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Have you noticed how cyclic the health and fitness industry is? One week you are being told that low fat diets are the best way to go and the next week the compass has swung 180 degrees and low carb diets are the new leader of the weight-loss pack. This constant change in stances, often lead by the media, can leave you wondering if you are doing the right thing or if you are causing more harm than good. Frustrating indeed! That‟s where the experts at Fitnorama Magazine come in. Between them, there is over 150 years of fitness industry experience. They‟ve seen fads come, go and often come back again! Think kettlebells are new? In his article on this so-called new training device, expert Del Wilson reveals that kettlebells have been around for over a century! A wise man once said “methods are many but principles are few” and this is very true when it comes to health and fitness training. If you want to get fitter, you must raise your heart rate, if you want to lose weigh you need to expend more calories than you consume, if you want to get stronger, you must lift heavier weights. We are here to help you separate the fact from the fiction so that every workout you complete and every meal you eat takes you one step closer to your ultimate fitness and health goals. We won‟t be promoting the newest diet, exercise machine or workout unless it conforms to the principles that, as experts, we rely on to train our own clients every day. You won‟t find any celebrity-endorsed all style but no substance nonsense in this magazine – it‟s the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth from here on in! In this month‟s issue, you‟ll find articles on exercise basics by Pippa, some top fat-loss tips from Amanda, an introduction to bodybuilding from Del, an effective fat blasting workout from Andreas and a whole host of other informative and entertaining articles by numerous other Fitnorama experts. 1 | Fitnorama | March 2011

If you have a question about any of the articles in the magazine, want to suggest a topic for coming issues or just about fitness, health or nutrition in general why not drop us a line via our interactive website http:// Your questions will be addressed by one of our experts within 48 hours. Try to include as much detail as possible so we can provide you with the very best information possible. Like any magazine, you‟ll see some adverts on the following pages for products and services that we, as a group of experts, trust and believe in. All the ads are clickable right off the page so please feel free to see what they are promoting. We want to take Fitnorama magazine from humble beginnings to world domination (!) and to do that we need advertisers. Please mention to the advertiser where you heard about them! It‟ll make them happy and help us expand. So, without any further delay, welcome again to Fitnorama Magazine – we hope you enjoy it! Yours in Health and Fitness,

Editorial Contributors

Kevin Parker

Andreas Michael Website:

Magazine Editor

Pippa Crowther Facebook: PipFit

Advertising Sales

Hayley Kirby Contact number: 07545 372720 Del Wilson Website: Alan Butler Amanda York Website: Patrick Dale Website:

Patrick Dale

Andreas Michael telephone: 07950 338897 Email: ad sales

Published online only Fitnorama magazine is published 12 times a per year Disclaimer: Opinions expressed here may not be in agreement with those of and their employees. The above parties are not responsible in any manner whatsoever for any injury or health condition that may occur Consult with your physician before starting any exercise program.

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Here are some highlights of what you‟ll find in the March 2011 issue of Fitnorama. P6 - NEPA




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P32 - 10 REASONS TO DRINK WATER P34 - MARATHON MARCH – THE FINAL PUSH! March 2011 | Fitnorama | 5

So, you go to the gym 3 times a week and you work really hard during those few hours. There is no denying that you‟re doing yourself a lot of good but, what about the other 165 hours of the week? In this article, we‟ll lift the lid on Non Exercise Physical Activity (NEPA) and look at ways you can get more active to enhance your health and reduce your waistline! Previous generations were considerably more active than most of us are today. The increase in availability of labour saving devices, passive entertainment like TVs and computer games, a reduced requirement for manual labour and increased car ownership/usage have all contributed to a significant reduction of daily physical activity. Many of us spend large portions of our day sat at a desk, in our cars or on the sofa watching TV and even with the best will in the world, the 3 hours or so a week we spend in the gym is not a sufficient replacement for the active lifestyle of previous generations.

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Combined with an increased availability of calorie-dense food, the lowered amount of daily activity is a significant factor in the ever growing world-wide obesity problem. Our appetites remain unchanged even though our calorie requirements have been significantly reduced. Your body was designed to be active often and your stomach (approximately 1 litre in size) is capable of processing all of your nutritional needs to fuel that active lifestyle. The problem is that we aren‟t as active as we used to be and no one has found a way to reprogram our appetites!

Any significant reduction in calorie intake can trigger the starvation response meaning that metabolisms slow, body temperature is lowered, hunger levels are elevated and calorie burning is down-regulated. If cutting calories too greatly causes the starvation response, what is the alternative for anyone looking to maintain their weight and improve their health without starving themselves? The answer is Non Exercise Physical Activity or NEPA for short.

NEPA simply means moving more. It doesn‟t matter what you do but just by moving more we will expend more energy. NEPA shouldn‟t be tiring and isn‟t a replacement for your regular exercise routine – it‟s just additional daily activities done with the purpose of using your body a little more than usual to create a greater calorie deficit and make up for all those hours when we are sedentary.

Examples of NEPA Walk instead of driving – especially if journeys are less than 1 mile Cycle instead of driving – especially if journeys are less than 4 miles Get off the bus or train a couple of stops earlier and walk the rest of the way to work Stand instead of sitting – standing uses far more energy Use the stairs instead of the lift Walk during lunch breaks instead of staying at your desk Wash your car by hand Water your garden by hand using a watering can instead of a garden hose Take the dog (or the kids) for an after dinner stroll around the neighbourhood Carry your shopping in a basket instead of using a shopping trolley Periodically stand up and move around whilst at work – don‟t get too desk bound Move at every opportunity – stretch while sat at your desk or while watching TV Try doing an active leisure activity like going bowling or ice skating instead of sitting in front of the TV I‟m sure you can think of plenty of other ways that you could get more NEPA into your day. Start with a few small daily increases in activity like maybe a 10 minute walk before breakfast or after dinner and build up from there with the aim of being physically active for at least 60 minutes per day. Don‟t worry – they don‟t have to be consecutive minutes, just fit them in where

you can. The point of NEPA is that it should become habitual – a shift in attitude where you look for ways to move more and sit less. By the end of the year you may well find yourself several pounds lighter all because you made the effort to move around a bit more every day. Go and get your NEPA on! March 2011 | Fitnorama | 7

Kettlebells. Most people that I speak to have never heard of them, yet they've been around for centuries!. In the United States their recent growth in popularity seems to have come from a guy named Pavel Tsatsouline, a former Russian special forces instructor. They are yet to make an impact here in the UK, although, having said that, Virgin active health clubs are now stocking up with kettlebells and run classes. As a personal trainer, I have to say I love them and not just for clients. About 50% of my own training is now done with kettlebells. As a die hard ex-bodybuilder, I have traditional heavy weight training ingrained in me and still train like a bodybuilder today so for me to start using kettlebells as a training tool it certainly says something for my believe in them. So, why are they so great? Here are 10 reasons why I believe you should incorporate kettlebells into your training. 8 | Fitnorama | March 2011


Great for metabolic workouts Traditional cardiovascular exercise such as jogging and cycling always have a part to play in training. However when incorporated as steady state (achieving an elevated heart rate and then maintaining it for a set period) you are missing out an post exercise calorie burning. You burn calories while you are training, which is great but there is minimal metabolic effect afterwards. What about the remaining 23 hours of the day? Kettlebells by the very nature of the training produce a tremendous after burn effect, boosting your metabolic rate for hours afterwards. So just think, even when your just sitting around the house, you are continuing to burn more calories. That's got to be good news.


Time efficient - A super intense workout can be had in 20 minutes or less. No need to spend an hour doing boring CV. In fact, if you train properly with kettlebells you will struggle to surpass 20 minutes anyway. Of course, if you are a beginner, you will have to gauge the exercise intensity accordingly. Make sure you use an appropriate weight bell, usually 8kg for a woman and 12 kg for a man. Check on my other article to determine the correct starting weight and type of kettlebell.


Fun - OK, that may be a stretch (unless you're a masochist) but kettlebell training is certainly more enjoyable than most forms of training. The ease at which you can swap instantly between exercises makes training a lot more interesting than just sitting on a stationary cycle or treadmill. In a 6 minute circuit you could incorporate 6 different exercises, swiftly switching between exercises with no delay.


Works the posterior chain - If, like the majority of people you spend most of your time sitting at work (all you IT workers out there) then you are spending your entire day in flexion. Even when you move from your desk and go for your lunch, you are sitting again, not too mention the drive to and from work. No wonder everybody has round shoulders, tight hip flexors, chest and hamstrings. Kettlebell training is part of the solution for this. When you swing a kettlebell, you are bringing the body to full extension which means stretching your hamstrings, extending through your back, tightening your glutes and pinning your shoulders back.


had through kettlebell training. Depending on your starting point and any postural dysfunction you may have, the correct use of an appropriate kettlebell exercise will help remedy any problems you may have. For example, hunched up and rounded shoulders could be helped by swings (pinning the shoulders back) and windmills (to increase shoulder mobility)


Portability - Personally, if I was going on holiday via a plane, I would take my TRX. If I was holidaying locally, and travelling by car, I would take a 20kg kettlebell. It's all you need to cater for your strength and CV needs. Extremely portable, takes up no space and because of the quick nature of the workouts, takes up very little of your time. The portability factor also allows you to take it out to your garden or even a local park. Unlike traditional barbells and dumbbells, the weight of the kettlebell is offset, therefore the kettlebell is constantly pulling away from you.


Works the stabilising muscles Unlike traditional Postural benefits barbells and dumbThis links to the point bells, the weight of the ketabove. Great postlebell is offset, therefore the tural benefits can be kettlebell is constantly pull-

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ing away from you. This means that your body has to recruit a lot of stabilising muscles in order to control the weight. This is as far removed from sitting on a plate loaded machine as you can get. When you use these types of machines, you are forced to follow a certain groove. This negates the use of stabiliser muscles as there is very little stabilising to be done.

at once, highly functional in nature, these movements will also help strengthen the tendons and ligaments surrounding the joint.

and the Turkish get up you will see many benefits.


Great for women Unlike free Quick to learn weight exercises, kettlebells With the right instruc- won't add big muscles to tion kettlebell move- your physique. What they ments are quick to will do however is build a learn. Once you know the svelte, lean shape very basics you can start adding much enhancing the look of more advanced moves but in the female body. the beginning just a few Strengthens every moves will see you well on muscle - Unlike iso- your way to improved fitlation movements, ness, fat loss and increased kettlebell movements strength and flexibility. If you work multiple muscle groups initially just master the swing


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Although the modern world is far safer than when your ancestors were wandering around the plains and forests hunting and gathering, there are still times when your personal safety and that of your family and/or friends may be at risk. There are a number of things you can do to reduce your risk of being a victim of violence... Be aware of your surroundings - Can I see any potential dangers nearby, is there a “safe” place where I can get help, where is the nearest escape route? These are all things that should go through your mind when assessing your environment.

If you find yourself in a potentially violent situation there are a number of things you should do.

affect your ability to defend yourself, sounds stupid but it will make a huge difference. Try this: stand how you normally do, ask a friend/ family Keep your distance member to gently push Distance yourself from your you………….. You almost fell; attacker. Space is crucial, if this is because you are off balyou are too close you cannot ance. Now try again but this defend yourself as effectively. time split your stance. Take Know your limits - As I men- Your punches and kicks will one foot forward and bend the tioned in my last article becom- lack power due to the small front knee. Keep your back leg ing overconfident and cocky distance they can travel. Keep- straight; Different result this can be extremely dangerous, ing your attacker at a distance time? That is because you are ego equals trouble. will also allow you time to think grounded in a solid stance. and if need be to flee. Project a confident image Car tips Barrier - Try to keep a barrier Carry yourself in a confident authoritative manner. This will between yourself and your atSurroundings - Before exiting stop you from looking like an tacker. This links with the preyour car use your mirrors to easy target. vious point. By keeping an obsurvey your surroundings for ject between yourself and your danger. If in doubt drive on Objects as self defence attacker it will act as a barrier and find somewhere else to weapons - Learn to everyday keeping them from you for expark. objects as self defence weap- ample you are in a bar and a ons, things like keys, pens and guy takes a disliking to you try Returning to the car - When umbrellas are ideal. to position yourself the opporeturning to the car, do so in a site side of a table to him. With way that you can see all round Mobile phones - Keep your the table in the way your atit. mobile on your person not in a tackers reach is diminished. bag or briefcase which can What’s in the back - Before Voice - use your voice authorieasily be stolen. Keep your you get into your car, check mobile fully charged. tatively, give a command such the back seat to make sure as “STAY BACK” this will there are no nasty surprises you appear confident, What if you are in a make waiting. Yes I know its cliché and may deter some attackers. but hey better to be safe than violent situation? sorry. Stance - how you stand will March 2011 | Fitnorama | 11

Are you considering starting a new exercise programme or returning to it after a break or a period of ill health? If so, there are a few things that you ought to know before

There are five components of fitness that you need to consider to develop a good level of all round fitness...Cardiovascular Fitness, Muscular Endurance, Muscular Strength, Flexibility and Motor Fitness.

Muscular Strength is the maximum amount of forces that can be generated by a muscle or group of muscles against a resistance in one contraction. This is measured as a 1rep max (1RM).

Flexibility is probably the Cardiovascular Fitness or most underrated of the comaerobic fitness describes the ponents of fitness and is the ability of the heart and lungs measure of the maximum to take in and transport oxy- range of movement possible gen to the working muscles around a joint or joints. where it will be utilised. This Motor Fitness is skill based is measure by estimating your VO2 max which means and will is specific to your maximum volume of oxygen. activity. It encompasses coordination, reaction times, (Cardiovascular exercise speed, balance and agility. can further be defined as ‘an In basic terms, motor fitness activity which is rhythmic, refers to how your nervous continuous and uses large system communicates with muscle groups under low to your muscles to ensure the moderate tension over an correct response. extended period of time’.) When considering what Muscular Endurance is the makes up a balanced proability of a muscle to exert gramme, as well as the comsub maximal force against a ponents of fitness, we must resistance over an extended also remember that everyperiod of time. one is an individual and will have different genetics, eat 12 | Fitnorama | March 2011

different diets and this may influence training results. If we are to achieve our goals and maintain our healthy lifestyles we need to make sure that the exercise is specific to what we hope to achieve. Exercise Physiologists McArdle, Katch and Katch state „Specific exercise elicits specific adaptations creating training effects‟. This is the SAID principle. With exercise, it‟s very much a case of what you do defines what you get in terms of results. By adhering to a few basic exercise principles, you can ensure that your workouts take you towards and not away from your goal of improved fitness... Specificity. This is the adaption of an individual to a specific training stressor. For example aerobic fitness for swimming will improve most when we train the specific muscles for that particular activity.

Progression If we do not continually make the exercises we perform harder then how will we progress? We must increase the training stimulus so that we can continue to adapt.

that bit harder. When things get easier as our body adapts then it is time to mix things up again. Reversibility This refers to what happens when we stop training and reductions in fitness or strength that will occur.

Overload We can achieve this by manipulating various factors in our training, for example the frequency, inten- For overload to take effect sity, time or type of activity. and adaptation to occur we We must continue to push need to manipulate a few

variables. This is what is known at the FITT principle. Frequency, Intensity, Time and Type There are various FITT principles for various types of exercise and these are set by the ACSM (American College of Sports Medicine). These can be seen below.

For General Health. F 5 times a week. I 50-90% of maximum heart rate. T 30 minutes continuous or 2 to 3 accumulative sessions. T rhythmic continuous movement of large muscle groups. For Cardiovascular Fitness. F 3-5 times a week. I between 55-90% of maximum heart rate. T 20-60 minutes. T rhythmic and continuous use of large muscle groups. For Muscular Strength. F 2-3 times per week. I 90-100% 1RM for each muscle group. T can vary depending on muscle group. 1-3 sets of 1-6 reps. T at least 2 exercises per muscle group, using both concentric and eccentric dynamic movement. For Muscular Endurance. F 2-3 times per week. I 40-50% 1RM for each muscle group. T Can vary depending on muscle group. 12 -15 reps 1-2 sets per exercise. T at least 2 exercises per muscle group, using both concentric and eccentric dynamic movement. For Flexibility F at least 3 times a week. I to a position of mild discomfort. T 8-10 exercises large muscle groups. Hold for 10-30 seconds. T static, though dynamic and PNF where appropriate To conclude when you start on an exercise programme in order to achieve the desired results consideration should be given to all of the above. Your trainer in your gym will be able to help and advise you how best to proceed. Next time I will look at why exercise is important and the benefits and risks of exercise. How to start from the very beginning and how to set goals to ensure you achieve the results you want. March 2011 | Fitnorama | 13

Back in my twenties, I caught the bodybuilding bug, big time. I was a skinny guy with genes better equipped for a long distance runner, but, I didn‟t like my appearance and decided to do something about it. Initially, I was embarrassed to tell my friends that I was a bodybuilder, fearing ridicule, but regardless, I was at the gym 6 times a week literally making things up as I went along! However, attempting to follow the routine of the biggest guy there was fool hardy and one of many mistakes typically made by guys today. The guy with the 18 inch arms has earned the right to his 6 day split routine, I hadn‟t! In this article I would like to give some general advice on how to avoid some common mistakes in the art of building one‟s body and outline a basic programme you can follow and hopefully, as a consequence help your training get off to a flying start. 14 | Fitnorama | March 2011

Concentrate on learning good technique before worrying too much about the weights you are lifting. Good When you train with weights exercise technique learnt for the first time you are cre- now will save you injury time ating a massive stimulus for in the future! muscular growth within your body. Get it right and you will So, what does this mean, see great improvements in let‟s take squatting, a fundayour physique. Get it wrong mental exercise that will be and you will waste that valu- one of the corner stone‟s of able window of opportunity your programme. You need that exists when you introto learn proper squat techduce a new activity to the nique right from the start. body. If you give your body Don‟t load up your body with the appropriate stimulus and weight until you can squat feed it accordingly then, re- just your own body with gardless of your genetics, good form. The neuromusyou will grow! cular adaptations laid down during this period need to be In the beginning, less correct. It‟s very hard to equals more „unlearn‟ something once learnt. Get the movement 3 days a week, training the right from the start. Ask for whole body with 2 to 3 sets advice from a qualified inper body part for 8 – 12 structor at the gym or a perrepetitions is enough for the sonal trainer. It‟s beyond the first 6 - 12 weeks. Focus on scope of this article to delve correct movement patterns into correct exercise techas opposed to trying to lift nique so proceed diligently. the biggest weight possible. Start right for the biggest gains possible.

Use the following guide to set up your programme: Training frequency Training days

3 day per week Monday, Wednesday, Friday

Sets per exercise Rest between sets

2-3 90-120 seconds

Repetition guide Programme duration Workout duration

8 - 12 6 – 12 weeks 45-60 minutes + stretching

What exercises should I be doing? The primary purpose of starting a resistance programme is muscular growth. As Iâ€&#x;ve already stated, get everything right in the beginning and muscle growth should happen quite readily. Compound or isolation movements? The majority of the exercises performed need to be compound or multiple muscle group exercises. A compound movement uses multiple muscle groups at once to move a given weight. For example, take an overhead press. Not only are you using your Deltoids (shoulder) muscles as the primary mover , you are also using your Triceps as the primary mover and you have a multitude of other muscle groups all working together to control your shoulder blades and stabilize your shoulder joint. The involvement of all these stabilizing muscles is one of the reasons free weight exercises are so effective; they force you to activate extra muscle fibers. In contrast, take a cable lateral raise where you are solely trying to hit the lateral head of the Deltoid! Which do you think is going to force the body to adapt and grow? The exercises: Squats (body weight, back or front squat) Quadriceps Glutes Hamstrings Spinal erectors Overhead press (barbell or dumbbells) Front/rear Deltoids Triceps Upper Pectorals Wide grip pull ups or Lat pulldowns Latissimus Dorsi Rhomboids Teres major Trapizius Lunges Quadriceps Glutes Hamstrings

Bench press (flat or incline)


Pectorals Front Deltoids Triceps Latisimus Dorsi Bicep curl (barbell or dumbbell) Biceps Brachialis Forearms Barbell rows

Spinal Erectors Glutes Rhomboids Trapizius Triceps press (lying extensions, dumbbell or barbell) Medial head of Triceps Lateral head of Triceps Long head of Triceps Romanian deadlifts

Latissimus Dorsi Teres Major Rhomboids Trapizius Calf raises (standing) Gastrocnemius Soleus

Hamstrings Glutes Spinal Erectors Planks, front and side Rectus Abdominus Obliques Inner core muscles

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This is how you may want to structure your programme: Exercises Monday Wednesday


Back Squat Front squat

Medium grip bench press Incline bench press



Dumbbell bench press


Barbell row

Barbell military press Wide grip pull up Romanian deadlift

Perform a general warm up first with some light cardiovascular exercise and then a light to moderate weight warm up set before each exercise. Total volume equates to about 14 to 20 sets (once warmed up) per session. Although this may not seem like a lot, the majority of these exercises use multiple muscle groups so you are getting a lot of work done in a short period of time.

Barbell curl Dumbbell shoulder press Barbell clean and press

Lying Triceps extension. Dumbbell curl

Front plank/ side plank Dumbbell Triceps extension

Barbell curls

Lying Triceps extensions.

to produce muscle. Fuel yourself right with a quality diet and live as „clean‟ as possible and you will see some muscle growth as a result. Never mind what the guy next to you is doing with his 20 set chest session and two hour workouts! You should be in and out of the gym in 45-60 minutes tops. Work hard, use good form and only increase weight as and when you can. Minimise cardio whist you are trying to gain. If you insist on doing something, introduce a twice weekly interval session so as to get it done quickly, 20 minutes maximum.

There is nothing flash about this programme, no supersets, tri sets, pre exhaust, or fancy pyramids. It‟s just a basic programme which once adapted through an appropriate rep and On completion of your workout, cool down set scheme will massively stimulate the body thoroughly with some stretching.

Summary Use body weight only for exercises such as squats and Lunges until you are confident that your exercise form is good, like wise for weighted exercises Perform a general warm up first making sure you incorporate all major muscle groups. Progress slowly using moderate intensity initially, concentrating on good form. Perform a specific warm up for each muscle group before you begin your 2 to 3 „working‟ sets. Progress the weight only when you can hit 12 reps on all your sets. 16 | Fitnorama | March 2011

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Maintaining proper hydration during physical activity is essential to ensure top performance and keeping the body healthy, safe and comfortable.

Effect of water on the body Water has many important functions in the body including...

During exercise all of these functions are tested and choosing the right way to hydrate your body can help to avoid dehydration and fatigue. There are three main concentrations of drink that all serve a purpose before, during and after exercise Name Hypotonic



Transportation of nutrients / elimination of waste products. Lubricating joints and tissues. Temperature regulation through sweating. Facilitating digestion.

Definition Hypotonic drinks are of a low osmolality, thus containing fewer carbohydrate and electrolyte particles. Due to the lower osmolality, the drink is more dilute, and is therefore absorbed at a faster rate than ordinary water Isotonic drinks are of the same osmolality as the bodies‟ own fluids, thus containing comparable amounts of carbohydrate and electrolytes Hypertonic drinks are of a higher osmolality than the bodies‟ own fluids (it‟s more concentrated)

Concentration Hypotonic drinks are generally considered to contain less than 4g of carbohydrate per 100ml. Isotonic drinks usually contain between 4 - 8g of carbohydrate per 100ml. Hypertonic drinks contain approximately 8g of carbohydrate per 100ml

NOTE: Osmolality - osmolality measures the number of osmoles of solute particles per unit volume of solution. [1]

Replenishing energy stores and maintaining adequate fluid intake during exercise:

this occurs, the heart works harder to move blood through the bloodstream. This can also cause muscle cramps, dizziThere is wide variability in ness and fatigue and even heat sweat rates, losses and hydra- illness[2]. This is when the type tion levels of individuals. It is of drink consumed becomes nearly impossible to provide important. specific recommendations or guidelines about the type or When you‟ve been exercising amount of fluids we should at a moderate to high intensity consume. While we exercise, for an hour or more nutrients the bodies main source of en- will need to be replaced and ergy is muscle glycogen and drinking water alone will not be depending on the intensity and sufficient in replacing electroduration of the exercises these lytes lost through sweating and stores can be depleted and it does not contain any energy therefore need replaced. (glucose). It is important to consider the osmolality of the As well as this, studies have drink as too low or high confound that a loss of two or centrations of solutes can inmore percent of body fluid hibit gastric emptying delaying through sweating is linked to a the nutrients entering the blood drop in blood volume. When stream.

The effect of solutes on Gastric emptying: Gastric emptying is the rate at which nutrients leaves the stomach. Absorption of water and nutrients occurs in the upper part of the small intestine, and replacement may be limited by the rate at which fluid is emptied from the stomach or absorbed in the intestine. Gastric emptying of liquids is influenced primarily by the volume of fluid in the stomach and by its energy density. Hypertonic drinks are good for replacing lost nutrient post exercise however not during exercise as increasing the nutrient content will slow gastric March 2011 | Fitnorama | 19

emptying. Intestinal water absorption is a passive process: water follows osmotic gradients but will also follow the active absorption of nutrients, especially glucose, which is actively cotransported with sodium. Glucose and sodium are absorbed via a common membrane carrier in the mucosal epithelium of the proximal small intestine [3]. It is good to choose sports drinks containing glucose as well as electrolytes (sodium) because water transport is

maximised by their presence carbohydrates (g.100 ml(in the intestine. 1)). The carbohydrates can be sugars (glucose or suDuring intense exercise last- crose) or starch (e.g., maltoing longer than 1h, it is rec- dextrin). 7) Inclusion of sodium (0.5-0.7 g.1(-1) of waommended that carbohydrates be ingested at a rate ter) in the rehydration soluof 30-60 g.h(-1) to maintain tion ingested during exercise lasting longer than 1 h is recoxidation of carbohydrates and delay fatigue. This rate ommended since it may be advantageous in enhancing of carbohydrate intake can be achieved without compro- palatability, promoting fluid mising fluid delivery by drink- retention, and possibly preing 600-1200 ml.h(-1) of so- venting hyponatremia in certain individuals who drink lutions containing 4%-8% excessive quantities of fluid

(osmiality definition) Widmaier, Eric P.; Hershel Raff, Kevin T. Strang (2008). Vander's Human Physiology, 11th Ed.. McGraw-Hill. pp. 108–12. Consensus Statement of the 1st International Exercise-Associated Hyponatremia Consensus Development Conference, Cape Town, South Africa 2005. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. 15(4):208-213, July 2005. The effects of consuming carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages on gastric emptying and fluid absorption during and following exercise. Sports Med. 1987 Sep-Oct;4(5):322-51.Murray R. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and fluid replacement. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1996 Jan;28(1):i-vii. Convertino VA, Armstrong LE, Coyle EF, Mack GW, Sawka MN, Senay LC Jr, Sherman WM.

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his six week Peripheral Heart Action (PHA) workout serves up a good amount of resistance and cardiovascular training within a single session. The aim of PHA is the keep the heart rate elevated for the duration of your training session. So if youâ€&#x;re looking for an all body workout while getting mega dose of cardiovascular training to boot then this workout is for you. The basic structure of a PHA workout consists of the below done within a circuit fashion Upper body push Lower Body Upper body pull Aerobic Using PHA You really are full of options whereby you can experiment using different reps/sets number of exercises, and PHA makes for great circuit training. And session can be undertaken anywhere with lots, little or no equipment. The plan below will take you through a six week phase with the intensity increasing over the weeks

Main exercise Warm-up

Week 1 & 2 Reps Sets Rest

Week 3 & 4 Reps Sets Rest

Any cardio until fully warmed up 15 3 30sec

Any cardio until fully warmed up 12 4 20sec

Week 5 & 6 Reps Sets


Any cardio until fully warmed up Bench 10 5 10se press c Squats 20 3 30sec 15 4 20sec 12 5 10se c Bent over 15 3 30sec 12 4 20sec 10 5 10se rows c Rower 500meters 3 30sec 750meters 4 20sec 1000meters 5 10se c Lunges 15 3 30sec 12 4 20sec 10 5 10se c Chins (FF) Form 3 30sec (FF) Form 4 20sec (FF) Form 5 10se failure failure failure c Burpees 10 3 30sec 10 4 20sec 10 5 10se c Notes: On the resistance based exercises select weights which enable you to only perform the reps required. Use the rest periods shown above betweens sets and allow as much rest as you need after each circuit. No more than 90seconds! March 2011 | Fitnorama | 23

BENCH PRESS - Breathe in and lower the barbell under control towards your chest while keeping the elbows inline with shoulders. Then breathe out and return the barbell to the start position.

SQUAT - Take a deep

breath, contract the abdominal muscles (core), slightly arch the lower back and tilt the pelvis forward. Bend forward from the hips and lower down avoiding rounding the low back. When thighs are horizontal to the floor, proceed to straighten the legs and return to the start position at this point breath out.

BENT OVER ROWS - Grasp the bar

with an overhand grip with hands shoulder width apart. Bend from the waist 45 degrees and extend your arms until the bar is inline with you knees. Breathe in and pull the bar in towards your chest. Return and breathe out to complete the movement

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LUNGES - Stand holding a pair of dumb-

bells. Breathe in and take a big step forward, keeping an upright torso, strong back and core. When the front leg reaches horizontal return to the start position and repeat the movement with the other leg.

ROWER - slide forwards, remaining tall, Drive back forcefully with your legs, arms straight, once handles passed knees, pull into ribs, repeat.

CHINS - Hang from the bar with a overhand

grip. Breathe in and pull your chest up to the level of the bar. Breathe out and lower down to the start position.

March 2011 | Fitnorama | 25





BURPEES - 1. Start - standing

2. Place hands on the floor and jump back to a press-up position 3. Jump back into a crouched position and jump up, hands to the ceiling 4. End – Standing

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Follow these daily tips to help you reach your fat-loss and fitness goals...

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Use smaller plates, dishes and cutlery when eating to disguise smaller portions (you‟ll consume 22% less overall) Eat smaller portions of EVERYTHING, even fruit, and cut out unhealthy sauces & dressings If you make too much dinner, freeze it or put it in the fridge for lunch the following

day Treat yourself to HEALTHY rewards when you‟re bored or stressed or in need of a reward Try making food from „raw‟ recipes – go shopping at farmer‟s markets or order from Abel & Cole. Make it a special occasion – it tastes so good, you won‟t want regular supermarket food again!


Snack on protein to fill you up so you won‟t feel like grazing on unhealthy snacks (boiled egg, chicken strips, cottage

cheese, soya yoghurt, nuts&seeds etc – sends signals to your brain saying you‟re full)

8 9

Read food labels – go for natural ingredients with less preservatives and chemicals – the less on the list, the better ENERGY INPUT HAS TO BE LESS THAN ENERGY OUTPUT! (don‟t treat yourself just because you‟ve worked hard outside / in the gym – you‟ll lose the benefits completely)


Keep a photo of when you looked / felt your best visible at all times; be that person again and look for role models OR keep a photo handy of how you looked when you were less healthy and don‟t turn back

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Cut carbs, dairy & sugars completely for one week before a special event / occasion (do this gradually) Think in small chunks – eg losing 2lbs / wk. Visualise the 2 lbs melting off your body before giving in to cravings. Small goals add up to the overall picture. Visualise this – 1lb loss / week comes from nutrition / 1 lb loss / wk comes from exercise March 2011 | Fitnorama | 27


Create a check-list of what you SHOULD CONSUME, rather that what you should avoid. It‟s easier to focus on what you‟re allowed rather than what you‟re not


CONSUME 5 SMALL MEALS / DAY + 2 SNACKS whole grains – fresh fruit & veg – good quality protein – good fats – nuts & seeds – herbal teas


Be mindful and stay present when eating, chew slowly and don‟t eat when you‟re upset or angry or bored. Relax your mind and you will digest your food better

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Out of sight; out of mind – don‟t keep junk in the house / at work

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Drink a hot lemon water upon rising to boost your metabolism and cleanse your kidneys Feeling peckish @ 11:00 / 15:00? Escape for a stair climb / brisk walk for 10 mins to cut your desire for junk food Carry a back-pack when jogging to burn more Kcals

Fill up on more watery salads / veggies and cut back on carbs (peppers, courgettes, cucumber etc) GO TO BED EARLY – the body needs to repair and staying up late causes muscle cells to become insulin resistant therefore storing fat. Plus you‟ll crave bad foods due to lack of sleep


Take a high GI carb snack (ie bananas & raisins) with a Green Tea 30 mins pre-workout to boost your glycogen stores and therefore your workout

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study the food in your hands; ask it “what good are you going to do me”? If it‟s naughty, consider how your hard efforts in your last workout will be totally quashed. It‟s not worth it.

You‟ll look and feel 2.1 years younger in your lifetime if you consume at least 5 portions of fruit and veg every day! Before you put anything in your mouth pause with a few deep breaths and

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Eat before you shop to prevent you from making bad choices and stay away from „cardboard aisles‟ – stick only to the fresh fruit, veg & meat


Squeeze a stress ball throughout the day and walk whenever the opportunity arises to keep the metabolism fired up. Literally go out of your way to fetch something or an extra block for coffee etc

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Keep cool. The body uses more energy then to generate heat (heating low at home, cooler showers) Ensure your meal contains a mixture of tastes, eg sweet, salt & sour, so you‟re not craving the missing taste afterwards Eat soup! It‟s proven to keep your stomach fuller for 2 hours longer than a meal with water Eat low-fat dairy! It‟s meant to help you absorb less fat from other consumed foods Drink a hot water with a ginner root slice prior to eating to fire up the digestive system, ayurveda style

The Palaeolithic diet is one of many lower carb approaches to eating for health and weight management and often stirs up some controversy whenever it comes up in conversation. On one side of the fence, fans of Paleo eating often exclaim that it is a diet founded on ancient principles and evolution while opponents express concerns over the lack of obvious carbohydrate and the effect this might have on your ability to exercise. With both sides of the argument in mind, and in the name of science, I decided to give Paleo a try for myself. This article is a brief outline of my Paleo experience to date. What is the Palaeolithic Diet?

you can‟t. Grey areas include dairy and grains. Both of these foods only really enIn very simple terms, the Paleo diet is tered our food chain when we started to dobased on what experts believe we used to mesticate animals and raise crops so these eat 10,000+ years ago – a period referred are technically Neolithic or New Stone Age to as the Old Stone Age. That means no foods so they are therefore excluded from grains, sugar, minimal dairy and no procthe Palaeolithic diet although some propoessed foods. In a nutshell (and yes – you nents allow small amounts of wild rice, quican eat nuts!) if you can catch it, kill it or noa and fermented dairy products such as pick it you can eat it. To help you with your natural yogurt and kefir. As with many types food selections, try this – if you can picture of diet, there are degrees of compliance and what you are about to eat in the wild then I have opted to include natural yogurt, quiit‟s fair game. If you can‟t imagine your innoa and the small amount of milk I have in tended meal roaming the plains or sprouting my daily coffee. Other than that, I‟m grain from the earth (is that a herd of donuts I see and dairy free and have eliminated virtually in the distance or maybe a Snickers tree??!) all processed foods and sugar. March 2011 | Fitnorama | 29

What happened next… Unlike many of my friends, I generally do very well on low/no carb diets and have followed variations of the Atkins plan, Cyclic Ketogenic Diet and other high protein/low carb approaches before so I knew I wouldn‟t experience any noticeable ill affects by going caveman. I was also coming off a period of overeating from a holiday where everything I ate was a yummy wheat-based carb and while I wasn‟t fat, I was not as lean as I normally am. In truth, I was ready to embrace some clean eating as the novelty of rich, sweet, grain based foods had well and truly worn off! I spent the weekend preceding my caveman conversion emptying my cupboards of bread, rice and cereals (and putting them in my belly) to eliminate temptations and encourage compliance figuring that if I didn‟t have it, I couldn‟t eat it. As a side note, I am a firm believer in the law of possession…if you have it in your cupboards, you will eat it! Not today, and maybe not tomorrow but at some point that high calorie “just for emergency” snack will end up being eaten and, if like me once the carb gremlin comes calling you find it hard to say no, this can throw a real spanner in the works of all your best intentions.

ness. For dressing I used extra virgin olive oil and balsamic vinegar. Apparently sweetcorn is a grain so I didn‟t add these to my salad but did sometimes add some nuts if I felt like I needed to bulk up the calorie content of my lunch. Flaked almonds work especially well. Dinner usually consisted of a big plate of roast vegetables (courgette, peppers, aubergines and tomatoes) served with a large portion of meat or fish. Although not strictly a Paleo food, I ate a few potatoes once a week and quinoa once or twice a week. Quinoa is considered an “ancient grain” so I figured if it was good enough for the Aztecs, one or two servings a week wouldn‟t derail my efforts too much. After dinner I usually had a big bowl of homemade fruit salad with natural yogurt, honey and flaked almonds as I have a bit of a sweet tooth and enjoy deserts generally. For snacks, I ate a couple of pieces of fruit – mainly apples – and plenty of nuts with my favourites being Brazils and almonds which I combined with a few raisins for added sweetness. I also snacked on cold meats, homemade beef jerky, coconut and raw vegetables. If I ran low on snacks I occasionally had a whey protein shake but this was rare and, whilst I realise my caveman ancestors wouldn‟t have access to this type of food, I believe it‟s a fair compromise and better than resorting to a candy bar.

A Typical Paleo Day I started most mornings with eggs which I either scrambled, fried or had as an omelette as well as fruit and/or vegetables. One of my favourite breakfasts is finely chopped courgette which I stir fry and then mix into my scrambled eggs and sprinkle with a little bit of sea salt. Tasty and filling! Lunch consisted of a large salad and some form of meat; maybe chicken drumsticks, homemade chicken liver and bacon pate, cold pork or beef – whatever I had cooked the day before. I made sure my salad contained as many mixed leaves as possible plus tomatoes, cucumber, onion and olives as well as some grapes for added sweet30 | Fitnorama | March 2011

Beverage wise, I drank around two litres of water a day which I sometimes flavoured with pure lemon juice in place of the processed cordials I used to use. I also have one or two cups of filter coffee a day which, whilst not strictly Paleo is something I enjoy so won‟t be giving up anytime soon! I also drank green tea most days but all but eliminated soda – diet or regular.

Once a week, usually at the weekend, I indulged in some 70 – 85 percent dark chocolate. Again, not exactly Paleo approved but the lack of sugar combined with a high antioxidant content makes it, for me at least, a justifiable addition to my weekly food intake. I suspect my caveman ancestors would have liked it too!

Closing Thoughts

Am I going to stay Paleo? Yes – I think so. I may choose to lapse for the occasional meal and enjoy some bread when I eat out or, in the near future, a large piece of birthday cake, but I am enjoying eating like a 21st century caveman and certainly have The Results So Far… enjoyed the truly effortless fat loss I have Interestingly I didn‟t really lose weight but I experienced thus far. Like any eating plan, did lose a significant amount of fat while there are times when it would be easier to gaining some muscle. Prior to going cavegrab a sandwich than make a salad but for man I could see my upper abs if I really me at least, the results - both how I feel and REALLY squeezed hard but now I can see how I look – make the sacrifices well worthall of my abs all of the time plus a whole while. While not for everyone, the Paleo diet bunch of muscles that I don‟t think I have does seem to live up to some of the hype ever seen before! My energy levels and hunger levels were stable all day long - in surrounding it. fact, I didn‟t seem to get hungry very often at all which I put down to stable blood glucose and therefore insulin levels. I maintained my usual programme of hard training and did not experiencing any performance drop off despite only eating an average 150 grams of carbs a day.

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With so much conflicting sports drink advice around it can be tricky deciding what product to use when. Do you need isotonic drinks? Hypertonic drinks? And don‟t forget hypotonic drinks! It‟s so easy to get so bogged down in the science of sports drinks that you might actually forget that, in many cases, water is all you need to keep your body well hydrated and functioning properly. Here are out top ten reasons for drinking the ultimate sports drink that is water! Shoot for around two to three litres a day to enjoy the benefits listed below.


Weight loss. Water is one of the best tools for weight loss because it is calorie free and can be used to replace fizzy drinks and alcohol which are often very calorie dense. It's also a great appetite suppressant. Often when you feel hungry you are actually just thirsty. Water has no fat, no calories, no carbs, and no sugar – the perfect weight management beverage! 32 | Fitnorama | March 2011


Heart healthy. Drinking a good amount of water could lower your risks of a heart attack. A six-year study published in the May 1, 2002 American Journal of Epidemiology found that those who drink more than 5 glasses of water a day were 41% less likely to die from a heart attack.


Energy. Being dehydrated can sap your energy and make you feel

sluggish. If you're thirsty, you're already dehydrated and this can lead to fatigue, muscle weakness, dizziness and other less-than-pleasant symptoms.


Headache cure. Another symptom of dehydration is

headaches. Many headaches are the result of simply a matter of not drinking enough water. There are lots of other causes of headaches of course, but dehydration is a common one. Try drinking water before you resort to pain medication – you may find your headache disappears on its own.


Healthy skin. Drinking water can clear up your skin and people often report a healthy glow after drinking water. It won't happen overnight, of course, but just a week of drinking a healthy amount of water can have good effects on your skin. Itâ€&#x;s a secret that supermodels swear by.


Digestive problems. Our digestive systems need a large amount of

water to digest food properly. Water can help cure stomach acid problems, and, along with fibre, can help prevent constipation (often a result of dehydration).


Cleansing. Water is used by the

reduce the risk of bladder cancer by 50% and potentially reduce the risk of breast cancer.


Better exercise. Water aids the body in movement. In order to move various chemical reactions have to take place within the body, a lot of these need water.

body to help flush out toxins and waste products from the body. Clear, non-smelly urine suggest that your urinary system is functioning well and you have a low concentration of toxins in your body.

Consuming a


Cancer risk. Consuming a healthy amount of water has also been

Temperature regulation. Your body uses copious amounts of water to help you keep cool. When your core temperature rises, your body produces sweat which evaporates, taking heat away from the surface of your skin. If you are dehy-

found to reduce the risk of colon cancer by 45%. Drinking lots of water can also

drated than you are more likely to overheat when exercising and this will reduce

healthy amount of water has also been found to reduce the risk of colon cancer by 45%.


March 2011 | Fitnorama | 33

The marathon season is nearly upon us. The month of April will see thousands of runners take to the streets for the first time in nearly seventy 26.2 mile challenges across Europe. So whether youâ€&#x;re running London or Limassol, Brighton or Belgrade, the month of March is arguably the most important and tough in marathon training. Focussing during the final few weeks of harder running before easing down your training for the big day can really make a difference in helping you achieve your goals. Fitnorama answers your common marathon questions about the final push to the finish line.



It is generally agreed that you should aim to do your last long run three weeks before the date of the marathon. This should be the longest run that you attempt and you should have built up to this distance progressively each week over the previous months of training. This run should be no longer than 22 miles. Anything further will lead to fatigue, making you tired for your other runs during the week. It will also make you more susceptible to injury. Save your energy for the big race instead!

Yes! Practicing your hydration strategy with a sports drink will help your body acclimatise to taking on fluid at regular intervals, keep you hydrated, replenish lost electrolytes and help to fuel your muscles. It will also get you used to practicing the skill of drinking whilst running, which can take some getting used to. Find out which sports drink is being distributed at the marathon that you are running and take regular sips of this during training. It is better to find out now whether your stomach can tolerate this drink rather than on marathon day! Be very

hat is the furthest that I should run in my long runs and how far before the marathon should I do this distance?

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hould I be drinking anything whilst I train?

careful not to over drink as this can lead to hyponatraemia (low sodium levels) which can be dangerous. The key here is to practice different hydration strategies whilst training and find the approach that works for you before race day.

ing. Running with hundreds of other people will help to motivate you and get you used to the environment of marathon day. Check out to find a race near you. If you‟d rather not participate in a race, then maybe finding a running partner would help keep up motivation levels. Websites such as and hat about eating whilst run- are tailored ning? towards finding someone to run with nearby who has similar goals to you Again, yes! This is very important! When you are running a marathon, your main Remember that you will source of fuel is carbohydrate, which is stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles. run a more enjoyable race The body has a limited supply of this fuel if you can keep your pace and it will run out if not replenished whilst running. This is known as „hitting the wall‟ consistent throughout the and is where your glycogen supplies have 26.2 miles! reached empty and your brain and muscles are being starved of their primary fuel supply. This can be overcome by taking on fuel ow fast should I run on marathon at regular intervals (every 30 to 45 minutes) day? Should I be practicing this in during the race. Practice taking either enmy training? ergy gels, sports bars, jelly beans or food on your training runs to find out which your This really depends on your goal. If you body digests most easily and gives you that have a finishing time in mind, then you need energy boost to carry you through to the finto think about the pace per mile that it would ish line. take to achieve this. For example, if you are aiming for a 4 hour 30 minute finish, you will need to run 10 minutes 18 seconds per mile ’m finding it hard to motivate myself on the day. It is generally agreed that your to go out on yet another long run. long training runs should be around 10 percent slower than your race pace, as training What can I do? at this speed can help use the glycogen The final few weeks of training can be as stored in your muscles and liver more effimuch a test on the mind as on the body. ciently. So for a 4 hour 30 marathon, you Running can take up a lot of your free time should aim to train at around 11 minutes and can be monotonous after jogging so and 20 seconds per mile. Practice your pacmany loops of your local park, so it is some- ing on your last few long runs and assess times difficult to keep motivated. There are whether this speed will be realistic for race plenty of strategies to combat this. It is im- day. Don‟t be afraid to lower your pace if portant, at this stage, to focus on why you necessary. Remember that you will run a are doing this. Each training run that you do more enjoyable race if you can keep your is like money miles in the bank, which will pace consistent throughout the 26.2 miles!




make it easier for you to achieve your marathon goal. To keep your running fresh, per- Good luck with your marathon seahaps think about doing an organised event son! instead? There are numerous races all over the country every weekend which are specifically geared to help with marathon trainMarch 2011 | Fitnorama | 35

Fitnorama march edit  
Fitnorama march edit  

Fitnorama march edit