SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
SCIENCE PAPER ONE WITH SOLUTION
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PAPER TWO WITH SOLUTION
SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PAPER THREE WITH SOLUTION
CH. NO. 1 SCHOOL OF ELEMENTS
CH. NO. 2 THE MAGIC OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS
CH. NO. 3 ACID BASE CHEMISTRY
CH. NO. 4 ELECTRIC SPARK
CH. NO. 5 ELECTROMAGNETISM
CH. NO. 6 WONDERS OF LIGHT PART - I
CH. NO. 7 WONDERS OF LIGHT PART II
CH. NO. 8 UNDERSTANDING METALS NON METALS
CH. NO. 9 AMAZING WORLD OF CARBON COMPOUNDS
CH. NO. 10 LIFE'S INTERNALSECRETS
CH. NO. 11 REGULATORS OF LIFE
CH. NO. 12 LIFE CYCLE
CH. NO. 13 MAPPING OUR GENES
CH. NO. 14 STRIVING FOR BETTER ENVIRONMENT PART I
CH. NO. 15 STRIVING FOR BETTER ENVIRONMENT PART - II
SCHOOL OF ELEMENTS FILL IN THE BLANKS MATCH THE COLUMN DEFINE GIVE SCIENTIFIC REASONS [Textual] Atomic size increases down the group Metallic character decreases from left to right in a period Elements in the same group show the same valency GIVE SCIENTIFIC REASONS [Non Textual] Chlorine is placed in VII A group in the modern periodic table. Metallic character decreases across a period. Group VII A elements are strong non-metals and group I A elements are strong metals. Non-metallic character increases across a period. Atomic size decreases across a period. The family of noble gases is called as zero group. Valency varies gradually across a period.
ANSWER THE FOLLOWING How could the modern periodic table remove various anomalies of Mendeleev's periodic table? In modern periodic table, which are the metals, non metals and metalloids among the first 20 elements? What are the demerits of Mendeleev's Periodic table? Define atomic size. How does it vary in a period and in a group? Name three elements The atomic number of an element X is 17. Predict : Read the following descriptions and decide whether the element belongs to metal or non-metal. Justify your answer. How do you calculate valency of an element from its electronic configuration ? What should be the position of Hydrogen in the Modern Periodic Table ? Why? How are isotopes of different elements placed in the Modern Periodic Table ? Why is atomic number said to be a fundamental property? Explain the features of Mendeleev's periodic table. Explain the zig-zag line in the periodic table. Explain the modern periodic table. Explain Newlands law of octaves giving examples.
The Magic of Chemical Reactions Fill in the blanks Match the following Define Balanced equation. Endothermic reaction. Exothermic reaction. Corrosion Neutralization reaction. Reduction reaction. Oxidation reaction. Redox reaction. Double displacement reaction. Decomposition reaction. Combination reaction. Chemical equation.
Word equation. Products.
Reactants. Answer the following What is the importance of chemical equation? What do you observe when H2S gas is passed through Cadmium Chloride solution? Name the type of reaction What do you understand by the term "Redox Reactions"? Explain with one example What is corrosion? Do gold ornaments corrode? Justify Give Scientific Reasons. Grills of doors and windows are always painted before they are used Physical states of reactants and products are mentioned while writing a chemical equation. Potassium Ferrocyanide is stored in dark coloured bottles and kept away from sunlight Iron articles rust readily whereas steel which is also mainly made of iron will not undergo corrosion.
Edible oil is not allowed to stand for a long time in an iron or tin container Edible oil is not allowed to stand for a long time in air. Formation of a compound is a chemical change. Conversion of ice into water is a physical change. Chemical change is always associated with exchange of energy. Answer in Brief We feel fresh while on a morning walk in natural surroundings. Why don't we feel the same after 10 a.m. and during rush hours? Write a chemical reaction to support your statement? Explain the following terms Rancidity, Endothermic Reactions, Redox reaction, Neutralization Take finely powdered Zinc and allow it to react with CuSO4 solution. Then take Zinc granules and carry out the same reaction. Which reaction will take place faster and why?
ACID BASE CHEMISTRY FILL IN THE BLANKS Name the carboxylic acids present in
DEFINE Acids. Bases. Saponification. Soap Water of crystallization. Alkali. Weak base. Strong base Weak acid. Strong acid. Universal indicator Indicators.
GIVE SCIENTIFIC REASONS
Sodium bicarbonate is used in fire extinguishers. Baking powder is used in preparation of cakes and breads in bakery industry. The dilution of a concentrated acid should always be done by adding concentrated acid to water and not by adding water to acid.
Acids are stored in containers made of glass or ceramic.
Indicators (with proper examples) pH scale with proper examples Water of crystallisation (with proper examples)
ANSWER THE FOLLOWING How do metal carbonates reacts with acids? Explain detail about Hydronium ion
What is universal indicator? Does Mg(OH)2 react with sodium hydroxide? If not, why? State application (uses) of baking soda How do acids and bases react with each other? What is the name of the process? What product is obtained out of these reactions? State the uses of bleaching powder. State the physical properties of bleaching powder. Write the uses of washing soda. Write the physical properties of washing soda. Write the physical properties of baking soda. Explain the properties of salt. What are olfactory indicators?
What are indicators?
What would happen if (a) a few drops of strongly smelling eucalyptus oil was treated with vinegar. (b) the rain water mixing with river water was found to be having pH less than 7. (c) sonal brushes her teeth with the best quality toothpaste everyday. (d) electrolysis is carried out on sodium chloride solution. (e) copper sulphate is heated. Explain the importance of pH in everyday life.
ELECTRIC SPARK FILL IN THE BLANKS State True or False. If false correct it. Match the column. GIVE SCIENTIFIC REASONS The material used for fuse has low melting point. Wood and glass are good insulators. The melting point of filament of a bulb is very high. Connecting wires in a circuit are made of copper and aluminium. Lightning occurs from sky to earth. Nichrome wire is used in heating device. A parallel combination of resistance decreases the effective resistance of the circuit. A series combination of resistances is used to increase the resistance of a circuit.
A thick wire has a low resistance.
Metals are good conductors of electricity.
DEFINE 1 volt 1 ampere: 1 ohm: Potential: Resistivity: Electric power: 1 watt power. Jouleâ€™s law. Resistance. Insulators. Conductors. DISTINGUISH BETWEEN Resistances in series and parallel.
Conductors and insulators. Resistance and resistivity. High resistance and low resistance. LAW'S Ohmâ€™s law Jouleâ€™s law ANSWER IN BRIEF Resistors connected in Series Resistance connected in parallel Find the expression for resistivity of a material. P and Q are the two wires of same length and different cross sectional areas and made of same metal. Name the property which is same for both the wires and that which is different for both the wires. Resistivity of some material is given below. which one will be the best conductor.... If the resistance of wire A is four times the resistance of wire B, find the ratio of their cross sectional areas.
Two dissimilar bulbs are connected in series, bulb will be brighter? (Hint: consider the resistance of the bulb). Explain why a conductor is heated when current flows through it. Explain the concept of resistance. Explain the working of electric fuse. Explain the working of electric iron.
Flow of current through conductors.
Electrical symbols used in electrical circuits Fuse is always connected in series. Why ? Why tungsten wire is not used in electric fuse ? Heating appliances consume more electricity. Why ? Why the commercial unit of power is different from its SI unit ?
A mica sheet is used in an electrical iron. Why ? How are electrical appliances connected at home ? Why ? If the length of a copper wire is doubled and its radius is halved, what is the effect on its resistivity ? Ramesh connected number of bulbs with a nichrome wire whereas Suresh connected all the bulbs with copper wire of the same length and thickness. In whose case will the bulbs be brighter ? State the characteristics of connecting resistances in parallel.
State the characteristics of connecting resistances in series.
ELECTROMAGNETISM FILL IN THE BLANKS Say true or false. If false, write the correct sentences. Find the odd one out.
DEFINE THE FOLLOWING Magnetic field Solenoid Electric motor Fleming’s right hand rule Fleming’s Left hand rule: Right hand thumb rule Electro-magnetic induction. Electric generator.
DISTINGUISH BETWEEN ELECTRIC MOTOR V/S ELECTRIC GENERATOR
State the characteristics of magnetic lines of for...
GIVE SCIENTIFIC REASONS Wires carrying electricity should not be touched bare footed. We should not use many electrical appliances simultaneously Alloys like alnico or nipermag are used in industries. A magnetic crane is used to load and transport scrap iron. During a short-circuit, the circuit catches fire. In rainy season, we should not touch the wall of building. Most of the electrical appliances need earthing.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used to study the body ofpatients.
ANSWER IN DETAIL Electric motor. Electric generator
Observe the figure. If the current in the coil A is changed, will some current be induced in the coil B? What is short circuiting ? What is a galvanometer ? How does it work ? State the factors on which magnetic field due to current carrying conductor depends. State the applications of electric motor. State general precautions for safety with respect to electricity. Force on current carrying conductor is a magnetic field. Use of magnetism in medical sciences. Domestic electric circuit. Earthing.
WONDERS OF LIGHT PART - I FILL IN THE BLANKS Fill in the blanks for convex lens. MATCH THE FOLLOWING
DEFINE Distance of distinct vision. Power of accommodation. Adaptation. Focal length of lens. Principal focus of convex lens (F) Principal axis of lens. Optical centre of lens. Centre of curvature of lens. Focal length of mirror Focus length of concave mirror. Principal axis of mirror. Centre of curvature of mirror (C).
ANSWER THE FOLLOWING
State the different positions of sources of light with respect to the concave mirror. What is ray diagram? What are the rules used for drawing ray diagram for the formation of image by spherical mirror. What is meant by power of accommodation of eye? State the function of iris and Ciliary muscles in human eye. If you are given a part of hollow spherical glass,how will you convert it into hollow spherical mirror. DISTINGUISH BETWEEN Myopia and Hypermetropia Convex mirror and concave mirror. GIVE REASON You cannot enjoy watching a movie from a very short distance from the screen in a cinema hall. A simple microscope is used by watch repairers. A concave lens is used to correct myopia. In old age bifocal lens is necessary for some persons. Concave mirrors are used in solar devices.
Old people use bifocal glasses. Convex lens is used to correct hypermetropia. A concave lens is used to correct myopia. Convex lens is also called a converging lens. Concave lens is also called a diverging lens. A dentist uses a concave mirror while examining teeth. Concave mirrors are used in torches and in car headlights.
RAY DIAGRAMS Object at infinity for a concave mirror Object between infinity and centre of curvature for concave mirror. Object at centre of curvature for concave mirror. Object between F and C for a concave mirror Object at focus for a concave mirror. Object between pole and focus for a concave mirror. Object at infinity for a convex lens. Object beyond 2F1 for a convex lens. Object at 2F1 for a convex lens. Object between 2F1 and F1 for a convex lens
Object at F1 for a convex lens Object position between F1 and O for a convex lens. Divergence of rays by convex mirror. Draw a neat labelled diagram of a normal human eye. Describe its parts briefly. Explain the sign conventions for reflection by spherical mirror. Given below is a diagram showing a defect of human eye. Study it and answer the following questions.
ANSWER THE FOLLOWING Applications of spherical mirrors and lenses Explain myopia with its correction.
Explain Hypermetropia with its correction.
What are the rules for obtaining images by convex lens ? Explain power of lens with suitable formula.
Explain magnification by a lens with formula. Explain presbyopia. How does it occurs ?
WONDERS OF LIGHT PART II Q1. Fill inthe blanks
Q2. Rewrite the following table in such a way thatcolumn 2 and column 3 matches column 1.
Q3. Answer the followings. 1. What do you mean by dispersion? Name the different colours of light inthe proper sequence in the spectrum of light. 2.
Explain how the formation of rainbow occurs.
What isrefraction of light? How is it related to refractive index?
4. Explain the propagation of a ray of light, when it travels from denser to rarer medium.
5. Explain the propagation of a ray of light, when it travels from rarer to denser medium.
Q4. Give reasons.
1. The sky appearsdark instead of blue to a person located in space. 2.
Stars twinkle atnight.
The sun appearsreddish early in the morning.
It is possibleto enjoy a rainbow at fountains in any season.
Planets do not twinkle.Planets do not twinkle.
Q5. Write short notes on 1.
Refractionobserved in the atmosphere.
Q5. Define the following Absolute refractive index. Scattering of light. Spectrum.
Dispersion of light. Refractive index.
UNDERSTANDING OF METALS AND NON METALS OBJECTIVES
Name the following: From the list of characteristic given below select the five which are relevant to metals and their compounds. DEFINE Minerals Gangue Ores Metallurgy Roasting Sonorous. Malleability. Ductility.
Anodising. Ionic bond. Covalent bond. Covalent compound. Reactivity series of metals. Calcination. Electroplating . Corrosion. Alloy. Galvanising. Tinning.
GIVE SCIENTIFIC REASONS Sodium is stored under kerosene. Gold and silver are used to make jewellery. Calcium floats over water during the reaction with water. Ionic compounds have high melting and boiling points Tarnished copper utensils are cleaned with lime juice or tamarind. Copper is exposed to air. Reason for use of fused cryolite (Na3AlF6) along with fluorspar (CaF2) which is added to the electrolytic mixture containing pure alumina. Electrolysis of active metals like Na, K, Al is not carried out by using aqueous solution of their chloride. Elements like gold, silver are found in free or native state. Pure water is a poor conductor of electricity but aqueous solution of NaCl conducts electricity. An aqueous solution of sodium chloride conducts electricity.
Ionic compounds are formed due to the combination of metals and nonmetals. Some elements occur in free state while others occur in the combined state. Sodium and chlorine are poisonous substances but sodium chloride is edible. Aluminium oxide is an amphoteric oxide. Kitchen articles like pressure cooker, pan etc. are anodized.
ANSWER THE FOLLOWING IN DETAIL
Sudha dipped a copper coin in a solution of silver nitrate. After some time she saw the silver shine on the coin. Why? Give the balanced chemical equation for the same. Metal A has electronic configuration of (2,8,1) and metal B has (2,8,8,2) which is more reactive. Identify these metals and vie their reactions with dil HCl. To obtain (zinc) Zn from zinc sulphide two chemical reaction are
involved When steam is passed over aluminium. Extraction of copper from its sulphide ore. Thermit reaction. When magnesium reacts with hot water.
What happens when aluminium oxide dissolves in aqueous sodium hydroxide? In the extraction of aluminium
Write two methods of preventing rusting of iron.
What is an alloy? Give two examples with their chemical composition. Arrange the following metals in the decreasing order of chemical reactivity, Cu, Mg, Fe, Na, Ca, Zn.
Explain the formation of an ionic compound between metal and a non â€“ metal by transfer of electrons with Mg as the metal and Cl as a non â€“ metal to illustrate your answer. An element X on reacting with oxygen forms an oxide X2O. This oxide dissolves in water and turns red litmus blue. State whether element X
is a metal or a non â€“ metal. Explain with proper example. Explain the properties of ionic compounds.
Write a short note on anodizing.
AMAZING WORLD OF CARBON COMPOUNDS OBJECTIVES
Give the IUPAC name of the following compounds.
Write molecular formula and structural formula of the following :
Acetic acid. Benzene. Butane. Cyclohexane. Ethane. Ethanol. Ethene. Ethyne. Heptane. Methane. Propane. DEFINE Addition reaction.
Alkane. Alkene. Allotropy. Homologous series. Isomerism. Isomers. Organic chemistry. Substitution reaction. Unsaturated hydrocarbons. WRITE SHORT NOTES ON Catenation
Draw chain and ring structures of organic compound having six carbon atoms in them.
Which organic compounds are named as Alkanol in IUPAC system?
Explain: What do you understand by substitution reaction?
Which organic compounds readily undergo addition reactions? Why?
State two examples of (organic) compound having covalent bond and two examples having ionic bond.
State and explain how alkanes are further classified.
What are alkynes? Name the first member of alkyne family.
Why is Methane called marsh gas?
LIFE'S INTERNAL SECRETS Objectives Correct the following statements.
Define Assimilation. Autotrophic nutrition. Blood pressure. Cellular or internal respiration. Circulation. Digestion. Egestion. Mode of nutrition. Respiration. Transpiration. Transportation. Short Notes on Autotrophic nutrition. Blood pressure. Haemodialysis. Heterotrophic nutrition. Lymph.
Give Scientific Reasons. Breathing rate increases during vigorous exercising. Translocation is needed in all higher plants. The plants are kept in dark before determining the factory essential for photosynthesis. It is necessary to separate oxygenated blood from the deoxygenated blood in mammals. Amphibians and reptiles have three chambered heart. Digestion of food starts in the mouth itself. Effect of root pressure is important during night. Human heart has four chambers. Rate of breathing is faster in aquatic animals. The walls of the arteries are thick and elastic. Unwanted and harmful waste products need to be eliminated from the body. Draw neat and labelled diagram. Human excretory sytem [Diagram] Human respiratory system (breathing system) [Diagram] Vertical section of the human heart. [Diagram] Digestive glands. Vertical section of kidney, Villi [Diagram] Human digestive system. [Diagram] Absorption by roots. [Diagram]
Answer the following in detail. How are fats digested in the human body? What would be the consequences of deficiency of haemoglobin in the human body? How do plants get rid of their excretory products? Given below are the end products of different reactions involving glucose. Write the reaction number in front of the following: Explain the process of translocation in plants. Explain the structure and function of a nephron. Describe the exchange of gases in aquatic animals. Describe the mechanism of breathing in human beings. Herbivores (grass eating) animals need longer small intestine. Carnivores like tigers (meat eating) have shorter small intestine. Which type of food is difficult to digest)? How are nutrients classified based on their chemical nature ? How are nutrients classified based on their functions ? What happens to the food in the large intestine ? What happens to the food in the mouth ? What is respiration ? Explain the phases of respiration. What is respiration ? What are its types ? Describe the double circulation of blood. Describe the excretory system in human beings. Describe the network of tubes (blood vessels) in human body.
Describe the structure of human heart. Explain how food is digested in the small intestine.
THE REGULATORS OF LIFE Objectives Name the following. Define Homoeostasis. Reflex action. Tropism OR Tropic movements. Distinguish between Voluntary movements V/s Involuntary movements Explain the following Terms. Hydrotropic movement, Chemical control in animals. Give Scientific Reasons. Insulin plays an important role in controlling the sugar level of blood. Roots of plants grow away from light. Hormones secreted by the endocrine glands are present everywhere in the body. Reflex arcs are evolved in animals. Tendril entwines itself around the object and clings to it.
Write Short notes on. Reflex action Co-ordination Co - ordination in plants. Movements in plants which are growth dependent: Movements in plants which are growth independent: Co-ordination in human beings: The Central Nervous System (CNS)
Answer the following: Give examples of growth independent movements in plants. How are nerves categorized based on their functions ? How are neurons classified ? State their functions. How do we smell ? How do we taste food ? How does our memory work ? State the characteristic features of living organisms. Whichcharacteristic feature is less conspicuous in plants ? Describe the conduction of nerve impulse. Which are the different parts of the human nervous system? What is tropic movement ? Describe the different types of tropic movements. What is homoeostasis ? How is it maintained in an individualâ€™s body ?
Draw neat and well labelled diagrams. Vertical section of Human brain. [Diagram] Reflex arc. [Diagram] Neuron [diagram]
THE LIFE CYCLE Objectives Write the correlated terms Explain the following terms. Reproduction, Vegetative Propagation, Pollination Fertilization. Mitosis. Meiosis. Write the functions of the following organs in reproduction. Vagina, Stigma, Ovaries, Seminal vesicle and Prostate glands, uterus Diagram Longitudinal section of flower. Binary fission in amoeba. Spore formation in Mucor. Human female reproductive system. Answer the following.
What are the advantages of sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction? Describe sexual reproduction in plants. Describe the modes of reproduction in unicellular organisms. Explain the disadvantages of large family size. Write short notes on Binary fission Budding. Pollination Regeneration Germination of seeds Multiple fission Importance of variation Give Scientific Reason. Regeneration is not the same as reproduction. Children born to older women may be defective. Testes are located outside the abdominal cavity in the scrotum. Multicellular organisms show complex ways of reproduction. Daughter cells produced by asexual reproduction are genetically identical to the parent cells. DNA copies generated during reproduction are similar but not identical to the original.
MAPPING OUR GENES OBJECTIVES Define Genotype. Phenotype. Heredity. Inheritance. Give Scientific Reasons In sexual mode of reproduction grater diversities are generated. Phenotypic and genotypic ratios are different In human beings the gametes from the male parent decides the sex of the baby. Paleontological evidence suggest that invertebrates came into existence before the vertebrates. Vermiform appendix of man has become a vestigial organ. Nowadays in the surroundings of Birmingham, black moths are found in large numbers. In F2 generation of Mendelâ€™s Monohybrid cross the phenotypic ratio is approximately 3 red : 1 white. The plants of F1 generation of Mendelâ€™s Monohybrid cross are phenotypically red but genotypically hybrids.
In parental generation (P1) red flowers were called dominant and white flowers as recessive. Answer the following in detail. With the help of a diagram (Punnett square) show a Mendelian experiment where tall tea plant bearing red flower is crossed with a short pea plant bearing white flowers. Write both the phenotypic and genotypic ratio for F2 generation. Darwin's theory of evolution. Connecting links. Lamarckism (Lamarckian inheritance). Palaentological evidence. Give the embryological evidence to support the theory of evolution. How do genes regulate the height of a plant ? What are fossils ? How are they formed ? What are homologous organs ? Give examples. What are homologous organs ? Give examples. What are vestigial organs ? Give examples. Describe the theory of evolution of life. Which evidence advocates the fact that monkey and man have common ancestry ?
Striving for Better Environment Part I Write whether the following statements are true or false. Iffalse write the correct statement. Answer the following in one sentence:
Distinguish Between Degradable Pollutants V/s Non Degradable Pollutants. Primary Pollutant V/s Secondary Pollutant
Write Short Notes on Acid rain Eutrophication Oil Spills
Answer the following in Detail. What adverse effect does ozone depletion have?
What are the different laws to prevent pollution? Describe the main sources of water pollution. How do you protect soil from being polluted? What major harm is done to the human being by air pollution? Give the impacts of Noise pollution on the human body. To avoid noise pollution in classroom. Bursting fire crackers in festivals and processions. The use of fossil fuels in villages. To avoid pollution of land when you go on a picnic. The level of air pollution is very high in your locality. To avoid noise pollution in silent zones.
To minimize electricity consumption at home.
STRIVING FOR BETTER ENVIRONMENT PART II Answer the following. Mention one provision on environment given in our constitution. What is the fundamental duty of each citizen regarding environment? How can we save energy in day to day life? What are the reasons for depletion of biological resources? What is eco - mark? What does this log indicate? Write some names of products on which you find this logo. Write short notes on Chipko Movement Narmada Bachao Andolan Beej Bachao Andolan Answer the following in detail. Define eco - efficiency. What are the ways to achieve eco efficiency? Give the need to use eco - friendly technology. Write the objectives of the Water Act.
Write the salient features of the Biomedical Waste Rules. What is meant by consumerism? How does it affect sustainable development? What is the three 'R' mantra' ? Write its significance. What are the powers of MPCB to control water and air pollution? How will you obtain alternative fuel? What is sustainable use? How is it possible at individual level and community level? What are the objectives of sustainable development? Define sustainable development. What are the objectives of sustainable development? Define sustainable development. Write three measures to conserve water. State two functions of MPCB for prevention of water pollution. State work of WBCSD