Page 1

Brenda K. Yamin Robert A. Gillis


Principles of Contracting contains procedures commonly practiced in industry and the trade. Specific procedures vary with each task and must be performed by a qualified person. For maximum safety, always refer to specific manufacturer recommendations, insurance regulations, specific job site and plant procedures, applicable federal, state, and local regulations, and any authority having jurisdiction. The material contained herein is intended to be an educational resource for the user. American Technical Publishers, Inc. assumes no responsibility or liability in connection with this material or its use by any individual or organization.

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© 2018 by American Technical Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 – 18 – 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Printed in the United States of America ISBN 978-0-8269-3820-6

This book is printed on recycled paper.


acknowledgements The author and publisher are grateful for the photographs and technical information provided by the following companies and organizations:

The American Institute of Architects Architect of the Capitol Autodesk, Inc. Bosch Thermotechnology Corp. City of Utica, New York Classic Wood & Barn International Code Council Deere & Company Eisen Group/McClure Engineering Co. ELE International, Inc. FEMA GOMACO Corporation Hilti, Inc. ITW Paslode

KIP America Lafarge North America Inc. Leica Geosystems Linden Group Architects Manhard Consulting LTD Milwaukee Tool Corporation NREL/DOE Portland Cement Association Sherman Mechanical, Inc. Watchdog Waterproofing® Wendy’s International, Inc. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers USDA NRCS U.S. Green Building Council

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contents

1

Construction Project Types

1

SECTION 1.1 — RESIDENTIAL PROJECTS ................................................................................................2 Residential Renovation Projects • New Residential Projects SECTION 1.2 — COMMERCIAL PROJECTS ...............................................................................................5 Light Commercial Projects • General Building Projects • Renovation and Reuse Projects • Infrastructure Projects • Engineering Projects • Specialty Structures • Historic Preservation Projects CHAPTER 1 ACTIVITIES ..........................................................................................................................13

2

Construction Project Participants

17

SECTION 2.1 — PROJECT TEAM MEMBERS ...........................................................................................18 Owners • Design Professionals • Engineers • Construction Management and Services SECTION 2.2 — SUPPLEMENTARY PROJECT PARTICIPANTS ..............................................................27 Real-Estate Developers • Land Surveyors • Testing Agencies • Manufacturers, Distributors, and Suppliers • Municipal Building and Planning Departments CHAPTER 2 ACTIVITIES ..........................................................................................................................33

3

Business Ownership

35

SECTION 3.1 — BUSINESS STRUCTURE TYPES....................................................................................36 Sole Proprietorships • General Partnership • Limited Partnership • Corporations • Limited Liability Companies • Limited Liability Partnerships • Joint Ventures • Project Partnering SECTION 3.2 — BUSINESS INITIATION ....................................................................................................44 Licensing and Registration • Duties, Responsibilities, and Organization • Marketing and Advertising • Company Authority • Company Policy Manuals • Employee Training CHAPTER 3 ACTIVITIES ..........................................................................................................................51

4

Labor Relations

55

SECTION 4.1 — LABOR IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY................................................................56 Labor History in the United States • Federal and State Labor Laws • Federal Antidiscrimination Laws SECTION 4.2 — ORGANIZED LABOR .......................................................................................................60 Local Unions • National and International Unions • The American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations • Union Membership and Services • Local Jurisdiction SECTION 4.3 — EMPLOYEE RELATIONS .................................................................................................63 Collective Bargaining • Labor Strikes and Lockouts • Mediation and Arbitration • Boycotts and Picketing • Employee Wages and Benefits CHAPTER 4 ACTIVITIES ..........................................................................................................................69

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contents

5

Designer Responsibilities

73

SECTION 5.1 — CONTRACT DOCUMENT DEVELOPMENT....................................................................74 Project Conception • Design Project Managers SECTION 5.2 — SCOPE OF WORK AND BUDGET ..................................................................................76 The Owner’s Budget • Project-Cost Identification • Design Fees SECTION 5.3 — DESIGN PHASES ............................................................................................................79 Administration and Evaluation • Schematic Design • Design Development • Value Engineering • Construction Document Phase SECTION 5.4 — CONTRACT PROCUREMENT AND ADMINISTRATION ................................................81 Bidding Process • Construction Administration CHAPTER 5 ACTIVITIES ..........................................................................................................................85

6

Project Financing

89

SECTION 6.1 — PROJECT PLANNING .....................................................................................................90 Owner Responsibilities • Owner Payment Arrangements SECTION 6.2 — PROJECT FUNDING .......................................................................................................92 Privately Funded Projects • Publicly Funded Projects • Public-Private Partnerships • Assets, Liabilities, and Equity • Lines of Credit • Municipal Bonds • Corporate Bonds • Grants CHAPTER 6 ACTIVITIES ..........................................................................................................................99

7

Construction Building and Zoning Codes

103

SECTION 7.1 — BUILDING CODES.........................................................................................................104 History of Building Codes • Model Building Codes • Supplemental Building Codes • Codes for Existing Buildings • Property Maintenance Code • Unsafe Buildings and Structures • Code Enforcement Agencies • The Building Permit Process SECTION 7.2 — BUILDING CODE SECTIONS........................................................................................110 Building Use and Occupancy Classification • Construction Type Classification • Building Height and Floor Area • Fire-Resistant and Fire-Rated Construction • Interior Finishes • Fire Protection and Detection Systems • Means of Egress • Accessibility • Structural Design • Referenced Standards SECTION 7.3 — ZONING CODES............................................................................................................117 Origin of Zoning Codes • Zoning Districts and Maps • Zoning Requirements • Zoning Types • Site and Building Planning • Planning Board Approval • Variance Appeals CHAPTER 7 ACTIVITIES ........................................................................................................................123

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contents

8

Building Reuse and Sustainability

129

SECTION 8.1 — BUILDING REUSE ....................................................................................................130 Reclassifying Use and Occupancy • Unoccupied and Abandoned Buildings • Building Demolition • Rehabilitation of Existing Structures • Adaptive Reuse Projects • Development Strategies for Adaptive Reuse Projects • Design and Construction of Adaptive Reuse Projects SECTION 8.2 — HISTORIC PRESERVATION .....................................................................................134 The Nomination Process • Historic Rehabilitation Tax Credits • Preservation Guidelines • Landmark Designation SECTION 8.3 — SUSTAINABLE DESIGN ...........................................................................................136 Green Building Design • LEED® Performance and Assessment • Green Standards • Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources • Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle • Sustainable Communities CHAPTER 8 ACTIVITIES ...................................................................................................................145

9

Construction Contract Documents

151

SECTION 9.1 — DRAWINGS ...............................................................................................................152 Drawing Proportions • Drawing Scales • Drawing Information • Drawing Views • Drawing Sheet Numbering and Order • Computer-Aided Design • Building Information Modeling SECTION 9.2 — DRAWING TYPES.....................................................................................................157 Cover Sheets • Site Plans • Foundation Plans and Details • Floor Plans • Structural Plans and Details • Reflected Ceiling Plans • Exterior and Interior Elevations • Building Sections • Wall Sections • Detail Drawings • Schedules and Diagrams • Shop Drawings • Presentation Drawings SECTION 9.3 — PROJECT MANUALS ...............................................................................................167 Bidding Requirements • Contract Agreements • Technical Specifications • Specification Divisions • Reference Standards CHAPTER 9 ACTIVITIES ...................................................................................................................173

10

Bidding and Negotiation

177

SECTION 10.1 — BIDDING PROCESS ...............................................................................................178 Bid Documents • Pre-Bid Meeting • Preparing Bids • Obtaining Prices • Estimating Procedures • Cost Estimating Software SECTION 10.2 — COMPETITIVE BIDDING ........................................................................................182 Publicly Bid Projects • Privately Bid Projects • Bid Depositories and Reporting Services • Bid Period • Issuance of Addenda • Bid Opening • Bid Review by Owners • Change Orders SECTION 10.3 — CONTRACT NEGOTIATION ...................................................................................186 Advantages of Contract Negotiation • Contract Negotiation Time Requirements • Contract Negotiation Procedures SECTION 10.4 — AWARDING CONTRACTS ......................................................................................188 Notice to Proceed • Preconstruction Meetings CHAPTER 10 ACTIVITIES .................................................................................................................191

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contents

11

Construction Insurance and Bonds

199

SECTION 11.1 — RISK MANAGEMENT .............................................................................................200 SECTION 11.2 — LIABILITY INSURANCE ..........................................................................................200 Professional Liability Insurance • Construction Liability Insurance SECTION 11.3 — PROPERTY INSURANCE.......................................................................................204 Builder’s Risk Insurance • Business Personal Property Insurance • Nonmandatory Insurance SECTION 11.4 — EMPLOYEE INSURANCE.......................................................................................206 Worker’s Compensation Insurance • Employer’s Liability Insurance • Unemployment Insurance • Disability Insurance • Social Security Insurance • Life Insurance SECTION 11.5 — INSURANCE DOCUMENTATION ...........................................................................208 Certificates of Insurance • Insurance Claims SECTION 11.6 — CONSTRUCTION BONDS ......................................................................................210 Bid Bonds • Performance Bonds • Payment Bonds • Additional Bonds • Surety Companies • The Miller Act • Liens CHAPTER 11 ACTIVITIES .................................................................................................................215

12

Construction Project Management

225

SECTION 12.1 — PRECONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES ............................................................................... 226 Notices to Proceed • Building Permits • Groundbreaking Ceremonies • Establishing the Job Site • Material Deliveries and Site Staging • Building Inspections SECTION 12.2 — PROJECT MANAGERS .................................................................................................. 229 Construction Scheduling • Milestones • Schedule Tracking • Submittal Procedures • Submittal Review • Changes in the Work • Payment Requisitions SECTION 12.3 — FIELD SUPERINTENDENTS ..................................................................................236 Subcontractor and Supplier Supervision • Job-Site Documentation and Recordkeeping • Job-Site Progress Meetings • Requests for Information • Differing Site Conditions • Work Access and Inspections • Construction Delays • Job-Site Maintenance CHAPTER 12 ACTIVITIES .................................................................................................................243

13

Subcontractors and Suppliers

249

SECTION 13.1 — SPECIALIZED CONSTRUCTION ...........................................................................250 SECTION 13.2 — SUBCONTRACTORS .............................................................................................250 Subcontractor Responsibilities • Subcontractor Agreements • Subcontractor Costs • Payments to Subcontractors • Specialty Permits and Regulations • Verifying Field Conditions and Ordering Materials • Field Mock-Ups • Insurance Requirements SECTION 13.3 — MATERIAL AND EQUIPMENT SUPPLIERS ...........................................................255 Specialty Equipment • Warrantees and Maintenance Manuals • Additional Materials • Payments to Suppliers CHAPTER 13 ACTIVITIES .................................................................................................................259

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contents

14

Construction Job-Site Safety

265

SECTION 14.1 — JOB-SITE SAFETY .................................................................................................266 Job-Site Environments • Safety Codes and Legislation • The Occupational Safety and Health Administration • Job-Site Safety Program • OSHA Inspection Process SECTION 14.2 — ACCIDENT PREVENTION .....................................................................................271 Government and Private Health and Safety Organizations • Common Causes of Occupational Injuries • Personal Protective Equipment • Hazardous Materials Communication • Accident Reporting • Effect of Accidents on Productivity SECTION 14.3 — COMPANY SAFETY PROGRAMS .........................................................................275 Safety Supervision and Assignment • Toolbox Safety Talks • Safety Program Benefits • Company Reputation CHAPTER 14 ACTIVITIES .................................................................................................................279

15

Project Closeout Documentation

287

SECTION 15.1 — INITIATING PROJECT CLOSEOUT .......................................................................288 Substantial Completion • Inspection at Substantial Completion SECTION 15.2 — FINALIZING PROJECT CLOSEOUT......................................................................290 Certificates of Occupancy • Demonstration and Training • Contractor Guarantees • Product Warranties • Building Systems Testing, Certification, and Service Agreements • Operation and Maintenance Manuals • Additional Construction Materials • Lien Waivers • Labor Certification Requirements • Record Documents • Final Payment CHAPTER 15 ACTIVITIES .................................................................................................................295

Appendix

301

Glossary

305

Index

315

LEARNER RESOURCES • • • • • •

Quick Quizzes® Illustrated Glossary Flash Cards Forms and Documents Media Library ATPeResources.com

viii


features Photographs depict content examples.

Objectives provide goals for each chapter.

Chapter introductions provide overviews of chapter content.

Section review questions test for comprehension of content covered.

Activities at the end of each chapter provide learners opportunities to apply chapter concepts.

ix


learner resources The Principles of Contracting Learner Resources are self-study tools that reinforce the content covered in the book. These online resources can be accessed using either of the following methods: • Key ATPeResources.com/QuickLinks into a web browser and enter QuickLinks™ Access code. • Use a Quick Response (QR) reader app to scan the QR Code with a mobile device.

The Learner Resources include the following: • Quick Quizzes® provide interactive questions for each chapter with embedded links to highlighted content within the textbook and to the Illustrated Glossary. • Illustrated Glossary provides a helpful reference to commonly used terms. Selected terms are linked to interactive illustrations or media clips. • Flash Cards provide a review tool to match terms and definitions and/or identify symbols, tools, and equipment. • Forms and Documents for common recordkeeping requirements that can be printed for use. • Media Library consists of animated illustrations and/or video clips that reinforce and expand upon content found in the book. • ATPeResources.com links to online reference materials that support continued learning.

x


CHAPTER

9

Construction Contract Documents Drawings and the project manual are integral parts of the construction and facilities management processes. They provide the necessary information to create a building environment, based on the owner’s needs, from design to final construction. The drawings illustrate the scale and proportion of the building as well as how the materials are assembled and connected. The project manual is written information that supplements the drawings. The project manual includes information contractors need to submit bid proposals and defines the conditions under which a contract is to be executed. The technical specifications provide detailed written information regarding materials and equipment for products, testing, and execution of the work.

OBJECTIVES

KEY TERMS

SECTION 9.1 — DRAWINGS • Describe construction drawings. • Differentiate between drawing proportion and scale. • Describe the elements used in construction drawings. • Differentiate between computer-aided design and building information modeling.

SECTION 9.2 — DRAWING TYPES • Describe cover sheets. • Compare site plans and floor plans. • Describe exterior and interior elevations. • Differentiate between sections and details. • Explain the difference between schedules and diagrams. • Compare shop drawings and presentation drawings.

SECTION 9.3 — PROJECT MANUALS • Describe project manuals. • Explain bidding requirements. • Describe contract agreements. • Differentiate between specifications and reference standards.

• construction drawing • architect’s scale • engineer’s scale • orthographic projection • axonometric drawing • perspective drawing • building information modeling (BIM) • point of beginning (POB) • floor plan • reflected ceiling plan • elevation • detail drawing • schedule • shop drawing • stipulated sum agreement • cost-plus-fee agreement • supplementary condition

Digital Resources

ATPeResources.com/QuickLinks Access Code:

151


152  PRINCIPLES OF CONTRACTING

SECTION 9.1 DRAWINGS Design drawings and sketches are used to illustrate the layout and concepts, and to form an appearance of the proposed building or structure. A construction drawing is a graphic or pictorial representation of a project drawn to a selected scale of the finished work. Several types of drawing views and details may be organized on a single sheet, each representing a select portion of the work to illustrate the type of materials used or how the materials are assembled. The completed set represents all of the information necessary to construct the work.

The size of the paper selected by the designer depends on the size and complexity of the project and how much detail is involved in the set. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) establishes drawing size standards for drafting sheets. Several sheet designations and sizes are used as industry standards. See Figure 9-1. Drawings produced by hand are typically drawn on durable paper such as vellum or plastic Mylar sheets. The most commonly used paper is vellum. Vellum paper is a plasticized cotton, which is usually translucent. Drawings created on vellum are hand drawn with pencil lead. Vellum is used for applications in which reproductions of the original drawing are produced in the blueprint process using light-sensitive paper for a contact print process. Vellum is manufactured in various weights and strengths in standard-size sheets and rolls.

STANDARD SHEET SIZE DESIGNATIONS NORTH AMERICAN ARCH SERIES PAPER SIZE Size

Inches

Millimeters

ARCH A

9 × 12

229 × 305

ARCH B

12 × 18

ARCH C

18 × 24

ARCH D ARCH E ARCH E1

NORTH AMERICAN ANSI SERIES PAPER SIZE Size

Inches

Millimeters

ANSI A

8¹⁄₂ × 11

216 × 279

305 × 457

ANSI B

11 × 17

279 × 432

457 × 610

ANSI C

17 × 22

432 × 559

24 × 36

610 × 914

ANSI D

22 × 34

559 × 864

36 × 48

914 × 1219

ANSI E

34 × 44

864 × 1118

30 × 42

762 × 1067

E E1 D

C

E

D

C

B

B

A

A

ARCHITECTURAL

US ANSI

Figure 9-1. Paper size is often determined by the size of the floor plan and the scale in which it will be drawn.


Chapter 9 — Construction Contract Documents 153

Another, more durable, medium developed in the mid-1950s is a polyester-plastic-film paper traditionally known in the industry by its trade name, Mylar®. It is a superior archival material that is dimensionally stable and chemically matted to accept pencil or ink. It will not tear, stain, or become brittle with age. Before the advent of vellum and Mylar papers, drafting linen was used as the medium of choice from the latter 19th century to the mid-20th century. It consists of undyed, woven fabric. It replaced previous drafting practices using wood-pulp and rag (cotton) papers. Its advantages were strength and the ability to make several revisions of the same drawing. Today, most drawings are produced electronically and are printed and reproduced on copy bond paper using inkjet or laser printers. See Figure 9-2.

DRAWING REPRODUCTION

CONTROL PANEL

COPY INPUT

COPY OUTPUT

KIP America

Figure 9-2. Large format printer-copiers are used to print and duplicate construction drawings.

Drawing Proportions The concept of scale is the proportional correctness of an object that is either enlarged or reduced to depict an accurate relative size, shape, and view of the object. Because construction projects are generally large in size, drawings are shown at a reduced scale in order to show complete plans, elevations, and sectional layouts of the buildings and structures many times larger than the paper sheets they are drawn on.

Drawing Scales The architect’s scale is used by designers and architects to produce and measure construction drawings. An architect’s scale is a triangular scale with six graduated surfaces. Two different scales are marked on five of the surfaces, and inches and fractions of an inch are marked on the other surface. See Figure 9-3. The relative size of a building in comparison to the objects shown on the drawing requires a measurement of fractions of an inch equaling feet. For example, a typical residential floor plan would be drawn at a scale of Z\v″ that equals 1′, or 1:48 actual size. An architect’s scale may also be flat and include two scales on each side. The triangular architect’s scale has 11 different scale sizes ranging from full (actual) scale to C\cx″ that equals 1′. For larger commercial projects, a scale of Z\,″ equaling 1′, or 1:96 actual size, may be required in order to show a complete plan on a single sheet. At this scale, the designer may require additional views, such as enlarged plans, to convey the necessary information. As the size of a drawing object becomes more detailed, it is often necessary to draw portions of the work at a larger scale. When projects are larger in size, such as roads and bridges, an engineer’s scale is used. An engineer’s scale is a measuring and scaling tool that is graduated in the decimal system. The unit size of the engineer’s scale is smaller than that of the architect’s scale and is read in inches that represent lengths in feet. See Figure 9-4.


154  PRINCIPLES OF CONTRACTING

ARCHITECT’S SCALES READ 12′-0″

36

2

9

4

10

2

1 — 2

0

READ 2′-6″

Scale

76

10

2

38

72

18

40

20

80

8

1

42

16

84

6

88

4

20

44

12

0

46

8

92

2

3

4

6

¹⁄₂″ = 1′-0″ SCALE

0

0

9

1 — 8

READ 8′-6″ 1 — 4

¹⁄₄″ = 1′-0″ SCALE

1

¹⁄₈″ = 1′-0″ SCALE

1″ = 1′-0″ SCALE

READ 2′-3″

Size

3″ = 1′-0″

¹⁄₄ actual size

1¹⁄₂″ = 1′-0″

¹⁄₈ actual size

1″ = 1′-0″

¹⁄₁₂ actual size

³⁄₄″ = 1′-0″

¹⁄₁₆ actual size

¹⁄₂″ = 1′-0″

¹⁄₂₄ actual size

³⁄₈″ = 1′-0″

¹⁄₃₂ actual size

¹⁄₄″ = 1′-0″

¹⁄₄₈ actual size

³⁄₁₆″ = 1′-0″

¹⁄₆₄ actual size

¹⁄₈″ = 1′-0″

¹⁄₉₆ actual size

³⁄₃₂″ = 1′-0″

¹⁄₁₂₈ actual size

TRIANGULAR CROSS SECTION

Figure 9-3. An architect’s scale is the primary scale used on a set of construction drawings.

ENGINEER’S SCALES 1″ = 30′-0″ SCALE

READ 75′-0″

Scale 4

8

60

62

64

66

68

70

72

1″ = 40′-0″ SCALE

6

58

2

56

0

54

30

READ 100′-0″

6

8

20

21

4

10

19

22

2

12

14

18

23

0

17

40

Size

1″ = 10′-0″

¹⁄₁₂₀ actual size

1″ = 20′-0″

¹⁄₂₄₀ actual size

1″ = 30′-0″

¹⁄₃₆₀ actual size

1″ = 40′-0″

¹⁄₄₈₀ actual size

1″ = 50′-0″

¹⁄₆₀₀ actual size

1″ = 60′-0″

¹⁄₇₂₀ actual size

24

Figure 9-4. An engineer’s scale is similar to an architect’s scale and is used on site plans and civil engineering drawings.


Chapter 9 — Construction Contract Documents 155

Drawing Information Drawings consist of graphical objects, dimensional references, notes, schedules, and symbols. The graphical objects are drawn to a relative scale. Through dimensioning, the exact height, width, or length of the objects are indicated. Dimensions may be either horizontal, vertical, or angular and aligned in the direction of the object. Although most elements in scaled drawings can be measured using an architect’s or engineer’s scale, it is advised that measurements be obtained from the dimensions shown on the construction drawings. It is common to have a string of dimensions show the locations of features, such as windows or doors along a wall, or the centerline distances between the columns of a building. See Figure 9-5.

Other drawings, such as axonometric and perspective drawings, are three-dimensional representations of an object. An axonometric drawing is a pictorial drawing in which the angle of the axes varies with the type of representation. A perspective drawing is a representation of an object as it appears when viewed from a given point. See Figure 9-6.

PERSPECTIVE DRAWINGS

Drawing Views Views drawn on a single plane are referred to as orthographic projections. An orthographic projection is a two-dimensional representation of a three-dimensional object in which each face of the object is projected onto flat planes generally at 90° to one another. Orthographic projections are commonly used for elevation drawings. As such, a drawing set requires more than one view to illustrate the information necessary to construct the work.

Figure 9-6. Perspective drawings are often used for the presentation of building projects.

BUILDING DIMENSIONS DIMENSION STRING LOCATING CENTER OF PATIO DOOR

PATIO DOOR

Figure 9-5. Dimension strings are used to locate various features on drawings.

Linden Group Architects


156  PRINCIPLES OF CONTRACTING

Drawing Sheet Numbering and Order

TECH TIP

Many architectural offices develop their own formats and standards for numbering construction drawings. In an effort to standardize and utilize best practices, the American Institute of Architects (AIA®) publishes standards on organizing drawings. The sheet numbering sequence consists of one or two alphanumerical characters that designate the discipline with a hyphen that separates a number representing the sheet type followed by one or two numbers representing the sequence. Architectural drawings are indicated by the letter “A”, structural drawings by the letter “S”, heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) drawings by the letter “M”, electrical drawings by the letter “E”, and plumbing drawings by the letter “P”. For example, a drawing sheet labeled as A-4.0 indicates architectural elevations. See Figure 9-7. There may be other abbreviations shown for civil, sprinkler, lifesafety, and low-voltage-device drawings.

AutoCAD is a drafting and computer-aided design (CAD) program that was introduced by Autodesk, Inc., in December of 1982. It was the first CAD software offered for personal computers. AutoCAD is used by architects and engineers for creating construction documents, renderings, and models.

DRAWING SHEET NUMBERING

Computer-Aided Design With the advent of more powerful design programs and less expensive personal computers, computer-aided design (CAD) has become more cost effective for producing construction documents. CAD programs have evolved from two-dimensional, vector-based software programs that allow users to create lines and basic objects to programs that allow users to create three-dimensional building models that show interior spaces as well as structural and mechanical systems. Software companies have created an array of specialized CAD programs for architectural, structural, civil, mechanical, and electrical system design. In addition to the production of construction drawings for bidding and construction, CAD software can also run simulations for lighting design and structural analysis. Three-dimensional modeling software applies colors, textures, and materials to surfaces to produce visually accurate views and renderings. See Figure 9-8.

COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN (CAD) GENERAL DESCRIPTION

PRINT DIVISION

SHEET NUMBER

Linden Group Architects

Figure 9-7. Construction drawings are organized by discipline and sheet number.

Autodesk, Inc.

Figure 9-8. CAD software allows users to create accurate views and renderings.


Chapter 9 — Construction Contract Documents 157

Building Information Modeling Advancements in computer technology have led software manufacturers to develop an integrated concept for design, construction, operation, and maintenance for buildings and infrastructures. Building information modeling (BIM) is the process of digitally representing the physical and functional properties of a facility. This concept goes beyond the traditional practices of creating drawings on paper and computer-generated two- and three-dimensional designs. In addition to the three dimensions of height, length, and width, BIM incorporates the added features of being able to create cost estimates and construction schedules based on object attributes. The model may be shared with other design disciplines in order to minimize information loss, which is a concern in the coordination of document preparation. See Figure 9-9.

BUILDING INFORMATION MODELING (BIM)

about the manufacturer, the model number, system requirements, cost, and other pertinent data as determined by the designer. All of the object attribute information is stored in the model database for easy access by others. Any conflict in the coordination of the design may be easily identified and corrected. BIM is used not only to produce construction drawings for construction managers, but also to identify and maintain both products and systems for facility managers. BIM was created to be implemented during the life-cycle of the facility, from conception to decommission.

SECTION 9.1 — REVIEW 1. Describe what construction drawings represent. 2. Compare the materials used to make hand-drawn construction drawings. 3. Explain why drawings are drawn to scale. 4. Contrast architect’s scales and engineer’s scales. 5. Describe the information found on construction drawings. 6. Explain drawing sheet numbering and order. 7. Summarize the creation and development of computer-aided design (CAD) programs. 8. Describe how building information modeling (BIM) is used.

Autodesk, Inc.

Figure 9-9. BIM software allows for the use of color to differentiate between supply and return air ductwork in an HVAC system.

Object attributes are created in a virtual model. These object attributes include walls, doors, windows, equipment, and furnishings. The designer places object attributes within the geometry of the model. Object attributes contain information

SECTION 9.2 DRAWING TYPES Drawings and sketches communicate ideas and concepts for use by owners and contractors. As an integral part of the construction document set, construction drawings provide detailed graphical information for contractors to price and construct the work. They also indicate compliance with


158  PRINCIPLES OF CONTRACTING

building codes and facility system requirements. Several types of drawings are used to create a set of construction drawings.

Cover Sheets The first sheet in a set of construction drawings is the cover sheet. The cover sheet provides general information about a project. It includes the date, project number, name and address of a project, and the names and contact information of the owner, architect, and engineers. The cover sheet may also include a list of drawings, a project location map, code information, and general notes. See Figure 9-10. TECH TIP When reading a print, the scale of the working drawing on the sheet must first be identified. The scale is located in the title block or below the title of the working drawing. In some instances, it may be located at the top of the drawing due to space limitations.

Site Plans A site plan contains information about existing or proposed features of a project site. A site plan, also known as a plot plan, is a drawing that shows the property lines of a building lot, elevation information, compass directions, lengths of property lines, and locations of structures to be built on a lot. See Figure 9-11. It may also show utility services, landscaping, and other information needed to perform the work required before constructing a foundation. This includes topographical information with regard to grades and contours, site drainage, lighting, utilities, and locations of other buildings or structures on the site. When there is extensive information that needs to be shown, multiple site plans may be used. Much of the information shown on site plans is derived from land and property surveys conducted by a licensed professional. Typically, it is the owner’s responsibility to provide all survey, site, and subsurface testing information before a design can be developed. The designer should observe all zoning ordinances, which may

COVER SHEETS PROJECT NAME AND ADDRESS

LIST OF DRAWINGS

ARCHITECT T-1.0

TITLE SHEET, PROJECT INFO, GENERAL NOTES

S-1.0

SITE DEVELOPMENT SITE PLAN

CIVIL C0.00 C0.01 C0.02 C1.00 C1.10 C1.20

(UNDER SEPARATE COVER) SUBDIVISION PLAT SUBDIVISION PLAT SUBDIVISION PLAT PROPOSED PLAT AS-BUILT SURVEY FINAL GRADING CERTIFICATION

ARCHITECTURAL A-1.0 FLOOR PLAN OVERALL A-1.1 FIRST FLOOR PLAN ENLARGED LEFT A-1.2 FIRST FLOOR PLAN ENLARGED RIGHT A-1.3 SECOND PLAN OVERALL A-1.4 SECOND FLOOR PLAN ENLARGED LEFT A-1.5 SECOND FLOOR PLAN ENLARGED RIGHT A-1.6 THIRD FLOOR PLAN OVERALL A-1.7 THIRD FLOOR PLAN ENLARGED LEFT A-1.8 THIRD FLOOR PLAN ENLARGED RIGHT A-1.9 FOURTH FLOOR PLAN OVERALL A-1.10 FOURTH FLOOR PLAN ENLARGED LEFT A-1.11 FOURTH FLOOR PLAN ENLARGED RIGHT A-1.12 ROOF PLAN A-4.0 EXTERIOR ELEVATIONS EXTERIOR ELEVATIONS A-4.1 A-5.0 BUILDING SECTION A-5.1 PARTIAL BUILDING SECTION & DETAILS A-5.2 WALL SECTIONS A-5.3 DETAILS A-5.4 DETAILS A-5.5 DETAILS A-5.6 DETAILS A-6.0 PARTITION TYPES & DETAILS A-6.1 FIRE STOPPING DETAILS A-7.0 DOOR, WINDOW & ROOM FINISH SCHEDULES A-7.1 DOOR JAMB DETAILS A-8.0 INTERIOR ELEVATIONS A-8.1 INTERIOR ELEVATIONS

OWNER

STRUCTURAL FOUNDATION S-1.0 SPECIFICATIONS, FOOTING SCHEDULE, TYPICAL DETAILS S-2.0 FOUNDATION PLAN, DETAILS S-3.0 SECTIONS AND DETAILS STRUCTURAL BUILDING S001 COVER SHEET/NOTES/SPECIFICATIONS S002 SCHEDULES S100 FOUNDATION LOAD PLAN S101 FIRST FLOOR PLAN S102 SECOND FLOOR PLAN S103 THIRD AND FOURTH FLOOR PLAN S201 ROOF PLAN S500 TYPICAL DETAILS TYPICAL DETAILS S501 S502 SHEARWALL DETAILS S503 FLOOR DETAILS S504 FLOOR AND BALCONY DETAILS S505 ROOF DETAILS MEP DRAWINGS P1 PLUMBING OVERALL FIRST FLOOR PLAN P2 PLUMBING OVERALL SECOND- THIRD FLOOR PLAN P3 PLUMBING OVERALL FOURTH FLOOR PLAN P4 PLUMBING ROOF PLAN P5 PLUMBING SCHEDULES AND DETAILS P6 PLUMBING SPECIFICATIONS AND NOTES P7-AF PLUMBING LARGE SCALE PLANS UNITS A/F P8-D PLUMBING LARGE SCALE PLAN UNIT D P9-E-E2 PLUMBING LARGE SCALE PLANS UNIT E/E2 P10-B-B2 PLUMBING LARGE SCALE PLANS UNITS B/B2 M1 HVAC OVERALL FIRST FLOOR PLAN M2 HVAC OVERALL SECOND- THIRD FLOOR PLAN M3 HVAC OVERALL FOURTH FLOOR PLAN HVAC ROOF PLAN M4 M5 HVAC LARGE SCALE UNIT PLANS A, B/B2, D,E, AND F M6 HVAC LARGE SCALE UNIT PLAN E2 M7 HVAC SCHEDULES M8 HVAC DETAILS M9 HVAC SPECIFICATIONS AND NOTES E1 ELECTRICAL OVERALL FIRST FLOOR PLAN E2 ELECTRICAL OVERALL SECOND- THIRD FLOOR PLAN E3 ELECTRICAL OVERALL FOURTH FLOOR PLAN E4 ELECTRICAL SCHEDULES AND SYMBOLS/ABREVIATIONS E5 ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATION AND LIGHTING SCHEDULE P6 ELECTRICAL RISER DIAGRAM E7-AF ELECTRICAL LARGE SCALE PLANS UNITS A/F E8-D ELECTRICAL LARGE SCALE PLAN UNIT D E9-E-E2 ELECTRICAL LARGE SCALE PLANS UNIT E/E2 E10-B-B2 ELECTRICAL LARGE SCALE PLANS UNITS B/B2

CODE INFORMATION

ENGINEERS

GENERAL NOTES

PROJECT LOCATION MAP

TITLE BLOCK PROJECT NUMBER DATE

Linden Group Architects

Figure 9-10. The cover sheet in a set of construction drawings includes general project information such as the names of the consulting engineers, the project location, and applicable building codes.


Chapter 9 — Construction Contract Documents 159

restrict or limit the use of the site. Local planning board committees require an annotated site plan prior to the issuance of a building permit or variance to the restrictions. An annotated site plan is a site plan with explanatory notes or comments related to existing and/or proposed site features. Information about the slope and grading is indicated with contour lines passing through points of the same elevation. A point of beginning (POB) is a location on a building lot that acts as a reference point for horizontal dimensions and vertical elevations. This is used by the contractor as a point of reference for which all measurements, both horizontal and vertical, can be made. Measurements on a site plan are written in decimal feet. TECH TIP Before a new project can begin, a site plan showing existing conditions must be developed. The owner, developer, or owner representative must obtain the site plan and visit the site to verify that the information shown on the existing site plan is current.

Foundation Plans and Details The foundation is the base on which an entire structure rests and where all loads from upper floors are transferred to the ground. Most foundations are made of reinforced concrete footings and walls. Other systems, such as piers and piles, can be constructed of different materials such as wood, concrete, or steel. Information shown on foundation plans include the type of material to be used, reinforcement, wall and floor thicknesses, column locations, beam placement, and the location of utility and facility systems. Foundation details may be located on the plan sheet or subsequent sheets.

Floor Plans The floor plan is the most referenced drawing of the construction drawings and is considered to be the primary drawing in a set of prints. A floor plan is a plan view of a structure that shows the arrangement of walls and partitions as they appear in an imaginary section taken horizontally

SITE PLANS SYMBOL LEGEND

COMPASS DIRECTION

DRAWING SCALE

ORLAND PARK CROSSING

VILLAGE OF ORLAND PARK, ILLINOIS

SITE DIMENSIONAL & PAVING PLAN - NORTHWEST

DATE

REVISIONS

DRAWN BY

NOTES

PROJ. MGR.: PROJ. ASSOC.: DRAWN BY: DATE: SCALE:

SHEET OF

PROPERTY LINE

BUILDING TO BE BUILT

BUILDING ELEVATION

Manhard Consulting LTD

Figure 9-11. Site plans show an overall view of the building site and may include notes, symbol legends, and other general information.


160  PRINCIPLES OF CONTRACTING

5′-0″ above floor level. Floor plans also show the locations of doors, windows, and other features. See Figure 9-12. Buildings of more than one floor level generally require multiple drawing sheets and are oriented similarly. Dimensions are used to indicate the overall size of the building, interior rooms, wall thicknesses, and other features such as cabinets, flooring layouts, partitions, and furnishings.

FLOOR PLANS

Symbol tags and conventions are used on floor plans to identify window and door types, mechanical and electrical devices, materials, and equipment. Detail indicators and section lines reference other drawing types where information can be seen more clearly. See Figure 9-13. Most residential and small commercial projects may contain all needed dimensions, notes, and mechanical and electrical information on the same sheet. However, larger projects may require separate drawing sheets to adequately show applicable building systems and structural information.

WALL SECTION INDICATORS

INDICATES DIRECTION OF CUT WALL SECTION NUMBER

PATIO DOOR

DRAWING SHEET NUMBER WINDOW

Linden Group Architects

Figure 9-13. Wall section indicators on floor plans reference the locations of section drawings that show detailed wall construction information.

INTERIOR DOOR

WALL Linden Group Architects

Figure 9-12. Floor plans show the locations of interior and exterior walls, doors, windows, stairs, and elevators.

For computer-generated drawings, the floor plan can be created as a separate external reference drawing. This reference drawing file can be incorporated into other drawing sheets, such as electrical or mechanical plans. If the external reference file is revised, it will automatically update any drawing sheet in which the referenced plan is used.


Chapter 9 — Construction Contract Documents 161

Structural Plans and Details

REFLECTED CEILING PLANS

The way a building is framed and built is significant to the integrity of the structural system. In addition to foundation drawings, structural plans are required to show the locations and sizes of columns, beams, bearing walls, and framing. See Figure 9-14. Structural plans are oriented the same as floor plans. Structural plans may also include details of critical connections and material schedules either on the same drawing or subsequent sheets in the set. Building design criteria is typically indicated on the first structural plan as notes or tables. All drawings and structural calculations must be designed and approved by a licensed professional engineer and submitted for building code review.

10' - 0" A.F.F.

9' - 0" A.F.F. 10' - 0" A.F.F.

10' - 0" A.F.F.

9' - 0" A.F.F.

9' - 0" A.F.F.

G.B. SOFFIT TRANSITION AT 8'-2" A.F.F.

CEILING HEIGHT 10' - 0" A.F.F.

10' - 0" A.F.F.

Reflected Ceiling Plans A reflected ceiling plan depicts a horizontal slice of a building or structure that indicates features of the ceiling above the floor plane. A reflected ceiling plan is a plan view of a ceiling that depicts ceiling-mounted items such as air diffusers, exhaust fans and intakes, and luminaires (lighting fixtures). These include the layout of ceiling grid systems, soffits, and sprinkler heads. See Figure 9-15.

LIGHT FIXTURES

CEILING GRID

Figure 9-15. Reflected ceiling plans are used to show the locations of ceiling-mounted items such as soffits, ceiling grids, and light fixtures, as well as ceiling heights.

STRUCTURAL PLANS

Description

Initials

BEAM TYPE

Revisions No. Date

COLUMN TYPE

04/01/2015

Eisen Contracting

Orland Crossing Orland Park, IL

Second Floor Plan

T RABUE, HANSEN & H INSHAW, INC.

S102

WALL FRAMING TYPE

FLOOR FRAMING Eisen Group/McClure Engineering Co.

Figure 9-14. Structural plans are used to show the locations and sizes of various structural component types.


162  PRINCIPLES OF CONTRACTING

Exterior and Interior Elevations An elevation is an orthographic view of a vertical surface without allowance for perspective. The two types of elevation drawings are interior and exterior elevations. Exterior elevations show the views of all exterior sides of a building to scale. Height measurements are given from floor to floor as well as for exterior facade features. Symbols and conventional representations are used to identify door and window types. Notes and graphic symbols are used to identify the types of finish materials used. See Figure 9-16. Interior elevations are similar to exterior elevations but show features of interior spaces. These views are used to identify and dimension features not shown on plans or sections. These would include wall finishes, such as wallcoverings, wainscoting, and crown molding, as well as

other interior elements such as cabinets, display boards, signs, and grab bars. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) sets guidelines for height measurements of restroom fixtures, grab bars, handrails, and ramps. Interior elevations are referenced on the floor plan with a symbol that references the drawing and applicable detail section. See Figure 9-17.

Building Sections A building section is a vertical cutaway view of a longitudinal or transverse section of an entire building width or length. It shows the general relationships of floor, ceiling, and roof assemblies. The number of sections required depends on the size and complexity of the project. Building sections are drawn to a small scale. Detailed information regarding walls and floor assemblies are generally shown on larger scale wall sections. See Figure 9-18.

BUILDING ELEVATIONS ELEVATION TAG KEY

ELEVATION TAG KEY

ELEVATION FINISH TAG

Linden Group Architects

Figure 9-16. An elevation tag key is used to identify exterior features and finishes included in exterior elevations.


Chapter 9 — Construction Contract Documents 163

INTERIOR ELEVATIONS KITCHEN CABINETS

INTERIOR ELEVATION SYMBOL INDICATING PAGE NUMBER INSIDE SQUARE AND ELEVATION NUMBER IN EACH TRIANGLE

ELEVATION NUMBER DRAWING SHEET NUMBER

ROOM Linden Group Architects

Figure 9-17. Interior elevations can be used to show the layout of kitchen cabinets.

BUILDING SECTIONS GENERAL NOTES

Linden Group Architects

Figure 9-18. Building sections are cutaway views of a structure that show elements not visible in plan or elevation views.


164  PRINCIPLES OF CONTRACTING

Wall Sections Where building sections show general relationships between floor levels, wall sections show the construction detailing for all components in a wall system. A drawing set contains several wall sections for each individual wall system, including exterior walls and interior partitions. Most wall sections depict a vertical cut from foundation to roof, although partial wall sections are used for multistory buildings. Wall sections include dimensions, notes, and symbols. On floor plans and elevations, wall sections are labeled with an identifying number or letter. A sheet number is located below the number or letter and identifies where the wall section drawing is located within the set of construction drawings. See Figure 9-19.

WALL SECTIONS

Detail Drawings A detail drawing is a drawing that shows a small part of a plan, elevation, or section view at an enlarged scale. Detail drawings are used to provide information not clearly shown in other parts of the drawings. Detail views can be located on plan and elevation drawings or grouped together on separate drawing sheets. Details are labeled and referenced similarly to wall sections. The detail number is located above the page number within a circle, identifying the detail. See Figure 9-20.

Schedules and Diagrams With drawing sheets, there are instances in which a large amount of information is required to be given. A schedule is a table or detailed list on a print that provides information about building components such as doors, windows, and mechanical equipment. These components and other building elements often require additional detailed information. For example, a floor plan may indicate a window type in a specific location, but additional information about the hardware, glazing, and rough opening is limited on the plan. Numbers and/or letters on the plan are used to identify windows in the window schedule. A window schedule is a table in which this data can be easily shown and grouped. See Figure 9-21.

WALL SECTION NUMBER SHEET NUMBER

Linden Group Architects

Figure 9-19. Wall sections show floor-to-floor heights and give detailed wall construction information.


Chapter 9 — Construction Contract Documents 165

DETAIL DRAWINGS

DETAIL NUMBER SHEET NUMBER Linden Group Architects

Figure 9-20. Detail drawings are used to show specific features at an enlarged scale.

SCHEDULES GENERAL DOOR & FRAME NOTES

WINDOW SIZE

GLAZING

GLASS

VENT

MANUFACTURER

WINDOW SCHEDULE

DOOR & FRAME ACCESSIBILITY NOTES

WINDOW SCHEDULE MARK

REMARKS

MARK

WINDOW SIZE

GLAZING

GLASS

VENT

MANUFACTURER

REMARKS

FRAME & GLAZING TYPES

Linden Group Architects

Figure 9-21. A window schedule is used to give specific information for each window.


166  PRINCIPLES OF CONTRACTING

Diagrams are simplified graphic representations that visually clarify systems or processes on the construction drawings. Plumbing diagrams illustrate connections between fixtures and piping as axonometric representations. These representations are typically not scaled and can show information that is not apparently clear on plans and sections. See Figure 9-22.

Shop Drawings A shop drawing is a detailed drawing or set of drawings that show how building elements will be fabricated or installed and contain other pertinent information such as construction materials, finishes, and dimensions. Shop drawings are created by the contractor, subcontractor, supplier, fabricator, or manufacturer. Shop drawings are

PLUMBING DIAGRAMS

1¼ 1¼

3

ROOF

2

KS

BT

2 2

CO

LAV

1¼ 3

HORIZONTAL BRANCH DRAIN CLEANOUT

2 2

SP

1

2

6

4

LT

WC

FUTURE VENT

FD

2

3

CO

PIPING DRAWING KEY

STACK

Vent pipe

2

Waste pipe

(ABOVE FLOOR)

4

STACK BASE CLEANOUT

2

FRONT MAIN CLEANOUT

4

TO BUILDING SEWER

4

BUILDING DRAIN

4

Pipe size (in in.)

2

dfu value

BT

Bathtub

CO

Cleanout

FD

Floor drain

KS

Kitchen sink

LAV

Lavatory

LT

Laundry tray

SP

Stand pipe

UR

Urinal

WC

Water closet

Figure 9-22. Plumbing diagrams are used to show fixture and piping information that is not clearly shown on the plans or details.


Chapter 9 — Construction Contract Documents 167

submitted to the designer for review. The work shown on shop drawings cannot begin until the shop drawings are returned with a review and approval stamp from the designer, indicating that the shop drawings fulfill the design criteria. For example, a steel fabricator prepares shop drawings that show steel beam and column sizes, connection details, plates, and bolt hole sizes. These drawings are reviewed by the structural engineer. Upon approval of the drawings, the steel fabricator can then proceed with the fabrication of the steel components. Although the information shown on the construction drawings with regard to beams, columns, bearing walls, windows, elevators, roofing materials, and the mechanical, electrical, and plumbing equipment are indicated, the shop drawings show the exact installation details.

Presentation Drawings Presentation drawings are created to visualize or express a proposed idea or design concept. A presentation drawing is intended to show what a building or development will look like once completed. This type of drawing may include floor plan layouts or exterior and interior elevations. A perspective drawing, or rendering, may be used as a presentation drawing to give a realistic view of the project. Annotated presentation drawings are also used as informational illustrations to indicate conformance with the planning and development of projects. These provide both written and graphic information to show conformance with local codes and ordinances as well as advertising to potential investors and tenants. Presentation drawings may be created using color pencils, watercolor paint, markers, acrylic paint, or ink pens. They include other streetscape features, such as vegetation and people, to make the scenes as realistic as possible. Today, computer-generated programs allow designers to electronically create models that can be presented as renderings, animated three-dimensional walkthroughs, or flybys with moving objects. TECH TIP Not adhering to all bidding requirements can lead to the disqualification of a bid.

SECTION 9.2 — REVIEW 1. Explain what is shown on a cover sheet. 2. Describe site plans. 3. List the information shown on floor plans. 4. Describe elevations. 5. Contrast exterior and interior elevations. 6. Identify the information shown on wall sections. 7. Define “detail drawing.” 8. Describe what is shown on a schedule. 9. Describe diagrams and the information that appears on diagrams. 10. Define “shop drawing.” 11. Describe what is depicted in presentation drawings.

SECTION 9.3 PROJECT MANUALS The project manual, generally referred to as the specifications, is a collection of written and graphic information supplemental to the construction drawings. It describes in detail the legal requirements, general conditions, and technical specifications of the contract. The project manual organizes a vast amount of information in an outline-type format that makes the material easily accessible.

Bidding Requirements Contained in the project manual are bidding procedures and forms. It is vital during the bid phase to provide equal and fair competitive opportunities to bidding contractors. The procedures in this section outline the advertisement, contact information, qualifications, documentation procedures, available information, and required site visits. Blank copies of all bid forms are included for submission at the time and date they are due. Projects using public funding may have additional requirements


168  PRINCIPLES OF CONTRACTING

including pre-qualification of the contractor, conditions for the participation of women and minority business owners (WBE/MBE), and prevailing wage requirements.

Contract Agreements A contract is an agreement between two or more parties. Standard agreements, such as the AIA’s A101, Standard Form of Agreement between Owner and Contractor, are documents that outline the content of the agreements. See Figure 9-23. The agreements include the owner and contractor responsibilities, contract sum, payments, enumeration of the drawings, and technical specifications of the contract. Each contract is tailored to meet the requirements of the project.

CONTRACTS

AIA Document A101™–2007 BETWEEN the Owner: (Name, legal status, address and other information)

and the Contractor: (Name, legal status, address and other information)

day of

This document has important legal consequences. Consultation with an attorney is encouraged with respect to its completion or modification. AIA Document A201™–2007, General Conditions of the Contract for Construction, is adopted in this document by reference. Do not use with other general conditions unless this document is modified.

for the following Project: (Name, location and detailed description)

The Architect: (Name, legal status, address and other information)

The Owner and Contractor agree as follows: Init. AIA Document A101™ – 2007. Copyright © 1915, 1918, 1925, 1937, 1951, 1958, 1961, 1963, 1967, 1974, 1977, 1987, 1991, 1997 and 2007 by The /

American Institute of Architects. All rights reserved. WARNING: This AIA® Document is protected by U.S. Copyright Law and International Treaties. Unauthorized reproduction or distribution of this AIA® Document, or any portion of it, may result in severe civil and criminal penalties, and will be prosecuted to the maximum extent possible under the law. Purchasers are permitted to reproduce ten (10) copies of this document when completed. To report copyright violations of AIA Contract Documents, e-mail The American Institute of Architects’ legal counsel, copyright@aia.org.

The AIA® and ConcensusDocs® both provide multiple standardized contract types for the design and building of projects.

Stipulated sum, unit-price, and cost-plus-fee agreements are common types of agreements used in the construction industry. A stipulated sum agreement, also known as a lump-sum agreement, is a construction contract that specifies a given amount as the total payment. A unit-price agreement is a construction contract that is based on the cost of work or per item of material. A cost-plus-fee agreement is a construction contract in which a contractor and/or architect receives payment for the direct costs of performing construction services or work and also receives an additional fee, stated as either a percentage of the overall cost or a fixed amount. The terms “contract” and “agreement” are often used interchangeably. Terms and Conditions of Contracts. Each contract must have a set of terms and conditions that outline responsibilities not covered in the agreement. The General Conditions of the Contract state the legal responsibilities, contractual obligations, authority, and rights of each party. AIA Document A201, General Conditions of the Contract for Construction, lists articles that describe in detail responsibilities for supervision of the work, administrative responsibilities during construction, methods and procedures for changing the work, payments, protection of property, and uncovering and correction of the work. For small projects that do not require a complete project manual, contract conditions may be listed in the general notes of the drawings. See Figure 9-24. When difficulties arise or interpretation of the contract is required, it is advisable to reference the project manual.

Standard Form of Agreement Between Owner and Contractor where the basis of payment is a Stipulated Sum AGREEMENT made as of the in the year (In words, indicate day, month and year.)

TECH TIP

1

The American Institute of Architects

Figure 9-23. Standard contract agreements are often used between an owner and a contractor.

Supplementary Terms and Conditions. When the general conditions of the contract need to be amended, supplementary conditions should be added. A supplementary condition is a condition of a contract document that modifies the general conditions of the contract. The supplementary conditions supersede or are in addition to the terms outlined in the general conditions. As an example, they could include product substitution procedures, insurance and bond requirements, or cost adjustments.


Chapter 9 — Construction Contract Documents 169

GENERAL NOTES

T-1.0

TITLE SHEET, PROJECT INFO, GENERAL NOTES

S-1.0

SITE DEVELOPMENT SITE PLAN

CIVIL C0.00 C0.01 C0.02 C1.00 C1.10 C1.20

(UNDER SEPARATE COVER) SUBDIVISION PLAT SUBDIVISION PLAT SUBDIVISION PLAT PROPOSED PLAT AS-BUILT SURVEY FINAL GRADING CERTIFICATION

ARCHITECTURAL A-1.0 FLOOR PLAN OVERALL A-1.1 FIRST FLOOR PLAN ENLARGED LEFT A-1.2 FIRST FLOOR PLAN ENLARGED RIGHT A-1.3 SECOND PLAN OVERALL A-1.4 SECOND FLOOR PLAN ENLARGED LEFT A-1.5 SECOND FLOOR PLAN ENLARGED RIGHT A-1.6 THIRD FLOOR PLAN OVERALL A-1.7 THIRD FLOOR PLAN ENLARGED LEFT A-1.8 THIRD FLOOR PLAN ENLARGED RIGHT A-1.9 FOURTH FLOOR PLAN OVERALL A-1.10 FOURTH FLOOR PLAN ENLARGED LEFT A-1.11 FOURTH FLOOR PLAN ENLARGED RIGHT A-1.12 ROOF PLAN A-4.0 EXTERIOR ELEVATIONS EXTERIOR ELEVATIONS A-4.1 A-5.0 BUILDING SECTION PARTIAL BUILDING SECTION & DETAILS A-5.1 A-5.2 WALL SECTIONS A-5.3 DETAILS A-5.4 DETAILS A-5.5 DETAILS DETAILS A-5.6 A-6.0 PARTITION TYPES & DETAILS A-6.1 FIRE STOPPING DETAILS A-7.0 DOOR, WINDOW & ROOM FINISH SCHEDULES A-7.1 DOOR JAMB DETAILS A-8.0 INTERIOR ELEVATIONS A-8.1 INTERIOR ELEVATIONS STRUCTURAL FOUNDATION S-1.0 SPECIFICATIONS, FOOTING SCHEDULE, TYPICAL DETAILS FOUNDATION PLAN, DETAILS S-2.0 S-3.0 SECTIONS AND DETAILS STRUCTURAL BUILDING S001 COVER SHEET/NOTES/SPECIFICATIONS S002 SCHEDULES S100 FOUNDATION LOAD PLAN S101 FIRST FLOOR PLAN S102 SECOND FLOOR PLAN S103 THIRD AND FOURTH FLOOR PLAN S201 ROOF PLAN S500 TYPICAL DETAILS TYPICAL DETAILS S501 S502 SHEARWALL DETAILS S503 FLOOR DETAILS S504 FLOOR AND BALCONY DETAILS S505 ROOF DETAILS MEP DRAWINGS P1 PLUMBING OVERALL FIRST FLOOR PLAN P2 PLUMBING OVERALL SECOND- THIRD FLOOR PLAN P3 PLUMBING OVERALL FOURTH FLOOR PLAN P4 PLUMBING ROOF PLAN P5 PLUMBING SCHEDULES AND DETAILS P6 PLUMBING SPECIFICATIONS AND NOTES P7-AF PLUMBING LARGE SCALE PLANS UNITS A/F P8-D PLUMBING LARGE SCALE PLAN UNIT D P9-E-E2 PLUMBING LARGE SCALE PLANS UNIT E/E2 P10-B-B2 PLUMBING LARGE SCALE PLANS UNITS B/B2 M1 HVAC OVERALL FIRST FLOOR PLAN M2 HVAC OVERALL SECOND- THIRD FLOOR PLAN M3 HVAC OVERALL FOURTH FLOOR PLAN M4 HVAC ROOF PLAN M5 HVAC LARGE SCALE UNIT PLANS A, B/B2, D,E, AND F M6 HVAC LARGE SCALE UNIT PLAN E2 HVAC SCHEDULES M7 M8 HVAC DETAILS M9 HVAC SPECIFICATIONS AND NOTES E1 ELECTRICAL OVERALL FIRST FLOOR PLAN E2 ELECTRICAL OVERALL SECOND- THIRD FLOOR PLAN E3 ELECTRICAL OVERALL FOURTH FLOOR PLAN E4 ELECTRICAL SCHEDULES AND SYMBOLS/ABREVIATIONS E5 ELECTRICAL SPECIFICATION AND LIGHTING SCHEDULE P6 ELECTRICAL RISER DIAGRAM E7-AF ELECTRICAL LARGE SCALE PLANS UNITS A/F E8-D ELECTRICAL LARGE SCALE PLAN UNIT D E9-E-E2 ELECTRICAL LARGE SCALE PLANS UNIT E/E2 E10-B-B2 ELECTRICAL LARGE SCALE PLANS UNITS B/B2

Linden Group Architects

Figure 9-24. General notes in the construction drawings list the responsibilities of contractors performing the work.

Technical Specifications Technical specifications contain detailed, written, and graphic information that comprises the bulk of information contained in the project manual. There are three types of specifications used in the construction industry ranging from simple notes to volumes of manuals. The first type of technical specification is used for small projects that do not require a complete project manual. Specifications may be listed on the drawings or as a separate attachment. See Figure 9-25. This outline specification is a list of notes that may pertain to simple instructions with regard to owner and contractor responsibilities, product properties, or insurance requirements. For example, it may be written on the construction drawings that cast-in-place concrete must have a specific compression strength or that the contractor will be required to obtain all necessary building permits. These are sufficient for privately funded residential projects. The second type of technical specification is the description-of-materials form. It is a fill-in-the-blank form used by government agencies, such as the Federal Housing Administration (FHA), and for federally funded

home mortgage loans. See Figure 9-26. The description of the products used ensures that the quality of the dwelling being constructed meets the quality standards of the agency. It describes all products, material properties, and the equipment to be used, regardless of whether they are shown on the drawings. The third type of technical specification was developed in response to the need to organize the voluminous amount of information required for major projects. These specifications are divided into divisions, sections, and parts. The Construction Specifications Institute (CSI) MasterFormat® is the recognized industry standard for construction specifications. It was created by technical writers, design professionals, manufacturers, suppliers, and construction specialists involved in commercial and institutional building design. The CSI MasterFormat® is set up as a comprehensive outline that describes the materials and procedures and is an excellent way to organize the vast amount of technical information required for commercial projects. The MasterFormat system was created to make information for a bidder or field personnel accessible and available when needed. Being able to interpret project specifications is a crucial part of the bidding process.


170  PRINCIPLES OF CONTRACTING

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

Linden Group Architects

Figure 9-25. For small projects, technical specifications may be included as part of the construction drawings.

Specification Divisions

DESCRIPTION-OF-MATERIALS FORMS Description of Materials

U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development Department of Veterans Affairs Farmers Home Administration

OMB Control No. 2502-0313 (exp. 06/30/2014 )

Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 30 minutes per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. This agency may not collect this information, and you are not required to complete this form, unless it displays a currently valid OMB control number. The National Housing Act (12 USC 1703) authorizes insuring financial institutions against default losses on single family mortgages. HUD must evaluate the acceptability and value of properties to be insured. The information collected here will be used to determine if proposed construction meets regulatory requirements and if the property is suitable for mortgage insurance. Response to this information collection is mandatory. No assurance of confidentiality is provided.

Proposed Construction

Under Construction

No.

(To be inserted by HUD, VA or FmHA)

Property address (Include City and State)

Name and address of Mortgagor or Sponsor

Name and address of Contractor or Builder

Instructions 1. For additional information on how this form is to be submitted, number of copies, etc., see the instructions applicable to the HUD Application for Mortgage Insurance, VA Request for Determination of Reasonable Value, or FmHA Property Information and Appraisal Report, as the case may be. 2. Describe all materials and equipment to be used, whether or not shown on the drawings, by marking an X in each appropriate check-box and entering the information called for each space. If space is inadequate, enter “See misc.” and describe under item 27 or on an attached sheet. The use of paint containing more than the percentage of lead by weight permitted by law is prohibited.

3. Work not specifically described or shown will not be considered unless required, then the minimum acceptable will be assumed. Work exceeding minimum requirements cannot be considered unless specifically described. 4. Include no alternates, “or equal” phrases, or contradictory items. (Consideration of a request for acceptance of substitute materials or equipment is not thereby precluded.) 5. Include signatures required at the end of this form. 6. The construction shall be completed in compliance with the related drawings and specifications, as amended during processing. The specifications include this Description of Materials and the applicable Minimum Property Standards.

1.

2.

Excavation Bearing soil, type _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Foundations Footings concrete mix _____________________________

strength psi _______________ Reinforcing ________________________________

Foundation wall material ______________________________________

Reinforcing ________________________________

Interior foundation wall material ________________________________

Party foundation wall ___________________________________________

Columns material and sizes ___________________________________ Piers material and reinforcing ____________________________________ Girders material and sizes ____________________________________

Sills material __________________________________________________

Basement entrance areaway ___________________________________ Window areaways _____________________________________________ Waterproofing ____________________________________________

Footing drains ________________________________________________

Termite protection _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Basementless space ground cover _________________________ insulation ______________________ foundation vents _______________ _____ Special foundations ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Additional information

Figure 9-26. Description-of-materials forms are used for many government-funded projects.

Divisions are a collection of related information regarding product types such as concrete, masonry, and wood. The MasterFormat was revised and expanded in 2004 from a 16-division format to a 50-division format in order to accommodate current trends in procurement, building rehabilitation, site development, and process and material handling. See Figure 9-27. Some single divisions, such as earthwork, were also divided into several related divisions. Divisions 00 through 01 cover the nontechnical requirements of contracts, which include contract procurement and general requirements. These divisions include information regarding project meetings, schedules, submittals, testing, required supervision, and project closeout. These are of particular interest to the general contractor since requirements must be included in the bid cost. Divisions 02 through 14 are included in the facility construction subgroup, which describes the materials commonly used in building construction. Examples of divisions in this subgroup include concrete, metals, interior finishes, and conveying systems.


Chapter 9 — Construction Contract Documents 171

CSI MASTERFORMAT®

FRONT END DOCUMENTS

Division Numbers and Titles PROCUREMENT AND CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS GROUP Division 00 Procurement and Contracting Requirements

GROUP CATEGORIES

SUBGROUP CATEGORIES

SPECIFICATIONS GROUP GENERAL REQUIREMENTS SUBGROUP Division 01 General Requirements FACILITY CONSTRUCTION SUBGROUP Division 02 Existing Conditions Division 03 Concrete Division 04 Masonry Division 05 Metals Division 06 Wood, Plastics, and Composites Division 07 Thermal and Moisture Protection Division 08 Openings Division 09 Finishes Division 10 Specialties Division 11 Equipment Division 12 Furnishings Division 13 Special Construction Division 14 Conveying Equipment Division 15 Reserved Division 16 Reserved Division 17 Reserved Division 18 Reserved Division 19 Reserved FACILITY SERVICES SUBGROUP Division 20 Reserved Division 21 Fire Suppression Division 22 Plumbing Division 23 Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) Division 24 Reserved Division 25 Integrated Automation Division 26 Electrical Division 27 Communications Division 28 Electronic Safety and Security Division 29 Reserved

SITE AND INFRASTRUCTURE SUBGROUP Division 30 Reserved Division 31 Earthwork Division 32 Exterior Improvements Division 33 Utilities Division 34 Transportation Division 35 Waterway and Marine Construction Division 36 Reserved Division 37 Reserved Division 38 Reserved Division 39 Reserved PROCESS EQUIPMENT SUBGROUP Division 40 Process Interconnections Division 41 Material Processing and Handling Equipment Division 42 Process Heating and Cooling, and Drying Equipment Division 43 Process Gas and Liquid Handling, Purification, and Storage Equipment Division 44 Pollution and Waste Control Equipment Division 45 Industry-Specific Manufacturing Equipment Division 46 Water and Wastewater Equipment Division 47 Reserved Division 48 Electrical Power Generation Division 49 Reserved

50 DIVISIONS

Figure 9-27. The CSI MasterFormat® contains front-end documents, 5 subgroups, and 50 divisions for use in organizing construction information.

Divisions 21 through 28 are included in the facility services subgroup, which includes fire suppression, plumbing, electrical, HVAC, and communications. Site and infrastructure subgroups, such as earthwork, transportation, and utilities, are included in Divisions 31 through 35. Divisions 40 through 48 include process equipment specialties, such as pollution control systems and electrical power generation. Other divisions not used are reserved for future use.

Specifications for large projects can often be several hundred pages in length. Therefore, they are bound and may be several volumes in length.


172 PRINCIPLES OF CONTRACTING

Specification Sections and Parts. Each division is divided into sections. Each section is identified by a six-digit number, which is divided into levels. The first level indicates the division the section is in. The remaining two levels include more specific information about the type of product or requirement. Using the example of three-level section number 03 41 23, the format outline system is as follows: first level numbers 03 indicate that this section is from Division 3 — Concrete. Second level numbers 41 indicate that the specification section is precast structural concrete. Third level numbers 23 indicate that the precast concrete material is for a stair. See Figure 9-28.

CSI MASTERFORMAT SECTION NUMBERING SYSTEM 03 39 00

LEVEL ONE— CONCRETE LEVEL TWO— PRECAST STRUCTURES LEVEL THREE— PRECAST CONCRETE STAIRS

Concrete Curing

03 39 13 03 39 16

Water Concrete Curing Sand Concrete Curing

03 39 23 03 39 23.13 03 39 23.23

Membrane Concrete Curing Chemical Compound Membrane Concrete Curing Sheet Membrane Concrete Curing

03 40 00 03 41 00

03 41 13 03 41 16 03 41 23 03 41 33 03 41 36

03 45 00 03 45 13 03 45 33 03 45 36

03 47 00 03 47 13 03 47 16

03 48 00 03 48 13 03 48 16 03 48 13 03 48 13 03 48 13

Precast Concrete

Precast Structural Concrete Precast Concrete Hollow Core Planks Precast Concrete Slabs Precast Concrete Stairs Precast Structural Pretensioned Concrete Precast Structural Post-Tensioned Concrete

describes the conditions for the preparation and application of materials, finishes, and cleaning. Field quality control including tests and inspection procedures are also specified in Part 3.

Reference Standards Architects and engineers use reference standards as a basis for establishing the required criteria for building materials, products, installation, and performance. When developing the specifications for a project, designers will cite the standards number that corresponds to the construction assembly that the designer wants the contractor to follow. The contractor should be familiar with the various standards for reference. One of the most recognized industry standards was developed by the former American Society for Testing and Materials, currently known as ASTM International. Although this agency has no role in requiring or enforcing compliance with its standards, it is mandatory that the agency be referenced when its standards are used. Other widely referenced standards agencies include the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), the American Concrete Institute (ACI), and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA).

Precast Architectural Concrete Faced Architectural Precast Concrete Precast Architectural Pretensioned Concrete Precast Architectural Post-Tensioned Concrete

SECTION 9.3 — REVIEW

Site-Cast Concrete Tilt-Up Concrete Lift-Slab Concrete

Precast Concrete Specialties Precast Concrete Bollards Precast Concrete Splash Blocks Precast Concrete Stair Treads Precast Concrete Parking Bumpers Precast Pre-Framed Concrete Panels

Figure 9-28. The subjects of the CSI MasterFormat® are organized into three levels using six-digit numbers.

Information included in each specification section is presented in three parts. Part 1, General, contains information about general specification items. This includes the scope and related work, submittal information, quality assurance, material delivery, testing, and warranty information. Part 2, Products, identifies products, acceptable manufacturers, model numbers, performance requirements, material properties, color, and finish selection. Part 3, Execution,

1. List the information provided in a project manual. 2. List the components of the procedures contained in the bidding requirements. 3. List the bidding requirements for publically funded projects. 4. Contrast stipulated sum, unit-price, and cost-plus-fee agreements used in the construction industry. 5. Describe the General Conditions of the Contract. 6. Define “supplementary condition.” 7. Identify the three types of technical specifications. 8. Describe the Construction Specifications Institute (CSI) MasterFormat®. 9. List four commonly referenced standards agencies.


CHAPTER 9 ACTIVITIES

Name: ____________________________________________ Date: _______________

SECTION 9.1 — DRAWINGS Construction drawings are created using a scale in order to show an object or building on a drawing sheet. There are several different scales that can be used depending on the size of the object or building being drawn and the level of detail that needs to be shown. 1. Explain why an architect drawing a floor plan of a house would use a scale of ¹⁄₄″ = 1′-0″ instead of a scale of 1″ = 30′-0″.

SECTION 9.2 — DRAWING TYPES Due to the extensive amount of information shown in a set of construction drawings, the use of several drawings is required. Floor plans show the location and type of building components through the use of symbols, notes, tags, and indicators. Wall sections show the construction detailing for all components in a wall system. 1. Describe how a wall section is indicated on a floor plan.

2. Explain how to locate a wall section in a set of construction drawings based on a wall section indicator shown on a floor plan.

173


SECTION 9.3 — PROJECT MANUALS Answer the questions based on the given specification sections.

174


1. Who is responsible for the work done by the subcontractors?

2. Who shall obtain and pay for all required fees and permits required in connection with the execution of the work?

3. Can plumbing, mechanical, or electrical information be scaled from the drawings?

4. What has precedence — the manufacturer’s instructions or the shown details in the drawings?

5. Concrete shall have a compressive strength of 3000 psi in how many days?

6. What percentage of fly ash may be used to replace cement in concrete mixes?

7. What size floor sheathing is specified?

8. What is the exposure rating for the roof sheathing?

175


176  PRINCIPLES OF CONTRACTING

Principles of Contracting  

Principles of Contracting provides a comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of the construction contracting process. This textbook a...

Principles of Contracting  

Principles of Contracting provides a comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of the construction contracting process. This textbook a...