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Michael J. McGreal


Name______________________________________________ Date_________________________ Activity: Determining Types of Heat Transfer Cooking methods rely on dry heat, moist heat, and combination heat. Depending on the method used, heat transfer occurs through conduction, convection, or radiation. Conduction uses direct physical contact to transfer heat. Convection uses a medium surrounding the food such as hot air, hot water, or hot fat to transfer heat. Radiation transfers heat through heat waves. Identify the type of heat used (dry, moist, or combination) and explain how heat is transferred (conduction, convection, or radiation) for the following cooking methods. ������������������ 1. Poaching uses ___ heat. ������������������ 2. When poaching, heat is transferred through ___. ������������������ 3. Grilling uses ___ heat. ������������������ 4. When grilling, heat is transferred through ___. ������������������ 5. Stir-frying uses ___ heat. ������������������ 6. When stir-frying, heat is transferred through ___. ������������������ 7. Roasting uses ___ heat. ������������������ 8. When roasting, heat is transferred through ___. ������������������ 9. Simmering uses ___ heat. ������������������ 10. When simmering, heat is transferred through ___. ������������������ 11. Deep-frying uses ___ heat. ������������������ 12. When deep-frying, heat is transferred through ___. ������������������ 13. Stewing uses ___ heat. ������������������ 14. When stewing, heat is transferred through ___. ������������������ 15. Sautéing uses ___ heat. ������������������ 16. When sautéing, heat is transferred through ___. ������������������ 17. Broiling uses ___ heat. ������������������ 18. When broiling, heat is transferred through ___. 187

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188 CULINARY ARTS PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS STUDY GUIDE

������������������ 19. Pan-frying uses ___ heat. ������������������ 20. When pan-frying, heat is transferred through ___. ������������������ 21. Boiling uses ___ heat. ������������������ 22. When boiling, heat is transferred through ___. ������������������ 23. Steaming uses ___ heat. ������������������ 24. When steaming, heat is transferred through ___. ������������������ 25. Braising uses ___ heat. ������������������ 26. When braising, heat is transferred through ___. ������������������ 27. Blanching uses ___ heat. ������������������ 28. When blanching, heat is transferred through ___. ������������������ 29. Baking uses ___ heat. ������������������ 30. When baking, heat is transferred through ___.

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Chapter 7 — Cooking Techniques 189

Activity: Analyzing Cooking Effects When heat is introduced to food through the cooking process, characteristics of the food begin to change. Proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water content are altered when exposed to heat and this can cause a change in the weight, color, texture, or flavor of the food. Obtain two chicken breasts and weigh each one. 1. How much does each chicken breast weigh?

Roast both chicken breasts in a 325°F oven until an internal temperature of 165°F is met. Slice one chicken breast immediately into ½-inch slices. Weigh the slices from the sliced chicken breast. 2. How much does the sliced chicken breast weigh after cooking?

Allow the second chicken breast to rest for 5 minutes. Weigh the whole chicken breast after the rest period. 3. How much does the unsliced chicken breast weigh after cooking?

4. Why is there a difference in weight between the two chicken breasts?

Taste each of the chicken breasts. 5. Describe the texture and flavor of each chicken breast.

6. If the texture and flavor of the chicken breasts are different, what is the cause?

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190 CULINARY ARTS PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS STUDY GUIDE

Shape two hamburger patties from ground beef. Weigh each hamburger patty to make sure they are equal in weight. 7. How much does each hamburger patty weigh?

Cook one hamburger patty on high heat until an internal temperature of 160°F is met. Press down on the meat with a spatula to flatten the hamburger patty while it cooks. 8. How much does the pressed hamburger patty weigh after cooking?

Cook the second hamburger patty on medium heat until an internal temperature of 160°F is met. Do not press the second hamburger patty as it cooks. 9. How much does the hamburger patty that was not pressed weigh after cooking?

10. Why is there a difference in weight between the two hamburger patties?

Taste each of the hamburger patties. 11. Describe the texture and flavor of each hamburger patty.

12. If the texture and flavor of the hamburger patties are different, what is the cause?

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Chapter 7 — Cooking Techniques 191

Slice an onion. Heat a sauté pan and add 1 tbsp oil to the pan. Sweat the onions in the hot pan. Taste the sweated onions. 13. Describe the flavor of the sweated onions.

Sauté the onions to a light golden brown. Taste the lightly sautéed onions. 14. Describe the flavor of the lightly sautéed onions.

Further sauté the onions until they turn a rich caramel brown color. Taste the caramelized onions. 15. Describe the flavor of the caramelized onions.

16. Why is there a difference between the flavor of the lightly sautéed onions and the caramelized onions?

Obtain two pork chops. Place one pork chop in a sauté pan with a small amount of water, cover the pan, and simmer the pork chop until an internal temperature of 145°F is met and held for 3 minutes. Taste the simmered pork chop. 17. Describe the appearance and flavor of the simmered pork chop.

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192 CULINARY ARTS PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS STUDY GUIDE

Sear both sides of the second pork chop using a dry-heat cooking method. Add a small amount of water to the pan, cover the pan, and simmer the pork chop until an internal temperature of 145°F is met and held for 3 minutes. Taste the seared and simmered pork chop. 18. Describe the appearance and flavor of the seared and simmered pork chop.

19. If the appearance and flavor of the pork chops are different, what is the cause?

Obtain two small chuck roasts. Season and braise one chuck roast until fork tender. Taste the braised chuck roast. 20. Describe the texture and flavor of the braised chuck roast.

Season and grill the second chuck roast until an internal temperature of 145°F is met and held for 3 minutes. Taste the grilled chuck roast. 21. Describe the texture and flavor of the grilled chuck roast.

22. Why is there a difference in the texture and flavor of the two roasts?

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Chapter 7 — Cooking Techniques 193

Activity: Examining Sensory Perception The senses of taste and smell are closely linked. The smell or aroma of a food can often influence what a person tastes. The four major types of flavors that the tongue can clearly identify are salty, sweet, bitter, and sour. Blindfold a lab partner and ask the partner to hold his or her nose. Place a drop of lime juice on the lab partner’s tongue with a straw. 1. How does the lab partner describe the taste?

Have the blindfolded lab partner drink water. The blindfolded lab partner should not hold his or her nose. Place a drop of lime juice on the lab partner’s tongue with a straw. 2. How does the lab partner describe the taste?

3. Can the lab partner taste more flavor when holding or when not holding his or her nose?

Have the blindfolded lab partner drink water. Have the blindfolded lab partner hold his or her nose. Place a drop of lemon juice on the lab partner’s tongue with a straw. 4. How does the lab partner describe the taste?

Have the lab partner drink water. The blindfolded lab partner should not hold his or her nose. Place a drop of lemon juice on the lab partner’s tongue with a straw. 5. How does the lab partner describe the taste?

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194 CULINARY ARTS PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS STUDY GUIDE

6. Can the lab partner taste more flavor when holding or when not holding his or her nose?

Have the blindfolded lab partner drink water. Have the blindfolded lab partner hold his or her nose. Place a drop of orange juice on the lab partner’s tongue with a straw. 7. How does the lab partner describe the taste?

Have the lab partner drink water. The blindfolded lab partner should not hold his or her nose. Place a drop of orange juice on the lab partner’s tongue with a straw.

8. How does the lab partner describe the taste?

9. Can the lab partner taste more flavor when holding or when not holding his or her nose?

Have the blindfolded lab partner drink water. Have the blindfolded lab partner hold his or her nose. Place a drop of apple juice on the lab partner’s tongue with a straw. 10. How does the lab partner describe the taste?

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Chapter 7 — Cooking Techniques 195

Have the lab partner drink water. The blindfolded lab partner should not hold his or her nose. Place a drop of apple juice on the lab partner’s tongue with a straw. 11. How does the lab partner describe the taste?

12. Can the lab partner taste more flavor when holding or when not holding his or her nose?

Have the lab partner drink water. The blindfolded lab partner should not hold his or her nose. Place a small amount of salt on the blindfolded lab partner’s tongue with a coffee stirrer. 13. How does the lab partner describe the taste?

14. What area of the tongue can taste the salt? Have the lab partner drink water. The blindfolded lab partner should not hold his or her nose. Place a small amount of lemon juice on the blindfolded lab partner’s tongue with a coffee stirrer. 15. How does the lab partner describe the taste?

16. What area of the tongue can taste the lemon juice?

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196 CULINARY ARTS PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS STUDY GUIDE

Have the lab partner drink water. The blindfolded lab partner should not hold his or her nose. Place a small amount of cocoa powder on the blindfolded lab partner’s tongue with a coffee stirrer. 17. How does the lab partner describe the taste?

18. What area of the tongue can taste the cocoa powder?

Have the lab partner drink water. The blindfolded lab partner should not hold his or her nose. Place a small amount of sugar on the blindfolded lab partner’s tongue with a coffee stirrer. 19. How does the lab partner describe the taste?

20. What area of the tongue can taste the sugar?

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Chapter 7 — Cooking Techniques 197

Activity: Identifying Herbs and Spices A chef must be able to identify herbs and spices by appearance and smell. The appearance and smell of herbs and spices are also important to determine freshness and quality of ingredients. Match each herb or spice with its image. ������������������ 1. Cinnamon ������������������ 2. Fennel seed ������������������ 3. Bay leaves

Shenandoah Growers

A

������������������ 4. Vanilla bean

B

������������������ 5. Nutmeg ������������������ 6. Chives ������������������ 7. Cilantro ������������������ 8. Ginger

Shenandoah Growers

C

������������������ 9. Saffron

D

������������������ 10. Dill ������������������ 11. Cloves ������������������ 12. Sage ������������������ 13. Rosemary

Shenandoah Growers

������������������ 14. Lemon grass

E

F

G

������������������ 15. Basil

Shenandoah Growers

Shenandoah Growers

H

I

Shenandoah Growers

L

J

Shenandoah Growers

M

N

K

Shenandoah Growers

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Name______________________________________________ Date_________________________ True-False T F 1. Reduction is the process of gently simmering a liquid until it lessens in volume and results in a thicker liquid with a less concentrated flavor. T F 2. Convection heat transfer is the reason that fat is a consistent temperature throughout a fryer once it reaches a set temperature. T F 3. Metal is a good conductor of heat, while other materials, such as glass, wood, and plastic, are not. T F 4. An impinger conveyor oven operates on radiation heat transfer. T F 5. Searing is the process of slowly cooking food to soften its texture.

Multiple Choice ������������������ 1. The Maillard reaction is a reaction that occurs when the ___ and sugars in a food are exposed to heat and merge together to form a brown exterior surface. A. proteins B. starches C. lipids D. nutrients ������������������ 2. ___ radiation can be seen in a toaster or a broiler when the heating element glows red. A. Infrared B. Induction C. Convection D. Microwave ������������������ 3. ___ is a type of heat transfer that occurs due to the circular movement of a fluid or a gas. A. Electromagnetism B. Radiation C. Convection D. Conduction

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������������������ 4. ___ is the process of slowly cooking food to soften its texture. A. Coagulation B. Reduction C. Searing D. Sweating ������������������ 5. ___ is the process of a heated starch absorbing a liquid and swelling, which thickens the liquid. A. Coagulation B. Reduction C. Caramelization D. Gelatinization

Completion ������������������ 1. ___ is energy that is transferred between two objects or substances of different temperatures. ������������������ 2. Heating a pot of water is an example of ___ heat transfer. ������������������ 3. Microwave radiation uses ___ waves to heat the water, fat, and sugar molecules in food. ������������������ 4. ___ is the process of a protein changing from a liquid to a semisolid or a solid state when heat or friction is applied. ������������������ 5. Adding ___ to a stock thickens the stock and forms a sauce as it absorbs some of the water from the stock. ������������������ 6. Caramelization is a reaction that occurs when ___ are exposed to high heat and produce browning and a change in flavor.

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Name______________________________________________ Date_________________________ True-False T F 1. To broil food, tongs are used to place the items in the broiler with the presentation side facing up. T F 2. Baking is the primary cooking method used to cook meat, poultry, and seafood. T F 3. A French grill is a griddle with raised ridges that creates grill marks where the food touches the ridges. T F 4. Pan-frying is the process of quickly cooking items in a heated wok with a very small amount of fat while constantly stirring the items.

Multiple Choice ������������������ 1. Breading is a three-step procedure used to coat and seal an item before it is ___. A. barbequed B. stewed C. steamed D. fried ������������������ 2. ___ is a dry-heat cooking method in which food is cooked on open grates above a direct heat source. A. Smoking B. Grilling C. Frying D. Griddling ������������������ 3. ___ is the process of lightly dusting an item in seasoned flour or fine bread crumbs. A. Dredging B. Stir-frying C. Battering D. Griddling

Completion ������������������ 1. ___ is a dry-heat cooking method in which food is cooked directly under a heat source. 163

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164 CULINARY ARTS PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS STUDY GUIDE

������������������ 2. The higher the ___, the better suited the oil is for frying. ������������������ 3. Frying is a(n) ___ cooking method in which food is cooked in hot fat over moderate to high heat. ������������������ 4. In the ___ method, an item is slowly lowered into hot fat without the use of a fryer basket. ������������������ 5. ___ is a similar cooking process to smoking, but it is done on a range top. ������������������ 6. Carryover cooking helps a cooked item retain ___ that will escape as steam if the item is cut too soon after cooking.

Matching ������������������ 1. Frying ������������������ 2. Broiling ������������������ 3. Baking ������������������ 4. Sautéing ������������������ 5. Roasting ������������������ 6. Grilling A. Dry-heat cooking method in which food is cooked uncovered in an oven B. Dry-heat cooking method in which food is cooked directly under a heat source C. Dry-heat cooking method in which food is cooked in hot fat over moderate to high heat D. Dry-heat cooking method in which food is cooked uncovered in an oven or on a revolving spit over an open flame E. Dry-heat cooking method in which food is cooked on open grates above a direct heat source F. Dry-heat cooking method in which food is cooked quickly in a sauté pan over direct heat using a small amount of fat

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Name______________________________________________ Date_________________________ True-False T F 1. Blanching is a moist-heat cooking method in which food is briefly parcooked and then shocked by placing it in ice-cold water to stop the cooking process. T F 2. A mirepoix is typically comprised of 50% onions and 50% carrots that have been roughly chopped. T F 3. Food is poached in liquid that is held between 185°F and 205°F. T F 4. Eggs are commonly poached in lightly salted water and vinegar.

Multiple Choice ������������������ 1. Simmering occurs when the temperature of the cooking liquid is between ___. A. 160°F and 180°F B. 185°F and 205°F C. 210°F and 230°F D. 300°F and 350°F ������������������ 2. Potatoes and pasta are often ___ in the professional kitchen. A. broiled B. blanched C. boiled D. fried ������������������ 3. ___ is a technique in which food is steamed in a parchment paper package as it bakes in an oven. A. Sous vide B. Poêléing C. Parcooking D. En papillote ������������������ 4. Depending on the liquid, the boiling point may be more or less than ___°F (the boiling point of water at sea level). A. 212 B. 225 C. 250 D. 265 165

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166 CULINARY ARTS PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS STUDY GUIDE

Completion ������������������ 1. ___ poaching requires food to be completely covered by the poaching liquid. ������������������ 2. A(n) ___ is an ingredient added to a food to enhance its natural flavors and aromas. ������������������ 3. Foods, such as asparagus and broccoli, are often ___ to intensify their green color. ������������������ 4. ___ cooking is any cooking method that uses liquid or steam as the cooking medium.

Matching ������������������ 1. Blanching ������������������ 2. Poaching ������������������ 3. Steaming A. Moist-heat cooking method in which food is placed in a container that prevents steam from escaping B. Moist-heat cooking method in which food is briefly parcooked and then shocked by placing it in ice-cold water to stop the cooking process C. Moist-heat cooking method in which food is cooked in a liquid that is held between 160°F and 180°F

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Name______________________________________________ Date_________________________ True-False T F 1. The two most common combination cooking methods are braising and stewing. T F 2. During braising, aromatic vegetables are added during the marinating process. T F 3. Sous vide causes very little shrinkage compared to traditional cooking methods.

Multiple Choice ������������������ 1. When braising, first the meat is ___ a small amount of fat. A. battered and fried in B. injected with C. cooked completely in D. seared on all sides in ������������������ 2. The equipment needed for sous vide cooking includes a ___. A. paper envelope and an oven B. stockpot and a deep frying pan C. vacuum sealer and a thermal circulator D. roasting pan with a lid ������������������ 3. Stewing requires ___. A. more liquid than braising B. less liquid than braising C. large roast-size pieces of meat D. a thermal circulator

Completion ������������������ 1. In sous vide, a thermal ___ applies additional heat as needed to maintain the cooking liquid at the desired temperature. ������������������ 2. Combination cooking methods are often used on ___ cuts of meat. ������������������ 3. ___ is a combination cooking method that is often referred to as butter roasting.

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168 CULINARY ARTS PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS STUDY GUIDE

Matching ������������������ 1. Stewing ������������������ 2. Braising ������������������ 3. Poêléing ������������������ 4. Sous vide A. Combination cooking method in which food is browned in fat and then cooked, tightly covered, in a small amount of liquid for a long time B. Combination cooking method in which bite-sized pieces of food are barely covered with a liquid and simmered for a long time in a tightly covered pot C. Combination cooking method in which poultry or meat is placed on top of aromatic vegetables in a pot and basted with butter D. Combination cooking method for cooking vacuum-sealed food by maintaining a low temperature and warming food gradually to a set temperature

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Name______________________________________________ Date_________________________ True-False T F 1. Salts, peppercorns, and citrus zest are considered flavorings because they intensify or improve the flavor of food. T F 2. Umami is a sweet taste described as sugary and light. T F 3. Warm foods often have stronger smells and flavors than cold foods.

Multiple Choice ������������������ 1. A truffle is an edible ___ with a distinct aroma and taste. A. fungus B. berry C. stem D. seed ������������������ 2. The senses of ___ are the dominant senses used by the brain to detect flavors. A. sight and touch B. sight and smell C. taste and sight D. taste and smell ������������������ 3. If vegetables have lost color, they have also lost ___. A. fat B. nutrients C. lipids D. protein ������������������ 4. Mushrooms, tomatoes, cheeses, and seaweed have a(n) ___ taste. A. salty B. sweet C. umami D. sour

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170 CULINARY ARTS PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS STUDY GUIDE

Completion ������������������ 1. ___ is the combined sensory experience of taste and smell along with visual, textural, and temperature perceptions. ������������������� 2. Taste buds are located throughout the entire mouth, but they are visible as the small bumps, known as ___, that cover the tongue. ������������������� 3. Chefs are able to build ___ by blending aromas, tastes, and textures.

Matching ������������������ 1. Flavoring ������������������ 2. Aroma ������������������ 3. Taste ������������������ 4. Texture ������������������ 5. Mouthfeel A. A sense that is activated by receptor cells that make up the taste buds B. A typically pleasing scent that is detected by the sense of smell C. The appearance and feel of an item D. Item that alters or enhances the natural flavor of food E. The way a food or beverage feels in the mouth

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Culinary Arts Principles and Applications Study Guide  
Culinary Arts Principles and Applications Study Guide  

The Culinary Arts Principles and Applications Study Guide reinforces the concepts presented in the textbook using true-false, multiple choic...