first quarter of 2019, they are still below their peak in 2018, and the oil market outlook remains highly uncertain (Figure 1.5B). Despite the rebound, growth in the region will remain well below its long-term average. Per-capita growth—projected to rise from –0.3 percent in 2018 to 0.7 percent in 2021—will be too low to achieve poverty reduction goals (Figure 1.5C), particularly among oil-exporting countries and metals exporters (Figure 1.5D). However, there is significant heterogeneity in growth performances, with over one-third of the countries expected to grow at more than 5 percent in 2019 to 2021. Growth in Nigeria is projected to rise from 1.9 percent in 2018 to 2.1 percent in 2019 (0.1 percentage point lower than last October’s forecast). This modest expansion reflects stagnant oil production, as regulatory uncertainty limits investment in the oil sector, while non-oil economic activity is held back by high inflation, policy distortions, and infrastructure constraints. Growth is projected to rise slightly to 2.2 percent in 2020 and to reach 2.4 percent in 2021 as improving financing conditions help boost investment. In Angola, growth will rebound more gradually than previously anticipated, rising from –1.7 percent in 2018 to 1.0 percent in 2019 and 2.9 percent in 2020. These forecasts are 1.1 and 0.8 percentage points lower, respectively, than last October’s

forecasts. Growth is expected to remain subdued in 2019 owing to a faster-thanexpected decay in mature oil wells and lower production from marginal oil fields. A rebound in non-oil economic activity, supported by greater foreign exchange availability, a more flexible exchange rate, moderating inflation, and measures to improve the business environment, is expected to underpin moderately higher growth in 2020 to 2021. Growth in South Africa is forecasted to recover from 0.8 percent in 2018 to 1.3 percent in 2019 and to rise to 1.7 percent in 2020 and 1.8 percent in 2021, which is unchanged from last October. This gradual pickup in growth reflects expectations that consumer spending will strengthen spurred by low inflation and that longdelayed structural reforms will help revive investment as business confidence rebounds. Excluding Nigeria, South Africa, and Angola, growth in the rest of the region is projected to rise moderately, from 4.1 percent in 2018 to 4.4 percent in 2019 and to 4.8 percent in 2020. These forecasts are 0.9 and 0.5 percentage points lower than last October. The outlook for Central African Economic and Monetary Community countries has improved slightly, with oil production rebounding in several countries and security conditions stabilizing in countries affected by conflict and violence. However, continued fiscal consolidation will weigh on the pace of economic expansion. The outlook for metals exporters has also improved, with growth expected to strengthen in several countries as mining production expands, supported by stable metals prices, and infrastructure investments will help boost nonmining economic activity (Figure 1.5E). Among non–resource-intensive countries, activity is projected to pick up after slowing in 2018, supported by infrastructure investment, probusiness reforms, and stronger consumer spending. Growth in the West African Economic and Monetary Union and the East African Community will average 6 percent or more (Figure 1.5F). Growth will stabilize but remain softer than in the recent past in several fast-growing economies, including Côte d’Ivoire, Ethiopia, and Tanzania, reflecting maturing public investments, fiscal consolidation, and a difficult business environment in some countries.

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INVEST IN MOROCCO INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES Industry Solar energy Tourism Agriculture

Fishing Logistics ICT Retail

WHY INVEST IN MOROCCO? Cost competitiveness Strong and stable macroeconomic performance Free trade access to 1 billion consumers World-class infrastructure Qualified labor force Sectorial plans Constantly improving business climate

COUNTRY STRENGTHS Investor-friendly legal framework Relatively low salaries A strategic position, not far from Europe A young and relatively well-trained population Strong economic growth Tanger Exportation Free Zone


TANGER EXPORTATION FREE ZONE INVESTMENT INCENTIVES ATTRACTIVE TAX BENEFITS Exemption from registration and stamp duties for the constitution or increase of capital and the acquisition of land. Detail Art 27 (Law 19-94). Patent tax exemption for 15 years. Detail Art 28 (Law 19-94). Exemption from business tax for 15 years. Exemption from corporate income tax for 5 years and reduction of the rate to 8.75 percent for the next 20 years. Detail Art 30 (Law 19-94). Exemption from tax on equity products, shares, and similar income for nonresidents. Detail Art 32 (Law 19-94). Exemption from VAT on goods from abroad or the subject territory and free repatriation of profit and capital. Detail Art 33 (Law 19-94).


The Moroccan State, through the Hassan II Fund, may grant financial assistance for the acquisition of land and/or the construction of production units for certain sectors of activity. This subsidy can reach 100 percent of the price of the land on the basis of a maximum cost of 250 DH/m². The release of this aid is conducted within a period not exceeding sixty days after submission of supporting documents.


Several free trade agreements have been signed with the United States and more than sixty other countries in the European Union, Africa, and the Middle East.


The Tanger Exportation Free Zone operates as a point of single contact. It welcomes, assists, and guides investors for the development of their projects. It enjoys a special customs regime in the form of exemption from import duties, taxes and import surcharges, and taxes on consumption. The Tanger Exportation Free Zone is not subject to foreign trade and foreign exchange control legislation.

Moroccan Investment and Export Development Agency: Moroccan National Tourism Office: Tanger Med Port Authority: Ministry of Industry, Investment, Trade, and Digital Economy: Royal Air Maroc:

Invest in Af r i c a

Photo: Miami Dade College


The Honorable Dr. Eduardo Padrón Born in Santiago, Cuba, in 1944, Eduardo Padrón arrived in the United States as a refugee in 1961 at the age of 15. He describes himself as “an American by choice.”

Honorable Eduardo J. Padrón with Her Highness Princess Lalla Joumala

The role of honorary consuls is sanctioned under the 1963 Vienna Convention on Consular Protocols. All United Nations member nations are signers to the treaty.


n the occasion of his appointment as Honorary Consul of the United States to the Kingdom of Morocco (January 19, 2016), Dr. Eduardo Padrón expressed his gratitude to Morocco and the joy of representing the North African country in South Florida. “I am thrilled and honored to have been given this opportunity to serve on the consular corps,” Padrón said. “I look forward to forge even stronger ties between Morocco and the Miami community. With so much in common with Spain, just a few miles north across the Strait of Gibraltar, Morocco, in turn, has more in common with South Florida than many people know,” he added.

According to the Embassy of the Kingdom of Morocco in Washington, DC, there are thirteen Moroccan honorary consuls in the United States in states such as Illinois, Massachusetts, Texas, Kansas, Missouri, and Florida, among others. Moroccan honorary consuls promote the image of Morocco in their home states and abroad as well as seek to strengthen commercial, economic, and cultural ties between both countries. The appointment of Dr. Padrón as Honorary Consul of Morocco in one of the most diversified, dynamic, and largest metropolitan areas in the United States is a step forward in the consolidation of greater U.S.-­Moroccan relationships. Courtesy of Morocco World News

He rose through the ranks of academia and has served as the president of MiamiDade College (MDC) since 1995, the largest associate degree–granting institution in the United States. Credited with elevating MDC into a position of national prominence, Dr. Padrón is an economist by training who earned a doctorate in economics from the University of Florida. He has become known as a respected voice for access and inclusion in higher education, and in 2018, he was elected a fellow of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences. In 2016, President Barack Obama awarded him the Presidential Medal of Freedom, and in 2009, TIME magazine included him on the list of “The 10 Best College Presidents.” He was also recognized as “Floridian of the Year” by Florida Trend magazine, named one of the eight most influential college presidents in 2011 by The Washington Post, and in 2015 was inducted into the U.S. News & World Report STEM Hall of Fame. Dr. Padrón is the recipient of the 2011 Carnegie Corporation Centennial Academic Leadership Award and the Citizen Service Award from Voices for National Service. He has served on the boards of several national organizations, including the American Council on Education, the Association of American Colleges and Universities, and the White House Commission on Educational Excellence. He currently serves on the Council of Foreign Relations and the International Association of University Presidents, among others. He is the recipient of numerous honorary doctorates and prestigious awards from leaders in France, Argentina, Spain, Morocco, and Poland.

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ccording to the World Bank, remittances to sub-Saharan Africa by African immigrants were estimated at more than $35 billion in 2015. Also, African immigrant populations to the United States reportedly have the highest education attainment level in the United States per the U.S. Bureau of Census. About 48.9 percent of all African immigrants hold a college degree. Together, the African Diaspora, in partnership with Africans residing on the continent, constitute a significant economic and human capital that can support the development and transformation of Africa. If organized, the African Diaspora can be an important engine for positive transformation of Africa. The African Union (AU) recognizes that true sustainable change in Africa must include significant participation of its Diaspora. The AU has long recognized the importance and active role the African Diaspora can play to address major issues around growth of the continent and is moving even more swiftly to strengthen and solidify this relationship. A key mandate of the African Union Mission to the United States is the establishment of five Healthcare Centers of Excellence in the five Regions of Africa under the auspices of the AU’s African Diaspora Health Initiative (AU-ADHI). It is with this conviction that the African Union Mission to the United States is developing, in cooperation with its Diaspora, five African Diaspora villages in the five African regions. The directive will include the engagement of the African Diaspora on multiple levels and across a variety of professional backgrounds to harness their expertise in key areas

pertinent to the development and sustainability of the Healthcare Centers of Excellence.

Rationale The project will be aligned with efforts made by the African Union, the Regional Economic Communities (RECs), and member states to domesticate the AU’s Agenda 2063, and to implement the thirteen flagship projects of the First Ten-Year Implementation Plan 2014– 2023. This includes the following: 1. Continental Financial and Monetary Institutions 2. Silencing the Guns by 2020 3. African Commodity Strategy 4. Annual African Economic Dialogue Platform/African Economic Platform 5. Great Inga Dam 6. Pan-African Integrated HighSpeed Train Network 7. Single African Aviation Market 8. African Outer Space Strategy 9. Pan-African E-Network on Tele-­ Education and Telemedicine (PAeN) 10. Establishment of the Virtual University 11. Free Movement of Persons and the African Passport 12. Continental Free Trade Area 13. Great Museum of Africa

Scope of the Project The project aims to address the following key issues: lack of capacity, brain drain, fake/expired drugs, overseas/foreign medical treatment, food insecurity, lack of infrastructure (including housing and energy), and lack of job opportunities.

Each Diaspora Village will include the following: A tertiary care center of a first-class, 1,000-bed hospital, a cardiac care center, and an ambulance service with a helicopter and training to address capacity building; this will provide first-class healthcare services for Africans so they can be treated on the continent Three five-star hotels to promote health tourism in Africa A pharmaceutical plant to address the issue of fake and expired drugs Business services such as banks, information communication technology (ICT), housing units for staff, real-estate projects, and other infrastructure designed to support the village A large farm to respond to food security A renewable energy power plant, using solar plants that will generate 500 megawatts in support of all other sectors in the village The African Diaspora should and must stand up and be counted. “A $10 per month campaign” will be launched to mobilize funds among the African Diaspora for the establishment of the first Diaspora Village. This will represent a pivotal point in the contribution of the African Diaspora toward Africa’s prosperous future. The Government of Zambia has given the Diaspora 132 acres of land in Livingston, on the Zambian side of Victoria Falls. The Africa Union Mission’s Office in the United States is working with the Diaspora to campaign for $2 billion for this first Diaspora Village.

From African Union Representational Mission to the USA, Mandate and Core Functions; African Union Agenda 2063; First Ten-Year Implementation Plan 2014–2023 of the African Union Agenda 2063.


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Invest in Af r i c a


Communities Powered by Renewable Energy

Healthcare Center and Pharmaceutical ­Manufacturing Plant

Luxurious Five-star Hotels, Game Lodges & Chalets

Culture and Entertainment Center

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2019 U.S.–Africa Business Summit Successfully Advances the Trade, Investment, and Commercial Partnership Between the United States and Africa Maputo, Mozambique—June 21, 2019


eads of State, Vice Presidents, and Prime Ministers from nine African nations attended the Corporate Council on Africa’s 12th U.S.–Africa Business Summit in Maputo, Mozambique on June 18–21. They were joined by Ministers of Finance, Foreign Affairs, Commerce, Economy, Public Works, and ICT from more than twenty-five countries across the continent. The Government of Mozambique was the Summit co-host, and the more than one thousand Summit attendees—including government and business leaders, investors, and policy makers—were welcomed to the Joaquim Chissano International Conference Center, Maputo, by His Excellency Filipe Nyusi, the President of Mozambique. A high profile U.S. Government delegation to the Summit was led by U.S. Deputy Secretary of Commerce, Honorable Karen Dunn Kelley, and included the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Administrator, Assistant Secretary of State for Africa, head of the U.S. Trade and Development Agency (TDA), Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) Senior Vice President for Africa, and Assistant U.S. Trade Representative for Africa, among the more than one hundred senior USG officials from eight agencies.

The number of people present and the decision to host the event in an African capital reflects the continent’s strategic importance and economic potential. H.E. Filipe Nyusi President of Mozambique


F The opportunities for the investors and traders in the AfCFTA market are enormous. Let me outline a select few.

irst, we offer you large economies of scale and scope that attract large and long-term investments. In this market, you can produce from any African country and supply the entire continent as long as you meet rules of origin requirements and other legal provisions. Through integration, the AfCFTA has removed fragmentation of our economies with a vision of creating one African market. The new domestic market in Africa is now the AfCFTA market with a continental brand of “Made in Africa.� In addition, we shall implement the pan-African NonTariff Barriers Monitoring Mechanism once the AfCFTA agreement enters into force, and this will enhance removal of trade barriers and, in the process, promote the efficient conduct of business without borders. Second, we are working on the mainstreaming of informal cross-border trade into formal trade, standing at USD 60 billion per annum. Once this is achieved, it will boost intra-industry trade in African fashion wear. Third, we also offer opportunities for value addition to promote industrialization through the development of regional value chains. This will open up opportunities for trade in intermediate and final goods within the AfCFTA market.

H.E. Albert Muchanga Commissioner for Trade and Industry



Fourth, we offer opportunities for innovation and differentiation by African businesses as they respond to the new competition offered by the AfCFTA market. Fashion designers will play a key role here. At the Kigali Summit, we held the first-ever AfCFTA Business Forum. The forum was institutionalized, thereby offering opportunities for African business to have regular dialogue with African Heads of State and Government (B2G networking). Regular participation in the forum also offers enhanced business opportunities to the private sector through exposure to business-to-business networking. Fifth, the large market offers enhanced opportunities for joint ventures with foreign companies looking for reliable partners in Africa. This is just a sample of opportunities. Investors and traders are encouraged to move in as soon as the market becomes operational to capitalize on first-mover advantages.

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Opportunities for investment in Africa often outweigh the obstacles, according to leading African companies included in the African Development Bank’s first Africa-to-Africa (A2A) Investment Report.


he Africa-to-Africa Investment Report, published in September 2018, highlighted the realities that African companies face when investing in the continent, the emerging trends in Africato-Africa (A2A) investment, and the steps African policymakers can take to accelerate intra-African investment. The report found that more African companies are investing in Africa. These companies have confidence in the continent’s long-term growth potential; they are at the cutting edge of their industries and are capitalizing on their knowledge of local markets to generate higher returns and impact. In line with the African Development Bank’s High 5s for transforming Africa and the African Union’s Agenda 2063, the purpose of the A2A report was to take the conversation on investing in the continent a step further. It has shown what African multinationals are doing to drive investments in Africa and how they are expanding their African footprint, and it gives insights into how to scale-up investments more widely. “As global foreign direct investment to Africa falls, intra-African investments are picking up pace,” said Akinwumi A. Adesina, President of the African Development Bank Group. “Africa’s big companies are increasingly on the move and expanding their African footprint. It is through more investments that the continent can build inclusive, sustainable growth and development. We have made this our collective commitment in the High 5s.”


The A2A report featured eight publicly listed and privately owned African companies operating in consumer services, finance, industry, media, and diversified portfolios and investment, with home bases in North Africa (Morocco), West Africa (Nigeria and Togo), East and Central Africa (Ethiopia and Kenya) and Southern Africa (Mauritius and South Africa). Highlights from the report’s intra-African investment stories include the importance of having a clear long-term vision, getting up-to-date investment facts, building local partnerships to deliver on the ground, and tapping into talent in the local labor force. The business case for A2A investment is strongly connected to the continent’s integration, growth, and prosperity. Although challenges remain, the A2A report is the start of a broader discussion to fast track investments, move beyond a wish list, and make deals happen. The continent’s policymakers can inspire a greater level of confidence and promote A2A investments by highlighting their role as dependable business partners for African investors. The report is part of the African Development Bank Group’s continued championing of investment across Africa, along with the first Africa Investment Forum that took place in Johannesburg, South Africa, from November 7 to 9, 2018. For the full report, please go to

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FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT DEMOCRACY IS GOOD FOR BUSINESS Stable, transparent governments built on respect for human rights and the rule of law tend to foster environments that are conducive to the establishment and unfettered operation of private enterprises. On average, countries that perform well in one assessment also excel in the other. Conversely, regimes that oppress their populations are more likely to limit business opportunities. According to the Doing Business survey from the World Bank, governments in countries identified as “Not Free” in the Freedom in the World report generally impose more red tape, build up barriers to trade, and fail to enforce contracts. The correlation suggests that established democracies could serve their own economic interests by encouraging democratic institutions abroad, thereby improving the business environment over the long term. Sources: “Doing Business” survey (World Bank); “Freedom in the World” report (Freedom House)

2019 Schedule of Political Elections Nigeria

General Elections

February 23, 2019


Presidential Elections

February 24, 2019

Guinea Bissau

General Elections

March 10, 2019


Presidential Elections

March 24, 2019


Constitutional Referendum

April 19–22, 2019


Parliamentary Elections

April 28, 2019

South Africa

General Elections

May 8, 2019


General Elections

May 21, 2019


General Elections

May 27, 2019


Parliamentary Elections

To be determined


Presidential Elections

June 22, 2019


Presidential Elections

July 4, 2019


General Elections

October 31, 2019


Parliamentary Elections

October 6, 2019


Presidential Elections

November 10–24, 2019


General Elections

October 15, 2019


General Elections

November 27, 2019

Event Photos: Max and Maggies Studios



he government of the Republic of South Sudan is embarking on an international road show to promote investment in, and trade with the country. The Invest in South Sudan Road Show stopped in Washington, DC, on Thursday April 11, 2019, at the Willard Intercontinental Hotel.

The road show provided an interactive platform for international investors and business leaders to engage with key South Sudan cabinet ministers and business executives about investment and trade opportunities. Dr. Benedict Okey Oramah, President of the African Export-Import Bank (adjacent page, top), and the following South Sudanese ministers and key industry executives addressed and engaged a group of potential investors. From Washington, DC, the road show continued to New York (April 12), Dubai (April 18), and


Johannesburg (April 24). For more information, go to His Excellency Philip Jada Natana, South Sudan’s Ambassador to the United States Honorable Nhial Deng Nhial, Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation (pictured above) Honorable Gabriel Thokuj Deng, Minister of Mining Dr. Chol Thon Abel, Managing Director, Nilepet Corporation Honorable Onyoti Adigo Nyikwec, Minister of Agriculture and Food Security Honorable Salvatore Garang Mabiordit, Minister of Finance and Planning

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South Sudan has received a $500 million financing facility from African Export-Import Bank (Afreximbank) to fund power transmission, infrastructure, and farming projects. We want to help South Sudan make the investments it needs to develop, and we ask other investors to follow. Dr. Benedict Okey Oramah President, African Export-Import Bank

INVESTMENT PRIORITIES AND OPPORTUNITIES AGRICULTURE Quality seed production  Sorghum  Maize  Rice   Fruits and nuts   Sesame production Pesticide production Tractor assembly plant establishment MINING Cement manufacturing (proven reserves) Dimension stone (e.g., marble, dolomite, and granite) Mineral exploration and mining Small-scale mining and alluvial gold Geological mapping Airborne geophysics Geochemical survey Geological and geochemical laboratories Copper mining Bricks and tile production Glass/bottle production from white sand OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY Oil reserves: There are over 1.14 billion barrels in proven reserves Untapped reserves in known areas as well as opportunities for exploration Oil production in 2011 averaged 326,000 barrels per day Nile and Dar oil blend reserves in high demand Agreement with Sudan for transit through pipeline

NILEPET’S AGENDA 2020 (GOALS) Operator of a bloc Well-trained, world-class upstream and downstream staff Four refineries (Bentiu, Paloch, Pagak, and Thiangrial) Depots in major towns of South Sudan Retail outlets in 32 state capitals Robust joint ventures for finance and ICT services Robust research and development programs

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Single African Air Transport Market (SAATM) An Agenda 2063 Flagship Project Liberalizing intra-African air transport through the full implementation of the Yamoussoukro Decision to improve air connectivity and lower fares, ensuring the sustainable ­development of air transport in Africa and its contribution to economic growth, job ­creation and integration of the continent.

Gone are the days when we must go to Europe just to get to Africa!

A C I R F A IN G N I D TREN s w e r C t h lig F e l a m e All-F


n Airline


ys n Airwa

frica South A


Air Nam



Air Peac

African women on the move; African women rising

AFRICAN PASSPORT The African Union Passport is a common passport document that is set to replace existing nationally issued African Union Member State passports and exempts bearers from having to obtain any visas for all fifty-five countries in Africa. During the 32nd Summit of the African Union (AU) in early February 2019, ­delegates unveiled logistical details on the issuance of the AU passport. The travel document is scheduled for wide release in 2020 and will give citizens of Member States the right to travel across the continent without a visa. The passport is in line with implementing Agenda 2063, a “strategic framework” designed to accelerate socio-economic growth through the sustainable expansion of domestic industries, transportation and communication infrastructures, and democratic governance—all of which could make Africa function as a single country.

AfroChampions Foster Africa’s Growth and Development The AfroChampions Initiative has been founded by prominent private and public sector Africans in recognition of the fact that the emergence of homegrown pan-African multinational companies represents something very special in the history and struggle of Africa; and that we must act together to promote and harness their success for the continent’s transformation and global leadership. Dr. Edem Adzogenu Co-Founder, AfroChampions Initiative


Dangote Group CEO Aliko Dangote, President Thabo Mbeki and President Olusegun Obasanjo organised a successful inaugural meeting in Lagos, which brought together CEOs from 13 African countries

The AfroChampions Initiative primarily aims at promoting investment – especailly intra-african investment – in transformative projects for the continent.




From pan-African champions to global giants.


Members are Investing in Africa Says Nikki Martin in Recent Interview

According to Nikki Martin, President of the International Association of Geophysical Contractors (IAGC), the geophysical and exploration (G&E) sector of the oil and gas industry desires to create value for the communities in which they work and to contribute to the overall good of those communities. The IAGC stands ready to support members as they expand operations in Africa and work as partners with the governments seeking win-win outcomes for the nation and the industry. Invest in Africa (IIA): What is IAGC? Nikki Martin (NM): First, thank you very much for granting me this interview. I am delighted to have this opportunity to reach your audiences across Africa. IAGC is the International Association of Geophysical Contractors. It is the global trade association for the G&E industry, which is the foundation for improved and increased oil and gas exploration and development. As such, our membership includes onshore and offshore survey operators and acquisition companies, data and processing providers, exploration and production companies, equipment and software manufacturers, industry suppliers, and service providers. IIA: Where does Africa fit into IAGC’s world? NM: Africa presents a huge partnership opportunity for the countries, the G&E industry, and the members of our association, the IAGC. As you know, energy begins with G&E, and the IAGC represents the best companies around the world doing this work. IAGC member companies represent the majority of both the global data acquisition capacity and the nonexclusive data in libraries today. The IAGC and its members recognize the importance of Africa as one of the last great energy frontiers. Holding much of the oil and gas resources that have yet to be discovered, the world has turned its attention to this culturally rich and resource-rich region of the world, and it’s time for us to do the same. IIA: Africa’s history reminds us that exploration often turns into exploitation. What measures does IAGC and its members have in place to prevent exploitation and environmental degradation? NM: Yeah, that’s an important issue. Our members have a long history of environmental stewardship and corporate social responsibility. As an association, the IAGC is committed to responsible exploration and development of resources

by our members. The IAGC promotes and encourages best practices for the industry and has a long-demonstrated commitment to health, safety, and security and the environment as well as efficiency. Additionally, the IAGC has two in-house scientists on staff to ensure that we are on the forefront of being the most credible source for scientific information regarding the environment. IIA: Great! How would you then describe what IAGC’s current relationship with Africa is like? How is it structured? NM: Our relationship with Africa is growing, and we are excited about what the future holds. The IAGC has a Europe, Africa, and Middle East committee and a committee specifically focused on our members’ work in Africa; both the opportunities and the challenges. Of course the IAGC would like to have greater engagement with the various African governments in a similar manner in how we work with other nations to promote practical and rational regulatory regimes that support sustainability principles, such as social responsibility and environmental stewardship, while also limiting onerous and unnecessary regulations that discourage investment. IIA: Can you name a few examples and specific actions IAGC is taking to establish and develop relationships with Africa? NM: Yes, last November (2018), I had the privilege of delivering the association’s debut panel presentation at Africa Oil Week in Cape Town, South Africa. I was a panelist on “The Future of African Exploration and Production: Creating Future Business Models” session and discussed the importance of transparency and predictability in attracting and maintaining oil and gas investment in African nations. We (IAGC) have also partnered with the African Energy Chamber. The chamber works to promote exploration across Africa’s sedimentary basins through advocacy for reformed policy frameworks and encouraging investment in the continent’s energy industry. Shortly after her appointment in 2017, IAGC hosted the African Union’s Permanent Representative to the United States, H.E. Arikana Chihombori-Quao at our annual conference. She was the first African dignitary to address our conference. Since that time, we’ve traveled to Washington, DC, at Her Excellency’s invitation for a meeting with her and representatives from 13 African countries to discuss the opportunities and goals of the respective countries. Ambassador ChihomboriQuao again accepted our invitation and

attended our 2019 conference held in February. We were also honored to have had Mr. Benjamin Kwame Asante, Ghana’s Ministry of Energy’s Director of Petroleum Upstream, speak at the same conference. Of course we would like to see more African nations attend and participate in our annual meetings in the future. Our conference routinely has government officials from all over the world, and we hope to increase our engagement with Africa by making sure our information gets to the appropriate decision-makers. IIA: Why is it important for African nations to be involved with the work of the IAGC? NM: With at least twenty African countries being significant producers of oil and/ or gas and many other countries making significant discoveries, Africa is on an upward growth curve. Many countries on the continent are working together to tackle some of the challenges of oil and gas companies operating in Africa, and that is where the IAGC comes in. We help establish and implement policy frameworks that promote business certainty, transparency, and predictability in lease rounds that are appropriate for the proposed activities. As you are aware, the African Union is now looking to create a continentwide approach that centralizes decision-making and speeds up development progress. This is great news for the G&E industry, and the IAGC would love to see this issue elevated among African Union nations and heads of state. We are grateful for this relationship. IIA: Finally, what is your outlook on Africa’s G&E industry? NM: For the G&E industry, I see three keys to mutual success for Africa’s oil and gas industry: transparency, predictability, and clarity. Business certainty is critical no matter where you operate in the world, and for African countries to successfully meet their own goals, now is the optimum time to develop practical policy frameworks to ensure Africa’s place in the world as the most attractive investment for resources. Issues of particular interest to the G&E industry are realistic local content requirements that align with this sector of the oil and gas industry; clarity in permitting requirements and time frames; predictability in processes and requirements even in the face of regime or administrative changes; and transparency throughout the entire process. IIA: Thank you very much, Ms. Martin. NM: Thank you, and I hope we chat again.

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The African Union Commission Deputy Chairperson Ambassador Kwesi Quartey (right) receives H.E. Raila Odinga, African Union Special Envoy for Infrastructure, and discusses progress made and concrete steps needed to accelerate the implementation of the AU infrastructural development plans.—Addis Ababa, May 30, 2019

New AU High Representative for Infrastructure Development, Honorable Raila Odinga, Will Partner with the Diaspora and AfroChampions on Infrastructure Development


n line with its strategic plan to organize the Diaspora to partner with Africa’s leaders to bring about transformational infrastructural development across Africa, the Chairperson of the African Union Commission, H.E. Moussa Faki Mahamat, appointed Honorable Raila Odinga of Kenya as High Representative for Infrastructure Development in Africa last October (2018). His appointment


to this high position elevates Diaspora mobilization to a new priority and provides a conduit through which Diaspora initiatives can be processed and implemented. The African Union High Representative for Infrastructure Development position was newly created, and Honorable Odinga is the first high representative. This decision is part of the

African Union’s drive to expedite the integration of the continent through infrastructure in order to promote economic growth and sustainable development. Odinga served as Prime Minister of Kenya from 2008 to 2013. The African Union Mission’s efforts to mobilize resources, capacity, and the Diaspora for development in Africa will intersect with the work of the High Representative.

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Let us all unite and celebrate together The victories won for our liberation Let us dedicate ourselves to rise together To defend our liberty and unity



O Sons and Daughters of Africa Flesh of the Sun and Flesh of the Sky Let us make Africa the Tree of Life Let us all unite and sing together To uphold the bonds that frame our destiny Let us dedicate ourselves to fight together For lasting peace and justice on earth O Sons and Daughters of Africa Flesh of the Sun and Flesh of the Sky Let us make Africa the Tree of Life Let us all unite and toil together To give the best we have to Africa The cradle of mankind and fount of culture Our pride and hope at break of dawn. O Sons and Daughters of Africa Flesh of the Sun and Flesh of the Sky Let us make Africa the Tree of Life



he African Union’s Citizens and Diaspora

Union’s decision to

Directorate (CIDO) is designed to serve as

invite and encourage

a catalyst to facilitate the involvement of

the African Diaspora to

African peoples in Africa and around the world in

participate in the building

the affairs of the African Union (AU).

and development of the

Its main stated goal is “to maintain Diaspora

African continent. Its

participation in the African Union’s agenda across

main task is to serve as

departments, partnership frameworks, and the

a catalyst for rebuilding

wide range of policy activity including the flagship

the global African

Agenda 2063.”

family in the service of

Its constitutive act also declares that it shall

the development and

“invite and encourage the full participation of

integration agenda of the

the African Diaspora as an important part of our


continent, in the building of the African Union.” The African Diaspora refers to the communities

CIDO Director

CIDO held its 2nd Diaspora Focal Points Workshop in Khartoum, Sudan, from 27–29

throughout the world that are descended from

November 2018. The forum brought together partic-

the historic movement of peoples from Africa,

ipants from African Union Member States, Diaspora

predominantly from the Americas, Europe, and the

organizations from Australia, Trinidad and Tobago,

Middle East, among other areas around the globe.

Barbados, Austria, The United Kingdom, China,

Thus the Diaspora Division serves as the focal point and hub for implementing the African

Regional Economic Communities, and AU regional offices.

Ms. Eiman Kheir

Diaspora Policy Officer CIDO - Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Kyeretwie Osei

Policy Officer, Americas and Caribbean CIDO - Addis Ababa, Ethiopia


Ahmed El-Basheer A. El Madani

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Agenda 2063 and t he Diaspo r a

Citizens and Diaspora Directorate Strengthening the

Managing and

between the

operational capacity

coordinating other

Diaspora Civil Society

of the African Union

forms of interaction

Organization and the

to support Diaspora

between the AU and

approximate bodies on

involvement in AU

Diaspora organizations

the continent.

activities through

worldwide. This

regular communication

includes collaborating

linkages between

and flow of information

on policy and advocacy

the Diaspora and

on AU events and

efforts of Diaspora

various organs of the

activities and vice versa,

networks and

union, including the

cross-fertilizing the AU

coalitions, providing

Economic, Social,

program with Diaspora

technical support

and Cultural Council

activities, and mapping

and assistance,

(ECOSOCC); Peace and

the African Diaspora

enabling framework

Security Council (PSC);

around the world.

of cooperation, and

and the Pan African

maintaining working

Parliament (PAP),


among others.

Serving as a focal point for the accreditation of

Promoting effective

Enabling participation

Interfacing the African

and networks, as

of the Diaspora in Civil

Diaspora with the work

observers, delegates,

Society Organization

of different departments

and participants at the

(CSO) pre-Summit

of the AU Commission

AU Summit and other

forums and promoting

and their programs and


effective collaboration


Diaspora organizations

The term Diaspora originates from the ancient Greek word diasporá, meaning “a dispersion or scattering,” found in Greek translations of the Hebrew Bible. The word first entered English in the late nineteenth century to describe the scattering of Jews after their captivity in Babylonia in the fifth century BCE.

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here is strength in numbers, and Africa requires the active involvement of its sixth region to reach its full potential. The Pan African Diaspora Association (PADA) was constituted for this purpose. At its fundamental level, each Diaspora chapter will consist of the following groups:

PADWA Goals and Objectives

1. Pan African Diaspora Women’s Association (PADWA) 2. Pan African Diaspora Men’s Association (PADMA) 3. Pan African Diaspora Youth Association (PADYA) Each of these three groups will, however, have the same agenda: 1. Recruit other members of the diaspora to achieve a critical mass whose voice can be heard, recognized, and be a force in the African Union and African affairs. 2. Create a financial entity where each individual’s contribution coupled with others’ contributions will create the financial pool that can be leveraged to aid in Africa’s development without resorting to loans. 3. Undertake capacity building projects, such as “Wakanda One.” In addition to the above listed, PADMA, PADWA, and PADYA can pursue projects that match the natural character of each chapter and its membership to propel the group. Each constituent group will have the same options.

Create and maintain strategic partnerships that encourage exchange between Africa and the Diaspora Promote the health and well-being of the African Diaspora community Link African women entrepreneurs in the Diaspora with women entrepreneurs on the continent Create and maintain an online store to promote Africa and Diasporamade products and services Create and maintain a Diaspora registry Launch and maintain a $10 per month campaign: “Give us $10, your name, and we will make magic” Minimize the cultural barriers that hinder African Diaspora personal development and progress




Communications and Public Relations


Education and Human Capital Development

Culture and Entertainment





Legal, Policy, Ethics, and Governance

Monetary and Financial Affairs

Social Affairs

National Resources and Environment

Science and Technology

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Health, Legal Services, Housing for New Immigrants


sfaha Hadera founded the African Services Committee (ASC) in 1981 in a Bronx basement apartment. Asfaha fled his home country of Ethiopia in 1977 (on foot through the Sahara Desert) for refugee camps in Sudan before emigrating to the United States in 1979. Upon arrival, he saw a lack of assistance for others, like himself, who were refugees from areas experiencing conflict throughout Africa. So he established the organization to give a helping hand to other African newcomers. Together with Kim Nichols, Co-Executive Director, they began a refugee resettlement programs in New York City.

Our programs address the needs of newcomers affected by war, persecution, poverty, and global health inequalities. We provide health, housing, legal, educational, and social services to more than 12,000 people each year, and it continues to grow. Staff representing more than 20 countries and speaking over 25 languages provide culturally and linguistically relevant support to this diverse and growing community. Asfaha Hadera Founder and Co-Executive Director of the African Services Committee

Together with a dedicated team, ASC has taken this work from Harlem to the frontlines of the global refugee pandemic. It now operates three health and community development centers in Ethiopia. Ambassador Chihombori-Quao visited ASC on May 18, 2019, to support the work they are doing. While there, she held a town hall meeting with the Diaspora in Harlem. To support ASC, go to

Asfaha Hadera and Kim Nichols

Co-Executive Directors

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ESTORE Worldwide, Inc., is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit medical service organization that provides free reconstructive surgery and related medical services to children and adults with disfiguring deformities from birth, accidents, and diseases. Upcoming missions will take Dr. Obeng and his team of volunteers to Gabon, El Salvador, Burma, and Vietnam. RESTORE stands for Restoring Emotional Stability Through Outstanding Reconstructive Efforts. It was founded in 2008 by Dr. Michael K. Obeng, a renowned, Ghanaian-born, Harvard-trained, Beverly Hills–based plastic surgeon and owner of MiKO Plastic Surgery. Dr. Obeng frequently travels to developing countries to donate his surgical

skills. In addition, he advocates for the underprivileged in the United States by educating patients on safe breast reconstructive surgery options available after breast cancer treatment. He is a highly sought-after plastic and reconstructive surgeon. His surgical success, cosmetic and reconstructive expertise, and charitable work through RESTORE are often featured on major TV networks like ABC, CBS, NBC, and FOX, as well as in international publications. In 2011, the Consumer’s Research Council of America named him one of “America’s Top Plastic Surgeons.” Dr. Obeng specializes in cosmetic surgery of the face, neck, breast, body, trunk, extremities, and genitalia. He is

an expert in complex reconstructive surgery as well as hand and micro-­ neurovascular surgery, and he is among the few surgeons in the world to successfully reattach a limb. He has received several awards, including a research grant from the National Institute of Health and the coveted Herman B. Barnett Award in Surgery and Anesthesia. He has also published extensively, and he lectures on breast aesthetics, augmentation, and reconstruction to international audiences. When he is not speaking on plastic surgery or donating his time with RESTORE, he can be found around the nation giving his award-winning motivational speech, “Perseverance.”

Michael K. Obeng, MD, FACS


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SLAVE TRADE TRIVIA “A people without the knowledge of their past history, origin, and culture is like a tree without roots.”

Marcus Garvey Who started slavery? In 1619, twenty Africans were brought to the English colony of Jamestown, Virginia. Historians are undecided if the legal practice of slavery began there, since at least some of them had the status of indentured servant. Were there slaves in Africa? Systems of servitude and slavery were common in parts of Africa, as in much of the ancient world. In many African societies where slavery was prevalent, the enslaved people were not treated as chattel slaves and were given certain rights in a system similar to indentured servitude elsewhere in the world. Where is the Slave Coast in Africa? The Slave Coast is a historical name formerly used for parts of coastal West Africa along the Bight of Benin. The name is derived from the region’s history as a major source of African slaves during the Atlantic slave trade from the early sixteenth century to the late nineteenth century. What countries did African slaves come from?  Senegambia (Senegal and The Gambia): 4.8 percent  Upper Guinea (Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, and Sierra Leone): 4.1 percent  Windward Coast (Liberia and Côte d’Ivoire): 1.8 percent  Gold Coast (Ghana and east of Côte d’Ivoire): 10.4 percent  Bight of Benin (Togo, Benin, and Nigeria west of the Niger Delta): 20.2 percent  West Central Africa (Republic of Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Angola): 39.4 percent  Southeastern Africa (Mozambique and Madagascar): 4.7 percent Where did most of the slaves from Africa go? Nearly a quarter of the Africans brought to North America came from Angola, while an equal percentage, arriving later, originated in Senegambia. Over 40 percent of Africans entered the United States through the port city of Charleston, South Carolina, the center of the U.S. slave trade. Where did slavery start in Africa? The transatlantic slave trade began during the fifteenth century when Portugal, and subsequently other European kingdoms, were finally able to expand overseas and reach Africa. The Portuguese first began to kidnap people from the West Coast of Africa and take those they enslaved back to Europe. Photo: Douglas Henderson Door of No Return Collection


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Agenda 2063 and t he Diaspo r a

Between 1525 and 1866, 12.5 million Africans were shipped to North America, the Caribbean, and South America according to the Transatlantic Slave Trade Database. Only about 10.7 million survived the dreadful journey under bondage in slave ships.

How many African slaves were brought to America? Fewer than 350,000 enslaved people were imported into the United States’ original thirteen colonies, constituting less than 5 percent of the 12 million enslaved people brought from Africa to the Americas. The great majority of enslaved Africans were transported to sugar colonies in the Caribbean and Brazil. Are all African Americans descendants of African slaves? No. Before the first permanent English colonial settlement at Jamestown, Virginia, a number of Africans in the Americas were free people who traveled to the “New World” of their own volition as hired craftspeople or mariners with valuable skills. Who brought slaves from Africa? In 1619, Dutch traders brought African slaves taken from a Spanish ship to Jamestown. In North America, the Africans were also generally treated as indentured servants in the early colonial era. Several colonial colleges held enslaved people as workers and relied on them to operate. What was the purpose of Elmina Castle? It had the distinction of being the first of many permanent “slave factories” (trading posts that dealt in slaves) that would be built along Africa’s western coast. The purpose of Elmina Castle, as well as the future outposts, was to give support to captains by providing their vessels with a secure harbor. What and where is Elmina? Elmina, also known as Edina by the local Fante people, is a town and the capital of the Komenda/Edina/Eguafo/Abirem District on the South Coast of Ghana in the Central Region. It is situated on a bay on the Atlantic Ocean, 12 km (7.5 miles) west of Cape Coast. How did the American Civil War end slavery? Slaves saw emancipation as more than an end to slavery; it was also an opportunity to gain education, voting rights, and other rights before the law. The Thirteenth Amendment passed in January 1865 ended slavery in the Union and ensured that under U.S. control, slaves in the South would be free. Did the Emancipation Proclamation free any slaves? The Emancipation Proclamation, or Proclamation 95, was a presidential proclamation and executive order issued by U.S. President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863. It changed the federal legal status of more than 3.5 million enslaved African Americans in the designated areas of the South from slave to free. Original Source: Wikipedia

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Ag e n d a 2 06 3 an d the D i asp o ra


Now I’ve been free, I know what a dreadful condition slavery is. I have seen hundreds of escaped slaves, but I never saw one who was willing to go back and be a slave. Harriet Tubman (1822–1913) American abolitionist and political activist


No man can put a chain about the ankle of his fellow man without at last finding the other end fastened about his own neck. Frederick Douglas (1818–1895) American social reformer, abolitionist, orator, writer, and statesman

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Agenda 2063 and t he Diaspo r a

Many Americans have been denied a meaningful appreciation of the geographic, economic, and sociopolitical complications in African countries. Few understand the complex history of slavery that forever intertwined the divergent fortunes of Africa and America. A well-perpetuated and largely unaddressed myth maintains that all African Americans are descended from African slaves. In fact, before the first permanent English colonial settlement at Jamestown, Virginia, a number of Africans in the Americas were free people who traveled to the “New World” of their own volition as hired craftspeople or mariners with valuable skills. Some of these helped the early settlers survive the challenges of their new environment. Free Africans helped establish the colonies that eventually became America.

Paul Cuffe

The free flow of blacks between the United States and Africa goes in both directions. Over the past 150 years, tens of thousands of African Americans have resettled in Africa. The United States has seen numerous “Back-to-Africa” movements from the 1800s to contemporary times. For instance, Paul Cuffe, a prosperous former slave and businessman in postcolonial Massachusetts spearheaded one of the first Back-to-Africa movements and helped return settlers to Sierra Leone in 1815.

Fodei Batty 1732 map of Sierra Leone and the coast of Guinea

Department of Political Science Quinnipiac University in Hamden, Connecticut

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AFRICANS IN AMERICA ~ Remembering Four African American Visionaries ~ In the early years of the twentieth century, Booker T.  Washington, Dr. W.E.B. Du Bois, and Marcus Garvey developed competing visions for the future of African Americans. After their time came the Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Though each man’s visions differed from the other, all four had a common thread—to bring much-needed leadership and direction to the millions of “Africans in America.” Booker T. Washington was born a slave in Virginia in 1856. Early on in his life he developed a thirst for reading and learning. He was appointed head of Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, where he designed, developed, and guided the institute until it became a powerhouse of African American education and political influence in the United States. Washington argued that African Americans must concentrate on educating themselves, learning useful trades, and investing in their own businesses. Hard work, economic progress, and merit, he believed, would prove to whites that blacks are valuable to the American economy. He believed that his vision for black people would eventually lead to equal political and civil rights. In the meantime, he advised blacks to put aside immediate demands for voting rights and ending racial segregation. He soon became the most powerful black leader in the United States. Washington considered himself a bridge between the races, but other black leaders criticized him for tolerating racial segregation at a time of increasing anti-black violence and discrimination. He died in 1915, when segregation laws and racial discrimination were firmly established throughout the South and in many other parts of the United States.

Marcus Garvey was born in Jamaica in 1887. He founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) and African Communities League in 1915 in Jamaica and immigrated to Harlem, New York, a year later at the invitation of W.E.B. Du Bois. From the first branch in Harlem, over 1,000 branches of UNIA were established throughout the United States, Central and South America, the West Indies, and Africa. It fostered the largest mass movement in African American history. As a political leader, publisher, journalist, entrepreneur, and orator, he became one of the most important African American leaders of the 1920s and was widely considered to be the third major black visionary in the early part of the twentieth century. Garvey was also a staunch promoter of the Back-to-Africa movement. His “Back-to-Africa” mantra and charismatic leadership rallied many African Americans. Although his attempt to send African Americans back to Africa was not successful, his influence remained strong and inspired some to migrate, on their own, to the land of their ancestors. Garvey had great international ambitions. He called for the end of white colonial rule in Africa. He died in 1940. The Reverend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., was an American Baptist minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader of the civil rights movement until his assassination in 1968. He was born on January 15, 1929, in Atlanta, Georgia. Dr. King envisioned a society in which people were treated equally regardless of race—a society in which race did not determine how people lived their lives, and one that was bonded by peace, equality, and fraternity. At the time, he spoke of a day “when little black boys and girls could hold hands with and play with little white boys and girls.” While unthinkable then, his dream has become an American reality. Inspired by the likes of Nkrumah and Gandhi, King championed his cause through nonviolence and urged his followers to do the same. Dr. King was largely responsible for the passing of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. These pieces of legislation began a process that shifted America away from segregation and social prejudice. Dr. King’s assassination on April 4, 1968, was a blow not just to America, but to the entire world.


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Original Sources: Constitutional Rights Foundation/ The Caribbean Current

W.E.B. Du Bois was born in Massachusetts in 1868. He attended racially integrated elementary and high schools and went off to Fiske College in Tennessee at the age of 16 on a scholarship. Du Bois completed his formal education at Harvard, with a Ph.D. in history—the first African American to earn a Ph.D. at Harvard. In 1897, Dr. Du Bois wrote, “We want to be Americans, full-fledged Americans, with all the rights of American citizens.” He envisioned the creation of an elite group of educated black leaders, “The Talented Tenth,” who would lead African Americans in securing equal rights and higher economic standards. In 1909, Dr. Du Bois helped establish the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, an organization with a mainly black membership, and became the editor of the organization’s journal, The Crisis. By World War I, Du Bois had become the leading black figure in the United States. Dr. Du Bois grew increasingly critical of U.S. capitalism and foreign policy later in his life. He joined the U.S. Communist Party. Shortly afterward, he left the country, renounced his American citizenship, and became a citizen of Ghana in West Africa. He died there at age 95 in 1963.


(1896) Departure of colored emigrants for Liberia. Source: Digital Collections, The New York Public Library (still image), (1890-1896). The New York Public Library, Astor, Lennox, and Tilden Foundation

Founding of Liberia, 1847


he Back-to-Africa movement, also known as the Colonization Movement or the After Slave Act, originated in the United States during the nineteenth century. It encouraged those of African descent to return to the African homelands of their ancestors. This movement would eventually inspire other movements, ranging from the Nation of Islam to the Rastafari movement and proved to be popular among African Americans. The founding of Liberia in the early 1800s was motivated by the domestic politics of slavery and race in the United States, as well as by U.S. foreign policy interests. In 1816, a group of white Americans founded the American Colonization Society (ACS) to deal with the “problem” of the growing number of free blacks in the United States by resettling them in Africa. The resulting state of Liberia would become the second (after Haiti) black republic in the world at that time. Beginning in 1822, the white-led ACS resettled thousands of freeborn blacks and freed slaves in a region in West Africa, next to Sierra Leone, that became Liberia.

Scholars heavily debate the ACS’s motives. Some believe many in the group genuinely wished to abolish slavery and resettle blacks for their own welfare; others believe the effort was a politically expedient way to deal with a growing number of freed blacks in the upper South. Numerous freed blacks asked to go to Africa, which they had never seen but imagined as the home of their ancestors. They were disillusioned with the prospects of racial equality in America. Fast-forward to the early twentieth century, Marcus Garvey championed a ­Back-to-Africa movement that ultimately failed. Although many criticized Garvey, including W.E.B. Du Bois, his cause was a reminder that “Back to Africa” remained an authentic part of the black diaspora discourse, not a shunned reminder of the humiliation of a race and continent. In the 1960s, at the height of the civil rights era, African Americans resettled in Guinea, Tanzania, and other African countries. Some, such as Stokely Carmichael (Kwame Ture), joined the struggle for African liberation. A Back-to-Africa movement continues today, with thousands of African Americans voluntarily leaving for Ghana and other African countries.

As yet, there is no official count or census of the number of African Americans who have voluntarily resettled in African countries, but various accounts document their experiences. In my native Sierra Leone, one of my own teachers was an American émigré. As a black man living in America, I think it goes without saying that one’s skin color should not determine inclusion here, but I’m also an African—a Sierra Leonean, to be ­precise—and a political scientist steeped in the complex political history connecting these two continents. It’s history worth keeping in mind when considering who belongs on which continent. After all, since the human species originally came from Africa, the invitation to return could be offered to all.

Fodei Batty, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Political Science Quinnipiac University, Hamden, Connecticut

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THE R400 SUMMIT African Heads of State to Visit Charlotte September 26–28, 2019 | Charlotte, North Carolina


orging a world-class team of leaders across core focus areas—­ economic empowerment, community impact, art, and culture—and awe-inspiring celebration, the R400 Summit will deliver an unrivaled omni-channel experience in Charlotte, North Carolina, from September 26 to 28 at the Park Expo and Conference Center. For more information, go to

Charlotte has the opportunity to establish itself as the place through which trade with the continent, and the continent with the U.S. is done. Bishop Claude Richard Alexander, Jr. Senior Pastor, The Park Church, Charlotte, North Carolina

The R400 Movement seeks to provide the means by which Africans from all nations, African Diaspora in all nations, and African Americans are able to establish integral and purposeful connections with each other within and across their sectors of interest and expertise.

Commemorating 400 years of transcending the transatlantic slave trade, the R400 Movement—a consortium of individuals, faith-based organizations, corporations, civil society organizations, and governments—seeks to inaugurate a vision, a plan, and a movement that reconnects, reclaims, reconciles, and rebuilds a thriving pan-African future for the next 400 years. This consortium has resolved to leverage the nexus of opportunities presented by 400 years of African American history, the United Nations’ Decade for People of African Descent, the African Union’s Vision 2063, and United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals 2030 to unleash the promise and economy of a reconnected, reconciled, reclaimed, and rebuilt global African and African Diaspora ecosystem that impacts peoples within the context of the UN Sustainable Development Goals. The organizational and galvanizing work of the consortium is anchored by about 500,000 square feet of available physical space in the Park Expo and Conference Center in Charlotte, North Carolina.


The R400 Movement seeks first to understand the trauma produced by the transatlantic slave trade on the continent of Africa as well as in the Americas and provide an environment and process for participants to reconcile pain in a way that sets the stage for trust, shared visioning, mutual cooperation, and economic development.

Utilizing a combination of scholarly work and storytelling, the R400 Movement endeavors to imagine how participants may work to reclaim the trust and the sense of shared destiny necessary for a pan-­African vision to be grasped and realized.

Acknowledging that neither Africans nor African Americans possessed control over what happened 400 years ago, the R400 Movement seeks to stress that Africans, African Diasporans, and African Americans must work to take control over what happens in the next 400 years—jointly developing pan-African systems, structures, and programs in areas that produce sustainability across a diverse range of sectors.

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YOU ARE NOT WHITE, AND I AM NOT BLACK Race, Labels, and Terrible Stereotypes A careful look at the colors black and white and their subliminal use to suppress one race and promote the other


he subliminal use of the color black to suppress people of African descent and the color white to promote Caucasian races needs serious redress especially by people of African descent. This is because of the connotations and stereotypes associated with both colors. Unfortunately, white is the color of privilege and black, the color of doom and gloom.

Have you stopped to think that almost everything desirable is white, while everything undesirable is black?. How did this come about? And how can people of African descent, either on the continent or in the diaspora, possibly raise their children to have self worth and confidence in the face such negativity? Mama told her boys and girls that they are “beautiful and should be proud of who they are,” but society reinforces the exact opposite. How can mama’s lone voice win against the thousand voices out there? This black and white thing is a psychological war-fare; it’s a mind game, and people of African descent must be smart enough to win this war. From African children, students, and workers, to African leaders, preachers, and entrepreneurs, people of African descent who have even already distinguished themselves often “kowtow” to Caucasians due to low self esteem, and a deep sense of inadequacy. For many African entrepreneurs, a business ven-ture is not successful unless it is validated by a Caucasian (white) counterpart. This black and white thing is really destroying us, and we never even stop for a moment to think about it. This is a large contributor to our inferiority, our low self-esteem, even our self-hate. The irony about this is that Africans and people of African descent are not black, neither are Caucasians white—too bad. “Black” folks don’t blend with their black shoes, polish, or black hair, and the two races look nothing like the colors of this page.

Whose idea was is it anyway? to assign the color black (the less desirable one) to a whole race of Africans and people of African descent, and whose idea was it to assign the more desirable color to another race? Certainly this is no coincidence. What about the other races in-­between these two? They got a pass, and if so, why? Firstly, Africa, the one continent with the most sunlight of all the continents is referred to as “The Dark Continent.” How is that even possible? Black is the standard color for funerals while white is the standard color for weddings. We speak about white weddings, never black weddings. The standard color for child naming ceremonies is white, and you wonder who made these decisions and when? Even religion contributes to this tragedy of the races. Satan, the devil, is depicted as black and angels are white although he (Satan or Lucifer) used to be an angel. Oh, I know, he became black after his fall. By the way this in-doctrination happens as early as our Sunday school days. Ever heard of Angel or Devil’s food cake? It even runs through our cuisine. The list of words in our lexicon that carry negative meanings for the color black are simply endless, and it makes it extremely difficult for one to be “black and proud” as mama taught us when we were young. Black box or Flight Recorder which we only hear about in the news when an airplane crashes is not black at all. It is usually orange, but suddenly, conveniently black to associate with doom. How about these others: • black heart - morbidity, sorrow, or a form of dark humor black sheep - odd or disreputable member of a group or family black hole - place where people or things disappear to • blackmail - act of coercion using threats to reveal information • blacklist - list of unacceptable or untrustworthy people, things • blackball - a negative vote especially against admitting a person These are just a few examples of race-defeating messaging in international culture designed to suppress people of African descent. Meanwhile the superficial “white” color of privilege continues to enjoy its privileges, and dare you question white. You know, we are really not black, neither are they white— True. Black is the color of tar and white is the color of paper at the copier machine. So what are we? We are Africans. African Americans, Afro-Asian, Afro-Cuban, Afro-European, Afro-Latin, Afro Samurai . . . That’s who we are. For all that black and white is worth now, we aren’t black. We are simply African. Kitchen table conversation —June 11, 2019

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Photo: Diaspora African Forum


An Emotional Return

on a Birthright Journey Home H.E. Dr. Erieka Bennett, Diaspora African Forum Head of Mission, threw a surprise birthday party for American actress, life coach, and model A.J. Johnson—who was in Ghana in December 2018 for the Full Circle Festival. A.J. Johnson was overwhelmed to see the names of her parents on the Sankofa Wall.



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“Consequently, the return of the Diaspora may not necessarily be a permanent, physical return, but a contribution of their time, financial resources, expertise, skills, and energies to help Africa alleviate poverty on the Continent, uplift the lives of their fellow Africans, enrich the economies of the underprivileged African states, and strengthen relationships among the Diaspora and Continental Africans.” H.E. Dr. Erieka Bennet, Diaspora African Forum

Agenda 2063 and t he Diaspo r a

THE LAST CALL Never before has the sun shone over the African Diaspora as it does in this special Year of Return, and never before have all the powers in Africa and the Diaspora come together and resolved to connect Africa’s sons and daughters in the Diaspora to the mainland, as is happening right now. Through my work as Permanent Representative to the United States, I have observed, sadly, that members of the African Diaspora are usually quick to condemn and dismiss our own continent and her leaders. We tend to be judgmental sometimes and have little or no faith in our Africa. I try to be respectful of how individuals feel about our Africa, and I always use such occasions to educate them about the new and exciting developments on the continent as well as how they can participate in creating “the Africa we want.” As the African Union and fifty-five member states commemorate the Year of Return, I make this call to all my African brothers and sisters in the Diaspora to invest in Africa in one form or another. This call does not require all of us to relocate to Africa, it only asks us to look back to mother

Africa, the cradle of human civilization. The Europeans, Chinese, Indians, Jews, Americans, and so on, are all helping themselves from our resources; why not we the rightful owners? The African Diaspora may not have another such opportunity to partner with leaders on the continent for another half century; therefore, we must not miss this chance given to us. If we do miss it however, we would have no one to blame, and I dread that possibility. Africa is rising, let’s go home together!

Amb. Chihombori-Quao Your sister in Washington, DC

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Diaspora remittances have an important role in supporting local livelihoods, community Development projects, and innovation and entrepreneurship. Boston University - Center for Finance, Law & Policy African Diaspora and Remittances Report


emittances to sub-Saharan Africa will keep rising through 2019. This is especially true for the money transfer industry. Remittances to sub-­ Saharan Africa grew to USD 37.8 billion in 2017 and grew almost 10 percent to USD 46 billion in 2018, supported by strong economic conditions in high-­ income economies. In 2019, remittance flows to low- and middle-income countries are expected to reach USD 550 billion, to become their largest source of external financing.

The global average cost of sending USD 200 remains high, at around 7 percent in the first quarter of 2019, according to the World Bank’s Remittance Prices Worldwide database. Reducing remittance costs to 3 percent by 2030 is a global target under United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goal. Remittance costs across many African corridors and small islands in the Pacific remain above 10 percent.

USD 47 billion in remittance inflow in 2019. Remittance data for North Africa is grouped with the Middle East region, but if North Africa receives anything close to the average of 62 percent of the inflow to Middle East and North Africa as in 2018, 2017, and 2016, then its forecast for 2019 would be roughly USD 38 billion. In total, the forecasted remittance to Africa for 2019 is USD 85 billion. Perhaps unsurprisingly, as the largest population and economy, Nigeria topped African recipients with USD 22.3 billion in 2017. Liberia was the African country for whom remittances accounted for the highest share of GDP at 25.9 percent. Looking at remittances as a share of the GDP, Comoros has the largest share, followed by The Gambia, Lesotho, Cabo Verde, Liberia, Zimbabwe, Senegal, Togo, Ghana, and Nigeria.

The World Bank forecasts that subSaharan Africa will receive roughly a


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Female African Ambassadors Team Up with African Ambassadors’ Wives to Strategize on Fundraising for Cyclones Idai and Kenneth, and How to Mobilize the Diaspora Washington, DC Tuesday, June 11, 2019


group of spouses of African Ambassadors in Washington, DC, the AU Permanent Representative H.E. Dr. Chihombori-Quao, and Rwanda’s ambassador to the U.S. H.E. Professor Mathilde Mukantabana (front, center) met to plan and mobilize resources to assist victims of tropical cyclones Idai and Kenneth that hit Mozambique, Zimbabwe, and Malawi in March this year.

Following that, they discussed their role in facilitating U.S.-Africa trade and diaspora mobilization. The first ladies recognize the need to leverage their influence in support of their ambassador spouses and the African Union’s Agenda 2063. They also decided to reach out to African companies seeking to export their products to the United States to invite them to display their products at Park Expo and Conference Center in

Charlotte, North Carolina in September of 2019. They planned specifically to include women-owned business in this process. Agenda 2063 is the African Union’s strategic framework for the socioeconomic transformation of the continent over the next 50 years. It builds on and seeks to accelerate the implementation of past and existing continental initiatives for growth and sustainable development.

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CNN Photo

Author Marianne Williamson | Senator Kamala Harris | Secretary Julian Castro | Senator Elizabeth Warren | Senator Cory Booker

People Are Again Talking about Slavery Reparations, But It’s a Complex and Thorny Issue Doug Criss, CNN—April 15, 2019


f you feel like you’re hearing more about slavery reparations these days, it’s not your imagination. Compensating the descendants of American slaves is suddenly a hot topic on the campaign trail, with presidential candidates voicing support for slavery reparations. New proposals also seek financial redress for decades of legalized segregation and discrimination against African Americans in employment, housing, health, and education. But why now? And just how would reparations, focused specifically on slavery, work? Here’s what you need to know about this most controversial of subjects.


Why are reparations in the news? The idea of giving black people reparations for slavery dates back to right after the end of the Civil War (think 40 acres and a mule). For decades it’s mostly been an idea debated outside the mainstream of American political thought. But writer Ta-Nehisi Coates reintroduced it to the mainstream with a piece, “The Case for Reparations,” in 2014 in The Atlantic. And now several Democratic presidential candidates, who need the votes and energy of liberal voters to succeed in the primaries, have said they support some form of reparations for slavery.

Senator Cory Booker this week introduced a bill that would establish a commission to study possible reparations. Senator Kamala Harris recently told a radio show host that the idea of reparations should be considered in the face of economic inequality. Senator Elizabeth Warren has spoken approvingly of the need for reparations for African Americans as well as for Native Americans whose land was seized by European settlers. So has former Housing and Urban Development Secretary Julian Castro.

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Af r ica and U.S. Engageme nt

How do you put a cash value on hundreds of years of forced servitude?

This may be the most contested part. Academics, lawyers, and activists have given it a shot, though, and their results vary. Most formulations have produced numbers from as low as USD 17 billion to as high as almost USD 5 trillion. The most often-quoted figure, though, is truly staggering, as anthropologist and author Jason Hickel notes in his 2018 book, The Divide: Global Inequality from Conquest to Free Markets: “It is estimated that the United States alone benefited from a total of 222,505,049 hours of forced labor between 1619 and the abolition of slavery in 1865. Valued at the US minimum wage, with a modest rate of interest, that is worth $97 trillion today.” Keep in mind, the total U.S. federal budget for fiscal year 2018 was 4.1 trillion. Other formulations are more modest, like a 2015 report by University of Connecticut Assistant Professor Thomas Craemer. He estimated that the labor of slaves was worth at least USD 5.9 trillion and perhaps as much as USD 14.2 trillion (in 2009 dollars). Craemer came up with that figure by estimating the monetary value of slaves over time, the total number of hours they worked, and the wages at which that work should have been compensated. Craemer’s number is also lower because he only deals with the slavery that happened from the time of the country’s founding until the end of the Civil War, so it ignores slavery during the colonial period and the discrimination that blacks endured during the Jim Crow era.

Where would the money come from?

Generally, advocates for reparations say that three different groups should pay for them: governments, private companies, and rich families that owe a good portion of their wealth to slavery. It makes sense that federal and state governments (which enshrined, supported, and protected the institution of slavery) and private businesses (which financially benefited from it), would be tempting targets from which reparations could be extracted. But wealthy families? “There are huge, wealthy families in the South today that once owned a lot of slaves. You can trace all their wealth to the free labor of black folks. So when you identify the defendants, there are a vast number of individuals,” attorney Willie E. Gary told Harper’s Magazine in November 2000, during the height of the last big time of reparations talk. Gray was talking about how these families could be sued for reparations since they benefited directly from slavery. As you might imagine, suing large groups of people to pay for reparations wouldn’t go over well. Others have suggested lawmakers could pass legislation to force families to pay up. But that might not be constitutionally sound. “I don’t think you can legislate and have those families pay,” Malik Edwards, a law professor at North Carolina Central University, told CNN. “If you’re going to go after individuals you’d have to come up with a theory to do it through litigation. At least on the federal level Congress doesn’t have the power to go after these folks. It just doesn’t fall within its Commerce Clause powers.” The Commerce Clause refers to the section of the U.S. Constitution that gives Congress the power to regulate commerce among the states.

But reparations mean more than a cash payout, right? It could. Reparations could come in the form of special social programs. It could mean giving away land. That’s why people need to check the fine print on the support all of those Democratic presidential candidates have given to reparations. None of them have articulated a concrete proposal that would specifically give a cash benefit to black Americans. They’ve talked about developing tax credits that would go to all low-income people, not just blacks, and creating so-called “baby bonds” that would help all of America’s children pay for college, not just African American children. None of the major Democratic candidates so far have proposed making direct cash payments to African Americans as a way for the country to atone for its “original sin,” except for Marianne Williamson, who announced her candidacy in January. Williamson, a best-selling author and spiritual counselor to Oprah Winfrey, has advocated for reparations for years and proposes giving USD 100 billion in reparations for slavery, with USD 10 billion a year to be distributed over ten years. Others have suggested a mix of cash and programs targeted to help African Americans. “Direct benefits could include cash payments and subsidized home mortgages similar to those that built substantial white middle-class wealth after World War II, but targeted to those excluded or preyed upon by predatory lending,” Chuck Collins, an author and a program director at the Institute for Policy Studies, told CNN. “It could include free tuition and financial support at universities and colleges for first generation college students.” Reparation funds could also be used to provide one-time endowments to start museums and historical exhibits on slavery, Collins said.

(Continued on pages 128–129)

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he United States is proud to observe International Women’s Day, March 8. We extend our gratitude to the diverse women and girls around the globe who have made vast contributions in lifting up those facing challenges and hardship and put their own communities and countries on a path to greater progress.

The United States reaffirms our support for those women leading in boardrooms and the halls of government, for those changing lives in classrooms and laboratories, for those contributing to families and communities, and for those discovering solutions to prevent disease and end poverty. Barriers to the equal status of women still persist. In far too many places, women and girls still do not enjoy basic rights and are prevented from taking their rightful place in society. We strive for a world in which women and girls are free to realize their full potential and live in dignity along with their families, communities, and countries. Courageous women inspire a better world and are essential to building peace, prosperity, and security for all. The United States is honored to recognize these outstanding women of courage, emblematic of so many working for the betterment of society and generations to come. International Women’s Day serves as a reminder to rededicate ourselves to gender equality and to remember those who came before us and had the vision to stand up for the rights of half the population to better the whole. Michael R. Pompeo Secretary of State


Photo: State Department

U.S. Department of State March 7, 2019



Moumina Houssein Darar is being honored for her acute investigative skills that have led to the disruption of terrorist attacks, perseverance in committing to work in a male-dominated field despite abuse, and determination in standing up for the local community.


Magda Gorban Gorgy is being honored for her visionary commitment to serve the lives of the poor and forgotten in her community, realizing the value of those seeking vocational training in order to contribute to society, and for providing economic salvation for impoverished children in her country.

I N T E R N AT I O N A L WOMEN OF COURAGE Anna Henga is being honored for her groundbreaking efforts in coordinating Tanzania’s Anti-Female Genital Mutilation Coalition, defense of the rights of women in Maasai communities, and encouraging women’s political participation.


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Af r ica and U.S. Engageme nt

March 7, 2019–U.S. Department of State


he International Women of Courage Award, also referred to as the U.S. Secretary of State’s International Women of Courage Award, is an American award presented annually by the U.S. Department of State to women around the world who have shown leadership, courage, resourcefulness, and the willingness to sacrifice for others, especially in promoting women’s rights. The award was established in 2007 by U.S. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice on International Women’s Day, an annual celebration observed on March 8 in many countries worldwide. Each U.S. embassy has the right to recommend one woman as a candidate. Source: State Department Photos

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Af r i c a a n d U.S. E ng ag e me n t

Assistant Secretary for African Affairs Ambassador Tibor Nagy Visits Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, and Uganda March 7–18, 2019


ssistant Secretary for African Affairs Tibor Nagy traveled to Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Rwanda, and Uganda from March 7 to 18, 2019. He promoted stronger business ties between the United States and Africa, engaged Africa’s vibrant youth, strengthened partnerships that aim for greater peace and security, and reinforced the United States’ commitment to the people and nations of Africa. Assistant Secretary Nagy discussed shared objectives for Africa’s security, prosperity, and self-reliance with key partners and media.


While in Kampala March 7 and 8, Assistant Secretary Nagy met with senior Ugandan government officials. From March 9 to 11, he discussed ways to create greater opportunities for American investors with representatives from the American business community in Kigali in addition to meeting with senior Rwandan officials. In the DRC from March 13 to 15, he engaged NGOs, civil society, and the new DRC government on a range of issues including strengthening regional stability, promoting good governance,

combatting corruption, strengthening commercial ties, and supporting the response to the Ebola outbreak in the eastern DRC. From March 17 to 18, Assistant Secretary Nagy visited a U.S.owned firm in Cameroon, discussed Cameroon’s role as a regional partner with government officials, and met civil society. Finally he met with members of the U.S. government’s signature effort to invest in the next generation of African leaders, the Young African Leadership Initiative, in multiple countries.

Assistant Secretary Tibor Nagy and delegation after meeting with President Museveni and officials State House, Entebe, March 9, 2019

Assistant Secretary Tibor Nagy with President Paul Kagame, and U.S and Rwandan Ambassadors and officials Kigali, March 11, 2019

Assistant Secretary Tibor Nagy meets with President Tshisekedi’s Senior Advisors to discuss ways to strengthen cooperation—Kinshasa, March 14, 2019

Assistant Secretary Tibor Nagy with Cameroon President Paul Biya Yaoundé, March 18, 2019

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Af r ica and U.S. Engageme nt

Deputy Secretary of State John J. Sullivan Visits South Africa and Angola March 12–21, 2019


eputy Secretary of State John J. Sullivan traveled to South Africa and Angola from March 12 to 21, 2019. His visit focused on promoting U.S. trade and investment as well as advancing peace and security, including with respect to the humanitarian crisis in Venezuela. Throughout the trip, the Deputy Secretary affirmed the United States’ long-standing and wide-ranging commitment to Africa as he engaged with government officials, representatives from the business community and civil society, youth leaders, and U.S. mission personnel.

In South Africa, the Deputy Secretary visited Pretoria and Johannesburg, where he met with South African government officials to discuss bilateral trade and regional and multilateral priorities. Deputy Secretary Sullivan also met with exchange alumni leaders, beneficiaries of the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief program, and business representatives and political experts to better understand the dynamics of land reform, the upcoming elections process, and other current issues in South Africa.

The Deputy Secretary concluded his trip in Luanda, where he met with President João Lourenço to discuss a range of global security issues and co-chaired a session of the U.S.-Angola Strategic Dialogue with Foreign Minister Manuel Augusto. The Deputy Secretary also delivered remarks on the Administration’s Africa Strategy to members of the business community and underscored the importance of expanding economic and trade ties on the basis of mutual respect.

Deputy Secretary of State John Sullivan meets the Department of International Relations and Cooperation’s (DIRCO)—South Africa, March 16, 2019

Deputy Secretary Sullivan, Ambassador Birx, and a U.S. Global AIDS coordinator visit Zola Clinic Soweto, South Africa, March 18, 2019

Deputy Secretary of State John Sullivan meets with President João Lourenço—Luanda, Angola, March 18, 2019

Deputy Secretary of State John Sullivan attends a trade and investment luncheon—Luanda, Angola, March 21, 2019

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LOOKING FORWARD: U.S.–AFRICA RELATIONS March 26, 2019—Department of State, Washington, DC Secretary of State Michael R. Pompeo met with Egyptian Foreign Minister Sameh Shoukry in Washington, DC. The Secretary recognized the Foreign Minister’s dedication to strengthening the U.S.-Egypt bilateral relationship. The Secretary and the Foreign Minister discussed how to advance Egypt’s and the region’s security and stability. Secretary Pompeo congratulated Egypt on the occasion of the fortieth anniversary of the Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty.

April 3, 2019—Department of State, Washington, DC Secretary Michael R. Pompeo met with Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) President Felix Tshisekedi in Washington, DC. They discussed the future of U.S.-DRC relations following the country’s historic transfer of power earlier this year and expressed their common interest in partnering to deliver a better and more prosperous future for the Congolese people.

Photo: State Department

Egypt and the United States

Secretary Pompeo expressed support for President Tshisekedi’s change agenda focused on fighting corruption, strengthening governance, advancing human rights and accountability for human rights abuses and violations, promoting stability and security, and attracting American investment in the DRC. President Tshisekedi committed to good governance and respect for human rights, building transparent institutions, and combatting corruption in the DRC. They also discussed the importance of sustainable and responsible development of natural resources, combatting the current Ebola outbreak, and responding to humanitarian crises. Secretary Pompeo stressed that the United States will continue to promote accountability to advance reform in the DRC.


Photo: State Department

The DRC and the United States

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Af r ica and U.S. Engageme nt

Congressional Testimony by Brahima Sangafowa Coulibaly (center) Senior Fellow of Global Economy and Development and Director of the Africa Growth Initiative, Brookings Institute U.S. House of Representatives Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights, and International Organizations

Editor’s Note On March 26, 2019, Brahima Coulibaly testified before the U.S. House of Representatives Subcommittee on Africa, Global Health, Global Human Rights, and International Organizations. His written testimony on Africa’s rapid transformation and U.S.-Africa relations follows. Thank you, Chairwoman Karen Bass (right) and Ranking Member Christopher Smith (left) for your leadership with respect to U.S. engagement with Africa. Your active role in fostering the bipartisan cooperation that has historically characterized U.S.-Africa legislation is exemplary. Thank you to the members of the subcommittee for the opportunity to testify on the way forward for U.S.-Africa relations. I am Dr. Brahima Coulibaly, senior fellow and director of the Africa Growth Initiative at the Brookings Institution. This is an opportune time to reexamine the future of U.S.-Africa relations because there is an emerging consensus, which I share, that the U.S. is falling behind in Africa. In my view, this is not because U.S. policies toward Africa have failed, but rather because Africa is transforming rapidly and the architecture of the United States’ engagement is not adapting fast enough to this dynamism and to the evolving aspirations of African countries.

Africa Is Transforming Very Fast Following a period of political and social instability as well as weak economic growth, Africa’s fortunes began to turn

around the year 2000. Since then, economic policies and business environments on the continent have, for the most part, improved significantly. Today, institutions are increasingly resilient and good governance is spreading. Most notably, Africa has embraced the digital revolution. For example, the number of mobile phone subscriptions in sub-Saharan Africa increased to 75 per 100 people in 2017 from less than 2 in 2000. The advent of information and telecommunication technology is enabling economic and social inclusion as well as unleashing innovation and entrepreneurial potential across the continent. These factors—along with a favorable external environment, notably debt relief and higher commodity prices—have contributed to strong economic growth over the past two decades. In addition, the middle class is expanding and is boosting consumer and business spending, at a rate of almost 4 percent a year. This momentum is expected to continue alongside sizeable demographic changes. Over the next five years, half of the world’s ten fastest-growing economies will be on the continent, and Africa’s middle class will expand from 245 million to 380 million people over the next decade. The youth bulge will have even more significant consequences: Over the next three decades, the youth population will increase by over 500 million—more than offsetting the declines in youth populations outside of Africa—and doubling the region’s overall population by 2050. Urbanization has also been very rapid: The number of cities with

5 million or more inhabitants will triple to seventeen over the next ten years. This rapid population growth and urbanization is increasing the demand for goods and services, as well as for infrastructure in various sectors such as housing, health, transport, and power. Africa’s infrastructure financing needs are sizeable, ranging from USD 130 billion to 170 billion per year, about two-thirds of which is currently unfunded. Meanwhile, to better respond to the growing needs and demands of the populations, Africa’s leadership and institutions are becoming more assertive in the ownership and advancement of the continent’s agenda. The region’s countries, through the African Union, have adopted a common long-term plan—known as Agenda 2063—that outlines their economic and social vision and aspirations over the next several decades. Chief among its priorities is the need for greater integration of the region’s markets and populations. Under the leadership of the African Union, regional integration is advancing, specifically through policies in support of the free movement of Africans across the continent and the African Continental Free Trade Agreement (AfCFTA). The AfCFTA, now one year old, aims to create a single African market of over 1 billion consumers for goods and services. This unprecedented dynamism is creating tremendous commercial opportunities in trade and investment, and it is not an exaggeration to say that Africa is on course to be the world’s next big growth market.

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Af r i c a a n d U.S. E ng ag e me n t

OPIC and Africa, Partners in Connect Africa and OPIC 2X Initiatives The Connect Africa initiative is investing more than USD 1 billion into projects that support transportation, communications, and value chains in Africa over the next three years. Africa is home to many of the world’s fastest-growing economies and presents both a great need for investment and a great opportunity for American businesses. By focusing on connectivity, the Overseas Private Investment Company (OPIC) is not only helping build means for economic development, but also laying the foundation for future trade partners. Photo: OPIC


onnect Africa focuses on three areas in order to further integrate Africa into the global market: Transportation and Logistics: Infrastructure development supports commerce by making it easier and more efficient to move goods within countries and across borders. Connect Africa will focus on facilitating investments in roads, railways, ports, and airports, as well as

OPIC recognizes that the world’s fastest-growing? emerging market is not a country or a region, but rather the world’s women. As a result, it launched the 2X Women’s Initiative during Women’s History Month in March of 2018, committing to catalyze USD 1 billion to invest in women in


logistics, including elements such as vehicles, warehouses, and cold storage units. Information and Communications Technology: Technology is transforming the way people work, communicate, access information, and educate their children. The initiative will focus on technologies that provide access to information through telecommunications, including the

internet, wireless networks, and mobile phones. Value Chains: Africa requires greater investment to take advantage of global and regional value chains. The initiative will focus on facilitating investments supporting processing raw materials and helping products reach consumers.

developing countries. By the year’s end, OPIC had surpassed that initial target.

Sub-Saharan Africa: An OPIC Priority

Through gender lens investing, OPIC is focused on providing women in the developing world access to finance, jobs, and services that enhance economic opportunity. OPIC supports investment in global development to advance economic prosperity and global stability. Women are key drivers to achieving both.

Sub-Saharan Africa has long been a priority for OPIC, accounting for over one-quarter of the agency’s current portfolio. With the launch of OPIC’s Connect Africa investment initiative, the agency is committing to forging deeper ties between Africa and the world through investing in physical infrastructure, technology, and value chains. Physical connectivity and virtual networks are powerful

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Af r ica and U.S. Engageme nt drivers of economic development, allowing producers to reach wider markets and facilitating business transactions among more than just neighbors. Through Connect Africa, OPIC will invest USD 1 billion over three years into projects supporting telecommunications and internet access; value chains that connect producers of raw materials to end users; and essential infrastructure, such as roads, railways, ports, and airports. These commitments to connectivity will support economic growth and shore up regional security. Here are the numbers: Current Portfolio in sub-Saharan Africa: $6.1 billion in 128 projects. Sub-Saharan Africa accounts for approximately 27 percent of OPIC’s total portfolio.

Helping Rwanda’s Tea Industry Rebuild OPIC’s political risk insurance helped the Sorwathe tea processing facility rebuild after it was destroyed in the civil war. In addition to operating an expansive tea plantation and processing facility, Sorwathe purchases tea leaves from thousands of small landholder farmers.

OPIC has been working to mobilize investment in Africa for almost five decades. We’re committed to empowering individuals and strengthening economies, and we launched the Connect Africa initiative to focus investment on sectors like essential infrastructure, technology, and value chains, that will promote closer connectivity between Africa and the rest of the world. Worku Gachou

Expanding Access to Affordable Telecom OPIC committed USD 100 million to support upgrades and expansions of mobile networks in The Gambia, Sierra Leone, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Uganda. The project will make affordable mobile and internet services more widely available.

Worku Gachou I​mproving Ground Shipping and Logistics in Tanzania An OPIC loan is helping the Alistair Group expand its fleet of trucks serving Tanzania, as well as Zambia, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, and South Africa. Alistair’s growing fleet serves mining, oil, and gas companies as well as relief organizations and has invested in technology to track shipments and reduce the risk of theft or loss.

Investing in Local Diamond Production in Botswana A USD 125 million OPIC loan guarantee is helping Botswana develop its diamond industry in a sustainable manner that will promote local job creation and diversified economic growth. The project will change traditional practices by brining value-adding functions like diamond cutting and polishing into Botswana.

Managing Director, Africa - OPIC About OPIC OPIC is a self-sustaining U.S. Government’s development finance institution that supports investment in global development to advance economic prosperity and global stability. Established in 1971, OPIC provides businesses with the tools to manage the risks associated with foreign direct investment, fosters economic development in emerging market countries, and advances U.S. foreign policy and national security priorities. OPIC helps American businesses gain footholds in new markets, catalyzes new revenues, and contributes to jobs and growth opportunities both at home and abroad.

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resident Donald J. Trump welcomed Abdel Fattah El-Sisi, President of Egypt and the new African Union Chairperson, to the White House today, the second visit of the Egyptian president since 2017. The two leaders engaged in a frank discussion on regional developments in Libya and the threat posed by the Muslim Brotherhood. President Trump and President El-Sisi discussed water issues, which are critically important for the United States and Egypt. The two leaders agreed that the complex issues must be addressed through negotiations and with respect for international best practices. They expressed their mutual commitment to promoting religious liberty.

President El-Sisi and Advisor to the President Ivanka Trump later discussed opportunities to work together to advance President El-Sisi’s proposed agenda with regard to women’s economic empowerment and entrepreneurship in Egypt and the region, thereby increasing access to credit and job opportunities.


Official White House Photo

During the 32nd African Union Heads of State Summit in F ­ ebruary, President El-Sisi reaffirmed Africa’s commitment to protect the planet in accordance with the Paris Climate Agreement and called on the developed countries to abide by their commitments, especially all the countries (the United States included), that have the most influence on the earth’s climate and benefit most from its resources.

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U.S.-EGYPT RELATIONS HUMAN RIGHTS The United States encourages the Egyptian government to preserve space for civil society and protect human rights. ECONOMIC COOPERATION The Trump Administration supports the Egyptian government’s bold program of economic reform, which will set Egypt on the course of long-term economic stability. Egypt hosted the inaugural meeting of the Eastern Mediterranean Gas Forum, which will enhance economic cooperation and shared prosperity among countries across the region. REGIONAL STABILITY U.S. President Trump is working with Egypt on issues impacting regional stability, including conflicts in Libya, Syria, and Yemen and progress on the Middle East Strategic Alliance. FAIR AND RECIPROCAL TRADE

It’s a great honor to be with President El-Sisi, a friend—a great friend—of Egypt. And we have very special things happening. Our relationship has never been stronger. And we’re working with Egypt on many different fronts, including military and trade.

President Trump is building on the strong and robust bilateral trade relationship between the United States and Egypt. America is one of Egypt’s leading trade partners. In 2018, the United States’ goods trade surplus with Egypt was USD 2.6 billion, a 9.3 percent increase from 2017. In 2018, United States’ goods exports to Egypt totaled USD 5.1 billion, up 26.7 percent from 2017. America and Egypt continue to work together to promote fair trade and increased investment by addressing market access, standards, labor, and intellectual property protection issues.

President Donald J. Trump

Source: The White House

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Strengthens U.S. Relations with the African Union, Ethiopia, and Côte d’Ivoire Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, April 15, 2019


mbassador Kwesi Quartey, Deputy Chairperson of the African Union Commission (AUC), received Ms. Ivanka Trump, Advisor to the President of the United States, and USAID Administrator Mark Green at the African Union (AU) Headquarters in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, to deepen the strategic dialogue between the African Union Commission and the United States. Both sides expressed a commitment to strengthen the collaboration between the AUC and the United States within the existing Cooperation Framework as outlined in the 2018 High Level Dialogue held in Addis Ababa, on November 29, 2018.


The two high officials specifically reaffirmed the United States’ and the AU’s unwavering commitment to advancing women’s economic empowerment and entrepreneurship across the continent by promoting opportunities for women’s participation in the work force and increasing women’s access to finance, trade, employment, education, and skills development. The two also pledged to combat scourges including child and forced marriage, human trafficking, and sexual exploitation and abuse. Both sides further reaffirmed their commitment to shared values such as equality of opportunity, respect and promotion of women’s rights, and ending all forms of gender-based violence and abuse in all spheres of life.

In this regard, the Deputy Chairperson briefed the U.S. delegation about ongoing AUC-led initiatives on gender equality and women’s economic empowerment, including the adoption of the first AU Strategy for Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment (2018–2028); the Continental Results Framework for monitoring and reporting on the implementation of the Women, Peace, and Security Agenda; the AU Funds for Women’s Economic Empowerment; and the AU Campaign to End Child Marriage as enshrined in the AU Agenda 2063 priorities. The Deputy Chairperson further highlighted the importance of building bridges between the African Diaspora and U.S. businesses, with a particular emphasis

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The African Union and United States sign communique on women, peace, and security

Ivanka Trump/U.S. Delegation meet Ethiopian President H.E. Sahle-Work Zewde

Ivanka Trump/U.S. Delegation call on Ethiopian Prime Minister H.E. Abiy Ahmed

Ivanka Trump/U.S. Delegation meet Ivorian Vice President Daniel Duncan

on women entrepreneurs. On its part, the U.S. delegation informed the AUC of the White House–led Women’s Global Development and Prosperity Initiative aimed at empowering 50 million women across the developing world by 2025 and the OPIC 2X Africa Initiative, which seeks to mobilize USD 1 billion in investment toward providing women in Africa access to finance, high-quality jobs, and critical services. The AUC expressed appreciation to the United States for its support, including to the AUC Departments of Social Affairs, Trade & Industry is one department and the Office of the Chairperson’s Special Envoy for Women, Peace, and Security. Recognizing their shared commitment to gender equality and women

empowerment, the two high officials reaffirmed their willingness to promote effective laws, policies, and institutions, working closely together toward achieving those objectives. Conscious of the quality of their collaboration, the AUC and the United States agreed to work closely together to enhance their strategic partnership to advance gender equality, women’s rights, and women’s economic empowerment and entrepreneurship across the continent. Also present at the meeting from the AUC were Madam Amira Elfadil, Commissioner for Social Affairs; Ambassador Albert Muchanga, Commissioner for Trade and Industry; and Madam Bineta Diop, AU Special Envoy on Women Peace and Security. On the

U.S. side were Mark Green, Administrator of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), and David Bohigian, Acting Chief Executive Officer, OPIC. Preceding the visit to the AU headquarters, Advisor to the President Ms. Ivanka Trump attended the launch of the OPIC 2X Africa Women’s Initiative, which took place at the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) in the presence of the President of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, SahleWork Zewde, and the UNECA Deputy Executive Secretary for Knowledge Delivery, Ms. Giovanie Biha. Source: African Union Directorate of Information and Communication

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I traveled to Africa to advance the White House’s Women’s Global Development and Prosperity Initiative, or W-GDP, which seeks to reach 50 million women in the developing world by 2025. The most remarkable part of the trip was connecting with women from across the continent who have overcome tremendous barriers to pave the way to change. We will work to achieve this goal by supporting women in workplace, helping them succeed as entrepreneurs, and by advancing legal reforms that will create greater gender equality. Their stories are tangible proof of what is possible if we deliver smart development assistance to empower women to succeed in their economies. Advisor Ivanka Trump


Photo: U.S. Embassy Côte d'Ivoire

Ivanka Trump with female cocoa farmers and entrepreneurs at a cocoa farm in Adzope, Côte d’Ivoire, April 17, 2019

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Af r i c a a n d U.S. E ng ag e me n t

April 15–19, 2019



guarantees loan for Azalech coffee roasting announces financing for Muya Ethiopia

April 15 Ivanka Trump OPIC

and U.S. Delegation visit Holy Trinity Church 2X Africa and African Women’s Economic Empowerment Dialogue are launched

NINE REASONS TO INVEST IN ETHIOPIA 1. Political and social stability 2. Growing economy 3. Excellent climate and fertile soils 4. Strong guarantees and protections 5. Young and trainable labor force 6. Regional hub with access to a wide market 7. Improved economic infrastructure 8. Competitive incentive packages 9. Government commitment Source: Ethiopian Investment Commission

WHY INVEST IN CÔTE D’IVOIRE? Côte d’Ivoire is one of the most dynamic economies in West Africa and is key to unlocking the francophone sub-Saharan Africa market. The economy averaged over 8 percent growth from 2012 to 2017, and strong growth is expected to continue through 2020. This positive outlook is underpinned by an improved political environment and controlled inflation. The Government of Côte d’Ivoire (GOCI) supports private sector-led growth and has worked hard to improve its investment climate and build economic infrastructure to allow businesses to thrive. The country welcomes foreign investment and hopes to attract more than USD 37.5 billion in private sector investments through public-private partnerships to implement its 2016–2020 National Development Plan. Source: Côte d’Ivoire Country Commercial Guide


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USAID Administrator

Mark Green and Advisor to the President Ivanka Trump meet with the Vice President of Côte d’Ivoire Daniel Kablan Duncan to discuss Côte d’Ivoire’s economic reforms

April 17 World

Bank’s First Regional Summit for the Women Entrepreneurs Finance Initiative

to a cocoa farm in Adzope, Côte d’Ivoire, and announcement of new public-private partnership for women in the cocoa industry

State Dinner First

Lady of Côte d’Ivoire, Dominique Ouattara, and Advisor to the President Ivanka Trump meet during the dinner

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Af r i c a a n d U.S. E ng ag e me n t


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he African Union Commission and the United States signed a joint communique committing to a partnership to advance women’s ­economic empowerment and entrepreneurship across the continent. The communique signals a key step in the goal of the Women’s Global Development and Prosperity Initiative to promote and enable an environment that increases women’s economic empowerment by reducing barriers and enhancing policy, legal regulatory protections, and public and private practices to facilitate women’s participation in the economy.

Although this trip and First Lady Melania Trump’s visit to Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, and Egypt last year are positive signs for U.S.-Africa relations, President Trump himself has yet to visit the continent. President Trump should visit Africa in 2019 and engage in regional summits and bilateral meetings. That would encourage American investors and business leaders to shift toward Africa and ultimately bolster U.S. interests and influence. The stakes are rising, and the United States must ensure it is not left behind. Landry Signé, David M. Rubenstein Fellow, Global Economy and Development, Africa Growth Initiative

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CNN Photo

(Continued from pages 106–107)

What are the arguments against reparations? There are many. Opponents of reparations argue that all the slaves are dead, no white person living today owned slaves or that all the immigrants that have come to America since the Civil War don’t have anything to do with slavery. Also, not all black people living in America today are descendants of slaves (like former President Barack Obama). Others point out that slavery makes it almost impossible for most African Americans to trace their lineage earlier than the Civil War, so how could they prove they descended from enslaved people? Writer David Frum noted those and other potential obstacles in a 2014 piece for T   he Atlantic entitled “The Impossibility of Reparations,” which


was a counterpoint to Coates’ essay. Frum warned that any reparations program would eventually be expanded to other groups, like Native Americans, and he feared that reparations could create their own brand of inequality. “Within the target population, will all receive the same? Same per person, or same per family? Or will there be adjustment for need? How will need be measured?” asks Frum, a former speech writer for President George W. Bush. “And if reparations were somehow delivered communally and collectively, disparities of wealth and power and political influence within black America will become even more urgent. Simply put, when government spends money on complex programs, the people who provide the service usually end up with much more sway over

the spending than the spending’s intended beneficiaries.” In a recent column for  The Hill, conservative activist Bob Woodson decried the idea of reparations as “yet another insult to black America that is clothed in the trappings of social justice.” He also told CNN he feels America made up for slavery long ago, so reparations aren’t needed.

“I wish they could understand the futility of wasting time engaging in

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such a discussion when there are larger, more important challenges facing many in the black community,” Woodson, the founder and president of the Woodson Center, told CNN. “America atoned for the sin of slavery when they engaged in a civil war that claimed hundreds of thousands of lives. Let’s for the sake of argument say every black person received $20,000. What would that accomplish?”

This isn’t the first time reparations have come up, is it? After decades of languishing as something of a fringe idea, the call for reparations really caught steam in the late 1980s through the ‘90s. Former Democratic Representative John Conyers first introduced a bill in 1989 to create a commission to study reparations. Known as HR 40, Conyers repeatedly reintroduced the bill, which has never been passed, until he left office in 2017. T   exas Democratic Representative Sheila Jackson Lee has taken up the baton, sponsoring HR 40 in this year’s Congress. Activist groups, like the National Coalition of Blacks for Reparations in America and the Restitution Study Group, sprang up during this period. Books, like Randall Robinson’s “The Debt: What America Owes to Blacks,” gained huge buzz. Then came the lawsuit. In 2002 Deadria Farmer-Paellmann became the lead plaintiff in a federal classaction suit against a number of companies – including banks, insurance company Aetna, and railroad firm CSX – seeking billions for reparations after Farmer-Paellmann linked the businesses to the slave trade. She got the idea for the lawsuit as she examined old Aetna insurance policies and documented the insurer’s role in the 19th century in insuring slaves. The suit sought financial payments for the value of “stolen” labor and unjust enrichment and called for the companies to give up “illicit profits.”

“These are corporations that benefited from stealing people, from stealing labor, from forced breeding, from torture, from committing numerous horrendous acts, and there’s no reason why they should be able to hold onto assets they acquired through such horrendous acts,” Farmer-Paellmann said at the time. The case was tossed out by a federal judge in 2005 because it was deemed that Farmer-Paellmann and the other plaintiffs didn’t have legal standing in the case, meaning they couldn’t prove a sufficient link to the corporations or prove how they were harmed. The judge also said the statute of limitations had long since passed. Appeals to the US 7th Circuit Court of Appeals and the US Supreme Court proved unsuccessful, and the push for reparations kind of petered out. But Coates’ 2014 article in The Atlantic reignited interest in the issue. New reparations advocacy groups, like the United States Citizens Recovery Initiative Alliance Inc., took up the fight. Black Lives Matter includes slavery reparations in its list of proposals to improve the economic lives of black Americans. Even a UN panel said the U.S. should pay reparations. And now major candidates for president are endorsing the idea.

So, what are the prospects of reparations moving forward? Despite the words of support from these Democratic presidential candidates, slavery reparations still face an uphill battle. The idea isn’t popular with the American public. A 2016 Marist poll found that 68% of Americans don’t think the US should pay reparations to the descendants of slaves. Unsurprisingly there’s a racial divide to this. Some 81% of white Americans are against reparations, while 58% of African Americans support them. What is surprising is the generational divide the poll revealed. Millennials surveyed were much more likely than

Baby Boomers or Gen-Xers to support reparations. Even still, a total of 49% of millennials opposed them. Those numbers make it difficult for any candidate to try to sell a skeptical American public on the idea and to get lawmakers to pass legislation. And after the failure in the courts of Farmer-Paellmann’s lawsuit more than a decade ago, taking legal action to secure reparations doesn’t seem like the most promising route either. Whatever happens, almost everyone agrees that something needs to be done to cut down the huge wealth gap between white and blacks that slavery helped created. Collins, the author and scholar, said his own research showed that the median wealth of a white household is $147,000, which is about 41 times greater than the median wealth of a black family, which is $3,600. “This can only be explained through an understanding of the multigenerational legacy of white supremacy in asset building,” he told CNN. “People say, ‘slavery was so long ago’ or ‘my family didn’t own slaves.’ But the key thing to understand is that the unpaid labor of millions – and the legacy of slavery, Jim Crow laws, discrimination in mortgage lending and a race-based system of mass incarceration – created uncompensated wealth for individuals and white society as a whole. Immigrants with European heritage directly and indirectly benefited from this system of white supremacy. The past is very much in the present.’

CNN’s Zachary B. Wolf contributed to this report

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Ghana’s Vice President H.E. Mahamudu Bawumia and NAACP President Derrick Johnson—Accra, Ghana, March 12, 2018

Photo: Office of the Vice President, Ghana


Ghana and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Announce a Commemorative Voyage


uring the 50th National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) Image Awards held in Los Angeles (March 30, 2019), the NAACP announced its historic Jamestown-to-Jamestown event partnership, marking the 400th year enslaved Africans first touched the shores of what would become America. An official event of Ghana’s “Year of Return,” Jamestown-to-Jamestown will allow for NAACP leadership, NAACP members, and members of the African American community to honor both ancestors and the struggle for black liberation in a groundbreaking trek from Jamestown, Virginia, to Jamestown, Accra, in August 2019. “Jamestown to Jamestown represents one of the most powerful moments in the history of the Black Experience,” said NAACP President and CEO Derrick Johnson. “We are now able to actualize


the healing and collective unity so many generations have worked to achieve in ways which bring power to our communities in America, Africa, and throughout our Diaspora.” The Jamestown-to-Jamestown events kick off on August 18 in Washington, DC. Participants will travel via bus to Jamestown, Virginia, for a prayer vigil and candle lighting ceremony marking the African “Maafa,” a term describing the horrific suffering embedded in the past four centuries related to the enslavement process. Participants will travel back to Washington, DC, for a special gathering at the National Museum of African American History and Culture designed by Ghanaian architect Sir David Adjaye prior to departing to Ghana on a direct flight for 7 to 10 days of rich cultural, spiritual, and cathartic experiences

designed to connect the present to the past in ways that empower and invigorate the continued struggle for full liberation and justice worldwide. The experience includes the following activities: •  Prayer vigil at Jamestown, VA, settlement •  Direct chartered flight to Ghana from Washington, DC •  Ancestral healing ceremony at Jamestown, Accra •  Four- to five-star hotel accommodation •  Business, investment, and development summit •  Black tie gala • DNA reveal ceremony •  Cape Coast and Elmina Castle visit •  Assin Manso Last Bath Slave River visit •  Akwasidae Festival at Manhyia Palace in Kumasi

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COMING HOME (CONTINUED) (Continued from page 20)

We are coming as artists of every kind We will bring our aesthetic, coarse and refined

Gabon, Liberia, CaboVerde We are coming to just—be—Free

We are coming to share what we know Gambia, Niger, Burkina Faso

Free to absorb Africa’s cultures and moods The smells, the sounds, the vibes, the foods

With a poet’s pen and a positive point of view We are coming to ask: How are you?

We will eat Pounded Yams, Cassava, and Fufu We will gaze at the stars and the sky anew

How are you healing from the deprivation? Stolen resources—mineral exploitation

Bush Meat, Jollof Rice, Couscous, Palm Wine We are coming home to sit and to dine

The Berlin Conference set borders for African nations How are you healing from the pain of colonization?

In us, Africa’s heart beats On Africa’s land, we must place our feet

We know your scars. They are the same as ours.

Together, we will walk through a new door A door we build to reconnect and to restore

We are descendants. We are descendants of Africa, colonized and enslaved Centuries of European inhumanity, most depraved The colonizer’s legacy of pain and trauma is real. Together, we will cry, grieve, heal We are coming home. We are doctors, teachers, lawyers, preachers We are coming to applaud the music of the Kora Dance to the rhythm of the Talking Drum Embrace traditions and tribal tongues We are coming to listen to you Mandinka, Hausa, Wolof, Bantu We want you to teach us the languages you know Fula, Bambara, Akan, Igbo Queen Mother, Griot, Shaman, Tribal Chief Rite of passage, oral history, traditional belief We are coming home to the source of our seed Cowry shells, Adinkra symbols, Krobo beads Guinea Bissau, Mali, Togo We are coming to sing the Spiritual of the Negro We are business leaders. We’ve made political gains. Our progress—resented, resisted, restrained We are coming home. We are coming for the warmth of Mother Africa’s lap We are coming to perform Jazz, Blues, and Rap

Background Photo: Door of No Return Goree Island

To restore the memory of who we were before The memory needed to do and to be more Our connection is clear We are coming home this year We are coming to cities, villages, markets, and parks We will see Africa during the day and in the dark We have been away far too long. Africa is where we belong. We are coming to deeply breathe Inhaling the DNA memory of our intrinsic worth Exhaling gratitude for our ancestor’s birth The ancestor’s call, we have now heard. In response to them, we give our word. We will not be delayed. We will not be deterred. We are coming home. By CeLillianne Green

Copyright © 2019 All Rights Reserved

“SLAVERY IS THE ORIGINAL SIN” The Houston Democrat’s bill calls for a commission to “study and develop reparation proposals for African Americans,” and consider a national apology by the government. Actor and activist Danny Glover; writer Ta-Nehisi Coates; Senator and Presidential candidate Cory Booker; and retired NFL player Burgess Owens offered support at the congressional hearing.

On Juneteenth, Representative Sheila Jackson Lee spearheads congressional hearing on reparations, calling them “long overdue” BY ALEX SAMUELS—TEXAS TRIBUNE, June 19, 2019


or the first time in a decade, members of Congress examined the topic of reparations for African Americans over slavery at a hearing on a proposed study on the issue from U.S. Rep. Sheila Jackson Lee, D-­­Houston. In her opening remarks to a packed committee room, Jackson Lee said her measure was “long overdue,” adding that “slavery has never received an apology.” “The role of the federal government in supporting the institution of slavery and subsequent discrimination directed against blacks is an injustice that must be formally acknowledged and addressed,” she said. Her resolution calls for a commission to “study and develop reparation proposals for African Americans” and consider a national apology by the government “for the perpetration of gross human rights violations and crimes against humanity on African slaves and their descendants.” “Let this day, June 19, 2019, be the marker for the commitment for each and every one of you,” she later said. “On my watch, we will watch this bill pass and be signed by the president of the United States of America.” Although her measure received a warm reception from many civil rights advocates and black Americans, it will be a tougher sell in the U.S. Senate. Earlier this week, Majority Leader Mitch McConnell, a Kentucky Republican,


dismissed reparations for slavery as not “a good idea” and said that it would “be pretty hard to figure out who to compensate.” “We’ve tried to deal with our original sin of slavery by fighting a civil war, by passing landmark civil rights legislation,” McConnell said. “We’ve elected an African American president.” Still, the hearing by the House Judiciary Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Civil Liberties on House Resolution 40—named for the unfulfilled federal promise to provide freed African Americans “40 acres and a mule”—marked the first opportunity in more than a decade that House members were able to tackle the issue, with witnesses including actor and activist Danny Glover; writer Ta-Nehisi Coates; U.S. Sen. Cory Booker, a New ­Jersey Democrat and presidential candidate who proposed a companion version of the bill to the Senate; and retired NFL player Burgess Owens. During his testimony, Coates rebuked McConnell for his earlier comments on reparations, noting that “for a century after the Civil War, black people were subjected to a relentless campaign of terror.” That campaign, Coates added, “extended well into the lifetime of Majority Leader McConnell.”

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U.S. AND KENYA ELEVATE BILATERAL RELATIONS TO A STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP, SIGN STRATEGIC DIALOGUE FRAMEWORK AGREEMENT This inaugural Bilateral Strategic Dialogue (BSD) is a key deliverable from last August’s meeting between President Trump and President Kenyatta during which they committed to take their countries’ bilateral relationship to the next level. It is positive proof that the United States and Kenya are prepared to do the hard but rewarding work to build the relationship to a much higher and stronger level.

Monica Juma, Kenyan Cabinet Secretary for Foreign Affairs and International Trade Ambassador (left) and John J. Sullivan, Deputy Secretary, U.S. Department of State (right).

Joint Statement on the Inaugural U.S.-Kenya Bilateral Strategic Dialogue—May 8, 2019

the two countries committed to deepen economic ties, maximize Kenya’s use of trade benefits under the African Growth and Opportunity Act, and explore a future bilateral trade and investment framework.


he United States and Kenya held the inaugural BSD in Washington, DC, from May 7 to 8, 2019. President Donald J. Trump and President Uhuru M. Kenyatta established the dialogue at the White House on August 27, 2018, when they elevated the bilateral relationship to a strategic partnership. As democracies committed to a rulesbased order, the strategic partnership is grounded in shared values, mutual cooperation, and a common vision for free, open, and secure societies.

The event was preceded by the signing of the BSD framework by Deputy Secretary of State John J. Sullivan and Cabinet Secretary for Foreign Affairs Ambassador Monica Juma. Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs Tibor P. Nagy and Ministry of Foreign Affairs Political and Diplomatic Secretary Ambassador T   om Amolo cochaired the two-day interagency discussions. Building on the inaugural U.S.-Kenya Trade and Investment Working Group meeting held in Washington, DC, from April 3 to 8,

The United States and Kenya agreed to accelerate bilateral talks to expand cargo opportunities under the U.S.-Kenya Open Skies agreement. The two sides highlighted that the U.S. Trade and Development Agency announced two projects to help U.S. companies offer solutions to support economic prosperity in Kenya, including an Emergency Management Reverse Trade Mission and a Global Procurement Initiative Orientation visit. They committed to continue discussions on proposed U.S. private sector infrastructure development in Kenya, including modernizing the Kenyan government’s telecommunications network. The United States applauded Kenya’s commitment to establish a National Public Health Institute. On the subject of defense cooperation, the United States commended the sacrifice of Kenyan Defense Forces in Somalia. Both sides committed to enhance counterterrorism, defense, and maritime surveillance security cooperation through intelligence sharing and capacity building. The two governments reaffirmed their commitment to degrade al-Shabaab

The U.S. and Kenyan teams met at the State Department to discuss ways to advance joint goals under the Bilateral Strategic Dialogue’s four pillars: economic prosperity, trade, and investment; defense cooperation; democracy, governance, and civilian security; and multilateral and regional issues. Finalizing key infrastructure deals, deepening security cooperation, and enhancing civilian security and governance assistance are just a few of the topics the BSD addresses.

and agreed to work with UN Security Council partners to sanction al-Shabaab and other terror groups operating in the Horn of Africa. The United States commended the establishment of the Kenya Coast Guard Service to harness the Blue Economy and safeguard a free, open, and prosperous Indian Ocean region. The United States welcomed Kenya’s interest in hosting a future Cutlass Express regional maritime security exercise and agreed to broaden strategic cooperation in the Indian Ocean Rim Association. The United States and Kenya signed an updated Security Governance Joint Country Action Plan to enhance bilateral cooperation on civilian security, governance, and anticorruption efforts. The United States welcomed Kenya’s commitment to register all refugees and will work with Kenya to fulfill its commitments to ensure refugees have access to health care, education, and livelihoods. Both countries reaffirmed their commitment to the ongoing United Nations reforms led by the UN Secretary General. The United States and Kenya welcomed the Peace Corps assessing the potential for resuming operations in Kenya. The United States and Kenya look forward to the second BSD in Nairobi in 2020.

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AU Ambassador and Twenty-One African Defense Attachés Discuss Security Opportunities and Challenges with U.S. AFRICOM Commander General Waldhasuer

Washington, DC—March 18, 2019


wenty-one Washington, DC-based African Defense Attachés and H.E. Dr. Chihombori-Quao met with U.S. AFRICOM Commander General Thomas D. Waldhauser at Africa House to discuss regional peace and security, U.S. Africa Command’s role in the new National Defense Strategy (NDS), and the value of partner capacity. The parties addressed common security challenges, violent extremist organizations, and U.S. commitment to the region, and later reaffirmed their commitment to continue working together on all fronts. Although the NDS and the U.S. National Security Strategy prioritize Great Power Competition, General Waldhauser said AFRICOM remains committed to building partner capacity and being a partner of choice for Africans. “AFRICOM builds partner forces, seeks to enhance relationships and helps build the capabilities and capacity of African security forces to handle challenges inside their own countries and


region,” said Waldhauser. “The U.S. is actively working to help bring about peace and stability on the continent.” The commander also addressed the group’s concerns surrounding the planned reduction of about 10 percent of U.S. counter-terrorism forces on the continent, also known as Optimization. He stressed that AFRICOM will preserve most of its U.S. security cooperation, partnerships and programs in Africa in order to strengthen partner networks while enhancing capability. The United States Africa Command is one of ten unified combatant commands of the United States Armed Forces, headquartered at Kelley Barracks, Stuttgart, Germany. It is responsible for U.S. military operations, including fighting regional conflicts and maintaining military relations with African nations except for Egypt, which is within the area of responsibility of the United States Central Command. AFRICOM’s engagements across the continent include counter IED (improvised explosive devise) training, an Air Chief Conference in Morocco, legal

Amb. Chihombori-Quao pins the AU insignia on the AFRICOM Commander

training, Cutlass Express [maritime exercise], women peace and security initiatives, to name a few,” said ­Waldhauser. “With Optimization, none of our engagements will go away.” United States Marine Corps General Thomas D. Waldhauser is the fourth Commander of the United States Africa Command. In this capacity, General Waldhauser is responsible for building defense capabilities, responding to crises, deterring and defeating transnational threats in concert with interagency and international partners.

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THE AGENDA Outcome State

of the Ministerial and the 2018 AGOA Forum

of play on AGOA


challenges to the U.S.–Africa trade relations and the effective implementation of AGOA


experiences with AGOA utilization

Perspectives AGOA The

from the Regional Economic Communities

Export Guide

2019 AGOA Forum and proposed program


and the future Dialogue with the U.S. private sector and civil society on AGOA and U.S.–Africa trade and investment relations Dialogue with Congressional Staff on the effective utilization of AGOA and U.S. Trade Policy Dialogue with U.S. Administration on the U.S. Policy toward Africa, the effective utilization of AGOA, and the future of U.S.–Africa relations Dialogue with the think tank community on AGOA

Meeting attendees included the African Union Commissioner for Trade and Industry, His Excellency Albert Muchanga (at podium), Ambassadors from the African Ambassadors Group in Washington, and representatives from the UN Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA), the World Bank, and the International Trade Center of Geneva.

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FAREWELL TO AMBASSADOR ROBSON Ambassador Eric Andriamihajamananirina Robson departs Washington, invites Americans to visit and invest in Madagascar


mbassador Eric A. Robson’s tenure in Washington, DC, came to an end in the spring of 2019. In an interview with him before his departure, he highlighted gains made in Madagascar-U.S. relations, efforts to attract tourists and investors to Madagascar, and developments at the AU level. His most passionate pitch, however, was his invitation to Americans to visit the island nation, first as visitors, and then as investors. “Madagascar has a very unique diversity in terms of fauna and flora. Ninety percent of the flora in Madagascar is endemic to the country. So, it is very interesting for those researchers in terms of ecotourism and environmental issues to go to Madagascar and see that. Just to give you some examples, there are nine or eight species of baobabs in the world and seven of them are in ­Madagascar. What I want them to really do is to visit the country. There is a lot of information on the internet and in magazines, but you have to go there to really experience it. Air access is now easy. Kenya Airways, ­Ethiopian Airlines, and Turkish Airlines have easy flights to Tana (Antananarivo). In terms of opportunities for investors, some American companies and popular brands already know Madagascar and do business there, but once again, I would invite investors to explore Madagascar.”


VISIT MADAGASCAR Antananarivo (Capital City) Highland Hideaways in the Rainforest

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Photos: Shutterstock

Madagascar is an island country in the Indian Ocean, approximately 400 kilometers off the coast of East Africa. The nation comprises the island of Madagascar and numerous smaller peripheral islands. It has more natural resources per square foot and more endemic flora and fauna than any other country in the world.



His Excellency Sidique Abou-Bakarr Wai (Republic of Sierra Leone)

Ambassador Sidique Abou-Bakarr Wai assumed office as Sierra Leone’s Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to the United States of America on February 12, 2019. He presented his Letters of Credence to President Donald J. Trump on April 8, 2019. During the past two decades prior to his appointment, he served as the lead Diaspora person in the United States, contributing to the development and welfare of Sierra Leone at critical times such as during the civil war (1991–2002) and during the Ebola crisis (2013–2016). His well-known leadership has been in the areas of diplomacy, public safety, public health care advocacy, community relations, and social empowerment. Some of the offices he held include President of the United African Congress and Community Affairs Analyst and Adviser to the Executives of the New York City Police Department (NYPD). Ambassador Sidique Abou-Bakarr Wai was born and raised in Sierra Leone, however, he brings his personal experience and knowledge as a Diaspora leader into his new office as ambassador.

Ambassador Samba Mamadou Ba presented his Letters of Credence to President Donald Trump on April 8, 2019. He is a recipient of Mauritania’s Knight of the National Order of Merit and was decorated by His Excellency the President of the Republic, on November 28, 2016 (Mauritania National Day). Ambassador Ba served as Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania to Sudan and Central African Republic (resident in Khartoum) until April 2017. From April 2013 to April 2017, he was Ambassador, Director of International Cooperation, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation, and Ambassador, Director of American and Asian Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation from July 2011 to April 2013. Between October 2007 and July 2011, he was the Deputy Director of the American and Asian Affairs at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation and was Advisor to the General Commissioner for the Promotion of Investment prior to that. He is fluent in French and English and has intermediate proficiency in Arabic and Spanish.

His Excellency Fitsum Arega Gebrekidan (Republic of Ethiopia)


His Excellency Samba Mamadou Ba (Republic of Mauritania)

Ambassador Fitsum Arega Gebrekidan presented his Letters of Credence to President Donald Trump on April 8, 2019. He is Ethiopia’s fifteenth ambassador to the United States of America. He is the immediate past Chief of Staff to Ethiopian Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed (April to November 2018) as well as the former Commissioner of the Ethiopian Investment Commission (2013–2018). As Chief of Staff, he assisted in restructuring federal government agencies and steering the prime minister’s office. Under his leadership, the Investment Commission played a catalytic role in Ethiopia’s rapid economic growth, resulting in net FDI increase to over USD 4 billion in 2018 from approximately USD 1 billion in 2012. During his tenure, he promoted Ethiopia as an investment and sourcing destination, traveling to over 40 countries and meeting with global businesses and brand leaders. Prior to these appointments, he served as Head of the Addis Ababa Investment Agency and Head of the Addis Ababa Trade and Industry Bureau and has served in different public enterprises as a board chairperson and member.

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Ambassador Monica Ndiliawike Nashandi is a Namibian diplomat and politician. She presented her credentials to President Trump on January 11, 2019, and has served as Namibia’s ambassador since then. Following Namibia’s independence in 1990, Nashandi served as Deputy Chief of Protocol in the State House of Namibia prior to her appointment to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs as Undersecretary for Political and Economic Affairs. From 1995 to 1999, she was Namibia’s ambassador to Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland, and Iceland. From 1999 to 2005, she served as her country’s High Commissioner to the United Kingdom and Ireland.

Her Excellency Monica Ndiliawike Nashandi (Republic of Namibia)

Nashandi has also served as the Acting Non-Executive Chairman of the Board at Trustco Group Holdings Limited. Trustco Group Holdings is a publicly traded company that provides microinsurance and financial services. In November 2007, Nashandi was named to the board of directors of Africo, a Namibian engineering firm. At the time of her appointment, she was the only female on the board.

Ambassador George S.W. Patten, Sr., is a career diplomat with more than two decades of experience in the Liberian Foreign Service. He presented his credentials to President Trump on January 11, 2019. He served in various capacities at the Liberian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and rose through the ranks of the Liberian Foreign Service. Prior to his appointment as Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Liberia to the United States, Ambassador Patten served as Charge d’Affaires, a.i. at the Permanent Mission of Liberia to the United Nations in New York and Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of Liberia to Ethiopia and Kenya. He also served as Permanent Representative of Liberia to the African Union and the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa. Ambassador Patten previously served as Minister Counsellor in charge of political and legal affairs at the Permanent Mission of Liberia to the United Nations. He also held other diplomatic assignments in West, North, and East Africa as Counselor and First Secretary.

His Excellency Abdallah Wafy (Republic of Niger)

His Excellency George Patten, Sr. (Republic of Liberia)

Ambassador Abdallah Wafy arrived in Washington, DC, for his assignment in April 2019. He presented his Letters of Credence to President Donald J. Trump on July 8, 2019. Ambassador Wafy is a Nigerien civil servant and diplomat who served as the United Nations Secretary General’s Deputy Special Representative for the Democratic Republic of the Congo of the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo from June 2013 until his recent appointment. He held a range of highranking positions in the Government of Niger, including Senior Security Adviser to the Minister for Interior, Public Safety, and Decentralization; Inspector General of Police; Special Security Adviser to the President; and Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to Libya and Permanent Representative of the Community of Sahel-Saharan States in Tripoli.

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J FASHIONING SENEGALESE WOMEN On Exhibit at the Smithsonian National Museum of African Art, Washington, DC, Through September 21, 2019 Gold Jewelry Sculpture Paintings Textiles Butterfly necklace pendant (1930s–1950s) Gold-plated silver alloy Wolof or Tukulor artist—Dakar, Senegal


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ewelry Acts For urban women in Senegal, jewelry is more than a showy trinket or decoration. It has long been a means for fashioning a cosmopolitan identity of power and prestige. Adhering to the Wolof concept and practice of sañse—dressing up and looking and feeling good—a woman in a place like Dakar, for example, selects specific gold jewelry to assemble a carefully tailored, elegant fashion ensemble. The artworks in Good as Gold can be understood not in the fragmentary state in which we see them here, but as part of a broader constellation of identity, nationhood, politics, wealth, and individual taste. Fundamental to larger social and economic processes that are constantly changing, gold jewelry can reveal deeper histories and practices in Senegalese life, particularly for the women who commission, buy, wear, and remake them. These expressions contribute to an ongoing international dialogue that pulls from deep roots in a rich regional history. Sañse, then, is the whole ensemble—a totality that takes into consideration a network of interconnected meanings and associations, both local and global, that is driven by women. Good as Gold, grounded in the research and collection of art historian Marian Ashby Johnson, is the first in-depth exhibition to explore the history of Senegal’s gold, from past to present, and the beauty and complexity of the way Senegalese women present themselves. For more information, go to

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n Tuesday, April 23, 2019, the Embassy of the Republic of Haiti and the Washington, DC, Mayor’s Office on African Affairs, hosted a conversation with women in the fields of technology and science in the African Diaspora. According to Ambassador Hervé H. Denis, Chargé d’Affaires, the partnership “is part of the embassy’s larger mission to deepen engagement with the larger community, particularly those who share their history.” Panelists included Priscilla Mutembwa (Vice President, U.S.-Africa Cybersecurity Group), Emmanuella Nhyirani (scientist, researcher, and instructor), and Angel Rich (founder and CEO, The . Wealth Factory). Dr. Pape Cisse, Chief Information Officer for the National Community Services moderated the event.

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Wa s h i n g t on N ews

Addis Ababa and Washington, DC, Strengthen Ties


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n Tuesday, April 30, 2019, Washington, DC, Mayor Muriel Bowser met with Deputy Mayor Takele Uma Banti of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The two discussed ways to strengthen Addis-DC Sister City agreement. They also explored new partnerships to advance their respective cities and exchanged ideas and best practices on issues ranging from tourism, metropolitan planning, and transport management. Deputy Mayor Banti invited Mayor Bowser to Addis Ababa later this year.

Addis Ababa and Washington, DC, are both national capitals with a lot in common. The Addis Ababa–Washington, DC, agreement was signed in 2013 by the respective mayors at the time, Addis Ababa’s Diriba Kuma and District of Columbia’s Vincent C. Gray. The areas of cooperation include cultural, economic development, public health, and governance. Accra (Ghana), Pretoria (South Africa), and Dakar (Senegal) are other African cities with existing agreements with Washington, DC.

Mayors Vincent Gray and Diriba Kuma toasting the signing of a sister city agreement between the respective cities. December 11, 2013. (Photo by Matt Andrea)

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Language as culture is the collective memory bank of a people’s experience in history


he Africa Society of the National Summit on Africa hosted “An Evening with Ngũg|˜ wa Thiong’o” (Jioni na Ngũg|˜ wa Thiong’o) on Thursday, May 9, 2019, at the James Madison Building, Library of Congress, Washington, DC. The event was a celebration of the literary and cultural achievements of “one of the greatest writers of our time,” as articulated by Chimamanda Adichie. A perennial favorite to win the Nobel Prize for Literature, Ngũg˜| wa Thiong’o is an award-winning, world-renowned Kenyan novelist, scholar, and playwright who has been publishing for over 50 years and in over thirty-two languages. In a multigenerational celebration of his achievements, aspiring high school students read excerpts from his works in Gikuyu and English. The Conversations with African Poets and Writers Series is a partnership of the African and Middle Eastern Division of the Library of Congress, the Africa Society of the National Summit on Africa, and the African Studies Center at Howard University. The series has featured other African literary giants including Chinua Achebe and Ali Mazrui.


Ngũg|˜ wa Thiong’o’s powerful prison memoir begins literally half an hour before his release on December 12, 1978. In one extended flashback he recalls the night, a year earlier, when armed police pulled him from his home and jailed him | ˜ | Maximum Security in Kenya’s Kam˜t Prison, one of the largest in Africa. There, he lives in a prison block with eighteen other political prisoners, quarantined from the general prison population. In a conscious effort to fight back against the humiliation and the intended degradation of his spirit, Ngũg˜| decides to write a novel on toilet paper, the only paper to which he has access, a book that will become his classic, Devil on the Cross. Written in the early 1980s and never before published in America, Wrestling | with the Devil is Ngũg˜’s account of the drama and the challenges of writing the novel under twenty-four–hour surveillance. He captures not only the excruciating pain that comes from being cut off from his wife and children, but also the spirit of defiance that defines hope. Ultimately, Wrestling with the Devil is a testimony to the power of imagination to help humans break free of confinement, which is truly the story of all art.

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Leading Washington Insurance Broker Advises African Governments and Diplomatic Missions on Acquiring and Using Insurance in the United States Lawrence Muraya, Chief Executive Officer of FrontPoint Group says he has witnessed African governments and their embassies in Washington, DC either throw away taxpayer money, or being overcharged by unethical agents in and around Washington. He attributes this trend to a number of reasons and calls on African governments and embassies to use insurance more efficiently, to their advantage. “The insurance companies are there to maximize profits for their shareholders. It is the responsibility of each government and their embassy in Washington to shop around, cross check information received from brokers, and negotiate to their advantage. Beware of brokers who promise your embassy a huge discount. Could this be your own money?” Muraya’s Notes Lawrence Muraya is Chief Executive O ­ fficer of FrontPoint Group. He is regarded as one of the most insightful insurance advisors in the healthcare industry. He is committed to delivering value to clients and insurance carriers, leveraging skills in problem-­solving, resource management, and unparalleled experience gained at the world’s top global investment banks. Supported by a team of experienced healthcare professionals in pharmaceutical, compliance, clinical and legal experts he has been able to deliver A+ services and commitment that have always exceeded his clients expectations.

1.  Whose Helping You? It’s a different market and African diplomats must do proper research before engaging an intermediary for their health, auto, and property and casualty insurance needs. 2.  Engage the Insurance Commissioner (Regulator) The insurance regulators are there to serve the community. Know who they are, meet with them, ask questions, ask them for more carriers, complain about monopoly in the market, and give them feedback on your agents. 3.  Use Economies of Scale Purchase insurance on a global level. Foreign Ministries should consider purchasing plans that serve all their diplomats abroad, instead of buying individual plans in multiple countries. There are insurance companies that have global reach. Centralizing insurance to a single plan will result in a single audit and will save your government money. 4.  Be Confident In Your African Identity African embassies and diplomats in the United States are no less than their counterparts from Europe or Asia etc. Negotiate as though you matter, because you do. Know where to put your money. 5.  Leverage the African Ambassador’s Group African embassies and diplomats in the United States are significant in number and represent an important percentage in the insurance market. Negotiate with insurance companies as one block, not individual embassies/missions.



Center Three—Mamadou Samba, Director of the DC Mayor’s Office on African Affairs; Ambassador Fitsum Arega Gebrekidan of Ethiopia; and Ambassador Dr. Chihombori-Quao with Grand Africa Run Organizers During the 2019 Launch at Africa House—April 30, 2019


he Grand African Run is an annual fundraiser 5K fun run/walk held in Washington, DC, to support Africa-based charities focusing on children’s education. The event is open to everyone over the age of 11, and participants have an opportunity to run alongside world-famous athletes of African origin as well as musicians, politicians, actors, speakers, and religious leaders. Children under age 11 participate in a separate 1K walk/run. The 2019 run is scheduled to take place on Sunday, July 21, at the Yards Park, 355 Water Street SE, Washington, DC 20003.

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ojo Yankah is a journalist, creative writer, author of nine books, pan-Africanist, and founder of the African University College of Communications in Accra, Ghana.

Through this book he narrates the painful struggles of Africans to earn equality, justice and freedom - from the slave dungeons in Africa (Jamestown) to Jamestown, Virginia with hindsight of their proud hidden African civilization. From Jamestown to Jamestown: Letters to an African Child, is a thoughtfully refreshing account of African history that pensively reflects the ancestral wisdom of our African forebears that urges lions to tell their own stories instead of relying on stories that hunters always tell to glorify themselves, at the ruinous expense of lions.

AFRICAN EMBASSIES DIRECTORY ALGERIA 2118 Kalorama Rd NW Washington, DC 20008 202-265-2800 Ambassador Madjid Bouguerra

CHAD 2401 Massachusetts Ave NW Washington, DC 20008 202-652-1312 Ambassador Ngote Gali Koutou

ERITREA 1708 New Hampshire Ave NW Washington, DC 20009 202-319-1991 Chargé d’affaires Berhane Solomon

ANGOLA 2100 16th St NW Washington, DC 20009 202-785-1156 Ambassador Joaquim do Espírito Santo

COMOROS 866 United Nations Plaza New York, NY 10017 212-750-1637 Ambassador Soilih Mohamed Soilih

ESWATINI 1712 New Hampshire Ave NW Washington, DC 20009 202-234-5002 Ambassador Njabuliso Gwebu

BENIN 2124 Kalorama Rd NW Washington, DC 20008 202-232-6656 Chargé d’affaires Gafari Dango BOTSWANA 1531 New Hampshire Ave NW Washington, DC 20036 202-244-4990 Ambassador David John Newman BURKINA FASO 2340 Massachusetts Ave NW Washington, DC 20008 202-332-5577 Ambassador Seydou Kabore BURUNDI 2233 Wisconsin Ave NW #408 Washington, DC 20007 202-342-2574 Chargé d’affaires Mr. Benjamin Manirakiza CAMEROON 3007 Tilden St NW Washington, DC 20008 202-265-8790 Ambassador Étoundi Essomba CAPE VERDE 3415 Massachusetts Ave NW Washington, DC 20007 202-965-6820 Ambassador Carlos Wahnon Veiga CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC 2704 Ontario Rd NW Washington, DC 20009 202-483-7800 Ambassador Martial Ndoubou


CONGO 1720 16th St NW Washington, DC 20009 202-726-5500 Ambassador Serge Mombouli

ETHIOPIA 3506 International Dr NW Washington, DC 20008 202-364-1200 Ambassador Fitsum Arega Gebrekidan

COTE D’IVOIRE 2424 Massachusetts Ave NW Washington, DC 20008 202-797-0300 Ambassador Haïdara Mamadou

GABON 2034 20th St NW Washington DC, 20009 202-797-1000 Ambassador Michael Moussa-Adamo

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO 1100 Connecticut Ave NW #725 Washington, DC 20036 202-234-7690 Ambassador François Nkuna Balumuene DJIBOUTI 1156 15th St NW #515 Washington, DC 20005 202-331-0270 Ambassador Mohamed Siad Doualeh EGYPT 3521 International Ct NW Washington, DC 20008 202-895-5400 Ambassador Yasser Reda EQUATORIAL GUINEA 2020 16th St NW Washington, DC 20009 202-518-5700 Ambassador Miguel Ntutumu Evuna Andeme

GAMBIA 5630 16th St NW Washington, DC 20011 202-785-1379 Ambassador Dawda D. Fadera GHANA 3512 International Dr NW Washington, DC 20008 202-686-4520 Ambassador Dr. Barfour Adjei-Barwuah GUINEA 2112 Leroy Pl NW Washington, DC 20008 202-986-4300 Ambassador Kerfalla Yansane KENYA 2249 R St NW Washington, DC 20008 202-387-6101 Ambassador Robinson Njeru Githae LESOTHO 2511 Massachusetts Ave NW Washington, DC 20008 202-797-5533 Ambassador Gabriel Sankatana Maja

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LIBERIA 5201 16th St NW Washington, DC 20011 202-723-0437 Ambassador George S.W. Patten, Sr. LIBYA 1460 Dahlia St NW Washington, DC 20012 202-944-9601 Ambassador Wafa Bughaighis MADAGASCAR 2374 Massachusetts Ave NW Washington, DC 20008 202-265-5525 Chargé d’affaires Velotiana Raobelina MALAWI 2408 Massachusetts Ave NW Washington, DC 20008 202-721-0270 Ambassador Edward Yakobe Sawerengera MALI 2130 R St NW Washington, DC 20008 202-332-2249 Ambassador Mahamadou Nimaga MAURITANIA 2129 Leroy Pl NW Washington, DC 20008 202-232-5700 Ambassador Samba Mamadou Ba MAURITIUS 1709 N St NW Washington, DC 20036 202-244-1491 Ambassador Sooroojdev Phokeer MOROCCO 3508 International Drive NW Washington, DC 20008 202-462-7979 Ambassador Her Highness Princess Lalla Joumala MOZAMBIQUE 1525 New Hampshire Ave NW Washington, DC 20036 202-293-7146 Ambassador Carlos Dos Santos

NAMIBIA 1605 New Hampshire Ave NW Washington, DC 20009 202-986-0540 Ambassador Monica Ndiliawike Nashandi NIGER 2204 R St NW Washington, DC 20008 202-483-4224 Ambassador Abdallah Wafy NIGERIA 3519 International Ct NW Washington, DC 20008 202-516-4277 Ambassador Sylvanus Adiewere Nsofor RWANDA 1875 Connecticut Ave NW #540 Washington, DC 20009 202-232-2882 Ambassador Professor Mathilde Mukantabana SAO TOME AND PRINCIPE 675 Third Avenue, Suite 1807 New York, NY 10017 646-623-6606 SENEGAL 2215 M St NW Washington, DC 20037 202-234-0540 Ambassador Dr. Momar Diop SEYCHELLES 685 3rd Avenue, Ste 1107 New York, NY 10017 212-972-1785 Ambassador Ronald Jumeau SIERRA LEONE 1701 19th St NW Washington, DC 20009 202-939-9261 Ambassador Sidique Abou Bakarr Wai SOMALIA 1705 Desales St NW Washington, DC 20036 202-296-0570 Chargé d’affaires Run Korshel

SOUTH AFRICA 3051 Massachusetts Ave NW Washington, DC 20008 202-232-4400 Ambassador Mninwa Mahlangu SOUTH SUDAN 1015 31st St NW #300 Washington, DC 20007 202-293-7940 Ambassador Phillip Jada Natana SUDAN 2210 Massachusetts Ave NW Washington, DC 20008 202-338-8565 Chargé d’affaires Mohamed A. Abbas TANZANIA 1232 22nd St NW Washington, DC 20037 202-939-6125 Ambassador Wilson Masilingi TOGO 2208 Massachusetts Ave NW Washington, DC 20008 202-234-4212 Ambassador Frédéric Hegbe TUNISIA 1515 Massachusetts Ave NW Washington, DC 20005 202-862-1850 Ambassador Fayçal Gouiaa UGANDA 5911 16th St NW Washington, DC 20011 202-726-7100 Ambassador Mull Sebujja Katende ZAMBIA 2200 R St NW Washington, DC 20008 202-234-4111 Ambassador Dr. Ngosa Simbyakula ZIMBABWE 1608 New Hampshire Ave NW Washington, DC 20009 202-332-7100 Ambassador Ammon M. Mutembwa

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NATIONAL INVESTMENT ORGANIZATIONS: OFFICIAL INVESTMENT AND DEVELOPMENT AGENCIES OF AFRICAN UNION MEMBER STATES People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria ANDI, Route Nationale No 5 Cinq Maisons Mohammadia Algiers, Algeria T: +213 (0)21 52 20 15 E:

Republic of Angola

Agencia Nacional para o Investimento Privado T: 001 202 962 0380 E:

Republic of Benin

Centre de Promotion des Investissements du Benin Cotonou 01 BP 2022 T: +229 21 30 30 62 E:

Benin Chamber of Commerce and Industry 01 BP 31 Cotonou, Republique du Bénin T: (229) 21 31 43 86 E:

UK Office Consulate of Benin Millennium Business Centre Humber Road London, NW2 6DW United Kingdom T: +44 (0)20 8830 8612 E:

US Office 2124 Kalorama Road NW Washington, DC, 20008 United States T: 202 232 6656 E:


Republic of Botswana

Botswana Export Development and Investment Authority (BEDIA)

Republic of Burundi

API – Agence Burundaise de Promotion des Investissements

Plot 28 Matsitama Road PO Box 3122 Gaborone, Botswana T: +267 318 1931 E:

South Africa office RSA 88 Stella Street 3rd Floor Building 2 Sandown Me ws PO Box 781371 Sandton, South Africa T: +2711 884 8959 E:

3 Salah, Salem Road Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt T: (+202) 2405 5428 E:

Republic of Cape Verde

Palácio das Comunidades Palace of Communities Achada Santo António Beach CP 237 Cape Verde T: +2607911 E:

UK office Montle Phuthego 6 Stratford Place London, W1C 1AY United Kingdom T: +44 (0)20 7499 0031 E:

Central African Republic

Ministère de l’Economie, du Plan et de la Coopération Internationale Rue Luther King, Bangui, Central African Republic BP 696 T: +236 21 61 78 11 / +236 75 57 E:

India office No 43 Maker Chamber VI Nariman Point Mumbai 400 021 India T: +91 2243 602100 E:

Republic of Chad

Burkina Faso

Office National de Commerce Extérieur Direction de la Normalisation et de la Promotion de la Qualité Immeuble APEX – Burkina (ex ONAC) 30 Avenue de l’UEMOA BP 389 BF-Ouagadougou 01 T: (+226) 50 31 13 00 E:

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Ministère du Commerce et de l’Artisanat Palais du Gouvernement PO Box 4546 N’Djaména, Chad T: +235 52 21 99 Division de l’Industrie T: +235 52 21 79 / +235 52 27 33 Direction du Commerce T: +235 52 30 49 E:

Republic of Cameroon

Cellule de Gestion du Code des Investissements (CGCI) BP 15304 Douala, Cameroon T: (+237) 342 5946 E:

Union of the Comoros

Comoros National Investment Promotion Agency T: +269 77 38 570 E:

Republic of the Congo

Republic of Djibouti Invest in Djibouti

Rue de Marseille 1884 Djibouti, Republic of Djibouti T: +253 31 21 02 E:

Arab Republic of Egypt

General Authority for Investment in Egypt (GAFI) T: +202 2405 5452 E:

State of Eritrea

Ministry of Foreign Affairs Government of the Republic of Congo BP 2070 Brazzaville, Democratic Republic of the Congo T: 00242 814160 / 00242 814161 / 00242 814162

Department of Foreign Trade Ministry of Trade and Industry PO Box 1844 Asmara, Eritrea T: +291 12 66 94

Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia

Republic of Côte d’Ivoire Centre de Promotion des Investissements en Côte d’Ivoire

Ethiopian Investment Agency PO Box 2313 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia T: +251 11 5510033 E:

5ème Étage Immeuble CCIA Boîte Postale 152 Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire T: +225 20 21 40 70 E:

Gabonese Republic

Finatra – La Financière Transafricaine

Democratic Republic of the Congo Agence Nationale pour la Promotion des Investissements

Avenue Colonel Ebeya, No 54 2nd Floor Immeuble de la Reconstruction (ex-Sozabanque) Kinshasa / Gombe Democratic Republic of the Congo T: +243 99 99 25 026 E:

Bord de Mer BP 8645 Libreville, Gabonese Republic T: +241 77 40 82 E:

Fodex – Fonds de Dévelopment et d’Expansion des Pme-Pmi

APIP – Agence de Promotion des Investissements Privés Boulevard du Bord de Mer BP 13740 Libreville, Gabonese Republic T: +241 76 87 65

Republic of the Gambia The Gambia Investment and Export Promotion Agency GEIPA House 48a Kairaba Avenue Serrekunda, KMC PO Box 757 Banjul, The Gambia T: +220 4377377 E:

Republic of Ghana

Ghana Investment Promotion Centre Public Services Commission Building Ministries Accra, Ghana T: +233 302 665 125 E:

Republic of Guinea

Guinea Private Investment Promotion Office – OPIP T: +224 41 49 85

Republic of Guinea-Bissau Ministry of Economy and Finance

Private Investment Promotion Office Rua Justino Lopes 74a Bissau CP 67 T: +245 20 36 70 / +245 25 48 07

Route de l’Aéroport BP 3896 Libreville, Gabonese Republic T: +241 44 42 30

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Republic of Kenya

Kenya Investment Authority Kenya Railways Headquarters Block D, 4th Floor Workshop Road PO Box 55704-00200 City Square Nairobi, Kenya T: +254 (20) 2221 4014 E:

Kingdom of Lesotho

Lesotho National Development Corporation LNDC Headquarters Block A, Development House Kingsway Street Maseru, Lesotho, 100 T: +266 22312012 / +266 52000214 E: /

Republic of Liberia

National Investment Commission Airfield, New Road Chesseman Avenue Sinkor, Monrovia Liberia T: +231 77 333 222 / 78 73001 E:


LIDC Tripoli Tower 9th Floor Office No 99 Tripoli, Libya T: 00 2 1821 335 1034

Republic of Madagascar Economic Development Board of Madagascar

Immeuble EDBM Avenue Gal Gabriel Ramanantsoa Antaninarenina Antananarivo, Madagascar T: +261 20 22 670 40 / 681 21 E:


Republic of Malawi

Malawi Investment and Trade Centre (MITC) Aquarius House – First floor Private Bag 302 Capital City Lilongwe 3 MALAWI Tel : (265) 1 770 800 / 771 315 Fax: (265) 1 771 781 E-mail : Web:

Republic of Niger

La Commission des Affaires Étrangères de la Coopération Place de la Concertation BP 12234 Niamey, Niger T: +227 20 72 27 38 E:

Federal Republic of Nigeria Nigerian Investment Promotion Commission


Agence Pour la Promotion des Investissements au Mali Quartier du Fleuve BP 1980 Bamako République du Mali T: +223 20 22 95 25 E:

Plot 1181 Aguiyi Ironsi Street Maitama District PMB 381 Garki Abuja, Nigeria T: +234 290 4882 E:

Republic of Rwanda

Rwanda Development Board Boulevard de l’Umuganda Gishushu, Nyarutarama Road PO Box 6239 Kigali, Rwanda T: +250 252 580 388 E:

Republic of Mauritania

Republic of Mauritius Board of Investment 10th Floor

One Cathedral Square Building 16 Jules Koenig Street Port Louis, Republic of Mauritius T: +230 203 3800 E:

Republic of Senegal

52-54 Rue Mohamed V BP 430 CP 18524 Dakar RP, Senegal T: +221 33 849 05 55 E:

Republic of Mozambique Rua da Imprensa 332 R/C Maputo, Mozambique T: +258 21313310

Republic of Seychelles

Republic of Namibia

Namibia Investment Centre Ministry of Trade and Industry Block B, Brendan Simbwaye Square Goethe Street Private Bag 13340 Windhoek, Namibia T: +264 61 283 7335 E:

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Seychelles Investment Bureau Caravelle House 2nd Floor Manglier Street PO Box 1167 Victoria, Mahe Republic of Seychelles T: +248 295500 / 295502 E:

Republic of Sierra Leone Sierra Leone Investment and Export Promotion Agency O.A.U. Drive Tower Hill Freetown, Sierra Leone T: +232 22 220788 E:

Somali Republic

Somali Business and Investment Council Cinwaanka Golaha Djibouti City PO Box 2693 Republic of Djibouti T: +253 35 46 48 E:

Republic of South Africa Department of Trade and Industry 77 Meintjies Street Sunnyside, Pretoria Gauteng 0002 South Africa T: +27 (12) 394 9500 E:

Republic of Sudan

Ministry of Investment Khartoum – West Hilton T: +249 787193 E:

Kingdom of Swaziland (Eswatini)

Swaziland Investment Promotions Authority 1st Floor Nkhotfotjeni Buliding Cnr Msakato & Dezeliwe Street Mbabane, Swaziland T: +268 2404 0470/2/3/4

United Republic of Tanzania

Tanzania Investment Centre TIC House Shabaan Rober Street PO Box 938 Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Zanzibar Investment Promotion Authority PO Box 2286 Zanzibar T: +255 (0) 24 223 3026 E:

Togolese Republic

Sociéte d’Administration des Zones Franches 2564 Avenue de la Chance BP 3250 Lome, Togo T: +228 253 53 69 E:

Tunisian Republic

Foreign Investment Promotion Agency Rue Slaheddine El Ammami Centre Urbain Nord 1004 Tunis, Tunisia T: +216 71 752 540 E:

Republic of Uganda

Uganda Investment Authority The Investment Centre Plot 22B Lumumba Avenue TWED Plaza PO Box 7418 Kampala, Uganda T: +256 414 301000 E:

Republic of Zambia

Zambia Development Agency Privatization House Nasser Road PO Box 30819 Lusaka, Zambia T: +260 211 222 858 E:

Republic of Zimbabwe Zimbabwe Investment Authority Investment House 109 Rotten Row PO Box 5950 Harare, Zimbabwe T: +263 4757 E:

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H.E. Dr. Arikana Chihombori-Quao Permanent Representative to the United States

Tarek Ben Youssef Senior Political Officer

Seraphine Manirambona Policy Officer

Adewale Ogunsuyi Administrative and Finance Officer

Feteh Tebeje Communications Consultant

Miriam Menda Administrative Officer

Josepha Musabyemariya Secretary

Gilles Makon Transportation

Collins Rusingiza Transportation

Golmame Tefera Security/Protocol

THE YEAR of RETURN NOTABLE QUOTES “I didn't know I was a slave until I found out I couldn't do the things I wanted.” Frederick Douglass “I am not ashamed of my grandparents for having been slaves. I am only ashamed of myself for having at one time been ashamed.” Ralph Ellison “I think we must get rid of slavery or we must get rid of freedom.” Ralph Waldo Emerson “The moment the slave resolves that he will no longer be a slave, his fetters fall. Freedom and slavery are mental states.” Mahatma Gandhi “If slavery is not wrong, nothing is wrong.” Abraham Lincoln “My ancient faith teaches me that ‘all men are created equal; and that there can be no moral right in connection with one man’s making a slave of another.” Abraham Lincoln “Where slavery is there liberty cannot be; and where Liberty is there Slavery cannot be.” Charles Sumner

Invest in Africa magazine is published by AMIP News Africa Media-Image Project, Inc. Publishers of:  United States & Africa Relations: The Obama Presidency (2017) United States & Ghana: Celebrating 50 Years of Friendship & Progress  (2010/2012)  United States & Nigeria: Celebrating 50 Years of Friendship & Progress (2010) Web: Email: PO Box 1090 Washington, DC 20013-1090 Tel: +1 (202) 460 3912 | +1 (202) 460 3906 Fax: +1 (267) 873 9074

“I had crossed the line. I was free; but there was no one to welcome me to the land of freedom. I was a stranger in a strange land.” Harriet Tubman “When we oppress others, we end up oppressing ourselves. All of our humanity is dependent upon recognizing the humanity in others.” Desmond Tutu “Like slavery and apartheid, poverty is not natural. It is man-made and it can be overcome and eradicated by the actions of human beings.” Nelson Mandela Background Photo: St. George’s Castle, Elmina, Ghana


WRITERS AND CONTRIBUTORS H.E. Abdel Fattah El-Sisi President of the Republic of Egypt and African Union Chairperson

Dr. Benedict Okey Oramah President, African Export-Import Bank (AFREXIM Bank)

AU Commission

H.E. Moussa Faki Mahamat Chairperson of the African Union Commission

Nikki Martin President, International Association of Geophysical Contractors (IAGC)

iStock by Getty Images

Fodei Batty, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Political Science Quinnipiac University in Hamden, Connecticut

United Nations Press Office

H.E. Thomas Kwesi Quartey Deputy Chairperson of the African Union Commission H.E. Dr. Arikana Chihombori-Quao African Union Permanent Representative to the United States H.E. Albert Muchanga Commissioner for Trade and Industry, African Union Commission H.E. Paul Kagame President of Rwanda

CeLillianne Green Lawyer and Poet Doug Criss CNN Ivanka Trump Advisor to President Donald J. Trump Michael R. Pompeo US Secretary of State

AU Mission, Washington, DC


Douglas Henderson Doors of No Return Collections Quinnipiac University Shutterstock The White House US Department of State Wikipedia Cartoon Movement Diaspora African Forum (DAF)

H.E. Dr. Erieka Bennett Founder and Head of Diaspora African Forum (DAF)

Ambassador Eric Andriamihaja Robson Embassy of Madagascar

Ahmed El-Basheer A. El-Madani Director, Citizens and Diaspora Directorate (CIDO)

Takele Uma Banti Deputy Mayor of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Brookings Institute

H.E. António Guterres UN Secretary General

Ambassador Eric A. Robson Madagascar

New York Public Library

Makhtar Diop Vice President for Infrastructure, World Bank Vice President for Africa (20122018), World Bank

Ngũgĩ wa Thiong’o

Quartz Africa

ward-winning, world-renowned A Kenyan writer and academic

National Museum of

Sérgio Pimenta Vice President for Middle East and Africa, International Finance Corporation (IFC) Frederick Nnoma-Addison President and CEO, AMIP News Commissioner on African Affairs, State of Maryland H.H. Princess Lalla Joumala Ambassador of the Kingdom of Morocco to the United States

Landry Signé and Brahima Sangafowa Coulibaly David M. Rubenstein Fellows— (Global Economy and Development)—Africa Growth Initiative of the Brookings Institute Steven Mintz The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History Others The World Bank Group Africa Region Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC)

EDITORIAL TEAM LEAD Managing Editor Frederick Nnoma-Addison

Content Editor Beryl Nnoma-Addison

International Association of Geophysical Contractors (IAGC)

Max and Maggies Studios

African Art DC Mayor’s Office of African Affairs

DESIGN AND PRODUCTION AMIP Productions Washington, DC Progressive Publishing Services York, PA Printed by Innovative Technologies in Print (ITP), USA, Inc. Elizabethtown, PA

ADVERTS Page(s) vv 39

Winvestnet / AMDIE

vv 50–51

Grand Africa Tour

vv 58–59 Investment Sectors vv 70–71 African Diaspora Centers of Excellence “WAKANDA ONE” vv 82 AfroChampions vv 83

Books for Africa

vv 84

International Association of Geophysical Contractors (IAGC)

vv 92

Restore Worldwide, Inc.

vv 93

F7 International Development Inc.

vv 145

FrontPoint Group

vv 147

From Jamestown to Jamestown: Letters to an African Child

Others vv Inside back cover adjacent


vv Inside back cover

South African Airways

vv Back cover

AMDIE / The Kingdom of Morocco

SANKOFA (background design) “Go back and get it” or “it is not wrong to go back for that which you have forgotten.” From the Twi (tch-wee) language of the Akan people of Ghana. Sankofa also refers to the Asante Adinkra symbol represented either by a bird with its head turned backwards while its feet face forward carrying a precious egg in its mouth, or with a stylized heart shape.

DISTRIBUTION AND ADVERTISING Invest in Africa is distributed to African Heads of State, government ministers, and dignitaries from 55 AU member countries at all AU summits. The publication is subsequently delivered throughout the African diaspora community within the United States, via African embassies in Washington, DC, to political, financial, and corporate leaders worldwide, as well as at leading continental and foreign direct investment conferences and seminars globally. To advertise or subscribe to this magazine contact AMIP News via phone, email, or regular mail. + 1 (202) 460 3912 (US) + 1 (202) 460 3906 (US)

Frederick Nnoma-Addison Managing Editor, Invest in Africa President & CEO, AMIP News

PO Box 1090 Washington, DC 20013

Beryl Nnoma-Addison Content Editor, Invest in Africa Vice President, AMIP News


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