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American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

Scientific Journal

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Multidisciplinary Approach

American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research 2016 / 1 (1)

Initiated by Ukraine and Ukrainians Abroad Not-for-profit Corporation New York NY, USA 2016 1


American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research. Issue: 1 (1). Publ.: Ukraine and Ukrainians Abroad Not-for-profit Corporation, New York NY, USA, 2016. – 82 p. Scientific journal «American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research» is a peer reviewed open access journal, which is co-published in the USA. The main principle of the journal is to promote communication among scientists from different countries worldwide. The main research areas are as follows: Biological Sciences; Historical Sciences; Economic Sciences; Philosophical Sciences; Philological Sciences; Jurisprudence; Pedagogical Sciences; Medical Sciences; Psychological Sciences; Social Sciences; Political Science; Governance; Cultural Studies; Social Communication; Cross-Sectoral Research. The journal is published quarterly in two languages: English; Ukrainian.

Published and distributed by: UKRAINE AND UKRAINIANS ABROAD INC. DOS ID #: 4905826 Initial DOS Filing Date: MARCH 02, 2016 County: NEW YORK Jurisdiction: NEW YORK Entity Type: DOMESTIC NOT-FOR-PROFIT CORPORATION Current Entity Status: ACTIVE Entity Address Information DOS Process: NADIYA BURMAKA 170 WEST 82 STREET NEW YORK, NEW YORK, 10024

Editor in Chief: Burmaka N. – Ph.D. in Psychology, Professor at the International Academy of Sobriety, Full Member of EuANH (Scotland, UK).

Chief Scientific Editor: Maksymenko S. – Dr. Sc. in Psychology, Professor, Academician of NAPS of Ukraine, Academician EANS (Germany). Executive Secretary: Lunov V. – Ph.D. in Psychology, Professor, Full Member of EuANH (Scotland, UK).

Editorial / Expert’s Board Chiladze G. – Doctor of Law, Doctor of Economics, Professor (Georgia); Dubaseniuk O. – Dr. Sc. in Pedagogy, Professor (Ukraine); Gryganskyi A. – Ph.D. in Biology (USA); Gryganska I. – Ph.D. in Psychology (Ukraine); Hlyva Ye. – Ph.D. in Psychology, Foreign Member of NAPS Ukraine, Professor (Australia); Iserman R. – Honorary Dr. Sc. in Political Psychology (USA). Full Member of EuANH (Scotland, UK); Kalashnik I. – Ph.D. in Psychology (Ukraine); Kocharian O. – Dr. in Psychology, Professor (Ukraine);

Lantukh V. – Dr. Sc. in History, Professor (Ukraine); Mamedov Z. – Dr. Sc. in Biology, Professor (Azerbaijan); Mykhaylov B. – Dr. Sc. in Medicine, Professor (Ukraine); Pritts A. – Dr. in Psychology and Pedagogy, Professor (Austria); Tovstyk V. – Ph.D. in Philosophy, Professor, Academician of the New York Academy of Sciences (USA); Trach R. – Ph.D., Professor, foreign member of NAPS Ukraine (USA); Tsekhmister Ya. – Dr. Sc. in Pedagogy, Professor (Ukraine), Full Member of EuANH (Scotland, UK); Yatsenko V. – Dr. Sc. in Medicine, Professor (Ukraine).

Editors / Reviewers: Aymedov K. – Ph.D., M.D., Professor (Ukraine); Markova M. – M.D., Ph.D. Professor (Ukraine); Balabanova L. – Dr. Sc. in Psychology, Professor (Ukraine); Miroshnyk O. – Ph.D. in Philology (Ukraine); Chernavska T. – Dr. Sc. in Psychology, Professor (Ukraine); Orlova O. – Ph.D. in Pedagogy (Ukraine); Danyluk I. – Dr. Sc. in Psychology, Professor (Ukraine); Rodyna N. – Dr. Sc. in Psychology, Professor (Ukraine); Hall A. – Honorary Dr. Sc. in Political Psychology (USA); Skiba V.V. – Dr. Sc. in Medicine, Professor (Ukraine); Hovorun T. – Dr. Sc. in Psychology, Professor (Poland); Smagin I. – Dr. Sc. in Pedagogy, Professor (Ukraine); Hulbs O. – Dr. Sc. in Psychology, Professor (Ukraine); Sydorchuk N. – Dr. Sc. in Pedagogy, Professor (Ukraine); Ivaschenko Yu. – Ph.D., in Physical and Math. Sciences (Ukraine); Vlasova O. – Dr. Sc. in Psychology, Professor (Ukraine); Kireyeva Z. – Dr. Sc. in Psychology, Professor (Ukraine); Yevdokymova N. – Dr. Sc. in Psychology (Ukraine); Malecha A. – Ph.D. in Psychology, Professor (Poland) ; Zabrotskyy M. – Prof., Ph.D. in Psychology (Izrael).

The publishers and editors do not accept responsibility for the beliefs expressed by the authors based on their research and personal beliefs.

© Ukraine and Ukrainians Abroad Not-for-profit Corporation, New York NY, USA, 2016 © Authors of articles, 2016

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Content Burmaka N. EDITOR’S COLUMN.................................................................................................................. 4 Maksymenko S. THE PERSONALITY RESEARCH METHOD.................................................................... 5 Petrenko P. MENTAL HEALTH RELEVANT TO CONSENT: THEORETICAL PROBLEMS OF THE STUDY................................................................................................................................................ 16 Borko Y., Lantukh A. CHILDFREE – THE PHENOMENON OF MODERN SOCIETY.............................. 20 Danilyuk I., Kurapov A. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS OF ACCULTURATION IN THE AGE OF YOUTH......................................................................................................................................................... 24 Dubasenyuk A. PEDAGOGICAL CONDITIONS OF CREATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PERSONALITY BY MEANS OF ART............................................................................................................. 30 Hovorun T. RESEARCH OF GENDER DIFFERENCES IN PREDICTION OF PROFESSIONAL SELF PRESENTATION..................................................................................................................................... 36 Hupalovska V., Ustyanych S. FEATURES OF WOMAN’S SEXUALITY WITH DIFFERENT SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING........................................................................................................................... 41 Kapustyuk O. REORGANIZATION OF THE PERSONAL PSYCHOLOGICAL SPACE IN THE S PHERE OF FAMILY RELATIONS................................................................................................................... 47 Kirillov D. RESEARCH OF VISUAL PERCEPTION (VIEW FIELD) IN ADOLESCENTS WITH ICP...................................................................................................................................................................... 53 Lyubchuk O., Lunov V. FORMING OF ENTREPRENEURIAL POTENTIAL OF PERSONALITY IN THE PROFESSIONAL TRAINING AT UNIVERSITIES........................................................................... 57 Orlova O. PSYCHOLOGICAL BASES OF TEACHERS’ PREPARATION TO STUDENTS’ SELF-DEVELOPMENT.................................................................................................................................... 61 Virna Z. SAFETY OF PERSONALITY IN MIGRATION TERMS WITHIN THE MILITARY CONFLICT: ORGANIZATIONAL CONDITIONS OF EDUCATION AND PSYCHOTHERAPY................ 64 Yacenko T. DYNAMICS OF PROFOUND COGNITION OF MIND.............................................................. 69 THEY ARE YOUR TALENTS, UKRAINE....................................................................................................... 75 GENOCIDE BY FAMINE.................................................................................................................................. 78 CHARITY........................................................................................................................................................... 80

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Editor’s Column

American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

Nadiya Burmaka PhD in Psychology, MD, Professor at the International Academy of Sobriety, Full Member of EuANH (Scotland, UK) Honorary member of East Europen Scientific Analytics Federation of International Academy of Science and Higher Education (London, UK) President of "Ukraine and Ukrainians Abroad", USA Editor’s Column

Колонка редактора

Dear colleagues, representatives of scientific elite of society, and seekers of deeper scientific knowledge! We offer to your attention the first issue of interdisciplinary periodical "American Journal of Fundamental, Applied and Experimental Research" / "Американський журнал фундаментальних, прикладних і експериментальних досліджень", registered in the US by organization Ukraine and Ukrainians Abroad in partnership with the Association of Psychologists of Ukraine, G.S. Kostiuk Institute of Psychology of the National Academy of Educational Sciences of Ukraine. The idea of launching the magazine belongs to a group of scientists-organizers of science from the US and Ukraine; Academician of NAPS of Ukraine Serhii Maksymenko - Director of the G.S. Kostiuk Institute of Psychology of NAPS of Ukraine, laureate of the State Prize of Ukraine in Science and Technology, Honored Scientist and Technician of Ukraine ; Professor Nadiya Burmaka – President of "Ukraine and Ukrainians Abroad", USA, member of the European Academy of Natural History (Edinburgh, UK); Professor Vitalii Lunov - the first vice-president, administrator of East European Scientific Analytics Federation of the International Academy of Science and Higher Education (London, UK ). We are very grateful for the advisory and organizational partner support to the community of Ukrainian Orthodox Cathedral of St. Volodymyr in New-York. The possibility of cooperation with this community is the honor for us and convincing evidence of fraternal connection of Ukrainians worldwide. Preparation of the issue and its print output marked the beginning of collaboration of a large group of scientists from Ukraine, the USA, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Israel and Poland. Our aim is to highlight the most actual topics of psychological and pedagogical science, as well as to open dialogues on important theoretical and applied problems of socio-humanitarian knowledge.

Вельмишановні колеги - представники наукової еліти суспільства, пошукувачі глибинного наукового знання! Вашій увазі пропонується перший випуск міждисциплінарного періодичного видання «Американський журнал фундаментальних, прикладних і експериментальних досліджень» / «American Journal of Fundamental, Applied and Experimental Research», зареєстрованого у США організацією ”Ukraine and Ukrainians Abroad” в партнерстві з Товариством психологів України, Інститутом психології імені Г.С. Костюка Національної академії педагогічних наук України. Ідея про започаткування журналу належить групі науковців-організаторів науки зі США та України: академіку НАПН України професору Сергію Максименку – директору Інституту психології імені Г.С. Костюка НАПН України, лауреату Державної премії України в галузі науки і техніки, заслуженому діячу науки та техніки України; професору Надії Бурмаці – президенту ”Ukraine and Ukrainians Abroad”, США, дійсному члену Європейської академії природознавства (Единбург, ВБ), професору Віталію Луньову – першому віцепрезиденту, адміністратору Східноєвропейської федерації наукової аналітики Міжнародної академії наук та вищої освіти (Лондон, ВБ). Ми дуже вдячні за консультативну та організаційну партнерську підтримку громаді Українського Православного Катедрального Собору Св. Володимира у Нью-Йорку, можливість співпраці з яким для нас є честю та засвідченням переконливого братського зв’язку українців у всьому світі. Підготовка видання та його вихід друком стали початком співпраці численної групи науковців з України, США, Австралії, Австрії, Азербайджану, Грузії, Ізраїлю, Польщі. Наша мета – висвітлити найбільш актуальні теми психологічної та педагогічної науки, відкрити діалоги щодо актуальних теоретичних та прикладних проблем соціо-гуманітарного знання.

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American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

THE PERSONALITY RESEARCH METHOD

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UDC 159.9.072.53

Serhii Maksymenko Academician of NAPS of UA, Dr. Sc. in Psychology, Professor Ukraine, Kiev instpsy@gmail.com

The scientific research of the personality psychology as a real (and not just imagined) subject of study, as a unique and complete system, represents a great problem. The matter is that the modern science has no main thing - a method, which would be adequate to this subject. The method is the central part of the whole problem of the personality psychology as it is not just the instrument of acquiring scientific empirical facts. The method is also a way of realization of scientific knowledge, a way of its existence and saving. In the wide generalized meaning we consider a method as theoretically arranged means and at the same time as the result of specific materializing of researcher’s ideas about the subject of study. Dismaterializing occurs already after the researcher receives and realizes the scientific information by means of this method. The given conceptual understanding of the method allows to imagine a logically consecutive plan of the research: the researcher’s ideas about the psychological personality nature, which have arisen on the basis of everyday facts, acquired theoretical knowledge and perception of own everyday experience, meeting the new facts and new experience generate a problem. Its solving requires new scientific empirical facts, and the method appears on the one hand as materializing of ideas, on the other hand - as the reflection of the problem, and what is more - as the ideal technology adequate in its key parameters to that of the studied system - in this case the personality. Key words: personality psychology, nomothetic and ideographic methods, empirical facts, a principle of analysis by units; a principle of historical method (a principle of genetic and experimental lines unity in the research); a principle of system (a principle of integral consideration of mental formations);a principle of designing. Наукове дослідження психології особистості як дійсного (а не уявного лише) предмета вивчення, як унікальної, неповторної і цілісної

системи, єдності, являє собою дуже велику проблему. Справа в тому, що сучасна наука не має головного – методу, який був би адекватним даному предмету. Метод виступає центральною ланкою всієї проблеми психології особистості, оскільки він є не лише засобом отримання наукових емпіричних фактів. Метод являє собою ще й засіб втілення наукового знання, спосіб його існування і зберігання. Дане концептуальне розуміння методу дозволяє уявити собі логічно-послідовну схему дослідження: уявлення дослідника про психологічну природу особистості, які виникли в нього на підставі житейських фактів, засвоєних теоретичних знань та усвідомлення власного життєвого досвіду, зустрічаючись з новими фактами і новим досвідом, породжують проблему. Її вирішення вимагає нових наукових емпіричних фактів, і метод з’являється, як, з одного боку, опредметнення уявлень, з іншого – як відображення проблеми, а ще з іншого – як ідеальна технологія, адекватна за своїми ключовими параметрами тій системі, яка має вивчатися, – тобто особистості. Ключові слова: психологія особистості, номотетичні та ідеографічні методи, принцип аналізу за одиницями, принцип історизму, принцип системності, принцип проектування (принцип активного моделювання, відтворення форм психіки в особливих умовах). Scientific facts (but not that of life) received during the use of such method are theoretically summarized by the researcher, are compared to the previous conceptions and research results of other authors; and after that the new conceptions and new problems appear. This logic scheme, which precisely displays the concept of the method as such, is almost not realized in the investigation of the personality. We have breaks and discrepancies in each part of the scheme. So the personality integrity and uniqueness are recognized as its intrinsic (attributive) features practically by all serious researchers. But this conception is strangely materialized exactly in partial, a narrow-concrete technique of the investigation of separate (and at the same time artificially isolated) 5


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elements, and the classical thesis that the sum of separate parts is never equal to the integrity is not considered at all. Generally accepted is such attributive feature of the person as activity, which, contrary to reactivity, determines the personality possibility to exist, basing on his own purposes and ideals, and not just to react to irritation. But why is this knowledge “materialized” exclusively in stimulus-reactive methods and techniques, which tests, experiments, and different forms of inquiries should be referred to? The same problem is observed in the research of the development. And again initial conceptions of the complex process of self-development and heterogeneity of its mechanisms are embodied in exclusively “sectional” methodical procedures, which only establish the features of the given concrete moment and do not anyhow reveal the mechanisms. The absence of the method adequate to the initial conceptions and the object of the investigation, generates scepticism and disappointment and forces the researcher to complete the initial positions by himself, that is to search answers to the particular questions not in the object of the research, but in books and own experience. Obviously it is very far from the scientific cognition. Very typical and vivid example is presented by Gordon Ollport (Olport, 2002) in his work on the creation of the personality theory. Ollport belongs to those few personologists who really understood the key value of the problem of the method in theorization concerning the personality nature and realized the existence of the impressing discrepancy between theoretical conceptions and the way of collecting the empirical facts, and hence their real value. He precisely and brightly believes the integrity and the uniqueness to be the important personality features, and takes a necessary step to the development of the methods adequate to these attributive features. In Allport’s works we meet the distribution of all existing methods of the personality investigation into two polar groups: nomothetic and ideographic. As the author proves, this distribution is so important that two different theoretical approaches of the personality studying receive the same names. Ideographic (morphogenetic) approach consists in the attempt to investigate the personality as a unique integrity and provides the use of corresponding methods and methodical procedures. Actually, the nomothetic approach is a traditionally existing direction - when the personality is artificially divided into the constituent parts and elements, and the generalization is received only by the means of a set of numerous results, so that they become statistically reliable. Allport understood everything right, but in his real empirical research 6

he used the last one – the nomothetic method and consequently his scientific texts are read as a drama piece: we feel how it is difficult for him to be on the same way which he criticizes - to receive generalization not from the empirical data, but owing to his thoughts. G. Ollport didn’t manage to create the method, which would have materialized his initial conceptions, and that is the matter. However, it is the common problem for the personality psychology. The majority of scientists find its solution in reductionism: as the personality is a rather “big” object, some parts should be theoretically separated, but these parts should be substantial, i.e. such the investigation of which will be adequate to study of the whole personality (Olport, 2002). This reference to the so-called constituent source of the personality was certainly a step forward. But the strange thing appeared very soon - each investigator singled out a different constituent source. If to speak about the home psychology, orientation (L. Bozhovich), attitude (V. Myasishchev), communication (A. Bodalev), hierarchy of activities and motives (A. Leontyev), selectivity (M. Dobrynin), purpose (D. Uznadze), and emotional orientation (B. Dodonov) were consistent as such initial instance. We observe the same process in foreign psychology. Z. Freud alone was perfectly consecutive. Certainly, his approach is also a reduction, though it is still not analysed. But we are interested in the following here: Freud (and so far he alone) managed to embody his conceptions in a method, to use this method, to receive results and to construct the personality theory on their basis. It’s quite another matter, that Freud, actually, ignored the attributive features of the personality: both integrity, and activity, and uniqueness. Therefore the destiny of his theory does not differ from all others – the partial conception constructed on the analysis of arbitrarily selected structure cannot give anything else but what it has generated. And if it claims to universality, there will only be misunderstanding. Can the modern personality psychology overcome the crisis of the research method? It seems to us that there are all grounds for this. L. Vygotsky’s “The Nonclassical Psychology” (the cultural and historical theory) contains important initial methodologies, the further development and understanding of which closely bring us to the creation of an adequate investigation method of the personality. From the point of view of this theory, the culture is an ideal representation of real human abilities, and the person’s mentality is a social and cultural and semiotics formation, which develops in situations of communication. As F. Mikhaylov considers, this thesis for psychology turns out to be a real definition of its own research object: “1) the formation in ontogenesis of the system-formative initial ability of the purposeful


American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

attitude to life, the world of its objective conditions; 2) the development of this ability in the number of its displays (in thinking, emotions, will, attention, etc.); 3) their transformation into the integrity (unity) of the whole subjective world of the individual” (Shorohovoy, 1969, p. 59). Thus, it is a question of the initial (key) ability of the person, the ability which develops under own laws and on this grounds unites all the mental phenomena into a single and unique whole - the personality. We see the essential moment in these considerations concerning the investigation way – the integrity may be investigated adequately if the process of its appearance and formation, instead of the certain result (postfaktum), is really studied. Thus, the initial scientific problem of the psychological research here changes essentially – the problem is not the personality integrity as the fact, but the process of its appearance. In other words, the psychology of the personality should begin not with the ascertaining of the available mental structures and search of means for their further analysis, but from the “problem of human subjectivity formation, the problem of bases of the transformation process of objective human life conditions into the internal world, which is subjectively emotionally experienced, mediates, directs and motivates life activity” (Shorohovoy, 1969, p.76). Thus there is another essential methodological aspect - the higher mental functions of the person (that is of the personality, as we have defined it as the form of existence of human mentality as a whole) in general are not given, but are set. They cannot be investigated without setting for the individual the means of their construction. As a whole, it is a question of the investigation of the development and the investigation in the development. P. Halperin noted: “Only in the genesis the true structure of mental functions is revealed: when they are completely formed, their structure cannot be distinguished; moreover they move “in the depth” and are concealed by “the phenomenon” of absolutely different kind, nature and structure” (Halperin, 1996, p. 73). The authors of the cultural and historical theory in a special research method – experimental and genetic, realized the stated methodological theses. The sense of this method is in that the materiality of activity and the corresponding intermental form is organized and built by the experimenter, taking into account the known mechanisms and theoretical conceptions. The investigator does not create any stimuli and does not fix the reaction - he organizes the development of the certain mental process, he is nearby, not “opposite”, taking into consideration what L. Vygotsky accentuated: there is not only the object for the researcher, but also the researcher for the object. Such common movement, co-distributed

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activity really enables to investigate how this or that higher mental function arises and develops, and how it is arranged. It is important to state and emphasize: the position of the investigator here is unique: he is not “in front of”, but “nearby”. With its structurally schematic parameters this position has a bent for the position of a psychotherapist (especially in psychoanalytic and humanistic directions). But there is an essential difference - the experimental-genetic method is called upon to form and research, not to solve problems, though the latter also occurs but uncontrollably, as if involuntarily (Maksymenko, 2015). The logic of this method provides not simple fixation of these or those empirical forms of mentality display, but their active modelling and reproduction under the special conditions. It also enables us to reveal their essence that is the laws of the appearance and formation of certain psychological functions in ontogenesis. Therefore the specific realization of the experimental and genetic method in the researches of age and pedagogical psychology includes the forming experiment as a necessary component. The theoretical level of studying of mental processes in the experimental and genetic method, unlike other methods, is specially set to the researcher through the designing of the substantial and operational sides of the objective activity. And the specific feature of such designing is that the model created by the researcher with the purpose of cognition, corresponds to the real internal structure of the mental process. The generic mental process, or the way of thinking or memory, is recreated by a single individual with those social and cultural standards, which have made this process the achievement of the spiritual culture of the society. According to F. Engels the experimental and genetic method, fixing the “objective dialectics of things” by its own organization, generates the “subjective dialectics of ideas”, the complex dialectics of the mental world of the individual, which develops under the laws of the reality reflection. These laws are expressed not in the general abstract form, but as substantial-postoperative system of certain activity. Only as such they become a basis of those communications and relations, which form the developing mental process. Thus, the substantial and postoperative system of the experimental and genetic method is the psychological centre of investigation. It means, that the investigated mental process or function is at first designed in the form of the certain activity model, and then actualized through the mediation of the special ways of the subject activity organization. In the pedagogical psychology such universal way of the subject activity organization is the problem, solving of which provides the functioning of corresponding mental process. The criterion 7


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of psychological estimation of the done research becomes a degree of conformity of the really carried out process of the problem solving with its model (Maksymenko, 2015). The educational problem in the experimental and genetic research serves as an artificial instrument of causing and development of mental processes, as their specific model. Certainly, there is no full identity between the model as the objective and the mental as the subjective produced on its basis; but there are relations of adequacy. During interiorization (adoption) the external social samples at first become the means of the psychological organization of the subject activity regulation, and then they pass onto the internal plan, getting forms of mental processes. They do not remain constant and enrich themselves during the functioning, getting necessary liability. Thus the experimental and genetic method directly has the ways of construction of the higher mental functions, which are adopted by the subject in the process of reorganization of certain contents. At the same time the reorganization unites in itself the genetic and structurally functional moments of the objective reality and in this way sets similar structures (in the form of ways of the analysis) to the mental proper. Interiorizing, the ways of reorganization act as psychological mechanisms of the objective activity of the subject. Such understanding of mental processes as the individual activity and behaviour regulators forces to interpret the mechanisms of mental development as the necessary and logic consequence of the particular line of formation process specified by the experimental-genetic method. Realization of the experimental-genetic method in the age and pedagogical psychology is carried out in the form of designing school programs that enables experimentally to bring together the age and pedagogical psychology into one integral unit, to show the illegitimacy of contrasting, the separation of education and development. It is a method of study of formation process mechanisms of new cognitive activity kinds. Therefore the topical problem is: to pick out the construction principles of this research method and to find out the optimum conditions of its realization. The theoretical understanding of the experimental training experience which has been carried out in the course of the above mentioned approach, leads to the necessity of picking out the system of principles of the experimental and genetic research construction, and also revealing of the succession of the basic logical and operational structures realizing it (Maksymenko, 2015). The main principles are: 1) a principle of analysis by units (picking out the initial 8

contradicting relation, which generates a class of the phenomena as a whole); 2) a principle of historical method (a principle of genetic and experimental lines unity in the research); 3) a principle of system (a principle of integral consideration of mental formations); 4) a principle of designing (a principle of active modelling, reproduction of the mentality forms under special conditions). Principle of analysis by units. The construction and the use of the experimental and genetic method of the psychological investigation provide revealing causal (causal and dynamic) relationship, which underlie complex mental processes. The instrument of solving this problem is the analysis “by units”. The analysis “by units” is aimed at picking out the initial relation (it always exists in the form of certain contradiction in the reality) that generates a class of the phenomena as a whole. Separated psychological unit – “a cell” - holds properties of the whole. This kind of analysis enables to single out a certain moment in each psychological whole; a moment, which holds the basic properties of the whole. It is necessary to emphasize, that a unit holds properties of the whole in a potentiality, as the capability of their appearance during their own development. These properties are the variety of forms, specific features, in which a unit is shown as the essence of variety. That is the essence of the complete analysis. Its primary objective is not to decompose the psychological whole into constituent parts or even pieces, but to pick out certain features and moments in each psychological whole, which would hold a primacy of the whole; the use is connected with a natural explanation of mental processes. The analysis by units enables to find out and interpret real connections and relations that form the particular phenomenon. Such analysis should explain the appearance and the origin of the external features of mental process. It is possible at full dynamic expansion of all moments of the mental process, which always requires a certain delay in processes transition and is achieved better when their transition is complicated. “The analysis by units” in the experimental and genetic method has united with the genetic way of scientific investigation and as a result the given analysis has received the status of a scientific basing of mental processes development. Such approach to the research has resulted in that all the mental formations as something permanent started to be considered processes. The basic methodological requirement to the studying of the mental is the transformation of the “thing in the process”. Within the limits of such research


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purpose, the primary goal of consideration is naturally a genetic reproduction of all development moments of the given process. The natural experimentalgenetic investigation of mental processes has caused the demand of introduction of the concepts of “the dynamic system” and “the moment of development into psychology”. The first concept – “the dynamic system” - characterizes the existence features of mental processes as their quantitative and qualitative change. There is a complex interaction between the parts of the psychological whole; it leads to the formation of new properties, new types of interaction and interrelations. As a result of this, mental formations as dynamic systems change quantitatively and qualitatively. The concept “the development moment” is introduced to characterize a stage of mental process development. The observation of connections between the development stages enables to describe the genesis, the transition of the particular process. The analysis establishing this interdependence between the stages is the dynamic analysis, i.e. such an analysis, which is brought to the dynamic expansion of the main moments that form a historical course of the given process. Thus, the main result of the experimental and genetic research is a historical explanation of what form of behaviour is it; it means to find the origin of the process, the history of its development and what has led to the present moment. Principle of historical method. This principle is implemented as a logic expansion of the previous principle (the analysis by units). The matter is that a singled out unit as an inconsistent initial relation, starting from the requirements of dialectical logic, is considered to be the process, which has its historical beginning and end. The historical method demands observation of all development moments and mechanisms of their connection and transition. Using the principle of the historical method concerning mental formations, it is necessary to consider its certain adequacy of the state of the person under study, but in no circumstances its identity to the phylogenetic and ontogenetic development aspects. The task of the research under these conditions is a genetic study of the structural components of mental process, which is being expanded. To cover in the research the development of some thing in all its phases and changes - from the moment of appearance up to destruction - means to open its nature, to get to know its essence as its presence is traced only in movement (Maksymenko, 2015). The requirement of the historical approach to designing and using of the experimental and genetic method is a specific expression of social primacy in the mentality formation.

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Contrary to the traditional analysis of the mentality is the historical approach, which is the most strongly expressed in the idea of mediating the higher mental functions. Understanding of the mentality as a historical product determined the necessity of the creation of adequate - historical method of its study. The instrumental method became the one, which is also defined as the historical and genetic one. The instrumental method is not composed similarly to traditional psychological methods such as observation or experiment: as a matter of fact, it represents a special approach to the study of the mental, that arises from the very understanding of the nature and the essence of the subject of study; first of all it is a methodological principle and a way of psychological study of the child; this method can use any technique, that is an investigation technique: experiment, observation, test, etc. It is impossible to state, that L. Vygotsky was the first and the only psychologist to suggest studying the mentality in its development. Nevertheless, before and after L. Vygotsky the study of mentality development was carried out by the method of transverse sections - at different age the development and behaviour level of the child, and the condition of single mental functions are measured, and then by results of separate measurements, which give the discrete points on the age axis, the general development picture is recreated. On the one hand, the hypothesis of the mentality mediation by psychological instruments allowed overcoming the lack of this method; on the basis of this hypothesis the experimental and genetic method was elaborated. On the other hand, only such a method can have an explanation ability, which allows modelling (as if duplicate) the development process, recreating it, showing the genesis of a certain phenomenon. The appearance of this method became possible as a result of mutual assimilation of two important for psychology theoretical ideas the development principle and the principle of the objectively experimental studying of the mentality. The principle of development becomes initial for the explanation of the process as a whole, and the objectivity key to understanding of the real development process is the experiment, which allows finding out the essence of the genetic process in the abstract form of mechanism. Between the true, real development and the investigated development (by the means of reproduction) there is the same relation, as between the logical and the historical: the logical is the historical, freed from its separate, partial form and accidents breaking the structure, and consequently only it enables to study any development moment in its classical form. Thus, the only methodologically correct way 9


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of the mental development study is its experimentalgenetic studying, and the main task of the educational psychology is the task of rapprochement of the morphological, experimental and genetic analysis. The instrumental method, which is understood as a methodological principle has the meaning far beyond the scope of any specific psychology field. On its essence it forms the basis of so-called “general psychology” - middle, “mediated” part between philosophy and a separate area of psychology. Owing to this function it is put at the heart of the educational psychology research. Principle of system. Primarily important value for the receiving objective data about the impulsive forces and mechanisms of mental development is the choice of the system in which it (development) is considered. In the history of psychology there are many examples, when such a complex phenomenon as the person’s mentality was decomposed into more simple components. Properties, formation ways and modification of these components were studied and described; obtained data were summed up and, thus, all necessary knowledge of the initial and complex phenomenon of mentality was “acquired”. Such approach which realizes the principle of the mechanism, was historically determined by fast development and impressing success of classical mechanics and physics. The cognition methods developed in these disciplines enabled to answer some questions, which could not be solved before. Nevertheless, in the course of time new scientific facts were accumulated testifying that at the study of complex mentality phenomena a similar research method is not effective enough. From such a consideration it was not possible to find out the essence of mental phenomena, to find out the dynamics of their development. The new approach based on the so-called principle of system, was aimed at the display of the basic appearance and development mechanisms of the mentality as a single whole. K. Marx and F. Engels pioneered the use of this principle at the description of public processes. Eventually the corresponding method of analysis, overcoming difficulties, received the appropriate place in the science of human mental life. Then the cultural and historical theory of the person mentality development became the result of using this method. And in its development the specified principle was realized the most strictly and consistently. The cultural and historical concept of mentality development not simply declared its social genesis, although this fact alone already has the big theoretical value, but social determination itself was subjected to the dialectical and logical analysis. Considering the 10

social as a process, it was necessary to pick out the internal and inconsistent moments, to trace their ties and dependence. The solution of such task is inseparably linked with the introduction of the principle of the system. Contrary to the formal and logical concept of the system, the experimental and genetic method (EGM) consolidates the developing system, genetic basis of which is “a cell” as the initial inconsistent relation, which includes all components of the developed whole. At the same time EGM by its substantial-postoperative side fixes all the necessary transitions in dialectic expansion of the isolated initial relation. The transition from a less developed concept to a more developed one is caused by the principle of the system. The set system of the concept, which is developing, demands also the setting of adequate system of object and converting actions the performance of which finally forms the corresponding system of psychological new formations at the individual. In real functioning of EGM the principle of the system is a specific mechanism of the ascent from the abstract to the specific, connecting knowledge, which is developed, and object and converting activity, which is generated by this knowledge. Being a socially objective basis of the mental development of the subject, this activity is freed from historically developed conditions and has only a logically well arranged form, which enables scientifically to prove and organize the controlled process of the mental development. The principle of the system embodies genetical modelling method in the educational process and acts as a necessary logical step at the designing the contents of teaching material. It anticipates the realization of the logically mental analysis of scientific knowledge and its projecting into the system of educational contents. In EGM the principle of system is a derivative from the principle of the analysis by the units and the principle of historical method, and it characterizes the historical expansion of the analysis by units (Maksymenko, 2015). Principle of designing and modelling of forms of mentality. The principle of designing in the theory of the experimental and genetic method reveals its qualitative difference from the corresponding structural components of other psychological methods. The experimental and genetic method is aimed at artificial creation of such mental processes, which are still not present in the internal world of the individual. This circumstance dictates the necessity of designing the experimental model of their genesis and development, finding-out the mechanisms of this process. Similar experimental models of these or


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those mental functions, these or those abilities (or processes) are created with the cognitive purpose, but they are the prototype of really functioning processes. Certainly, the designing of psychological models does not result from the intuition of the researcher. It arises during complex logic processing of the cognition results, which make the essence of human culture. The experimental and genetic (genetical and modelling) method consists of the theory within the limits of which it has arisen; designing (modelling); reformatory (forming) experiment and diagnostics (fixing) both the intermediate and to a certain extent final psychological new formations of the developing personality. The correspondence of the experimental and genetic method to the study of mental functions is directly determined by dialectic concepts of social genesis of individual’s consciousness, of mental development as adoption of society cultural properties by the subject. Therefore it is the most adequate research way of the problems of education and the personality mental development. The experimental and genetic method was not used and cannot be used for the investigation of the personality proper. But those real empirical results, received owing to its use, theoretical generalizations, carried out in the context of the theory of developing education, allow considering it as a conceptual basis for the creation of the study method of the personality. By means of the experimental and genetic method mechanisms of appearance and development of separate higher mental functions were investigated: the individual using (creating) special means adopts universal abilities, which exist in the social environment in the form of materialized displays of other individuals, and transforms them into own abilities (the higher mental functions). The psychological mechanism of this phenomenon - the interiorization - is determined. It is also determined, that later on in such a way the adopted abilities, already as intrapsychic structures form “around themselves” the so-called “interfunctional psychological systems”, and determine the further processes of “growing” of the individual in culture, mediating them from inside (the phenomenon of double mediation). These data allowed approaching closely the analysis of the person. But the particular method cannot cover the personality as the integrity representing not the sum of separate parts, but their special organization and active interosculation. The integrity, present at the whole personality and each in particular, is specified each time according to the definite aspect, remaining at the same time equal to itself. In this sense the experimental and genetic method is “typically” nomothetic way of

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the investigation of the personality. Though it is also directed to determining, how this unique spontaneous system creates its own integrity, the integrity itself again remains “behind brackets” - the investigator can complete it in his own mind, reasoning from concrete and partial results. Distinction between the objects of studying and the real research purposes predetermines different logic of expansion and technology of using the experimental and genetic, and the genetical and modelling methods. The experimental and genetic psychological investigation provides allocation of substantial unit of the analysis in the space of scientific discipline as the phenomenon, resulting from subjectivizing the higher mental functions of many people on the historical scale. Then there is “a transfer” of the particular material in the form of a subject and its assignment in the form of an educational task as the instrument of solution of a definite educational problem. The result of such assignment is the appearance of a new mental structure of the highest level (unit of consciousness). The genetical and modelling method aims at the study of an integral personality in the development. In this connection there was a necessity of search of absolutely different kind of “units”, and it was ascertained that was the need as an inconsistent initial unity of the biological and the social, predetermining the personality existence. The principles of the method construction reflect the nature of the existence of the studied object. The technology of the method (a principle of unity of genetic and experimental lines of the development) provides executing the research under the most “natural” conditions of the personality existence and creation of actual realization space of numerous opportunities of modelling personality development and existence. There is another moment. Assignment of cultural and historical experience in the form of instruments and signs that begins at a certain (not initial!) ontogenetic stage occurs in the own activity of the individual directed to meeting the existing needs. It is the ABC of the cultural and historical theory. But here there are, at least, two cardinal questions. How does this stage appear? What was there before its appearance and what has led to its appearance? The second group of questions concerns actually the needs. In fact the individual never emotionally experiences the need for the assignment of ability. What does the phrase that this assignment is carried out during the realization of needs mean? And why is the individual (as our experimental results show) at any of early ontogenetic stages appeared to be ready for ineriorization? This is in the first place. And in the second place, where do human needs appear from, what generates them? 11


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The answer to these fundamental questions demands the creation of a new methodology as the method of theoretical analysis of the personality. The living being which begins in a parent bosom, is initially the “flesh of one’s flesh”, a product of two human beings. The social (the whole immense experience of generations assigned and concentrated in two loving beings - parents) is subjectivized and embodied in a strange creation - a new biological being, but not only biological, namely - biosocial. The need of two, biosocial one by the nature, their need in each other and need in own continuation – the creation, generates this creation and proceeds in it, being realized in different needs, and provides what is referred to as “growing into culture”. The need acts also as the carrier of the eternal human experience (both as a biological and social being) and, at the same time, it is a source of personal activity - the activator energy of which never goes out as it is embodied and restored in a new life. If we observe (investigate) a human child during the first period of its existence after a physical birth, our sensible experience (or experiment) gives the information of separate parts, their interrelation, and functioning. At the same time something main, very essential remains outside our sensible experience, but we know about this. We know, that this is alive human being in which the basis of existence is the influence of biosocial need, that this being is already now an embodiment of all natural and cultural experience and in concrete - of its parents, that it is ready to become the personality, and we can imagine, what it actually becomes (both biologically, and socially). This knowledge is not less real than that received in the sensible plan; it is simply of another kind. Long time ago I. Goethe named very successfully this knowledge “an exact imagination” (Maksymenko, 2015) : i.e. this is our free construction, but it is “not absolutely” free, as at the same time it is exact for being based on reliable empirical data. This is a designing of a complete object of study. But this “exact imagination” is not covered by the investigation procedures existing in psychology. It is either “meant”, or is substituted for any partial concepts-conjectures, which, in general, are not related to the object of study. It is a phenomenon before which the psychology in all its trends and displays always stopped, and declared, that not everything can be given in the experience. We consider differently. If sensitive experience appears insufficient in the explanation of the phenomenon of the personality, there is no sense either to stop, or to accustom the idea to speculative cobwebs. It is necessary to overcome their lack by expansion and qualitative change of experience. We shall emphasize: it is a question not only of the 12

expansion (no matter how many new methodologies and techniques we apply. If they are guided by existing paradigms, they won’t help). That is qualitative change, i.e. absolutely different and new experience, which would meet the main point of the studied phenomenon (Maksymenko, 2015). In this case the following unity is essential: the nature is humanized; the human is naturalized. Certainly, this phrase gives nothing in cognition, but without it we can’t go further, it is a reference point. In fact the humanized nature and naturalized human is a phenomenon (not just ascertaining) and as that it has different forms of existence. One of them is a biosphere as a unity, and another is a human being as a unity. This unity is caused and kept by the need, biosocial unit in the essence. Finding of qualitatively new experience requires a new research method adequate both to the object, and initial positions. It can’t be an analytical method because the need as the initial inconsistent unity of the biological and the social does not decompose into constituent parts but creates, integrates the complete personality during its ontogenesis. So, it should be the method, which would model the personality genesis. We shall name it genetical and modelling, as this name corresponds to its essence to the maximum. (It is necessary to say, that in the theory of the developing training the genetical and modelling method is referred to as genetical and modelling experiment and is identified with the forming educational experiment. It seems to us, that such identification is simply misunderstanding). The person is a complex self-developing system, i.e. it models and realizes own genesis. To investigate this process scientifically, that is to investigate the personality, we should create such ways and forms of study, which would not interrupt or stop the development artificially, but would cause it, coexist with it. Theoretically it is the coexistence on the principle of coupling (G. Kostyuk): we should enable the personality (the object of investigation) to function freely and develop under its own laws, but at the same time to give it such opportunities (natural and social) which are subject to empirical fixing and verification. As it was already told, the genetical and modelling method is not actually the analysis. At the same time, as well as any scientific method it necessarily has an analytical component. Not solely on the basis of the data of sensitive experience, and not solely on the basis of empirical thinking, but as the result of integration of these two components with the third one – “exact imagination” (or creativity), we should single out in the complete personality such substantial units which would be independent and self-sufficient, which would have all integrity and


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would provide in the whole the self-development and functioning of this integrity. The last main and essential point: the “unit” of the self-developing and self-regulating system essentially differs from the “units” determined in the experimental and genetic method. Figuratively and at the same time absolutely precisely speaking it should be living. Observance of this will also mean a retreat from reduction. One should not also forget that the personality is a real “unit” of existence and human mentality development. And here it is not decomposed further in its constituent parts. The mentality of the person is personal, and this expression means that any research of any partial process or phenomenon will be adequate only when the latter is considered a substantial branching of the personality, and only then it becomes clear (we shall notice, that it is not considered in psychology and it is just declaration). How should the substantial “units” of the personality be determined in the analysis? We shall again refer to the “exact imagination”: a special and unique biosocial force – the need, provides genesis, existence, formation, and self-development of the personality. The need acts as an inconsistent, mobile and power unity of the biological and the social essence, as embodiment and opportunity of the further infinite embodiment of the human into the human, as that modelling and realizing the personality movement, and is which an initial general unit - the carrier of the personality nature of the person’s mentality. In its “expansion” the need “meets” social and biological factors of the personal environment and sets the substantial points - units of the personality thesaurus. These units are knots of the structure, and at the same time – the lines of the development of the personality. The existence (functioning, development) of separate lines of the personality development (substantial “knots” of its structure) has a rather rigid double conditionality-determinacy. The general course of the human need “meets” the factors of the environment (biological, social). There are branching of the need – the necessities, which being realized, form certain interfunctional systems, which specialize, remaining at the same time parts and carriers of integrity (analogy to tissues and organs of a human body). So the differentiation of the integrated unity of the personality appears (Maksymenko, 2015). Thus, the analytical component of the geneticmodelling method is directed to the separation of substantial mobile units of genesis and selfmodelling. And though it essentially differs from the determining of units within the experimental and genetic limits, we leave the name of the first principle

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of our method unchanged - the principle of the analysis by units. According to our methodological paradigm, the application of the genetical and modelling method eventually will allow “to return the person into psychology”, as the method enables to analyse and at the same time to integrate that initial backbone basis of the personality, that is the need as a unique unity of the biological and the social and their activator. Development of the method is consequently the prior and most actual problem. At the given stage we developed the main principles of its construction and application (the first of them – “the analysis by units” - is stated here). Other important principle of the genetical and modelling method of the personality investigation reflects its primary nature. It is the principle of the unity of the biological and the social elements. The status of the scientific method principle does not allow declaring only the given unity as in this case it will cease to be a principle. It is necessary to realize precisely what is exactly meant, what is understood as a unity? In his time V. Stern, closely considering the problem of the interaction of the biological and the social units in the personality, formulated the “principle of convergence”. Its main point is that it is impossible to tell neither about any function of the personality, nor about any its property, whether they appear from the outside or inside. It is necessary to understand, what in them appears from the outside, and what from the inside as both take part - but unequal - in its realization (Yudin, 1978). However, the question is much more difficult. We suppose that it is reasonable to consider the complex inconsistent interaction of the biological and the social elements in two levels as factors influencing the personality and the factors forming the personality and providing its existence and development “from within”. The first level of the analysis represents the interaction “personality – environment”. It’s really possible to define in it to a certain extent the biological (natural) and the social factors. Though the latter ones actually are never merely and exclusively social, all of them represent a product of the person (mankind), in which not only the social, but also biological system of that complete biosocial being who created them is in some way realized. If to consider the biological and the social as the internal, the personal, it is necessary to admit, that in this case we never have each taken separately. We go back on the traditional consideration of the biological element as the hereditary and the corporal: biological and social factors do not exist separately “inside” the personality; each of them represents different existence of another one. Any thought, image, idea, need is impossible 13


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outside the biological structures and functions of the organism. The opposite is also true - each corporal structure, each biological function of the person is a manifestation of the human nature, i.e. this is what both the biological and the social embodiment initially have, and psychosomatic phenomena, being intensively investigated by modern science, are the best confirmation of this. The principle of unity of the biological and the social structures reveals the real intrinsic nature of the sources of the personality activity. When the psychology states, that needs are such sources; it is mistaken. In fact there are very simple and welltimed questions: where do these needs appear from? Besides it is impossible to explain self-movement, selfdevelopment of that complex open system such as the personality by the influence of the need. So there appears the notion of spirit as the primary source of activity, but it in fact can’t be investigated within the limits of modern science. Again the most interesting and important disappears from psychology (by the way the term “soul” in Ancient Greece meant a source of activity). We insist that such initial primary source of the activity of the personality actually exists, and it is entirely subject to scientific investigation. And this is the need. V. Davydov notes: “The need forms a deep basis of the necessity... The problem is how this need turns to the corresponding necessity” (Davydov, 1996, p.44). It is noted further that no one in psychology has studied it yet, and it’s true. V. Davydov considers the need in the context of the activity (not of the personality) as its important component, and does not try to analyse at all its psychological contents noting that it is a “very difficult future conversation...” (Davydov, 1996, p. 44). We base on that need is the personality initial power basis, biosocial by its nature. The ontogenesis of the personality begins much earlier, than it is born physically. Its basis – subjectivizing – is the realization of the needs of two people loving each other. There is a new form of existence of the need; the latter simply can’t exist without the material carrier (at least, modern science has no other way of existence of the biosocial need, except for its existence as sociobiological power basis of the human personality). Observance of the principle of unity of the biological and the social elements within the geneticmodelling method means the study of the ontogenesis from its real beginning, the research of the mechanisms of the appearance of the necessities from the need. As a whole, it means consideration in any definite psychological investigation of the personality existence as the initial biosocial unity capable of self-development. 14

The following important principle of construction of the genetic-modelling method is the principle of creativity. Combining the need with numerous and various objects and phenomena not simply generates the necessities; it predetermines the targeting and development of own and unique instruments of aims achievement. It is, actually, creativity. In this very sense we use the term “creativity”. So, it is the question of creative uniqueness of the personality, which penetrates all its life. Already the beginning of a new person is nothing else than the result of creative act of subjectivizing the need of two loving beings. Person in itself is both the result and product of creativity. And the need, realized in it, has huge creative potential, which is found out in uniqueness, heterogeneity, self-consciousness, and self-sufficiency as a whole. Real mystery and mysterious uniqueness of human consciousness consists in its ability for modelling and self-modelling. It leads, in particular, to absolutely original correlation of the past, present and future in consciousness. The consciousness self-models, assigning the ability, and models the further existence of the person. The creativity is a deep, primary and absolutely “natural” feature of the personality, - it is the higher form of the activity. The activity, creating and leaving the trace, is embodied. On the other hand, the creativity means the aspiration to express the internal world. When A. Losev names the expression one of the attributive features of personality, he precisely defines, that it is an expression, and in fact, at the same time it is also the act of creation of this world. To observe the principle of creativity in the personality analysis (and research) means “to take” its existence as a whole, in its unique purposeful unity in which it merely exists. It means really to consider a multiple meaning, unexpectedness and unpredictability of the personality. On the other hand, it means to realize that not everything is simple and predictable. Everything we try to receive in modern experiments is actually not even a definite case, but a true artefact. And this is the main lack of the researches in the field of the personality psychology. We consider the latter to be very significant, first of all methodically, and consequently we formulate the following principle of reflective relativity, which fixes basic impossibility to determine the exact measures and ultimately to fix higher unique and creative manifestations of the personality. In fact self-determination through own need gives the person essentially nonsaturable and unlimited opportunity of the variety of literally all displays and properties. The presence of reflection, as one of the most interesting and mysterious consequences combining the need and human life,


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makes this life original without limits, opens for the person real infinity of resources of self-change in each moment. As a whole this phenomenon is well known: recollect even the assertive statement of F. Dostoyevsky about the immense depth and unpredictability of the “real, sound personality” of each person. At the same time, the tendency of positive science to pragmatical schematizing leads to very simplified images concerning the personality. The principle of relativity warns against sketchiness and shallow forecasts - our knowledge is limited and will always be such: we surely know only about presence of reflexive - creative potential of the person and boundlessness of its manifestations. As a result of this real limitation and lightness of attempts of schematizing or personality modelling appears. As a result of this a real depth of sufferings of the person manipulating or being manipulated opens. At the same time, creativity and relativity principles open the real contents of the phenomenon of subjectness: the need of ontogenesis is similar to branching. The part of it exists and functions as in the early childhood, as it was in the beginning: without the person knowing it his viability and life as a whole is supported. Other “branch” of the need aims exclusively at meeting with the social world. These meetings generate the higher mental functions, forming targeting, partiality of the internal world, and creativity. So the subject is born (Maksymenko, 2015). The last principle of genetical and modelling investigation method of the personality study is the unity of experimental and genetic lines of development. In our opinion, it is a very essential moment of the characteristic not only of our method, but also of the general state of affairs in the psychology of personality. Studying the development by the means of forming experiment, we form and then study the formed. And how is it actually, without our interference? Many scientists unfortunately didn’t notice the acuteness of this question. And in vain: psychology became “forming”, the forming experiment is still a necessary attribute of theses. But let’s remember, the science should study the object in its own logic, instead of the researcher’s logic in the object. The question lacks attention, and how will it become more acute, if “the person returns to psychology”? In fact the main thing will become that, what now simply nobody pays attention to: if at a child it is artificially formed (and studied), let’s say, mediated remembering by the way of “growing and assignment”, but the child at the same time exists and develops as the integrity. We study the discrete moment - how it grows, how it is assigned. And what happens at the same time to the child, to its other

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functions and phenomena? There is a question at issue: how it happens at other children, at whom nothing is formed specially? This complete personality is brought to the forefront in the genetical and modelling investigation. And we easily tend to the phenomenological direction when we realize, that it is impossible “to simulate” anything here (see the principle of creativity), without breaking filigree the thin process of selfmodelling and self-development. So, is there only the description left? No, we are sure that joining this “naturally” genetic line of development with the experimental one is possible, but not by formation, assignment of abilities, but by creation in the experiment of special conditions of expansion and “delay” of the formation of complete units of the analysis. It can happen on the background of various (but fixed) opportunities for self-modelling (Maksymenko, 2015). Let’s turn back again to L. Vygotsky, who confirmed (and absolutely fairly), that the new conceptual approach demands new, adequate investigation way (Vyigotskiy, 1982). We consider, that the genetic-modelling method (in our understanding) reflects those intrinsic ideas necessary to be realized in the investigation of the personality as the integrity. The self-developing integrity, owing to the biosocial basis – the need, is objectivized in the particular personality. References: 1. Давыдов, В.В. (1996). Теория развития и обучения [Davydov, V.V. The theory of development and studuing]. Москва: ИНТОР. 2. Гальперин, П.Я. (1966). Метод срезов и метод поэтапного формирования в исследовании детского мышления [Halperin, P.Ya. The method of sections and the method of gradual formation in a study of the child’s thinking]. Вопросы психологии, 4, 123-135. 3. Maksymenko, S.D. (2015). Genesis of personality existence. Montreal. 4. Олпорт, Г. (2002). Становление личности [Olport, G. The becoming of personality]. Москва: Смысл. 5. Шороховой, Е.В. (1969). Методологические и теоретические проблемы психологии [Shorohovoy, E.V. Methodological and theoretical problems of psychology ]. Москва: Наука. 6. Выготский, Л.С. (1982). Исторический смысл психологического кризиса [Vyigotskiy, L.S. Historical sence of psychological crisis]. Москва: Педагогика. 7. Юдин, Е.Г. (1978). Системный подход и принцип деятельности [Yudin, E.G. The systematical approach and principle of activity]. Москва: Наука.

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MENTAL HEALTH RELEVANT TO CONSENT: THEORETICAL PROBLEMS OF THE STUDY

UDC 159.9.; 343

Petrenko Pavlo Minister of Justice of Ukraine, PhD The need to address (crime) mental health relevant to consent within a single concept is dictated by the fact that modern criminal law of Ukraine in accordance with the principles of justice and humanism encompasses a variety of mental conditions, including previously unknown domestic criminal legislation that affect the degree of conscious volitional control at the time of committing socially dangerous and criminal acts, traditionally perceived as linked to individual mental phenomena. The leading conceptual and methodological basis of the research can be genetic-modeling method of academician S. D. Maksymenko about the correlation of biological and social determinants in the system of internal mental experiences of the person and its legal status in system of legal relations. Key words: (crime) mental health relevant conditions, personality, genetic-modeling method. Необхідність розгляду кримінальнорелевантних психічних станів в рамках єдиної концепції диктується тим, що сучасне кримінальне право України відповідно до принципів справедливості та гуманізму охоплює безліч психічних станів, у тому числі раніше невідомих вітчизняному кримінальному законодавству, що впливають на ступінь свідомої вольової регуляції під час вчинення суспільно небезпечних і злочинних діянь, які в силу традиції сприймаються як не пов’язані між собою відокремлені психічні феномени. Провідною концептуально-методологічною осно-вою дослідження може виступити генетикомоделюючий метод академіка С.Д.Максименка про співвіднесення біологічних та соціальних детермінант в системі внутрішніх психічних переживань особистості та її правового статусу в системі юридично-значимих відносин. Ключові слова: кримінально-релевантні психічні стани, переживання, особистість, генетико-моделюючий метод. 16

Mental health relevant to consent and experiences of the subjects of human rights, enforcement and legislative activity

Criminal-relevant mental states of subjects of the wrongful, socially dangerous, criminal activityl

Introduction The concept of mental health relevant to consent and emotions of the personality we see as the continuum in the object plane, which are concentrated mental experiences of all subjects of legal relations. In a substantive-methodological perspective of our study, this thesis takes the following form. Mental health relevant to consent and experiences of the subjects of human rights, enforcement and legislative activity. As follows from the analysis of leading dissertation researches, in a number mental health relevant to consent actually included indefinitely wide circle of mental conditions of subject of crime, including relate to: - by the age-related offensive of criminal responsibility; - emotional state, mitigating the punishment; - mental conditions resulting in legally relevant situations, such as reasonable risk, and innocent infliction of harm. It is obvious that the treatment of psychologists and lawyers to the concept of “relevance” in those cases, when it comes to mental health relevant to consent, circumstances and situations never are accompanied by definitions of relevant concepts that allows authors to invest different meaning in the concept of “relevance”. In some cases, the use of the term “relevance” in criminal law is unjustified. Episodically used expressions “legally relevant sphere”, “ legally relevant behavior”, “legally relevant task” does not carry an actual semantic load, as in first case the question is about the sphere of action of criminal law, in the second - about criminal illegal behavior behavior, in the third - about the tasks of criminal law. The context of legal psychology, as a rule, remains regardless


American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

scientists in that volume that is justified in connection with meaningfulness of problem. On the whole it should be noted that question of mental health relevant to consent and mental conditions, deep experiencing in the methodological field of our research in the repressing great number of aspects concentrated round the questions of criminal within the limits of concepts “sanity”, “limit to sanity”, and “insanity”, as such. Thus legally the legal phenomena getting in psychology the name of mental health relevant to consent, in a criminal law characterized little different: in particular, a reasonable risk is examined as a circumstance, eliminating applications of punishment, and “insanity” - as a circumstance eliminating criminal responsibility mental sick persons, while in psychology a risk is attributed to the numbermental health relevant to consent, and “insanity” - to the number legally relevant circumstances. Such approach from positions of psychology is justified, as allows operating terminology reflecting certain psychological nuances, but not acceptable in a criminal law the categorical system which established regulations. On etymology of concept. A base term “concept of relevance” (from the Eng. of Relevant - belongs to business, answering, acceptable), that is introduced into scientific practice, requires clarification, because his use presently is arbitrary and mainly depends on position of authors. Personality disorders The analysis of legal norms shows that the term “mental health relevant to consent” encompasses a painful (pathological) and painless (without pathological disorders) conditions of mind that affect criminal responsibility, punishment and other measures of criminal-legal nature. - chronic/serious mental illness; - temporary mental disorder; - dementia; - another sickly state of mental health during his public dangerous act; - mental disorder, not excluding sanity; - mental disorder occurred after committing the crime; - mental disorder, not eliminating responsibility, mark next to the not sickly state of mental. Attention should be the certain states mental that is unconnected with amental disorder: - the backlog in the mental development of a minor who has not attained the age of criminal responsibility; - a state of intoxication caused by alcohol, drugs or other intoxicating substances; - the mental condition of mother-killer of child; - states arising up in the conditions of mentally

injuring situation; - the affective state in the Commission of aggressiveviolent crimes, provoked immoral or wrongful conduct of the victim. In the context of our research, next classification of groups of mental conditions acquires actuality: - mental health relevant to consent that plug in itself: heavy disorders of mental, consoling with the time of committing a socially dangerous act; - disorder occurred after committing the crime in sane persons; - disorder representing a mental anomaly, which does not exclude sanity; -mental health relevant to consent in the form of affects, emotional stress; - mental health relevant to consent that can be considered as personality traits, or similar mental abnormalities. By the nature of the legal consequences of a legally mental health relevant to consent correlate with the time of the act, they divided into three groups. The first group formed by the conditions to that, a legislator binds the exceptions of criminal responsibility or avoidance of awarding punishment or abolition of serving of punishment. Such conditions include the state of chronic mental disorder, temporary mental disorder, dementia or other painful disorders of the mind; a mental disorder that occurs after the crime; the backlog in mental development not associated with a mental disorder. The second group is formed by the conditions, not impeding the attraction of persons to criminal liability, the purpose of and serving sentence. Such conditions can be attributed to mental disorder, not excluding sanity; the state of alcoholic, narcotic or toxicological intoxication; mental condition of a mother to a child killer and in terms of the traumatic situation or in a condition of mental disorder; the emotions provoked by unlawful or immoral behavior of the victim. The third group can be included the mental conditions of the perpetrator, mitigating his punishment. Among the mental conditions that soften the punishment should include accentuated condition of mind, which in some cases reduce intellectual and volitional capabilities of the individual; a condition of intoxication, which encourage the participation of the person in the commission of a crime group; the low level of psychical development must be taken into account, at awarding punishment minor; state of the sharp psychical experiencing provoked by unlawful or immoral behavior of victim, and also commission of crime on reason of compassion that from the psychological point of view is none another than “emotional experience”. 17


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Forensic contexts involving assessment of personality disorders The mental conditions included in the second group may be differentiated by the nature of measures criminally legal influence. This group consists of: a) mental conditions that give an opportunity to the court at own discretion to appoint force measures of medical character together with punishment; b) the states are psyches that cause the necessity of the obligatory setting of force measures of medical character in connection with alcoholism or drug addiction. Thus, mental health relevant to consent are the separate states of psyche, correlated with time of committing socially dangerous acts(in the case of insanity and a minor lag in mental development)or during the commission of criminal acts (in the case of sanity and diminished responsibility, intoxication or heat of passion). Such states are determined, as a rule, retrospectively, after the act. Are they related to time of committing socially dangerous or criminal acts at the onset of a mental disorder after committing the crime. Mental health relevant to consent are determined prospectively, as the characteristics of the mental conditions of the investigation, trial, or punishment. A number mental health relevant to consent of the legislation relates not only with the time of the act or a legally relevant period, but also with the situation of the offence, inducing the appropriate state of mind: state of affect arising up as a result of provocative behavior of victim, and the impact of prolonged traumatic situation or state arising up for the mother of new-born child in the conditions of independent of her duration. It means that self on itself the state of affect, emotional excitation or tensions arising up without provocations from the side of victim and without connection with a prolonged traumatic situation is not legally relevant, as objective signs giving legal meaningfulness the psychical experiencing of subject of crime are absent. Mental health relevant to consent of psyche shows up in law consequences that a legislation binds to the features of mental conditions, characterizing the subjective side of crimes. As these legal consequences the law provides for a mismatch of mental ill persons in a state of deep mental disorder; absence of responsibility at minor with the expressed lag in psychical development; release from punishment of persons at that after the commission of crime mental disorder and deprived their capacities for consciouslyvolitional behavior; the assignment of compulsory medical measures; mandatory or optional mitigation of punishment. In the criminal statute, mental health relevant to consent embodied in the formula: - insanity; - limited sanity; - the so-called age of insanity; - no sanction of the mental ill, providing for criminal liability of persons who committed a crime in a state of intoxication; - in concrete crimes, the specific of that requires the account of mental conditions of subject during the commission of crime and list of circumstances, commuting sentence. 18

In fact, mental health relevant to consent of persons, committing crime and publicly dangerous acts, there are mental health relevant to consent, in a criminal law come forward as circumstances, eliminating criminal responsibility, and possibility of setting or serving of punishment, extenuating or reducing the punishment of persons, committing crime. Legally relevant mental conditions at the dominant role of philosophical category the “state” can be examined from dialectical positions. This category serves for denotation to totality of such properties and phenomena that have quality and quantitative (extensive) character. A. F. Sorokin complements description of category specifying the “state” on the spatiotemporal cut of his life and presence of system connections. He writes, “Category the state characterizes totality of substantial properties of the subject taken in the certain system of connections and relations, and some spatiotemporal cut of the life”. In criminal law, the mental state in the form of mental disorder traditionally characterized by two criteria: - biological (medical); - legal (psychological). The first criterion determines the quality of the biological organization of the mental - a chronic mental disorder, temporary mental disorder, dementia or other painful conditions of mind, a mental disorder. The second criterion specifies on the degree of intellectually-volitional disorder of mental the person during, the act is inability to “realize actual character and public danger of the actions (inaction) and inability to follow to a full degree, realize actual character and public danger of the actions (inaction) or manage them». Legislation gives determination of mental conditions analogical character minor with the expressed lag in psychical development, which eliminates criminal responsibility. Thus one criterion characterizes quality of mental condition is “lag in psychical development, unconnected with a mental disorder”, other - his quantitative measure is inability “to a full degree to realize actual character and public danger of the actions (inaction) or manage them”. On the spatiotemporal cut of life mental health relevant to consent, expressions specify “the time of commission of socially dangerous acts”, “during the commission of crime”, “after the commission of crime”, “in the context of the mental traumatic situation” and other chronometric indices of the corresponding states. Qualitative and quantitative criteria are essentially the universal characteristics of all mental conditions, having legal value, because these criteria allow determining the nature of the mental condition and degree of its influence on consciously willed behavior of the perpetrator of the offence provided by the criminal law. A quantitative criterion characterizing the degree of influence of the mental condition of consciously willed behavior provides insight into the intellectual and volitional capabilities of the subject at the time of committing socially dangerous acts (crimes), and after committing the crime in cases of mental illness, sane person. In the criminal statute of different countries, distinguish mainly two types of quantitative criteria,


American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

characterizing intellectual and volitional possibilities of persons subject to and not subject to criminal responsibility: 1. a quantitative criterion indicates the inability of a person to consciously willed behavior; 2. quantitative criterion indicative on a limit capacity of person for consciously volitional behavior. Analysis of the technical legal means used to describe the mental health relevant to consent, shows two features: - first, the legislator uses a quantitative criterion is mainly to determine the depth of mental disorder and only in one case - to indicate the degree of intellectual and volitional failure, associated with a mental disorder; - the second is to formulate a quantitative criterion of mental health relevant to consent, the legislator seeks to use the standard in its content, intellectual and volitional traits. Use reasonable technical and legal methods to describe heterogeneous mental conditions however, generates the row of substantial defects: - first, the most common quantitative criteria, characterizing the inability or limited ability of persons to comprehend the nature and social danger of his actions (inaction) of the ability to follow them are the laws strictly without regard for the legal consequences; - the second, these criteria do not fully reflect the legal nature of legal categories, that corresponding mental health relevant to consent are the basis of. Conclusion Thus, the need to address (crime) mental health relevant to consent within a single concept is dictated by the fact that modern criminal law of Ukraine in accordance with the principles of justice and humanism encompasses a variety of mental conditions, including previously unknown domestic criminal legislation that affect the degree of conscious volitional control at the time of committing socially dangerous and criminal acts, traditionally perceived as linked to individual mental phenomena. The leading conceptual and methodological basis of the research can be genetic-modeling method of academician S. D. Maksymenko about the correlation of biological and social determinants in the system of internal mental experiences of the person and its legal status in system of legal relations. An isolated approach to mental health relevant to consent reduces the level of interpreting legal norms that characterize the mental condition of persons who committed acts stipulated by the criminal code, and ultimately hinders the improvement of norms of criminal legislation, based on the implementation of the main principles of criminal law. In our work, study legally relevant mental conditions is not limited to the problem of estimating the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the indicated conditions and corresponding criteria. In research from new methodological positions, the ability to crimes of psychical anomalies, accentuations and other conditions of the mental. Special attention paid to legal categories that mediate mental conditions, precluding the possibility of the criminal liability and of the condition affecting criminal responsibility and subsequent punishment.

References: 1. Долгова, С.В. (2012) Особенности медицинского критерия ограниченной вменяемости [Dolgova, S.V. Features of the medical criterion of diminished responsibility]. Вестник БФУ им. И.Канта, 9, 8590. 2. Фахрутдинова, Л.Р. (2001). Пространственновременные и энергетические основания взаимоотношений психических процессов, переживаний и психических состояний [Fahrutdinova, L.R. Spatio-temporal and energy base of the relationship of mental processes, emotions and mental states]. Казань. 3. Ivanov, N. G. (2009). Criminal law of Russia. General and Special parts: Textbook for universities. M: Examination. 4. Козловский, Е.Г. (2008). Концептуализация понятия «уголовно-релевантные психические состояния» [Kozlovskiy, E.G. Conceptualization of the concept of "criminal relevant mental states"]. Вестник ЮЮГУ. Серия: Право. 28 (128), 55-60. 5. Kudryavtsev, I. A. (1999). A comprehensive forensic psychological and psychiatric examination. M: MGU. 6. Максименко, С.Д. (2013). Психологія учіння людини: генетико-моделюючий підхід [Maksymenko, S.D. Psychology of human learning, genetic-modeling approach]. Київ: Слово. 7. Mikheyev, R. I. (1992). Insane. Socio-legal review. Vladivostok. 8. Mikheyev, R. I. (2000). Compulsory medical measures in the criminal law - social and legal, medical and rehabilitation security measures". Vladivostok. 9. Минковский, Г.М. (1998). Криминология [Minovskii, H.M. Criminology]. M: BEK. 10. Прохоров, А.О. (2002). Семантические пространства психических состояний [Prohorov, A. O. Semantic spaces of mental conditions]. Дубна: Феникс. 11. Прохоров, А.О., Фахрутдинова, Л.Р. (2007). Переживания и отношения в структуре смысловой детерминации психических состояний [Prohorov, A.O., Fahrutdinova, L.R. The experiences and relationships in the structure of the sense of determination of mental states]. Ученые записки Казанского университета. Серия: Гуманитарные науки, 1, 144-156. 12. Прохоров, А.О., Фахрутдинова, Л.Р. (2008). О связи переживаний и психических состояний [Prohorov, A.O., Fahrutdinova, L.R. About connection of experiences and mentally states]. Ученые записки Казанского университета. Серия: Гуманитарные науки, 3, 50-55. 13. Прохоров, А.О., Фахрутдинова, Л.Р. (2009). Рефлексивный и бытийный слои психического состояния [Prohorov, A.O., Fahrutdinova, L.R. The reflexive and existential layers of mental state]. Ученые записки Казанского университета. Серия: Гуманитарные науки,5-1, 227-239. 14. Токарчук, Р.Е. (2006). Некоторые аспекты психического переживания угроз потерпевшим и его значение для квалификации преступлений [Tokarchuk, R. E. Some aspects of the mental experiences of threats to victims and its importance for the qualification of crimes]. Психопедагогика в правоохранительных органах, 3, 92-94. 19


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UDC 304.3. 159.922.4:316.752

CHILDFREE – THE PHENOMENON OF MODERN SOCIETY Borko Yelyzaveta

Lantukh A.P.

Student National University of Pharmacy

PhD, associate professor National University of Pharmacy

The article provides an overview of the phenomenon as the childfree – the absence of children and a conscious refusal to ever have them. This is a new ideology of modern society, the principles of which are supported by a growing number of people around the world. Key words: childfree, woman, marriage, family, children. У статті розглядається проблема чайлдфрі – відсутність дітей і свідоме небажання коли-небудь їх мати. Акцентується увага на тому, що це нова ідеологія сучасного суспільства, принципи якого підтримує все більше кількість людей усього світу. З’ясовується також причина цього явища у сучасному соціумі. Ключові слова: чайлдфрі, жінки, шлюб, сім’я, діти. Formulation of the problem. Childfree (eng. ‘childfree’ – free from children, childless; childless by choice, voluntary childless) – the absence of children and a conscious refusal to ever have them. This is a new ideology of modern society, the principles of which are supported by a growing number of people around the world. Practice of childfree as of an established phenomenon has started only in 70-ies of XX century, from what we can conclude that this movement, the study of which has begun recently, is new for society (Bycharova, 2013; Selyvyrova, 2010). An increasing number of scientists are trying to explain the background and causes for such an event, ambiguous for many, that brought a new idea for the reconstruction of established customs and socio-cultural foundations of society. A range of problems of childfree is actualized by the fact that a significant number of couples in developed countries consider themselves to be followers of this ideology, which in the future may have an impact even on the state level in the form of a «danger» of reduction of the economically active population and lead to a demographic crisis. It is also worth noting that people who choose the childfree ideology begin to define the latter as their credo. 20

The emergence of childfree is related to the active promotion of feminism ideas in the American society. Initially, the struggle for the freedom of women’s rights arose during the War of Independence in 1775-1785 in North America. Women started to get involved in political discussions and to express their political thoughts, but most men did not give them a role different from the traditional one: a creator of family hearth and a person upbringing the children. Most of the women disagreed with that because at that time a married American woman could not manage her wages, could not own private property and also could not decide whether she wants to have children. At the beginning of the XIX century, many women saw marriage as an instrument of oppression due to lack of the right to choose and control their future. Already at that time, women were actively giving lectures, where they tried to assure general public that they can make decisions for themselves on whether they want to have children, get married, and proved that they can be economically independent from men. But these realities have been achieved in only XX century, which made it possible for women to receive education and be less dependent on social norms and stereotypes. Analysis of recent research and publications. In 60-70-ies of XX century feminist movement begins to shock the public with extravagant slogans and unusual ideas. Thus, two young feminists Shirley Radl and Ellen Peck put forward an idea that procreation is an optional part of a woman’s life, as she has the right to make a choice regarding a child. (Rachitskaya, Petrovskaya, 2014). Their ideas found many followers and there was a national organization “No kidding” created for “non-parents of USA”, which brought together childfree in America. Today, this organization does not exist, but over the years dozens of other organizations around the world were created. The statements made by Peck and Shirley Radl were unexpectedly radical and sensational for the time and soon Ellen Peck published a book about the new ideology and childfree movement (Ellen Peck Paperback, 1976). In 70-80-ies the international communities have adopted documents (Resolution


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2263 (XXII) of the UN General Assembly from November 7, 1967), which called for the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women. With that woman became a full-fledged subject in public life the same as a man. It was also stressed that childbirth was a woman’s own will, and not her duty. Today, there is a tendency to increase childfree followers. If in 1982 in America there were a little less than 2.5% of those, then in 2009 their number reached 15%. Now, the influence of this ideology can be seen not only in America. For example, in Russia childfree movement appeared in 2004. The first virtual community counted 500 people (http:// ru. Wikipedia. org/wiki/ Chayldfry). It’s difficult to speak for Ukraine, though, because there is no statistics on this issue. And now let’s turn to statistics. Below you’ll find the list of European countries with population growth rate (births minus deaths) on 2010 to 1000 people (Tymchenko, 2015 p.20) Belgium (-0.4) Sweden (-0.06) Germany (-2.79) Italy (-2.82) What is the reason for such a rapid change in the demographic situation: the natural population decrease or increase of childfree ideology followers? According to statistics, in a modern society the percent of childfree in the United States among young Americans is 25% and this figure continues to grow. In Europe, for example, in Berlin, Germany, childfree ideology is being followed by half the population. Even among the most influential European politicians there are women who implement their life energy and their social potential in public life, not in the child’s upbringing. For example, German Chancellor Angela Merkel, the President of Lithuania Dalia Grybauskaitė and others (https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki Hrybauskayte Dalya; https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki Merkel’ Anhela). Most people who are not familiar with this ideology call childfree people prone to egocentrism, pointing to the absence of desire to share and change their lives for the sake of a child. The childfree themselves can name specific reasons for their refusal to have children. It is the desire to keep free time and personal space; further career growth, to which a child would be a hindrance; realization of the fact that the consequences of such a decisive step as having a baby in future will be irreversible; the ability to maintain a certain level of control over life; unnecessary loss of time, energy, privacy and freedom. And also it’s just a flat refusal to raise a child. Society as an organizer is not able to resolve global problems: there is no guarantee that the person will live a good life. Also, people do not want to sacrifice personal space, intimacy with a partner, spontaneity in action; they do not want to

change something in their lives ‘in general’. According to statistics, childfree supporters are young people with a good education and a career, usually residents of large cities, they are not religious, they want to do more with their life and are not willing to spend time on children (Bycharova, 2013). There are several types of childfree representatives, depending on how they came to this ideology. Firstly, there are ‘childless’ - people of this category cannot have children for various physiological reasons. Their turning to the ideology can be called a psychological protective reaction from the established and long-standing dogmas of the society. In most cases, they can be misunderstood and can hear criticism in their address from the ‘moral’ people. For these people it is easier to admit that they deliberately refuse to have children than to publically explain the reasons for such a refusal. Secondly, this is ‘childhate’ - the majority of people in this category are fans of ‘childfree’. They show hatred and even aggression towards parents and their children. Psychologists call different reasons for such a negative attitude and open criticism. The main reason may be a protest in society, when a person, following a ‘spring approach’ tries to deny the conventional opinion and established tenets. In most cases it occurs in developed countries, where the level of economy, education and freedom of expression allows a person to have an opinion and to be independent of the others. Such open hostility can be dictated by a childhood psychological trauma or friends` negative experience, these factors can lead to the fact that a person simply cannot imagine himself as a parent, and doesn`t try to understand the perspectives and advantages of the future together with a child. But society cannot understand these people. With this social networks are the constant field for debates and we can see thousands of messages in which people try to prove their point and describe the advantages of living with no procreation on forums. Most find it wrong and call women feminists for refusing to have children. Thirdly, there are ‘neutral childfree’. These are the people who have no problems with reproductive function, but they still refuse having a child, while not showing any aggression or negative emotions towards other children. They can be loving brothers and sisters, aunts and uncles, godparents, teachers in schools, but as for their own children, they hold a definitive childfree position. When interviewing one of the representatives of neutral childfree, answering the question about the reason for refusing to have children, he said: “Children do not irritate me and I am ok with a notion of motherhood, but I think I will never have my own children, because I will not be able 21


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provide all the necessary things for them, and I will constantly work to compensate for this deficiency, and then what is the point of having a child who can`t see his parent at home. I think it’s not right.” Eleanor Mills, a well-known London journalist, verbalized thoughts of her generation on the pages of Spectator Magazine: “The fact is that girls like me — healthy, hearty, middle-class women all in their 20s — are just not breeding.” (Eleanor Mills, 2000). And why not? Because, Mills continues, “My generation’s twin preoccupations are, unfortunately, looks and money.” She further cites one of her contemporaries: “If I had a child - says Jane, an employee of an advertising agency, - I would not be able to do even half of what I do and take for granted. Every Saturday at 10:30 a.m. still slugging in bed, my husband and I look at each other and simultaneously say: “Thank God we don`t have to get up at five in the morning to feed a baby.” It`s good being just the two of us; who knows how would our relationship change if we added the third one?”. Governments of developed countries tried to stop the process of birth control in Third World countries in the late twentieth century. These actions have resulted in more counterproductive consequences, namely in lowering of the birth rate in the ‘affluent society’ countries and a ‘baby boom’ throughout the Third World. Let`s consider this dilemma. When the American poor have reached the level of the middle class and the middle class joined the rich, the rich became super-rich, each of them took the style of the society in which he found himself. Everyone started to reduce families, everyone suddenly had fewer children. Hence the controversy that the richer a country is, the fewer children there are, and the more likely its people will start to die. Societies created with the aim to provide its members with a maximum pleasure, freedom and happiness, at the same time prepare funerals for these people (Patryk Dzh. B’yukenen, 2003 p.55). The development of modern techniques and technologies also contributes to actively promoting the childfree ideology to masses. With the development of computer technology and the creation of social networks, more and more young people prefer this style of communication and pastime instead of the previously conventional ‘live’ communication. There is no direct impact on the increase of childfree representatives, but it indirectly creates the preconditions for the gradual spread and expansion of territory for this ideology. Over time, young people lose the ability to communicate and get along with their peers, that in future reduces their chance to create a complete family and with age a child is not regarded as something 22

of paramount importance, which is necessary in the process of creation of marriage and family. At the same time people find more interesting activities and hobbies, because if we consider the past, the majority of large families were representatives either of lower class or of families far from the bustling city life. After all, when into something it`s easy to reorganize one`s life to a convenient rhythm, in which there is no such ‘burden’ as a child. Residents of modern large cities have to adapt to the fast pace of life. Workload, poor environment, lack of funds, constant search of self - this is what modern person lives by. And despite the large variety of agencies that provide babysitting services, women are in no hurry to part with their work for the sake of a child, because they can make sure they have a decent life in the old age, and continuation of their species does not matter. Today, China ranks first in the world by population. Now China is home to over 1.3 billion people. However, over the last decade, the number of inhabitants of China decreased significantly. Chinese authorities believe that the reason for this is one-child policy, which the state established in 80-ies of the last century, seriously dreading that a huge number of people would overload the land, water and energy resources of the country. The main problem, which the authorities want to address by cancelling one-child policy, remains active aging of China population. According to UN projections, by 2050 more than a quarter of China’s citizens will be over 65 years old, and the younger generation will have a huge burden of taking care of the elderly. It is known that for 1.3 billion Chinese the leading universities of the country have only about thirty thousand student and graduate positions. Applicants compete very hard, and at least one suicide a year happens on campus. It is very expensive to educate a child in China. Now the Chinese women, the same as European ones, strive for self-sufficiency. They get married after thirty and purposefully want to have only one child. Some healthy girls are not going to have children. This trend is now very popular in China (Rambler online magazine, article from 07.2013). As for childfree ideology in Ukraine, we have noted that there is no information about this phenomenon. We interviewed 60 respondents in the age group from 18 to 45: the first age group - 18-25; second age group - 25-35; third age group - 35-45. The following questions were asked: 1. Do you support the childfree ideology? ‘Yes/No’ 2. If ‘Yes’, explain the reasons for which you decided to choose this practice.


American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

Only 5% of respondents in the first age group consider themselves to be childfree. They gave a positive response. When asked about the argumentation, in all cases the answer was not being ready to have a child, and also these people positioned themselves as not yet fully formed personalities, who needed time for further personal development. In the second age group also 5% of the respondents confirmed that they are childfree. However, they argued that they are not ready for a child because of a fear of losing a moneymaking position, and that with the appearance of a child the relationship between the partners can rapidly deteriorate. In the third age group there was no positive responses. From the interview it can be concluded that the practice of childfree like an erosion is slowly spreading among Ukrainians, and from a passive state, in the form of forum discussion, may soon go to the active one, such as the adoption of the ideology for life. To understand the reason for the spread of this ideology, psychologists advise to look at the problem from the point of view of childfree representatives, in terms of their motivation. For example, you can not have a child because it is assumed that the child is a mandatory and integral part of your life, you do not have to prove and explain anything, because it’s your life. You will be able to achieve career growth and visit many countries, because your time is just yours. After all, every person is different and he can decide for himself. We can only state the results of such a rapid spread of childfree today. Childfree is reaching a political level, because its representatives create parties and put forward their demands at the state level. This results in most countries already having restaurants, museums and cafes where children are forbidden. And this contingent has made its point already: on the average more than 40% of couples in Europe do not have children. In most countries, the spread of the ideology is constrained by religion, because human`s main purpose in its teachings is a continuation of its kind. Therefore, in countries where religion is a state policy, and it is particularly in the Asian region – there is a steady population growth. We have the right to decide for ourselves on what is this ideology for each of us. In our opinion, on the one hand, it can lead humanity into a dead end, because due to the voluntary refusal to have children, not just nations may disappear, but also whole population, including human kind. But childfree existed at all times, but only recently people gave them a name, and are beginning to pay more attention to this issue. Now it is timely and new. And we will

know very soon what it will be for the mankind in the future - the new alternative or a step into the abyss. On the other hand, childfree is not propaganda for procreation refusal. This is a life position. Each of us is free to do as he pleases in life, because everyone has the rights and duties prescribed by society. There is no country having among the duties a duty to leave an offspring behind. But we do have the right for free expression of our thoughts and will. It is obvious that a childless family shakes the foundation of society. The society takes up arms against a human. Interests of an individual are valued less than the public interest. But what is surprising is that the world is becoming more and more popular over the problem of having children: in addition to a ‘baby boom’, number of childfree followers is growing. In our view, this could be a positive trend - there is no imbalance in terms of demographics. People getting rid of stereotypes become happier. But the most important thing is wish fulfillment, a sense of comfort, regardless of the choice. After all the choice itself is without doubt a manifestation of human freedom. And freedom is a priceless thing, possessed by human. References: 1. Bycharova M.M. Fenomen «chayldfry» y problema «druhoho»/ M.M. Bycharova// Vestnyk Astrakhanskyy hosudarstvennoho unyversyteta. – 2013. – 135 p.; (in Russian) Selyvyrova E. Chayldfry: bez panyky/ E. Selyvyrova// Sotsyolohycheskyy vz·hlyad, 2010. – 121 p. (in Russian) 2. Rachitskaya M.K., Petrovskaya O.A. Motion childfree among young people. – Krasnodar, 2014/ 3. Ellen Peck Paperback. The baby trap. – July, 1976. 4. Resolution 2263 (XXII) of the UN General Assembly from November 7, 1967 5. Access mode: http:// ru. Wikipedia.org/wiki/ Chayldfry. 6. Tymchenko V. Modernyy natsionalizm/ V.Tymchenko: Hlobal’ni katastrofy ta yak yim zaradyty. – K., 2015. - 616 p. (In Ukrainian) 7. Access mode: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki Hrybauskayte Dalya; https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki Merkel’ Anhela 8. Bycharova M.M. Fenomen «chayldfry» y problema «druhoho»/ M.M. Bycharova// Vestnyk Astrakhanskyy hosudarstvennoho unyversyteta. – 2013. - 135 p.; (in Russian) 9. Eleanor Mills. Too Busy to Have a Baby. – Spectator. - September 16, 2000. 10. Patryk Dzh. B’yukenen. Smert’ Zapada/ Patryk Dzh. B’yukenen. - Sankt-Peterburh, 2003. – 433 p. (in Russian) 11. Rambler online magazine, article from 07.2013 23


American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

UDC 159.9. 316.6 (470-25+470.6) PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS OF ACCULTURATION IN THE AGE OF YOUTH I. Danilyuk,

A. Kurapov,

Doctor of Psychology, Professor, National Taras Shevchenko University of Kyiv, Dean of Psychology Faculty

PhD student of Psychology Department, National Taras Shevchenko University of Kyiv

This article describes dependencies and connections of acculturation strategies with psychological features of exchange students. There are 4 main acculturation strategies: assimilation, separation, marginalization and integration. The article also shows possible ways and predictions of acculturation strategies’ selection, basing on the measured psychological characteristics. These characteristics include: level of anxiety and depression, level of neurotism and psychotism, extroversion and introversion. Results of a research allow predicting possible outcomes of intercultural interaction, giving a possibility to create a training program that will increase their adaptation and make the study process smoother and more effective. Key words: acculturation, youth age, acculturation strategies, acculturative stress, adaptation, cross-cultural psychology. У статті розкрито залежності та взаємозв’язки вибору стратегій акультурації студентів, що навчаються за кордоном, окреслено можливі варіанти та прогнози вибору стратегій, залежно від виміряних психологічних характеристик. До виміряних характеристик відносяться рівні тривоги та депресії, вираженість нейротизму та психотизму, екстравертованістьінтравертованість, темперамент. Ключові слова: акультурація, юнацький вік, стратегії акультурації, акультураційний стрес, адаптація, крос-культурна психологія. Introduction In the fifties of the twentieth century, international education was viewed as part of the post-war recovery and as part of the diplomatic interests of major donors, ie countries that provided places in universities and scholarships to 24

students from abroad. The criteria in evaluation of international education reflect these goals. Thus, the focus of the majority of studies were focused on attitudes that have emerged in international students during their stay abroad, to the local population of Western ideas and life in general. This led to a lot of theoretical research without practical use. Nevertheless, modern scholars, including J. Berry, F. Rudmin, R. Redfield, S. Kang, T. Stefanenko, N. Lebedyeva, individual entry into a new culture, accompanied by a change in values, role behavior, attitudes, consider as psychological acculturation. For over 17 years, student exchange program FLEX (Future Leaders Exchange Program) is active on the territory of the former Soviet Union. Every year approximately 200-300 Ukrainian school students are sent to study in the US schools. Unlike FLEX finalists, many students studying abroad do not undergo preliminary testing aimed at determining the presence of a particular student adaptive capacity, particularly of extraversion and emotional stability. The problem of acculturation is still not thoroughly researched, so this issue requires further investigation. Methodology For the first time, scientists have addressed the problem of so-called acculturation in the early 30th of the 20th century and it was associated with a sharp turn of the US ethnographers to studies of primitive nations to the detailed study of the present. The first works on problems of acculturation that were presented by researchers, tried to illustrate changes of various cultures, mainly Indian, influenced by European culture, and identify some patterns of cultural change. Number of field studies grew so that soon there was an urgent need for the compilation and evaluation of the already ongoing work,


American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

specifically in terms of the objectives’ unification, development of programs and methods for the study of acculturation. The implementation of this set took place at Columbia University Council for Research in Social Sciences, which since 1930 subsidized the research of acculturation. In order to work in the indicated area, special committee was created. It included prominent US scientists: R. Redfield, R.  Linton and M. Herskovits, who developed the “Memorandum on the study of acculturation.” It contained the following definition of acculturation: “Acculturation comprehends those phenomena which result when groups of individuals having different cultures come into continuous first-hand contact, with subsequent changes in the original cultural patterns of either or both groups” (Stocking, 2002, p. 258) The memorandum discussed the following issues: types of contacts between groups in which acculturation is possible; factors that affect what is perceived as cultural traits and why a certain group perceives them; features of the transformation of cultural traits in the selection process; the role of an individual in the selection and transformation of cultural traits. The essence of the process of acculturation is reduced to selective assimilation of each of these groups of material and spiritual values ​​and cultural values ​​of another group, so that the culture of both groups undergoes certain changes. As practice shows, the dominant culture changes less. The extent of these changes depends on several factors: psychological, demographic, geographical, historical, economic, social, ideological, etc., including the special role of psychological factors. To determine individual preferences regarding acculturation, according J. Berry, identification process with its own and basic culture needs to be described. Thus, two measurement model includes four variants of ethnic identity in which an individual with varying degrees of intensity identifies with one, two or even several ethnic communities (see. Table. 1). TABLE 1 J. Berry’s Scheme Regarding Possible Options of Identification and Acculturation strategies: Identification with own culture

Identification with basic culture strong

strong

integration

weak

assimilation

weak separation segregation marginalization

Mono-ethnic identity with another ethnic group or change of ethnic (cultural) identity becomes possible in cases where a multi-ethnic society «alien» group is regarded as one that has a higher economic, social, etc. status. Mono-ethnic identity with another ethnic group leads to complete assimilation that is understood as a full acceptance of traditions, values, norms and language of alien groups, which might lead to the full merge with the dominant group. According to the numerous studies, migrants arriving for permanent residence are more likely to assimilate than those that are currently resident in a particular country. In turn, people who emigrate in order to get education, improve economic situation get assimilated quite easily, whereas refugees who are supposedly «pushed» by political cataclysms, psychologically resist termination of relations with the motherland and become assimilated much longer and with difficulty. Earlier studies indicated that the best option for cultural adaptation is assimilation with the dominant culture. Now it is believed that biculturalism, achieved in the integration process, is more real and more successful for ethnic minorities (Lebedeva & Tatarko, 2001). Strong identification with multiple interacting groups leads to the formation of multi-ethnic identity. People who have this identity, have features of both groups (both own and «alien»), aware of their similarities. This strategy is called integration, it is characterized by identifying both the old and the new cultures and causes a «mosaic» society, where each element retains its unique mosaics, and all interactions create new integrity. Multiple or multicultural identity is most beneficial for humans, it allows it to use the experience of one group to adapt to another, acquire benefits of another culture without compromising their own values. Such people are called intermediaries or bridges between cultures. Awareness and acceptance of the belonging to two ethnic communities positively affects personal growth of people from ethnic marriages. However, weak, not clearly expressed ethnic identity with another ethnic groups creates marginalized ethnic identity. If the person does not identify with any ethnic majority in culture or the culture of ethnic minorities, the result is an ethno-cultural marginalization. This may occur due to the lack of ability (or interest) to support cultural identity (often through forced or imposed cultural losses) and the lack of desire to 25


American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

separation marginalization assimilation dysadaptation anxiety depression psychotism neurotism

Sig.

,086

-,168 -,258**

,072

,090

,074

1

-,165

Pearson Correlation

,156

Sig.

,072

Pearson Correlation

,148

-,165

Sig.

,090

,058

Pearson Correlation

-,156

Sig.

anxiety

,013

,994

,000

-,088

-,091

-,198

-,177

*

-,151

-,117

,058

,000

,313

,296

1

,131

-,344

,290

,022

,042

,083

,179

**

,150

,050

,168

-,041

,000

,001

,085

,566

,054

,636

1

,088

,135

,195

*

,131

,019

,173*

,315

,121

,025

,132

,826

,047

1

,295**

,211*

,100

,284**

-,022

,001

,015

,250

,001

,798

1

,185

,181

Pearson Correlation

,086

-,088

,335**

,088

Sig.

,324

,313

,000

,315

Pearson Correlation

-,168

-,091

Sig.

,054

,290

,335

**

*

,132 ,132

**

,135

,296

,001

,121

,001

-,198

*

,150

,195

,211

*

,295

**

*

,185

,003

,022

,085

,025

,015

,033

Pearson Correlation

-,214

-,177

*

,050

,131

,100

,181

Sig.

,013

,042

,566

,132

,250

037

Pearson Correlation

,001

-,151

,168

,019

,284

**

*

,033 *

Sig.

,399

*

**

1

*

,037 ,796

**

,000 ,796

**

1

,000 ,253

**

,293

**

**

,399

,197*

,000

,023

**

,253

,654**

,003

,000

**

,293

,681**

,001

,000

1

-,002

Sig.

,994

,083

,054

,826

,001

,000

,003

,001

Pearson Correlation

-,332**

-,117

-,041

,173*

-,022

,197*

,654**

,681**

-,002

Sig.

,000

,179

,636

,047

,798

,023

,000

,000

,983

establish relations with the surrounding society. This ethnic integrity (ethnic identity) allows to analyze how this dysfunctional strategy may be helpful in the reduction culture shock and maintain positive identity. It is assumed that non-dominant groups and their members are free to choose the strategy of acculturation, but this is not always the case. Dominant group limits the choice or makes certain forms of acculturation, while using other terms. For example, people may sometimes choose separation from the object or interruption of relationship. The concept of separation means that ethnic minority culture voluntarily denies the majority and preserves its ethnic characteristics. However, if this strategy is chosen, it is often forced to minority by the dominating majority and it will be called segregation. The same applies to the strategy of assimilation, when representatives of minorities (migrants) choose it voluntarily and it is called «melting pot», but if their choice is forced, it is more like a «press» (Lebedeva & Tatarko, 2001). 26

,003

,000

*

-,332**

,054

,074

-,258

,001

,324

,131

Pearson Correlation

-,214*

**

**

**

-,344

neurotism

-,156

psychotism

,148

depression

,156

marginalization

dysadaptation

1

assimilation

integration

Pearson Correlation

separation

extraversion

integration

extraversion

TABLE 2 The Results of the Correlation Analysis

,983 1

Marginalization is rarely the result of the free choice of individuals since they become increasingly marginalized as a result of attempts of the forced assimilation combined with violent rejection (segregation). Only integration can be freely chosen and successful strategy of acculturation in ethnic minority groups, when the basic settings of the dominant group on cultural differences are openness and acceptance. To achieve integration, mutual adaptation is required and it includes the rights of both groups in order to live as culturally diverse nations. Despite the selection of specific strategies of acculturation, their relationship with psychological characteristics for workers and exchange students is not investigated. There are very few studies that present at least a little and describe the phenomenon of acculturation and its relationship with psychological phenomena and processes. J. Berry (2005) defines several important factors that may impact the process of


American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

acculturation. Specifically, he focuses on the context and the process of acculturation in terms of the interaction between ethnic groups (usually dominant and non-dominant). Important factors that may have a significant impact are the following: duration of stay in different cultural environment, gender differences, age, educational level, acculturation attitudes, behavioral shifts, cultural identity and acculturative stress (Berry, 2005). The most significant out of the mentioned factors are acculturation attitudes, which depend on specific psychological features that are not clearly presented by other researchers. An interest is given to the research of psychological characteristics, specifically, the locus of control, introversion and extraversion, together with personal efficiency. Since current research was focused on exchange students, it is necessary to mention the factors that impact indicated age group since its representatives undergo certain psychological processes. As a result, important characteristics are the following: development of moral regulators, formation of self-esteem and behavioral flexibility (Sholohov, 1999). It means that factors that impact acculturation might differ and are the following:

general level of psychological adaptation, presence of communication skills and expected roles. Participants The sample consisted from the finalists of an academic exchange program FLEX, including those who have returned home (85 people) and those who at the time of the research were in the United States (48 people). Total sample size was 133 persons. Results The results, obtained in the research, allowed to identify the following features. Measured parameters are not age-dependent. Correlation analysis, the results of which are shown in Table 2, revealed the relationship of certain characteristics of the measured variables. Consequently, due to the presence of social dysadaptation, the person most likely will choose separation, as acculturation strategy. Social exclusion, in turn, is caused by high levels of conflict and emotional instabilityŃŽ Due to the presence of emotional instability, a person would rather choose assimilation as acculturation strategy. Integration as acculturation strategy is the inverse of the presence of anxiety and

FIGURE 1. Distribution of the results according to the Eysenck scale

27


American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

FIGURE 2. The model of acculturation strategy choice

depression, which suggests their impact on integration. Marginalization showed no significant links with the measured variables. Basing on the results of the study of influence of temperament on the selection of acculturation strategy, it can be stated that significant differences between the indexes were not found, however, it is possible to see connection in terms of tendencies, which means that they can be described. In particular, the phlegmatic and sanguine temperaments show low level of depression in comparison with choleric or melancholic temperament. Relatively, acculturation strategies identified certain phlegmatic commitment to the choice of marginalization and separation for the melancholic. Based on the features of these strategies and behavior of each type of temperament, these links are absolutely logical and appropriate. The results of the quantitative distribution of respondents are shown in Fig. 1. Using the regression analysis, it was possible to identify variables that influence the choice of acculturation strategy. Without going into the details of the study, it can be stated that only one significant impact was discovered: between exposure to social exclusion and anxiety, which leads to the choice of assimilation and separation as acculturation strategies. It means, the more social exclusion and the level of anxiety, 28

the more likely a person will choose assimilation and separation as acculturation strategies. Acculturative stress is defined as individual response to life events (rooted in intercultural contact) when they exceed the capabilities of individuals to cope with them. Often these reactions include depression (due to the loss of cultural experiences) and anxiety (due to uncertainty in how to live in a new society). Acculturative stress level is characterized by depression, anxiety and social exclusion. After analyzing the results, it can be stated that acculturative stress was experienced by quite a small number of respondents. Nevertheless, the presence acculturative stress promotes choice of assimilation as acculturation strategy. Graphic representation of dependencies of acculturation strategy choices with psychological characteristics is shown in Fig. 2. Discussion Modern scholars define psychological acculturation as an individual entry in a new culture, accompanied by a change in values, role behavior, social installations. J. Berry identifies the following strategies of acculturation: assimilation, integration, separation and marginalization. Important factors that may have a significant impact are the following: duration of stay in different cultural environment, gender differences,


American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

age, educational level, acculturation attitudes, behavioral shifts, cultural identity and acculturative stress. The most significant out of the mentioned factors are acculturation attitudes. Since current research was focused on exchange students, it is necessary to mention the factors that impact indicated age group since its representatives undergo certain psychological processes. As a result, important characteristics are the following: development of moral regulators, formation of self-esteem and behavioral flexibility. FLEX finalists tended to achieve integration strategy. The boys showed higher levels of extraversion and a tendency to refer to separation, in comparison with the girls. The presence of acculturative stress leads to assimilation, which accompanied by the high level of emotional instability and psychotism. Due to the presence of social exclusion, respondents tended to choose separation. Social exclusion is caused by high levels of conflict and emotional instability. Integration as acculturation strategy is inverse to the presence of anxiety and depression. Marginalization found no significant links with the measured variables. The choice of separation affects social exclusion and level of anxiety. Choice of assimilation is associated with high levels of anxiety and social exclusion. Indicated results allowed to create a model of choice which shows the acculturation strategy that might be chosen due to the presence of specific psychological characteristics. Nevertheless, it needs to be broadened or remodeled in order to include a bigger picture of personality. The number of student exchanges is increasing, so the problem of acculturation and its relationship with the psychological characteristics of students is very relevant. The results can be applied in selecting students that are planning to study abroad, predict possible choice of acculturation strategy that is based on existing psychological characteristics of students, put forward specific recommendations for the successful «entry» to the alien cultural environment and for the most efficient and productive stay in another foreign country. This can improve not only academic success but also social adaptation in general. The problem of acculturation, particularly in adolescence, is not fully investigated, and therefore requires further scientific research.

References: 1. Berry, J. W. (2005). Acculturation: Living successfully in two cultures. International journal of intercultural relations, 29(6), 697712. 2. Berry, J., Phinney, J., Sam, D., & Vedder, P. (2006). Immigrant Youth: Acculturation, Identity, and Adaptation. Applied Psychology, 55(3), 303-332. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ j.1464-0597.2006.00256.x 3. Chun, K. M., Balls Organista, P. E., & Marín, G. E. (2003). Acculturation: Advances in theory, measurement, and applied research. American Psychological Association. 4. Kang, S. M. (2006). Measurement of acculturation, scale formats, and language competence their implications for adjustment. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 37(6), 669-693. 5. Lebedeva, N. M., Tatarko, A. N. (2001) Metodi etnicheskoy I kross-kulturnoy psihologii. Visshaya shkola ekonomiki. 6. Rudmin, F. W. (2003). Critical history of the acculturation psychology of assimilation, separation, integration, and marginalization. Review of general psychology, 7(1), 3. 7. Schwartz, S., Unger, J., Zamboanga, B., & Szapocznik, J. (2010). Rethinking the concept of acculturation: Implications for theory and research. American Psychologist, 65(4), 237251. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0019330. 8. Sholohov I.A. (1999) Psihologicheskie problemi adaptacii uchashcheysa molodezhi za rubezhom. Razvitie lichnosti. 2(1), 72-85 9. Stocking, G. W. (Ed.). (2002). American Anthropology, 1921-1945: Papers from the American Anthropologist (Vol. 2). University of Nebraska Press.

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American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

PEDAGOGICAL CONDITIONS OF CREATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PERSONALITY BY MEANS OF ART

UDC 37.01

Alexandra Dubasenyuk Doctor of Pedagogic Sciences, Professor, Professor at the Department of Pedagogy, Zhytomyr Ivan Franko State University dubasenyuk@ukr.net

The article deals with creative development of the personality by means of art. The aesthetic education is seen as a complex creative process involving children and youth into the system of civilization aesthetic values. The art is understood as a means of communication and understanding and integration of the children in shared experiences and actions. The emphasis is made on the necessity of creation of pedagogical conditions for the development of creative potential in the children and young people, their involvement in different types of art activities, which expands the range of aesthetic cognition of the world, enabling to test human strength in various fields. The features of the innovative concepts in the field of art of the best educators and the artists are outlined. The major regularities of the education of creative personality are analyzed, namely the regularity of the individual systems of learning, the zone of proximal actions, the synergistic enhance of the results, the motivation of the activities, the relationships between creative self-realization of the personality and educational environment. These concepts create favorable conditions of artistic development and spiritual growth of in the children and young people. It is shown that the education of the pupils through art presupposes primarily the development of emotional and imaginative thinking, feeling and intuition development, heart and soul. Innovative activities of the renowned teachers, scientists, artists not only helped the other teachers to evaluate their creative powers, to feel their own intellectual potential, but gave the opportunity to predict the future growth of children from the level of representation to the level of creative thinking, involving heart and soul. This means that in the creative work of the children the feelings, knowledge and will harmoniously unite. Progressive concept of art education were not dogma, and became the means of teacher’s developing in the 30

field of scientific knowledge, the discoveries in the sphere of art and culture. Key words: creative potential, art, aesthetical education, all-civilization values, aesthetical values, teachers-enlighteners. У статті йдеться про творчий розвиток особистості засобами мистецтва. Естетичне виховання розглядається як складний творчий процес, що передбачає залучення дітей та молоді до системи загальноцивілізаційних естетичних художніх цінностей. Мистецтво постає засобом спілкування і взаєморозуміння, єднання дітей у спільних переживаннях і діях.  Наголошується про необхідність створення педагогічних умов для розвитку творчого потенціалу дітей та молоді, їх залучення до різноманітних видів художньої діяльності, що розширює діапазон естетичного пізнання світу, дає можливість випробовувати свої сили у різних сферах. Виявляються особливості новаторських концепцій у сфері мистецтва педагогів-майстрів, митців. Аналізуються закономірності виховання творчої особистості, а саме закономірності індивідуальності систем навчання, зони найближчої дії, синергетичного підсилення результатів, мотивації діяльності, взаємозв’язку творчої самореалізації особистості й освітнього середовища, що сприяють її художньому розвитку та духовному зростанню. Отже, виховання учнів засобами мистецтва передбачає насамперед розвиток емоційно-образного мислення, розвиток відчуття й інтуїції, душі і серця. Інноваційна діяльність відомих педагогів, учених-митців допомогла й іншим учителям оцінити свої творчі сили, відчути власний інтелектуальний потенціал, дала можливість передбачити перспективу зростання дітей від рівня уявлень до рівня художнього мислення, привертаючи до роботи душі і серця. А це означає, що в творчій роботі дітей гармонійно зливаються відчуття, знання і воля. Прогресивні концепції художньої


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освіти не стала догмою, а з’явилася засобом розвитку самого вчителя у сфері наукових знань, відкриттів у сфері мистецтва і культури. Ключові слова: творчий потенціал, мистецтво, естетичне виховання, загальноцивілізаційні цінності, естетичні цінності, педагоги-просвітителі. The deep and profound analysis of contemporary social and cultural situation in the world enables to conclude that the actuality of creative potential through art is due to the spread of the tendency of humanization of the educational process of personally oriented paradigm of education and upbringing. The creativity as a phenomenon emerges as an integral quality of the individual that is realized in the activities and determines the man’s success. This approach is aimed at fostering the spiritual and moral personality. In modern national educational system is increasingly affirmed the role of art in spiritual and moral development of an individual. The improvement of education’s content as one of the main sources of potential cultural society draws constant attention to research and teaching staff at all levels. Some years ago O. P Rudnytska noted that the transfer of social and cultural experience and humanistic values of the mankind can not be effective if personal and meaningful realm of a man are not activated. The main feature of a creative personality is considered its creative or individual psychological characteristics that meets the requirements of creative activities. S.V. Konovets believes that under the creative person one should understand that person who has internal conditions that ensure his motivation for search and creative activities and for the research conduct and which is able to realizing the creativity in various forms of life on their own initiative and conscious choice of appropriate means (Nychkalo, 2011). It is an aesthetic education and the means of art presuppose the formation of knowledge, skills, feelings, interests, needs, tastes and personality assessments, implemented in aesthetic activities (Schetinin, 1986). The scientists note that there are two basic ways of cognizing the world: 1) the path of scientific knowledge, 2) cognizing through art. If in the first case the scientists operate with facts syllogisms, concepts, then in the sphere of second – the writers, artists, musicians operate with images, pictures, music. Hence the two kinds of thinking

according to the two hemispheres of the brain are differentiated: the first one is the rational and logical, which is used in science (objects of the material world); the second one is emotional and imaginative which is used in the art expressed in the attitude to creative work that should be taken into consideration in the process of personality’s molding. Aristotle emphasized the importance of art, particularly music. He emphasized that music can exert influence on the aesthetic side of human soul and since it has such properties, it should be included among the subjects of youth’s education. However, by means of art one can not only convey the centuriesold experience of spiritual culture, but also develop the sensuous sphere of a personality. To transfer this experience there appeared different kinds of art in human society. The purpose of the paper is to analyze the impact of different kinds of art, the innovative teaching experience on the development of personality’s creative potential. Thus, the aesthetic education is a complex process, which involves children and young people in general civilization of aesthetic artistic values, since beauty is holistic and integral one in its universality. However the beautiful embodies the features of its vision by the representatives of a particular ethnic group and nation. Personality’s aspiration for cognition and awareness of these features are extremely important task of aesthetic education. The personality finds its place for exercising its own artistic capabilities in complex dimension of integrity, unity, beauty, in the diversity of its national dimensions. The main objectives of the aesthetic education of the younger generation one should include: the formation of aesthetic attitude to reality, aesthetic ideas and opinions (the ability to emotional experience, the ability to actively mastering artistic experience, independent study, exploratory activities, special art and creativity); the development in children and youth the aesthetic activities (the development of aesthetic and artistic perception, forming the initial skills of performing art activities, implementing the elements of beauty in life, relationships with people, self-attitude), the development of general and special artistic and creative abilities (they are formed during mastering the ways of activities - perception , performance and creativity). With proper pedagogical guidance of all kinds of art, the nature and life contribute to formation in the youth the aesthetic attitude to reality (Shevchenko, 1973). 31


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The aesthetic education is concerned primarily with the moral one, as these educational trends are based on feelings, both positive and negative experiences. Not accidentally, by describing the actions of a man, they use a category of aesthetics (“a good deed”). The child learns to set goals and achieve them In the process of artistic activities, providing the ways to implement the plans, to exercise patience, dedication, attention. The art is a means of communication and understanding, unity of children in shared experiences and actions. The multi-aspect tasks of aesthetic education can be addressed through the development of such important personal qualities such as initiative, creativity, the ability to uniquely perception of the world. It is very important to create conditions for the development of creative potential of children and young people and their involvement in various forms of artistic activity that extends the range of aesthetic knowledge of the world, provides an opportunity to test their strength in various fields. In the educational institutions they very often attract the students to such kinds of artistic activities as expressive activity (perception of works of fine art, painting, sculpting, making applications) musical activities (perception of music, singing, playing, dancing, playing musical instruments); artistic speech activity (hearing fairytales, short stories, poetry readings, creative stories, the inclusion of the children in various creative activities, etc.); theatrical activity. The teachers find creative potential according to the following criteria: attitude, interests, abilities that are the embodiment of artistic creativity, the ways of creative actions, the quality of children’s art activities. The creativity of the children in artistic activities is formed on the background of overall development and through special training. It is important to remember that the artistic possibilities of the students are differentiated, and the results of their study show not only how skillfully they paint, sing, read poetry, but also the depth and strength of their interests, attitude to the quality of the implementation, the desire and efforts to improve skills of artistic activity. The improvement of aesthetic education contributes to: the creation in the schools of developing educational environment, the modernization of means and methods of work with the students aimed at developing their creative attitude to aesthetic understanding of reality, a reflection of this attitude in his own creative work. Thus, the results of the scientific research conducted in different regions of Ukraine it is revealed that creative developed personality of a teachers can 32

play a crucial role in improving arts education, the development of general and aesthetic culture in young generation (Nychkalo, 2011 p. 44). The state of art education and training as well as teachers’ professional training in the present time need the development of the problems of enhancing the professional competence of a teacher on the basis of understanding the experience of prominent educators-teachers. Therefore let us turn to the history and experience of the renowned pedagogues. The Italian educator and humanist of Renaissance epoch Vittoryno da Feltre back in the XIV century (1423) created the school at the court of the Duke of Mantua where studied the children of the duke and his close persons and children of poor parents that held by the teacher. Later the children from other cities in Italy, Greece, France and Germany went to that school. The school was named “House of Joy”. The very school’s name Vittoryno da Feltre emphasized its difference from the medieval schools. Special attention was paid at the school to the study of the classics of ancient literature and philosophy, ancient languages, Greek and Roman literature, mathematics, in the teaching of which visual aids and practical work were used. According to Vittoryno da Feltre’s views, the purpose of the pedagogical process was to educate the “humanistic personality” who embodies the humanitarian ideals. The educational program of the Italian teacher besides general subjects included physical exercises, singing, dancing, music aimed at creating artistic perception in the children as well as at providing a strict religious and moral education. The individual characteristics of the students were taken into consideration. The relationship of the teachers and students were based on individual approach and mutual respect. The school was located in a beautiful palace, surrounded by nature and became popular, and Vittoryno da Feltre was called “the first school teacher of a new type.” A century later a school of joy appeared in the Pavlyshi rural school of Kirovograd region led by V.A. Sukhomlinsky, who took the baton of the Italian teacher. An outstanding educator and humanist attached great importance to moral education of the personality by means of the humanities, as well as art. The nature, the beauty, poetic word, music, art, dramatic art, drawing tales were the powerful means of education and cognizing the world of the senses. The library of V.A. Sukhomlynsky contained 19 000 volumes including the books on theory and history of art. According to the teacher, the creative work begins where the intellectual and aesthetic wealth,


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mastered earlier became the means of knowledge and transformation of the world. The development of creative potential in children by means of different art is an important condition for the completeness of personality’s spiritual life (Suhomlinskiy, 1988). The urgency of the problem of creative personality became acutely realized only at the end of the 90-ies of the XX-th century, when it became clear that education can not be based only on those principles that are oriented only at the mental development of a man. The idea of ​​personal and developmental education is reflected in the pedagogy of cooperation being the trend in the practice of education and upbringing, which took shape in our country in the 80-ies as an alternative trend of traditional pedagogy. This humanistic approach was initiated by the teachers-innovators (Sh. O. Amonashvili, S.M.Lysenko, I. P.Volkov, V.F.Shatalov, Y.M. Ilyin, M.M, Paltyshev et al.). Its essence lied in the anxiety with the lives of the children, their problems and difficulties, their feelings and aspirations, turning to true, real “I” of a child. The cooperation pedagogy was understood by the innovators the installation of humane relations between the participants of educational process being the essential harmonious development of a personality. Let us characterize the contribution of the teachers-innovators and the artists into the creative potential of the pupils through art. Here are examples of innovative teaching activities as teachers and prominent representatives of art. I.P. Volkov being the teacher of drawing and singing summarized his rich innovative experience in school by flexible and multivariate construction of teaching process of the creativity. He made sure that all children are talented, they have high adaptability to the work. I.P. Volkov conducted the synthesized creative lessons in usual classes. Being involved in the solving the problem of developing the abilities and skills in the pupils, he came to a conclusion: “all normal children have a variety of potential talent”. The school must identify and develop them. While there are children who are gifted mostly in one sphere: music, visual arts, and others. But this is an extremely rare gift of nature, but in general they have the usual inclinations, that is, the potential capacities. In favorable conditions the latter can be developed even onto the higher level. However, these talents are revealed not simultaneously and evenly, that presupposes the search and further development of creative abilities in the pupils, which should be lead not one year. The pupil should have the opportunity to actively express themselves in various

activities and creativity. Creativity, individuality, art, as I.P.Volkov considers, are revealed even in the slightest deviation from the sample. But the creation of specific product of creative nature requires general, as well as initial professional knowledge. Therefore, the teaching process should include various types of work and encourage the pupils to be creative. To do this the creative lessons were developed in primary school based on considering the principle of interdisciplinary connections (Volkov, 1991). To construct the learning process the teacher-innovator offered 19 kinds of work. Certain creative techniques were worked and as a result the creative product was made. The innovative idea of I.P. Volkova lied in that that it created a mechanism for identifying the creative abilities in the pupils and their development. The school introduced “the creative book of a schoolboy” from the 4th grade. It contained the record of the contents of independent and creative works of the pupils made over the curriculum. The creative rooms in which pupils received initial professional training and developed the creative abilities were organized. During the year the pupil acquainted himself in practice with several kinds of labor, and could identify his advantages. The corresponding entry was made in “creative book.” The whole system of I.P.Volkov contributed greatly to the formation of pupils’ interest in creativity, the need for it, helped to define professional intentions (Volkov, 1991). Very interesting is the experience of teacherAcademician M.P. Schetinin that in the 70-ies of the last century, founded an unusual school in the village of Yasnyi Zori, Belgorod region where he organized educational experiment. The school complex was created, which carried general, music, art, dance training [9]. Now the village Tekos of Krasnodar region under M.P. Shchetinin’s leadership the innovative public boarding school was founded, where 200 students acquire school education in an atmosphere of cooperation, understanding and creativity. The peculiarities of the school are: no classes and evenaged groups of children, there are no traditional classes (instead of them are the creative workshops children of all ages). Great importance there is given to the development of the students through art and innovative teaching methods. The priorities tasktsof personality development are: the formation of spirituality, creativity, patriotism, belief in knowing his or her life career. In the field of musical education of children and youth the unconditional primacy belongs to 33


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D.B. Kabalyevsky. As a scholar and a teacher he developed a unique way to attract children to musical culture that has received worldwide recognition. He urged the educational leaders to include into school curricula the lessons of musical education, which played a major role in increasing the level of musical culture in the country. Based in his teaching and educational work on the experience and ideas of his predecessors and contemporaries, D.B. Kabalyevsky in the early 70-ies of the XX-th century proposed a fundamentally new art and teaching concept of music education. In it, he firstly proposed the target of school subject “Music” to shape in the pupils musical culture – an integral part of their overall spiritual culture, declaring the principles of teaching music as a living image art. The implementation into practice of the schools a new program “Music”, based on the concept of D.B. Kabalevsky, contributed to music and overall development of the children, to significant professional growth of the teachers-musicians (Kabalevskiy, 1981). The program “Fine art and artistic work”, developed by B.M. Nemenskoy, is one of the wonderful opportunities of upbringing the spiritual personality and awareness of its destination in the world and society. This program combined in a single creative impulse the teachers of fine arts. However, B.M. Nemensky, having made a basic movement in the development of spirituality by means of fine arts, did not limit the artist-teachers in choosing their own creative paths in the art. This means that the teacher can give preference to any artistic direction, but remain a carrier of the information all of human culture. The program is variable and is not limited by the content and means of expression of Plastic Arts. The pilot program of aesthetic and artistic education, the development of which not only the artists, teachers, but also psychologists, sociologists, teachers, innovators were involved, gained spread in practice, since it has as the objective to engage all pupils to the art without exception (Nemenskiy, 1987). This approach serves as a means of spiritual formation of cultural identity. Academician B.M. Nemenskyy wrote: “The school does not even understand that without solving these tasks there cannot be a real effect in solving the first two (mastering the program knowledge and skills). As before, they ignore the fact that the experience of art, as well as advanced human sensuality being the basis for formation the moral and value principles of the personality are neither transmitted, nor inherited through knowledge and vice versa. This requires a special teaching tools! And here it is. Unfortunately, most didactics specialist still 34

do not realize that to solve these problems besides scientific approach, the artistry as a second equivalent didactic principle of general pedagogy must be taken into consideration. By the way, then there will be one of the major and equitable methods of knowledge – the path of mastering the content through his experiences being the way of art” (Nemenskiy, 1989). The man has come to earth to be realized in creativity. He chooses his career and having enhanced the intellectual creativity, enhances not only his personal level, but also enriches the noosphere, ennobles the life on Earth. The spiritual moral and aesthetic level of the parents and teachers influence directly on the development of Reason and Heart of our children in the creative process. It is at these positions was A.F. Lunev, the history teacher who created Parhomivsky Historical and Art Museum in Kharkiv region and attracted the youth of the village Parkhomovka to art relics collecting. He founded the Society of the supporters of art and history of his native land “Rainbow”. The point of his life was the creation of the museum. The first museum exhibition Panas Fedorovich created in the early 1950’s. Its foundation was his own collection of paintings, drawings, decorative arts, historical and ethnographic exhibits. Since 1955 with the support of the artists of Kharkov branch of the Union of Artists of Ukraine, which presented the museum in Parhomivtsi with the collection of paintings - these A.F. Lunev had chosen for further development of the museum in its artistic trend. Later Parhomivsky Historical and Art Museum became one of the first National (from 1967) Museum of art direction, that operated for a long time professionally on a voluntary basis. At the end of the 80-eis the museum has been given the status of state being the affiliation of Kharkov Art Museum. Due to the long hard work of the founder of the museum the significant diverse art collection was realized. Among the collection are the samples of icons, a valuable collection of paintings and graphics of XVII-XX century. The friendship of Panas Fedorovich with the artists W. Favorsky, S. Kononkov, E. Kibryk, Ye. Vuchetych, B. Nemensky, M. Romadin, I. Izhakevych and many others, including Kharkiv artists, brought updating collection of modern domestic artists who personally gave the museum their works. On the occasion of the 90th anniversary of P.F. Lunev the Alumni Association of the faculty and friends of Kharkiv National University by V.N. Karazin released the book “Athanasy Fedorovich. Articles, memoirs, documents, materials”, which combined journalistic articles of Panas Fedorovich, the memories of him,


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the important documents, journalistic articles. Since 2010, in Kharkiv National University by V.N. Karazin the “Lunovski readings” are hold. As the great educator Janusz Korczak wrote, “... in a moment of inspiration a man not only wrote plays, learns and anticipates. The moment of inspiration the man finds a friend and reveals new truths for himself, praying his own words.” Thus, the educational activities of known teachers of the Enlightenment, their love for art, professional competence can arouse beautiful, deep feelings in the hearts of the children and young people contributing to their artistic development, to direct their personal and spiritual growth. Based on the analysis of scientific literature and learning the educators and innovators in the direction of the development of creative potential in the pupils through art we can reveal a number of relevant regulations (Honcharenko, 2012). The regulation of individual teaching systems. The same systems (techniques) of teaching in various teachers would give identical results. It is connected with personal qualities of a teacher. There is such a system of teaching organization according to which the effectiveness of teaching in a teacher will be the highest. Thus, each teacher’s teaching methods are unique and are no to be completely repetitive. The regulation of action of the nearest zone. The pupil quickly learns the zone of nearest action, meaning that it develops faster if it has a respected mentor. High prestige of a pedagogue, his professionalism increases the motivation and improves the results of education The regulation of synergistic enhancement of the results. There is such a system of incentives and interaction with the pupils, according to which the total effectiveness of art is higher than the efficiency of a single type of art using by a teacher. The regulation of motivation of the activities. Any activities become more effective if in the pupil the motivation for learning process and for mastering different ways of training (through art), and to the goals are formed. It is important to consider the whole set of motivational sphere of the individual, taking into account the potential ability of the pupils. The law of relationship of pupil’s selfactualization and educational environment. The man is the creator according to his natural and spiritual essence. The degree of pupils’ creativity through art also depends on the conditions, means and technologies included in the provision of educational process. Choosing by the pupil the studying objectives, an open educational contents, accordance to nature

of the teaching technology, the ability of individual trajectory, pace and education forms – these conditions increase the creative self-learner. Creative effectiveness of education impacts on the development of personal qualities of the pupils a more degree than the level of their assimilation of educational standards (Honcharenko, 2012. p. 77-79). Thus, the education of the pupils through art presupposes primarily the development of emotional and imaginative thinking, feeling and intuition development, heart and soul. Innovative activities of the renowned teachers, scientists, artists not only helped the other teachers to evaluate their creative powers, to feel their own intellectual potential, but gave the opportunity to predict the future growth of children from the level of representation to the level of creative thinking, involving heart and soul. This means that in the creative work of the children the feelings, knowledge and will harmoniously unite. Progressive concept of art education were not dogma, and became the means of teacher’s developing in the field of scientific knowledge, the discoveries in the sphere of art and culture. References: 1. Volkov I.P. Tsel odna – dorog mnogo: kniga dlya uchitelya M.: Prosveschenie. – 1991. – 190 s. 2. Honcharenko S.U. Pedahohichni zakony, zakonomirnosti. Suchasne tlumachennya / S.U. Honcharenko. Rivne: Volyns’ki oberehy, 2012. – 192 3. Kabalevskiy D.B. Vospitanie uma i serdtsa: kniga dlya uchitelya. – M.: Prosveschenie, 1981. – 192s. 4. Nemenskiy B.M. Mudrost krasotyi: O problemah esteticheskogo vospitaniya. – M.: Prosveschenie, 1987. – 255 s. 5. Nemenskiy B.M. Puti ochelovechivaniya shkolyi // Novoe pedagogicheskoe myishlenie / Pod red. A.V. Petrovskogo. – M, 1989. – S. 103-104. 6. Suhomlinskiy V.A. Serdtse otdayu detyam. – Kiev: Rad.-Shk., 1988. – 272 s. 7. Tvorchyy rozvytok zasobamy mystetstva vykhovannya.: navch.-metod. posibnyk / za red., peredmova N.H. Nychkalo. – Chernivtsi: Zelena Bukovyna, 2011. – 280 s. 8. Shevchenko G.P. Vzaimodeystvie literaturyi, muzyiki i zhivopisi v hudozhestvennom obrazovanii uchaschihsya. V kn.: Esteticheskoe vospitanie shkolnikov v prepodavanii literaturyi. – Sverdlovsk, 1973, – S. 68-74. 9. Schetinin M.P. Ob’yat neob’yatnoe. Zapiski pedagoga / M. P. Schetinin. – M. : Pedagogika, 1986. – 176 s. 35


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UDC 159.922.1 RESEARCH OF GENDER DIFFERENCES IN PREDICTION OF PROFESSIONAL SELF PRESENTATION Hovorun T. Doctor of Psychology, Professor, WZPiNoS KUL Jana Pawła II w Stalowej Woli (Poland) thovorun@gmail.com

The article deals with the problem of sex differences on job and social status has many biological and social explanations. Much of understanding of economic status differentiation begins with biologically and socially oriented studies. The first one represent the most evolutionarily differences, which stress on data explaining heterogeneous sex outcomes – women’s roles for housekeeping and bringing up children, men’s – for social and vocational activity. Key words: self-presentation, opportunities to negotiate, gender differences, social competence, locus of control, self-evaluative judgments. Statement of the Problem Modern psychologist (De Cremer, Zeelenberg, Murnighan, 2006) mentioned that there are many explanations for this gender gap: men and women differ in educational attainment; women have more career interruptions than do men, thereby reducing their experience in the labor market; male and female choose different college majors and therefore develop different skills set; women and man work in various types of occupations etc. These authors (De Cremer, Zeelenberg, Murnighan, 2006) gave the hypocrisies that the key is in skills of negotiation. Setting aside the issue of how successful men and women are when they choose to negotiate, we investigated weather gender differences in the propensity to initiate negotiation play a role in the persistence of the gender wage gap. Thus, many women may not learn about the opportunities to negotiate important resources that are available to any organizational member who pursues them. Likewise, to the extent female have more difficulty finding mentors or champions; they may also suffer from inadequate information about existing resources in organizations. Taken together, these psychological and structural forces suggest that women may see fewer opportunities to initiate negotiations compared with male. We agree with authors, that it is important to test this hypothesis and explore whether the gender differences in recognizing opportunities to negotiate. 36

Objectives This paper has three major objectives. General aim of the research was to detect the similar and different features in the content of self-presentations of professional capacity bodied by students of different sex belonging. We wanted to specify how female and male students perceive, evaluate and present themselves in different kinds of social competence. The next task of the study was defined as discovering their locus of control and specify through it the selfefficacy in the occupational aspirations and wising of employee well-being. The third task included defining sex difference in describing ones self-esteem and senses feelings of values about their own life .Are the female and male students satisfied with their different sides of the self: in terms of personality traits, a feeling of self-worth in the context of their life existential value attitudes and experience? We have suggested that women’s vocational and personal affirmation under the influence of gender stereotypes reinforce self-defending, protective traits, patterns of behavior and life senses in response to patriarchal challenges of the society. The survey was conducted on a sample of Ukrainian universities students from central and western regions. Number of surveyed women is 47 persons aged 19-20 years. Results of the study were compared with similar data obtained on the male’s sample, which included 35 respondents. Methods “The questionnaire of three types of competence» adapted by Anna Matchak (Matczak, 2007), was used to testify the presentation of different kinds of social competence which evaluated a person’s efficiency in intimate job communication, in typical vocational exposition situations and in social interaction which demand assertive behavior. According to the questionaries’ “Man at work” (Matczak, Jaworowska, Fecenec, Stańczak, Bitner, 2009), its aims to identify internal or external locus of control in professional people career activity. It was important that people with internal locus have strong motives to self-expression in job performance that is directly related to money and social status rewards for it. It is valued that diagnostic scales include except general locus of control ( external and internal) as well


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such options as a sense of ineffectiveness of anybody in labor, dependence of self-effectiveness in job performance on coincidence of lucky circumstances or others help especially authority , vision causes of ones successes and defeats in the light of the circumstances and any other external causes or on the contrary- in internal personality factors. Equally important for economic selfpresentation forecasting and labor successful performance is youth self-confidence in their own personality traits and confidence in living according to one’s own values and believes For this purpose we used the correlation between the data of Multidimensional self” and questionnaire “Life attitudes”. The performance test “Multidimensional self” (by E.Obrayan, S. Epstein included the following parameters: self-esteem as a whole, a sense of selfacceptance , competence, being loved, popular, persuasion in one’s own leadership skills ,physical attractiveness, vitality, and others (Fecenec, 2008). Besides the above mentioned qualities the questionnaire determines such facets as total protection (defense) in self-estimation, self-control, identity integration. Questionnaire “Life attitudes” by Richard Klamut (Klamut, 2010) testifies the importance of evaluation one’s own values and aims of existence over life time (at present time and future), and in combination with other scales –their determination the life scenarios and its role for the future social affirmation. Test data made it possible to discover the level of coherence as internal consistency of life purposes .Low results showed a lack of desire for selfrealization in a life span, including vocational space. Conversely, discovered high–diagnostic parameters such as well-defined life attitudes and goals, a sense of life managing in the transition from past to future, the desire to get out of routine life was considered as the demonstration of the accept at ions of new adult life challenges their intromission into gender related self-thinking and behaviors. Tests performance data and correlation of their indicators made it possible to discover sex differences in self-presentations in order to differentiate social or biologically determined peculiarities. So far, we tried to trace the roots and examined the consequences of gender stereotypes. Results and discussion According to the data received by technique “Questionnaire of three types of social competence” Ukrainian female students exhibit a higher level of all kinds of social competence (Fig.1.) in intimate relationship in the workplace, in reaching jobperformance duties and demonstrating their work communicative capacities .These distinctions persist in the job determined social activities, in promotion

their status quo to develop their own advantage job position. Female students are also more likely to present successfully their abilities and traits in Selffocusing social situations(social exposure) compared with male’s sample. . Young women are more likely than their peers boys focused on understanding the psychological norms of social interaction, they are better able to solve interpersonal problems in their social interaction, to demonstrate more persistence (assertiveness) in the performance of job duties. To the extend the women do it is clear that men are not ready to cope with the discrepancy of the self in job routine.

Figure 1. Mean values for the test “three types of social competence” In general, research supports the prediction that women tend to match social standards in self-presentations in whatever they will do in job communication settings and illustrate health concern about their abilities to succeed in this area. Items that measure private self- consciousness in viewing job perspective and making self-descriptive statements in self-reflection individual job career capacities gives us data of the questionnaire “Man at work”(Figure 2). Women demonstrate higher level of subjective general and personal locus of control on job settings. If men are prone to overestimate the influence of others in own defeats, women -the importance of one’s own impression on others. Males demonstrate much higher levels of external monitoring feeling-controlling job life development (35 to 54), which means more high women’s readiness to overcome any barriers on the way to professional fulfillment. Both sexes are not much oriented on external circumstances in job efficiency. In comparison to men females are less consider the necessity of others help in career promotion as well as do not believe in happy fate or influence of other people in reaching own job effectiveness. Thus, they demonstrate more psychological efforts in defending their own successes and accepting some defeats 37


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Figure 2. Mean values for questionnaire” Man at work.” According to the qualitive analysis of specific scales parameters, males in professional presentation are more focused on avoiding losses than on achieving successes. Though females are more influenced by external influence of sex prejudice circumstances but never the less they do not prone to justify their expected job failures by external factors. Female’s data according to scales “level of personal control” and “successes” indicate a higher level of their subjectivity expression in the field of professional achievements. Much more poor personal feeling of control(ideology of control) may indicate to a large extent their accurate perception of sexism reality which can give rise to self – defeating behavior and feelings, leading them to perform self-protective patterns of expression of the social self.

The results of another questionnaire for measuring self-estimating attitudes include multidimensional parameters of self-presentation by both sexes. (Fig.3). What are the strengths or weaknesses of the self-descriptions discovered by men and women? The indicators demonstrate higher level of female integrative identity in image of the self in comparison to male peers. Girls demonstrate higher level of self-moral acceptance as coherence between moral views and factual behavior, higher level of estimation their own physical attractiveness, own popularity and competence, capacity for leadership, managing people. However, the assessment of their the level of self-control as well as general level of self-esteem are a bit or more low in comparison to male’s sample.

Figure 3. Mean values for performance scales of self-assessment questionnaire 38


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This difference might have an explanation, which roots to the female’s fear of possible rejection by society, which is more, oriented on male’s image of the socially successful personality rather than female’s. On the contrary to women, men marked contrast to higher levels of self-protective self-estimation, which suggests enhanced attention to a different kinds of self-defensive psychological mechanisms. This figure data demonstrates the desire of young men to show themselves in the best light, which can sometimes be accompanied by anger and aggression in a case of misunderstanding or underestimation. Comparison of sex difference within test scales (properties) demonstrate the phenomena that the more social factors as sex stereotypes of social environment can impact the self-perception by women, the lower its estimation are presented in the content of women’s self-estimations scales and vice versa. In a similar way might be by interpreted the data obtained by questionnaire “Life existential attitudes” such as women’s low parameters in search for purpose in their existence and acceptance of death as the end of the life-creative activities (Fig. 4). The test results demonstrate performance superiority in women’s indicators of life perception as choice responsibility, internal values and goals consistency .Lower results according to the scales existential vacuum and death acceptance affects a number of overcoming gender stereotypes challenges which resulted in strengthening the protection of their own existence (social functioning) by increasing responsibility, internal consistency of values and

interests in reaching personal goals and aspirations. The same social and psychological factors can explain the higher female’s sample results on existential vacuum scale, indicating a higher level of anxiety, uncertainty in the future proper implementation of their own senses of life. Men demonstrate more self-confidence in reaching personal life goals, because they are more predictable for themselves in traditional gender roles, which are expected by social environment. However the real challenge to gender stereotypes demonstrates female’s sample in a scale of responsibility (43,23 to 40,71).Higher desire to control their own destiny in women sample remains at the level of psychological readiness to defend their rights, although accompanied by increased anxiety for fear not fully realize their personal potential forces. Correlation analysis revealed that there is a interdependence between self-esteem competence and existential vacuum (r = 0,290, p <0,05), which means that individuals (in this study women), who feel lack family and interpersonal communication, more often experience a lack of meanings in life, addiction to exaptation of surround people, narrow opportunities in self-realization in social activity, lack of self-assertive behavior. Revealed more significant correlation between taking responsibility and death acceptation(r = 0,312, p <0,05), and inverse correlation - between the liability and existential vacuum (r = -0,293, p <0,05) and protective self-esteem(r = - 0,381, p <0,01). Thus, those persons who have control of his own life experiences and difficult life situations and

Figure 4. Mean values for questionnaire “Life existential attitudes” 39


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those who are convinced that they are the authors of their own decisions and actions and take responsibility for them, are more oriented on senses which help to overcome everyday challenges. Test performances onself-acceptanceand responsibility has also direct correlation (r = 0,396 p <0, 01). That means that those women, who have congruent system of values are more confident and successful in the ways of presenting themselves in comparison to those, who have not clear vision of the self and cannot reflex clearly their goals in life. Internal consistency is inversely associated with a sense of physical attractiveness (r = -0,399, p <0, 01) and personality control (r = -0,374, p <0, 01). Thus, the women who hold the internal control, who believe their bodies attractive have more integrated, harmonious image of themselves and their work experience. Their data on scales “vitality” and “sense of dependency on fate” with feedback (r = -0,365, p <0,05), indicate that these individuals are less oriented on self-presentation in any social activity Protective strengthen self-esteem has an inverse correlation with the feelings of depending on the fate (r = -0,340, p <0,05), which indicates that women who feel dependent on extraneous circumstances, use escape behavior in fulfilling the job performance. Conclusions We compared self-descriptive characteristics of male and female students concerning their job capacities .Thus we tried to confirm or deny wide spread scientific hypothesis and stereotyped conclusion that women have low capacities for self-discovering and expression in job demands and communication ,which started to be the psychological root of their lowest social-economic status in the work-place and in society settings . Our study theoretical background was based on the assumption in social science, which argued that people are more or less self –conscious in public settings, depending on their subject position in the experience of social self-presentation, which may take different forms. Applying the empirical data collected by identical psychological technique tested on male’s and female’s sample, who estimate their ability to shape others impression in order to get influence in different job performance, we came to general conclusion. We considered social competence the main widespread way in presenting themselves in any job activities. All women successfully presented high levels of their competence in intimate spheres social exposition and assertive competence. Another basic self-presentation fundamental personal quality –locus control in self-verification in job settings. In fact, males mostly perceived themselves as potentially submissive, externally controlled while 40

women only selectively feeling secure, unconfident about interpretation their defeats and the feeling of control, which is against widespread view that female feel insecure about their low self-efficiency in job performance and thus prefer to be guided, not to lead. Lower rates in female’s self –esteem qualities presentations in comparison to mail’s sample indicate that women are more dependent on external insuring of their competent qualities and acceptance their job performance behavior in nontraditional social roles as well. The pressure of gender stereotypes may give rise to rather vague imagination of their future scenarios of their job activities, which are more been impacted by traditional females roles contradicting their level of social aspirations. That’s why men are more self-persuaded in life span scenarios, fulfillment of desirable aspirations and thus their acceptance until death. Though the general level of female’s selfesteem is lower in comparison to males, coherence in women’s self-acceptance is higher and less defensive as in men’s population which means that they accept personality feedback that confirm their selfconception. The conducted research is able to make general judgment about socially determined response to the individual self-presentation concern and some predictions about future coping with the pressure of gender stereotypes and their overcoming. References: 1. Fecenec Diana. MSEI – Wielowy miarowy Kwestionariusz Samooceny MSEI. Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych, Warszawa ,2008. 2. Klamut Ryszard. KPŻ – Kwestionariusz Postaw Życiowych. Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych, Warszawa, 2010. 3. Matczak Anna, Aleksandra Jaworowska, Diana Fecenec, Joanna Stańczak, Joanna Bitner. CwP - SkalaCzłowiek w  Pracy. Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych,  Warszawa ,2009. 4. Matczak Anna.  KKS - Kwestionariusz Kompetencji Społecznych  (drugie, uzupełnio newydaniepodręcznika: 2007). Pracownia Testów Psychologicznych, Warszawa, 2007. 5. MayersDavid Social Psychology, 9-th Edition. 2008, 593 p. 6. Max Weber Etykaprotestancka a duchkapitalizmu, wydawnictwo:Aletheia,2011,316str. 7. David De Cremer, Marcel Zeelenberg, J. Keith Murnighan. Social Psychology and Economics / Lawrence Erlbaum, 2006 - 355 pages.


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UDC 159.923:316.61 FEATURES OF WOMAN’S SEXUALITY WITH DIFFERENT SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING Viktoriya Hupalovska

Sofiya Ustyanych

PhD of Psychology, Docent of Psychology Ivan Franko National University of Lviv,

master of psychology sofiya.ustyanych@gmail.com

viktoriah@ukr.net

This article presents the different definitions of sexuality, analyzes current approaches to the study of subjective well-being and considered its components. Were established the relationships between women’s sexuality and their position to themselves. Sexual selfesteem is highest among women with medium and high levels of subjective well-being. Sexual depression, suggests that depression overall, highest in women who are not satisfied or quite satisfied with their lives. Presumably, some women do not associate their sexual deprivation with the general well-being because it can be associated with a very different objective or subjective reasons. Sexual concern is highest in three categories of studied group - women with low, medium and high levels of subjective well-being. Perhaps the concern of women on sexual themes, which detects nonlinear dependence of subjective well-being, can be associated with other factors that in our study is not detected, such as values, the presence of a partner, husband, family and others. The results of our study can be used in consulting and psychotherapeutic work with women. The prospect of further research is more detailed study of the socio-psychological factors of sexual satisfaction of women, which is related to their subjective well-being. Key words: sexuality, subjective wellbeing, comfort, satisfaction, sexual concern, sexual depression, sexual feasibility. У статті приведено визначення поняття «сексуальність», описано особливості сексуальності жінок, а також проаналізовано сучасні підходи до вивчення суб’єктивного благополуччя та розглянуто його складові. Встановлено взаємозв’язки сексуальності жінок із показниками суб’єктивного благополуччя та їх роль у становленні та реалізації сексуальності. Результати нашого дослідження можуть бути використані у консультаційній та

психотерапевтичній роботі із жінками. Перспективою подальших досліджень є більш детальне вивчення соціально-психологічних чинників сексуальної вдоволеності жінок, що повязано з їхнім суб’єктивним благополуччям. Ключові слова: сексуальність, суб’єктивне благополуччя, сексуальна заклопотаність, сексуальна депресивність, сексуальна реалізованість. The experience related to gender determine the choice of a behavior in situations deliberately non-sexual contact in a narrow sense. Sexuality is the driving force of social activity as aimed at achieving not only sexual pleasure, but also social and psychological state, denoted «happiness»as quality of life. Also, sexuality is a factor that encourages people to work together, driving the convergence and unification of people, and is one of the main components of family life. Sexuality – multifaceted and multidimensional concept. The difference between sexual acts such as masturbation, kissing or sexual intercourse and sexual behavior, which includes not only the sexual act as such, but also flirting, clothing style, reading erotic literature and dating, gives only a superficial understanding of sexuality. Description different kinds of sex as procreative, recreative and relational brings conviction on limited classifications ofeach category (Masters, Dzhonson, Kolodny, 1998). Sexuality is also considered as a combination of mental and physiological reactions, feelings and actions related to the expression of pleasure and sexual desire. Sexuality is a complex of human traits and characteristics, in which it’s difficult to identify the main. Each person is unique and distinctive, versatile and has its own unique charm. Similarities and differences between male and female sexuality – one of the most difficult questions 41


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in sexology. It merges a diverse set of problems: the anatomical and physiological characteristics, sexual response, sexual behavior, and finally, sexual scenarios (motivation, erotic imagination, moral and aesthetic values, etc.). On the one hand, these differences are rooted in the laws of reproductive biology, on the other hand, they are inextricably linked with sexual roles and stereotypes of masculinity and femininity, which in different societies may not be (Kon, 2004). Everyone have many psychological traits, some features are «asexual», universal, and some features are traditionally associated with typically male or typically female psychology and behavior (Yl’yn, 2003). As for female sexuality, it is well known, that images of women and female sexuality are described in different cultures, but with many differences. On the one hand, they discribed asexuality, indifference and even aversion to sexual activity, and the other – boundless lust, temptation and infidelity. The growth of social activity and consciousness of women include their resexualization recognition of the right to sexuality and the ability to enjoy it. It is not just about feminist slogans, but the real mass shift in women’s sexual behavior (Kon, 1989). In literature male sexuality is often depicted as something purely biological. This is a very old cultural stereotype that a woman embodies the most «natural principle». In any cultural environment, male sexuality is, in general, more aggressive, excitable and incontinent than women. However, there is no general concept that would be considered the genesis and factors of female sexuality. In a culture not only observed the taboo on sexual realization, but also on its studying (Smakhtia, Kocharyan, 2009) . However, there were certain areas of sexual realization in women rate sex-identity formation (biogenic, sociohenic and behavioral), sexual scripts, sexual fantasies, sexual self-esteem, gender roles and structure of love for Sternberg. The resulting space is defined as symptoms characteristic of a certain type of sexuality relative measure of severity for other types. Sexuality – a combination of mental and physiological reactions, feelings and actions related to the expression of pleasure and sexual desire. The development of sexual needs also have a big impact of unsexual personality traits, especially because in the process of development before they arise. They are formed from birth until the period of maturation reach a certain maturity. They piling sharply increasing during the maturation of sexual need. Depending on what values ​​reflect the personality traits that are «piling» sexual tension, a persons behaves a certain way, and as a result, in one way or another feels comfortable and satisfied with their lives. 42

To some extent, well-being, life satisfaction related to the assessment of closeness to the desired, the ideal life – happiness. In the concept of «happiness» combined a certain set of ideals (standards) of human life. With these ideals people comparing their own lives, the lives of others or life of abstract person. Happiness appears as a value that has particular importance, and as is the value that stands above other values. The feeling of happiness can not be defined as a goal to which man wants, it is rather a concomitant phenomenon accompanying the goal. The term «life satisfaction» are fairly common, but it had a uncertainty on the subject of evaluation. From a psychological point of view is more constructive term «well-being». He has a very clear meaning, its interpretation are the same or very similar in the different scientific disciplines and everyday consciousness. Well-being and sense of well being rather are important for any person, occupy a central place in the whole consciousness and in the subjective world personality. The study certain aspects of subjective wellbeing highlighted in the works of M. Argyle, K. Muzdybayeva, N. Bredbern, H. Kentril, V. Myasischev, A. Asmolov, N. Lazareva and others. The experience of subjective well-being is one of the major conditions for the full functioning of the individual in society, condition and effect as self-actualization and adaptation to the environment. Humanistic psychologypoint of view on a healthy person become positive development not only in the study of subjective well-being, but also the whole person. Among the earliest works are the following as «The structure of psychological wellbeing» N. Bredbern and «Model of human anxiety» H. Kentril that based on research of the National Public Opinion Research Center (NORC). Definition of subjective well-being criterion includes three features. Well-being is determined by external criteria, such as the «correctness» of life. Such definitions are called standard. According to them, the person feels well-being if has some socially desirable qualities; welfare criterion is a value system, accepted in this culture. Also, the definition of subjective wellbeing is reduced to the concept of life satisfaction and binds to human standards in regard to what is a good life. The third meaning of «subjective wellbeing» closely linked to the everyday understanding of happiness as the prevalence of positive emotions over negative. This definition emphasizes the pleasant emotional feelings that prevail or objective in life, or subjective person prone to them (Fetyskyn, Kozlov, Manuilov, 2002). Subjective well-being – is not experiencing absolute happiness or satisfaction of all. This is a state


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of dynamic balance, achieved multi-directional for valence feelings of satisfaction in different spheres of life, when the level of the state of dissatisfaction one area is offset satisfaction to another, and the level of the internal dynamics of dissatisfaction creates a zone of tension, which is the driving force behind the development and satisfaction–zone permit. In subjective well-being (and its components) should highlighttwo main components: cognitive (reflective) – ideas of some aspects of persons life, and emotional – emotional tone dominating attitude to these issues. Besides, the feeling of well-being affecting various aspects of human life, it merged many features of person’s relationship to himself and to the world, because the individual welfarecan be divided into several components: social, spiritual, physical, material and psychological (mental) well-being. All listed components are closely interrelated and influence each other. Enrollment many phenomena to the different components of wellbeing rather conventional. For example, a sense of community awareness and experience of the meaning of life may well be attributed to factors that create peace of mind, not just social or spiritual well-being (Bessonova, Bratchykova, 2013). Subjective well-being–generalized and relatively strong feeling that has special significance for the individual. It determines the characteristics of the dominant mental state: enabling state – harmonious mental processes, successful behavior that supports the mental and physical health, or, conversely, unfavorable. Object of study is features of women’s sexuality. Subject of study – features of women’s sexuality with different levels of subjective well-being. Research objectives are to clarify satisfaction with sex life and its components and study sexual feasibility of women with different levels of subjective well-being. The working hypothesis put forward by us in the process, was the assumption that women with different levels of general subjective well-being and its individual components will be observed different levels of sexual self-esteem, sexual depression and sexual concerns. The group studied amounted to 84 women of reproductive age (20 to 53 years). In the study, all the women were physically healthy and voluntarily took part in the research. To test our hypothesis we used the questionnaire «Sexuality scale»S. Snell and D. Papini and methodology «Scale of subjective well-being». Average rates of sexual self-esteem among of the group of women (pic. 1) - 16.82 points – indicate

typical average group level of severity, women tend to consider themselves quite good sexual partners, sometimes even better than the other, assess their sexual skills high enough, however, sometimes have doubts and are experiencing uncertainty with respect to their sexual partner. Result for the scale of «sexual depression» of women – 24, 43 points – points to a higher than average level of its manifestation in the study group. The studied women are often frustrated or disappointed their sex life, sometimes feel dissatisfied with their sexual relationships and sadness when they think about their sexual experiences. The data obtained in the study group of women on a scale «sexual concern»– 21.15 points – also show the result of slightly higher than average. The women in the group think about sex more often than most people, and quite a lot of time paying dreams or fantasies on sexual themes. The total average subjective well-being in the study group of women is 72.10 points and meets 7 stan by this method. With such average results we can conclude that the women of the group can not say that lately they were in a good mood or look to the future with optimism, sure, they often feel lonely and seeking contact someone for advice in case of any problems. The studied women may be prone to depression and anxiety, pessimistic and withdrawn, often they do not tolerate stress and also recently did not consider themselves quite healthy and cheerful. Averages components of subjective well-being (pic. 2) is quite high and therefore close to the maximum by this method, especially scale «mood changes» (10.25), «the importance of the social environment» (15.02) and «self care». According to this method, the higher are the results studied, the more they are close to a sense of subjective well-being. It was found that women with different levels of subjective well-being having differentaverage of sexual self-esteem, depression and concerns, which is shown in picture3. The highest averages of sexual self-esteem have women with high levels of subjective well-being (21.67), they have positive self-esteem, do not tend to express complaints to various ailments, optimistic, sociable, confident in their abilities, work well under stress and not tend to anxiety. Close in meaning is the same indicators in trouble subjective moderate women (20.27),they are prone to depression, pessimistic, closed, dependent and can not tolerate stressful situations. The relatively low average results on a scale of sexual self-esteem observed in women with an average level of subjective well-being (11.34) and full emotional troubles (11.67), in patients with 43


American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

Pic. 1. Average rates of sexual self-esteem, sexual depression and sexual concerns of women of the group moderate subjective well-being, where there are no serious problems, with severe emotional discomfort, possibly an inferiority complex, dissatisfied with themselves and their position without the trust of others and hope for the future. Average results on a scale of «sexual depression» is among the highest of the group – women with severe emotional discomfort (29.67) and a moderate subjective well-being (29,33). Slightly below are the results of sexual depression in patients with moderate subjective troubles (21.61) and high well-being. As for the average values ​​of the sexual concerns of women in the study group, these figures are about the same level in women with varying severity of

subjective well-being – 19.73, 21, 21.9 and 23.67. Those women who are unhappy with themselves and their situation, are complex and those who do not feel emotional comfort, do not consider themselves good sexual partners, better than others, frustrated or disappointed with their sex life sometimes feel dissatisfied with their sexual relationships and amounts when they think about their sexual experiences, often think and fantasize about sexual themes. Women with moderate subjective troubles tend to consider themselves quite good sexual partners, assess their sexual skills high enough, rarely frustrated or disappointed with their sex life, sometimes feel dissatisfied with their sexual relationships, not think

Pic. 3. Averages of sexual self-esteem, sexual depression and sexual concerns of women with different levels of subjective well-being

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Pic. 2. Averages components of subjective well-being of the group of women about sex very often and quite a lot of time paying dreams or fantasies of sexual themes. Investigated women with the average level of subjective well-being tend to consider themselves poor sexual partners, assess their sexual skills rather low, are experiencing doubt and uncertainty with respect to their sexual partner, are frustrated or disappointed their sex lives, feel discontent with their sexual relationships and amounts when they think about their sexual experiences, think or fantasize about sex infrequently. The studied women with full emotional wellbeing consider themselves as quite good sexual partners, sometimes even better than the other, assess their sexual skills highly enough, think, dream or fantasize about sexual topics often, however, are often frustrated or disappointed with their sex life, sometimes feel sadness when they think about their sexual experiences. It could also be due to the fact that women’s happiness and joy is somewhat dependent on the success of their sexual sphere of life. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using application software package STATISTISA – the criterion Kraskel-Wallace with median test. When comparing the performance of sexual self-esteem of women with different rates of overall subjective well-being was obtained H = 25.42 significance level of p = 0.0006. When comparing the sexual performance of depressed women with

different rates of overall subjective well-being was obtained H = 16.50 significance level of p = 0.0209. When comparing the sexual concerns of women with different rates of overall subjective well-being was obtained H = 7.23 significance level of p = 0.4046, indicating the existence of differences between sexual self-esteem, depression and concern for women of the group based on their subjective well-being. Such trends are confirmed by median test, which showed for sexual self esteemh² = 21.45 and the level of significance of p = 0.0032; for sexual depression h² = 16.50 and p = 0.0209; for sexual concerns h² = 11.01, p = 0.1383 at (pic. 4). As can be seen from picture 4, women with different performance techniques in «Scale of subjective well-being»have different averages of sexual self-esteem, sexualdepression and sexual concerns. So the highest self-esteem in of women, where the average of subjective well-being (6-7 stan) and the highest level (10 stan). Sexual depression, suggests that depression and overall, highest in women who are not satisfied (3 stan) and quite satisfied (8-9 stan)with their lives. Presumably, some women do not connect their sexual deprivation with the general well-being because it can be associated with a very different objective or subjective reasons. Regarding sexual concerns, it is the highest in the three categories studied – in women with low levels of subjective well-being (4 stan), with a mean (7 stan) and with the highest level of satisfaction with their lives 45


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Pic. 4. Charts of differences of sexual self-esteem, sexual depression and sexual concerns of women with different levels of subjective well-being (10 stan). Perhaps the concern of women sexual themes that detects nonlinear dependence of subjective well-being can be associated with other factors that in our study is not detected, such as values, the presence of a partner, husband, family and others. It is also possible that women for whom sexuality is important but not implemented, there may be a low life satisfaction. In women for whom sexuality is important and implemented, there may be a high level of satisfaction with life. How well women assessedthemselves as a sexual partner, how often think about sex or fantasize on this topic, or satisfied with their sexual lives, due to the overall sense of emotional comfort and well-being. So, after the comparison of sexual self-esteem, sexual depression and sexual concerns of women with different levels of generalsubjective well-being and its individual components, our hypothesis that on women with different levels of subjective wellbeing will be observed different levels of sexual self-esteem, depression and concerns confirmed. 46

References: 1. Bessonova Yu.V. O strukture psykholohycheskoho blahopoluchyya // Psykholohycheskoe blahopoluchye lychnosty v sovremennom obrazovatel’nom prostranstve: sb. statey / Sostavytel’: Yu. V. Bratchykova. – Ekaterynburh: Ural .hos. ped. un-t., 2013 – 146 s. 2. Yl’yn E.P. Dyfferentsyal’naya psykhofyzyolohyya muzhchyny y zhenshchyny. – SPb.: Pyter, 2003. – 544 s. 3. Kon Y.S. Vvedenye v seksolohyyu. – M.:Medytsyna, 1989. – 336 s. 4. Kon Y.S. Muzhchkaya y zhenskaya seksual’nost’. – 2004. – 175 s. 5. Masters U., Dzhonson V., Kolodny R. Osnovy seksolohyy. – M.: Myr, 1998. – 721 s. 6. Smakhtia N.O., Kocharyan O.S. Seksual’nist’ v strukturi zhinochoyi realizatsiyi. // Visnyk Natsional’noho tekhnichnoho universytetu Ukrayiny «Kyyivs’kyy politekhnichnyy instytut». Filosofiya. Psykholohiya. Pedahohika: Zb. Nauk. Prats’. – Kyyiv: IVTs «Politekhnika», 2009. – #3(27). – Ch.2. – S.42-47. 7. Scale of Subjective Well-Being / Fetiskin NP, Kozlov VV, Manuilov GM Socio-psychological diagnosis of personality development and small groups. M., Psychotherapy, 2002. - p. .467-470


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UDC 159.9. 923.3. REORGANIZATION OF THE PERSONAL PSYCHOLOGICAL SPACE IN THE SPHERE OF FAMILY RELATIONS Olena Kapustyuk PhD in Psychology, Senior Researcher, Senior Research Fellow of G.S. Kostiuk Institute of Psychology of NAPS of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine elenek@inbox.ru

The article deals with providing the analysis of the theories of personal space as a subject of the scientific analysis; notions about the principles of construction and borders of a personal psychological space at various stages of a life cycle of family relations (premarital, a newly-married couple and a stage of family relations with small children) and problems of domination and submission as one of the aspects of modification of a personality psychological space in the system of family relations. Key words: personal psychological space, family relations, domination and submission, borders of “I”. У статті розглядаються та аналізуються теорії із забезпечення особистого простору як предмета наукового пошуку; уявлення про принципи побудови та кордони особистого психологічного простору на різних етапах життєвого циклу сімейних відносин (дошлюбних, молодят, стадії сімейних відносин з маленькими дітьми) і проблемами домінування і підпорядкування в якості одного з аспектів модифікації психологічного простору особистості в системі сімейних відносин. Ключові слова: особистий психологічний простір, сімейні відносини, домінування і підпорядкування, кордони”Я”. Introduction In the situation of economic and socio-political instability the huge meaning for a personality has the formation of his notions about both: his family relations as a whole, and about his personal role in this process, in particular. Modern men and women, who devote the lion’s share of their time to work, imagine their future family exclusively as an atmosphere for restoration of working capacity. Accordingly, each of the partners, at the stage of a newly-married couple, and in the further and at different stages of family relations, try to outline

borders of their private space. And, unfortunately, as modern practice is showing, they are not ready to the changes of their psychological space sovereignty. Also what is more important, they are not aspired to change this situation. All that is confirmed with unfavourable statistics: Adrian Bukovinsky – the president of Ukrainian welfare fund “Family” indicated (2014) that among pairs who lived in a civil marriage, 95 % after a certain period of time broken up. And among pairs who entered into a marriage, 61 % broken up within the next 5 years. Accordingly our research, which is devoted to the study of personal space in the system of family relations and its transformation at various stages of the life cycle, are very actual and timely. Personal psychological space The use of the term «psychological space» in sociological and psychological works had an old tradition. Theoretical bases of studying of this phenomenon were put in classical works by A. Adlera, E.  Bogardusa, G. Zimmely, K.  Levina, the P.  Sorokin, S. L. Rubenstein, T. Shibutani, etc. With regard to the behaviour of the person a concept «the personal space» was used for the first time by the R. Sommerom (Valedinsky, NartovaBochaver, 2002), founder of a science of proximity. It studies the laws of spatial placing and behaviour of people in the aspect of experiencing by them a subjective comfort, which can be reached thanks to the presence of invisible spatial “cover” by everyone. The scholar R. Sommer, however, is considering a personal space mainly territorially and as a stable formation (Abramova, 1995; Valedinsky, NartovaBochaver, 2002). The most detailed term «psychological space of the personality» was developed by S. K. Nartovoy-Bochaver. The psychological space of the personality is understood as «subjectively significant fragment of life, defining actual activity and strategy of a human life». She wrote: «The psychological space includes a complex of physical, social and purely psychological phenomena with which a person is identifying himself (territory, personal subjects, social 47


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attachments, installations)» (Nartova-Bochaver, 2005, p. 98). The development of psychological space of the personality in ontogenesis, which is connected with development of human’s needs and his personal autonomy. Closely associated with the concept – “privacy”. It psychological sense was well expressed by A. Kurpatov in the book «27 certain ways to get what you want»: «under the “privacy” it necessary to understand a certain psychological condition of the person when he is in his personal space, which is his sovereign and sacred property. That is why any claims by anyone to excess his personal space (whether with kind intentions or with bad) remained outside of this space» (Kurpatov, 2007, p. 2). The privacy assumed possibility of a personal control over the circumstances of life and an establishment of borders between a human, society and its various institutes. In particular, it is a question of interaction regulation and regulation of the information. There is an opinion, the more personal development is of a human, the more he needs time and place where he could stay alone with himself. Besides privacy the psychological space of the personality is close to the concept “personalization”. Personalization is an aspiration to take out one’s personal senses out of the borders of the world around. If the privacy serves to the purposes of adaptation of a human, then personalization is to the existential purposes, which allows to establish communications with the world. Into the personal space also included personal borders, which help the person to define what is Me, and what is not Me (Kislits, 2012). According to S.  K.  Nartovoy-Bochaver the psychological space of a personality possesses the following features: the person feels his space as his own, possessed or created by him, and consequently has its value; the person has a possibility to supervise and protect all in his space, thus realizing the feeling of authorship (and what is not controlled, becomes an object out of personal space of the subject); the psychological space is existing naturally and is not reflexed without occurrence of problem situations, it’s “transparent” and consequently it’s hard to give positive description; the major characteristic of a psychological space is integrity of its borders. The psychological space of a personality can be correlated with the basic displays of the mentality: it is endured by the subject as safe or broken, which is expressed in feelings of rest or anxiety; it is understood near his borders (NartovaBochaver, 2005, p. 105) and is not understood in those areas, which were not exposed recently to changes; is expressed in the behaviour directed to the objects, significant for the private world of a human. 48

Also it was allocated six measurements of psychological space of the human personality, which reflect his physical, social and spiritual aspects. The space is capable to develop with the appearance of new needs and carrying over the existing borders. It includes: sovereignty of a physical body; sovereignty of a territory; sovereignty of personal things; sovereignty of temporary habits; sovereignty of social communications; sovereignty of values. The psychological space of the personality can be correlated with the basic displays of the mental: it is experienced by the subject as safe or violated, which is expressed in feeling of rest or anxiety, realized near the borders and not realized in those areas, which are not exposed to recent changes, expressed in the behaviour, direct onto the objects, significant for private world. Individual psychological space of the subject of family relations as his personal zone of freedom The personal psychological space of a partner of family relations is his/her own zone of freedom, comfort and security. But thus it is necessary to consider the fact that other partner has the same space too. Accordingly, the person as the individual and a full member of a family, should learn, without damage to himself, but diplomatically shift and move his border of individually-psychological space, which according to marital status of the owner participates in all processes occuring in the zones of the family space, on family (and not only) territories. When we spoken about inviolability of psychological space borders of the family relations partner, we mean, without estimated acceptance of the spouse/spouse with his/her specific features, lacks, requirements, which make him/her that unique person. It’s natural that in the course of adaptation to some personal characteristics may enter into conflict, demand mutual changes. However and in this case, the inviolability of borders should not be violated by aggressive condemnation, blackmail and other negative displays. Interesting enough was trying to outline the borders of psychological space of the partner of family relations Khalil Dzhebran, the writer of 20th centuries, in Chapter about marriage in the book of parables “Prophet”. He wrote so: «Love each other, but do not transform love into chains: Let it be more a worrying sea between the coast of your souls. Fill each other bowls, but do not drink from one bowl. Let’s each other taste the bread, but do not eat from one piece. Sing, dance together and enjoy, but let each one of you be lonely, as strings of a lute, though they are all producing the


American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

same music. Give your hearts, but not to possession each other. For only the hand of Life could accept your hearts. Stand together, but not too close to each other. For columns of a temple stood separately, and the oak a cypress done not grow nearby». About borders of personal psychological space at various stages of family relations life cycle The research of psychological space of the personality in a plane of family relations is actual in a context of interaction of the subject-subjective systems (“partner(he)-partner(she)”, “husband-wifechild”, etc.). The satisfaction of interaction process and success of creation of an ideal family was caused by studying of the maintenance and structure of personal space of everyone, delimitation of his personal territory, its dynamic characteristics (“emptinessfullness”, “hardness-weakness”, “constancy-rigidity”, “simplicity-complexity”) at various stages of family relations life cycle. It essentially influence the maintenance and structure of space, is the relation of the person to this space as a whole, to a role and functions in it, and also separated elements. Principal kinds of such relation is an expectation, hopes and fear, senses and intentions, etc. (Kolosov, 2009). The first stage in the direction to family relations is premarital relations. The main objectives of this phase are to achieve a partial psychological and financial independence from the genetic (parental) family, the acquisition of experience with the other sex, the choice of marriage partner, gaining emotional experience and business interaction with him. These psychological conditions of optimization of individual psychological space in this period are:  reflection of motives, attitudes and feelings as their own, and partner’s;  Replacement of emotional image of chosen to the realistic one;  implementation of premarital information exchange;  evaluation of communication and interaction styles (suits you?);  adequate of level of claims;  a realistic perception of the partner and his acceptance;  mental and real life of together playing scenarios. Most psychologists are rightly pointing out that between the partners necessarily should be an exchange of information on issues such as the values orientation and life plans; details of the biography; ideas about marriage; role expectations and claims; reproductive attitudes, and others. (Tseluyko V). In

the future it will help prepare the way for family relationships and to minimize all the painful changes about their own inner world of each partner. Marriage and Honeymoon period is the transition to a new level of relations, during which there is laying a solid and long-lasting family life or destruction, the collapse of relations. This is a period of serious work of people on themselves and their relationships. Including the installation of the new frontiers of personal psychological space of each of the partners. In other words, going on a so-called “grinding”, which must be overcame. Partners of family relationships spend much time together and which was previously unnoticed, begins to manifest itself in daily joint activity. They begin to show their habits and quality, sometimes not very positive. This is the inevitable difficulties of life together. There is a section of the territory and the definition of personal and emotional space for each of the spouses, the identification of the boundaries of this space. Let’s consider the factors that affect the change in the borders of individual space:  adaptation of spouses to living together, during which the part of the “pre-marital” habits will undergo some adjustments, changes to the level of the corresponding partner’s representations. Have to give up some habits for the sake of a happy future together. This process is complicated by the fact that many of these habits are laid in childhood, when it was used by human throughout the life.  establishing the psychological and spatial distance to genetic families. It becomes particularly problematic in terms of living together, or residence of each of the partners in the “premarital” period in the parental home.  gaining experience of cooperation in addressing the organization of everyday life of the family, adoption and implementation of primary approvals matrimonial (family) social roles.  financial support and financial support for the family: who will earn money, and how will be resolved financial matters, after whom it will be the last word, will take into account the opinion of the partner who earns less or do not earn at all, what each partner cannot afford and can whether to allow from the “usual” premarital life, and what from this, is a need for psychological comfort of each partner.  intimacy in the relationship, which may be accompanied by sexual problems as a result of lack of experience, a difference in education, the level of desires, and so on. And this is the time when 49


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the boundaries have to move very, very carefully, delicately, slowly.  fulfilment and career development issue. With that, to date, the question is equally relevant for men and for women. Especially true factor may manifest itself at the stage of the emergence of a child. A young family with young children: what are the factors that affect the personal psychological space in this period? Parental role is fundamentally different from a married that in the formation of the conjugal union, both partners are free to terminate the marital relationship, and divorce, if the partner is brutally invades and violates the boundaries of personal psychological space. While parents is “lifetime” performed by the individual role and it is impossible to cancel it, and, respectively, and individual space with its values, habits, peculiarities should construct such boundaries, in which a person will feel most comfortable, according to the new conditions of life. A number of important issues at this stage is associated with those who will care for the child. There are new roles of a mother and father. There is a kind of age shift. Besides all that has not been worked out between the two spouses must be worked out in the presence of a third person, for example, one of the parents (in our society due to gender socialization, most of it concerns women) forced to stay at home and care for the child, while the other (mostly the father) tries to keep the connection with the outside world. At the moment, there is a narrowing band of communication of his wife, which will reflected on her personal psychological space, and the climate of family relationships (where the range of feelings and sensations can be of the polar “plus” to the polar “minus”). Especially considering the fact that at the same time as the supply of the material lies with the husband, he is “free” from the care of the child, and often tends to “rest” outside the family (Tseluyko). Thus, the restructuring of the boundaries of psychological space and its measurement affect the relationship of the individual with other subjects involved in joint ventures (Kronik, Horoshilova, 1987; Lozhkіn, Volyanyuk, 2003; Nartova-Bochaver, 2003, Perls, 2001), who are building a dynamic system of relations and form a multidimensional interpersonal space. This space, in turn, is subjectively meaningful fragment of life and affects the current direction and strategy of the individual. 50

Thus the movement and alignment of the new frontiers of psychological space of the individual depends on the positive, neutral and negative meaningful relationship with their partner, as well as other social objects and phenomena (real or perceived). These are the specific links with each other and performing their functions or roles according to certain rules, regulations, standards and laws, the boundaries of personal space may vary considerably at different stages of the life cycle of family relations. The problem of dominance and subordination in the family relations A Family in the family psychology is seen as a historically changing form of living together of people of both sexes, in its development has undergone profound changes qualitatively, having risen from polygamous, gregarious existence before the civilized pairing family. Each era has left its mark on the development of the family, different exposing and solving the problem of domination and subordination in marriage. Traditionally, dominance-submission is considered as the immaturity of the senses; attempt to find unity; the struggle for power; battle in decisionmaking; winding gender stereotypes, leadership nature of domination; acceptance of responsibility-avoidance; manifestation of personality characteristics. However, the psychological intimacy is usually negatively correlated with the attitude of domination and subordination: the greater the power of one person over another, the less psychological affinity between them, as the power is compelling. V. N Druzhinin, analyzing family relations, said that the family first realized the power relations – dominance-submission. As a rule, attributed to the dominance of the adoption of social responsibility, improvisational activity and initiate action (Druzhinin, 2000). The relations domination and subordination, appearing along with the communication of partners and implemented in the following situations: “ partner motivation to action – agreement, promise”; “Upholding the assertion of own terms – acceptance, consent to it”; “The desire to attract the attention of a partner, initiating the conversation – the maintenance, development of dialogue”; “Demonstrating a higher position with respect to the partner – the recognition of such a provision” that may be due to a variety of reasons: the hierarchical inequality, the inequality in the level of competence, commitment to take care of one another, and so on. (Grebenshchikov , Zachesova, 2011). Smirnikova O. V. considers that dominance is a regular, open, underlined (as opposed to the “hidden


American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

levers” of power) use of power at a constant appeal to its excellence. Then the submission – constant follow someone’s will, depending on the effect, actions and behaviour of another person. Smirnikova O. V. connects the idea of domination, power and competence of a married couple where competence is characterized as an integral characteristic of life, communication and personal development of man. It focuses on the psychological basis of the structure of competence – a personal maturity. It is believed that the inclusion of this concept is the highest level of knowledge and the results of human activity is determined by the condition of the systemic organization of consciousness (Smirnikova O. V., 2005). The problem of dominance and subordination most deeply developed in neofreidism. In numerous studies conducted by scientists of different schools, several major needs, motivating personality dominance in behaviour: the need for power; the need to control events and people; need for achievement; need for affiliation, that is, obtaining the approval of a group. Let’s consider the following forms of subordination that stand out in social psychology: suggestibility – uncritical submission to the opinion of the partner, which leads to a complete agreement and change their own estimates, conformity (conformity) – behaviour change in response to pressure from a partner assignment (compliance) – satisfaction of the requests of the partner to behave in a certain way, and obedience to authority (obedience to authority) – execution of orders of the partner, formally empowered (emotional, financial, etc.). In the study also highlighted the dominance of the category decision (a consequence of influence, as opposed to subordination – investigators use of power); private adoption (change personal settings as a result of overt or covert influence), public compliance (change of the observed behaviour in the desired direction while optionally changing the personal settings); identification (submission based on attraction to a partner), self-presentation (the act of expression aimed at creating a favourable image in the eyes of the partner), and others. (J. Turner., 2003). In psychology, the term person submission (submission) is often used to mean “submission”. What happens in the psychological space of the individual at the time of submission-dominance in the family relationships. At the boundary of interaction with the world is being born subjectivity. Boundaries define what is “I,” and that is “non-I”, what I have, and what I don’t have. Border line shows where it ends, “I” and start someone else.

Boundaries define personal identity of a person. Setting boundaries, self-determined identity and is able to actively choose the means of selfexpression and self-assertion, without violating personal freedom. If personal boundary does not perform this function, identity eroded. Setting boundaries, the subject creates opportunity and an equal interaction tool. Contact the most mature form of cooperation which is developing on the border, where the division is stored, and the union has arisen does not violate the integrity of the individual. If the boundaries of the individual cannot cope with this feature, the ability to pin replaced or passive manipulation or aggressive disrespect for others, here appears in the system of family relations of domination-subordination issue. Boundaries create the possibility of external influences selection, as well as protection from the destructive influences. Strong border protection from the temptations of various addictions and vices shared reference group, that is, allows the subject up “over the field”. Trespass leads to the development of a human tendency to victimization and the development of the complex of the victim, that is, is engaged in a constant position of subordination, even when it goes against all the principles of its domestic and beliefs (Nartova-Bochaver, 2005 p.104). The researchers underline the fact that marriage is important for the satisfaction of spouses in the successful adaptation of the subject-subjective relationship, there is the need for the spouses of selfdiscovery, a deep understanding and acceptance of the views and behaviour of the partner, the common symbol in the communication process. Interpersonal communication couple more successful, the more mutual empathy they display it: without empathy, sympathy, participation cannot be successful interpersonal communication between spouses. The more accurate communication between spouses, the more successful interpersonal relationships (Smironova, 2005). Conclusions Psychological space of personality is an interconnected system with confidence of personal boundaries, which are formed on the basis of the scope of value orientations, interpersonal relationships and meaning of life. As for the personal boundaries, they are adequate as the formation and change, contributes to the harmonization of the structural characteristics of personal space. Formation of family relations occurs simultaneously with changes in personal psychological space. And the greatest comfort during the shifts 51


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is just the desire and ability of the individual to become a subject of his own activity. That is, it must recognize, accept and manage the process of internal restructuring, deterministic personal meaning. Awareness of the personality oneself as the subject of life, for which he receives and is responsible, can contribute to generating ways of self-expression and self-assertion, do not violate individual freedom and determining the boundaries of this liability, which further lead to the achievement of the ideal of family relations. The key, in my opinion, factors of the positive transformation of the psychological space is the personal mutuality of I, personal integrity, self-respect, and respect for partners, adequate perception and acceptance of the partner family relations as a whole person, with all its shortcomings, flaws and advantages. The tendency of changing the borders of personal psychological space at different stages of the life cycle of family relationships (premarital, couple and family relationships stage with young children), there are also some differences depending on gender. And to finish this article I would like the words of Pope John Paul II, in his open letter to the youth, where he writes: “You live in a marriage for a year or two, and you think that love fades away. But it is not. It should go to the next level. However, if you really want your love to get to this new level? Are you ready for this? Do you realize it? “ References: 1. Abramova Y.G. Psychology of environment: sources and directions. Questions of psychology 1995; № 2. 130-131., 2. Andrey Kolosov Psychological space of the personality of the qualifying sportsman http:// lib.sportedu.ru/Press/SP/2009n2/p23-28.htm 3. Valedinsky O.P., Nartova-Bochaver S. K. Personal space of the person and possibility of his “measurement”. Psychology of a maturity and aging. M., 2002. p. 60-77. 4. Grebenshchikova of T. A., Zachesova I.  A. Realization of relations dominationsubmission between members of a family in a daily discourse // Experimental psychology. 2011. V.4. №4. p.75-88. 5. Druzhinin V.N. Psychology of a family. Ekaterinburg: Business book, 2000. 52

6. Kislits G. K. Features of psychological space of people with diseases of the musculoskeletal system. Psychological science and education psyedu.ru (2012. № 4). Retrieved from: http:// www.childpsy.ru/upload/iblock/6cc/psyedu_ ru_2012_4_3145.pdf 7. Kronik of A. A., Horoshilova E. A., Diagnostics’s of mutual understanding in significant relations // Questions of psychology. - 1987. - № 1. - p. 128-137. 8. Kurpatov A. 27 certain ways to get what you want. M., 2007. Retrieved from: http:// psychologi.net.ru/book/kurpatov_27/2.htm 9. Lozhkyn G.V., Volyanyuk N.Y. Psychological distance as a factor of organizational climate // Social Psychology. - 2003. - № 4 (6). P.36 - 42. 10. Nartova-Bochaver S.K. The concept of “personality psychological space”: rationale and importance // Applied psychological journal. V.24 - 2003. - № 6. - p.27 - 36. 11. Nartova-Bochaver S. K. Psychological space of the personality: Monography. M., 2005. 12. Perlz F. In and out of a garbage can: Pleasure. Grief. Chaos. Wisdom. - M.: Publishing house of Institute of psychotherapy, 2001. - 224 p., 11 13. Smirnikova O.V. Socially-psychological features of domination and subordination in a married couple: Author. Dis. ... Cand. Psychol. Sciences (19.00.05); Mosk. Open social. Univ. - Kursk: [b. i.], 2005. - 22 p. 14. Smironova N.V. Models of interaction of spouses and their satisfaction of marriage: Dis. Kand. Psychol. Science. S – P., 2005. 15. Turner, John. Social influence / J. Turner. – S-P., 2003. - 256 p. 16. Tseluyko V.M. Cannot to be together to apart: How to save a relationship http:// www.e-reading.club/bookreader.php/99321/ Celuiiko_-_Byt’_vmeste_nel’zya_rasstavat’sya._ Kak_spasti_otnosheniya.html#label1


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UDC 159.922.761:616.8-009.11-053.6 RESEARCH OF VISUAL PERCEPTION (VIEW FIELD) IN ADOLESCENTS WITH ICP D.V. Kirillov applicant of PhD in Psychology degree, Odessa I.I. Mechnikov National University Odessa, Ukraine berrcerk@gmail.com

In the article there are considered the questions concerned with the problem of space perception and disorders analysis that occur in cases of view fields narrowing (loss) in adolescents with ICP. The view field is space that an eye perceives on a fixed look and head position. Sometimes in the literature there is found a concept of ÂŤperipheral visionÂť. Pathology of the nervous system is the main reason for the narrowing (loss) of view field. In adolescents with ICP (about 20-30% of cases) there are noted the strabismus, diplopia, eye movements coordination disturbances, lowered the upper eyelid (ptosis), involuntary movements of the eyeballs (nystagmus). These features of the visual analyzer lead to defective and in some cases to a distorted perception of objects and phenomena of the surrounding reality (Lueck, Gilmour, McFiwaine, 2004). The distortion of the world picture on the perception level entails the deformation of the methods and products of thinking and imagination. Visual narrowing of the space perception is one of the basic mental functions because the vision is the leading channel for getting information about the external world. Therefore the compensation of visual perception development defects seems to be a very important task for the full development of adolescent, the formation and implementation of training activities, the successful adaptation of adolescent to the surrounding physical and social environment. Key words: adolescents with ICP, view field, visual distortion of space, time of visual-motor reaction, length of visual-motor reaction, lowered the upper eyelid, involuntary movements of the eyeballs, pathological process localization in CNS. Problem statement The distortion of the world picture on the perception level entails the deformation of the

methods and products of thinking and imagination. Visual space perception is one of the basic mental functions because the vision is the leading channel for getting information about the external world. Therefore the compensation of visual perception development defects seems to be a very important task for the full development of adolescent, the formation and implementation of training activities, the successful adaptation of adolescent to the social environment. The last researches and publications analysis Distortion of vision field takes one of leading places in the visual functions structure disturbances on organic CNS lesions. According to recent researches the incidence of narrowing (loss) field of view at strabismus in adolescents with ICP accounts for from 25,7 % to 41.0% (Ippolitova, Babenkova, Mastukova, 1993). In adolescents with ICP are often observed spatial and optical-spatial disturbances, which are expressed in incorrect transmission of spatial relations between separate subjects or their elements, disturbances of the objects integral image, the wrong objects location and distance perception in the space (Ckubarcko, Chuprin, 2002). The space visual perception disturbance is a multifactorial pathology; therefore the research of functional condition of the visual system in adolescents with ICP deserves special attention. Research of the visual system (spatial perception) pathology in adolescents with ICP allows creating intervention programmes for compensation of these distortions further (Lueck, Gilmour, McFiwaine, 2004). The purpose of the article To establish the influence of view field boundaries in adolescents with ICP on the development of space visual perception (expansion, contraction). 53


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Exposition of basic material Visual perception in adolescents with ICP as a rule is distorted due to the limited movement of the eyes, commits disturbances of sight, the field of vision narrowing, and decreased visual acuity (Ivanov, Bakhareva, Bauer, Romanovskaya, Pashnina, Baranova, Amelina, Dubnyak, Bickbova, 2012). The difficulty in providing effective qualified assistance to adolescents with ICP which have the visual functions disturbances is caused by a lack of exploration of the Central mechanisms of visual system regulation. According to recent studies in this area it is known that their normal performing is impossible without coordinated interactions of sensorial, oculomotor, accomodative-photoregulatory and nictitating functions of the visual system. As it turned out in the implementation of the visual functions there are directly involved more than 30 areas of the brain. The Central areas of the visual system prone to increase vulnerably on CNS diseases because of the complexity of organization and a wide representation of visual functions in the brain. It is known that the sensorial functions of view suffer on eye movements disturbances for example on acquired nystagmus. In turn oculomotor functions change with a very low vision when disturbs the possibility of fixing the look on an object and thereby worsening conditions for an accurate perception. Visual perception suffers until the appearance of diplopia or blurred vision on disturbance of accommodation mechanisms due to the disturbance of the nervous control of inner smooth muscles motility which regulate the thickness of the lens and the lumen of the pupil which in turn significantly narrows the field of view. An important role in the normal performing of visual functions is given to nictitation unity for the nullification of the visual information and reconfiguring the visual system for perception of the new object. It is obvious that a full assessment of the state of visual functions and the reasons for their disturbances are possible while the researching of a larger number of indicators, than it is accepted in accordance with the classical concepts about the organization of view. A limiting factor in effective diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the Central areas of the visual system is the lack or reliable of quantitative methods of assessment of visual functions of the brain (Shipitsyna, Mamaichuk, 2001). We have developed and taken as the basis the method VSS (visual-spatial selectivity) which aims to identify visual perception disturbances, analysis of color perception pathology. 12 cardboard sheets, 54

each of which has the following colors: white, black, yellow, green, red, blue and brown (main colors); grey, purple, blue, beige and orange (secondary colors). The boundary of the field of view for the color we will consider that position of the object in which respondent has properly recognized its color. The research was carrying individually on the base of children’s specialized clinical sanatorium «Hadzhibey». Time of research: the first half of the day from 11:00 to 12:30. The individual research of adolescents is determined by the instructions of the research performing. The Method VSS ‘dilation of view fields’ helps to establish the degree of view fields disturbances which occur on CNS damages. Special attention for the assessment of the state of the view field is given to the sensitivity of the Central and peripheral regions of space which participation guarantee the getting oh the principal amount of important visual information (Gudkova, 2013). With this in mind we developed a special lighting system with help of which we managed to optimize the process of performing of the experimental method. To estimate the parameters of the total time of visual-motor reaction and the length of visualmotor reaction as well as degree of their deviation from the norm there had been used the data obtained during study in adolescents without deviations in development. From the analysis of Table 1 we can make next conclusions: Among adolescent boys we have identified two age groups: 13 (n=18) and 14 (n=25) years which showed the highest results in the research. The lowest indicators in the method of «dilation of view fields» in groups of 15 (n=30) and 17-year-olds adolescents (n=42). In adolescent girls the highest indicators are in the group of 16 (n=9) and 17-year-olds (n=9). The lowest measure in adolescent girls is in the group of 13-year-olds (n=5). The measures of statistical standards in adolescents with ICP are blocked by 2.5 times in the run-time job (increase) and 1.6 times by the distance at the moment of define the color of the sheet (increase). The research of these parameters (the total time of visual-motor reaction, distance (sm) at the time of determination of the color) of visual function has allowed revealing the fact that in adolescents with ICP may be relatively normal static acuity and significantly lower dynamic. This shows the differences in the Central mechanisms of static and dynamic visual acuity. Measures of the total time of visual-motor reaction in adolescents with Central disturbances


American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

Table 1 Test results of research ‘dilation of view fields’ by copyright method VSS (n=201 with ICP) Number (N) of respondents

Age (completed years)

Boys

Girls

Total

N

t

L

N

t

L

N

t mean

L mean

12 13

10

480

26

-

-

-

10

480

26

18

456

24

5

504

29

23

480

26,5

14

25

468

25

8

492

28

33

480

26,5

15

30

492

28

11

486

28,5

41

489

28,25

16

34

480

25,5

9

480

27,5

43

480

26,5

17

42

492

27,5

9

474

27

51

482

27,25

Total Mean

159 -

478

26

42 -

487

28

201 -

482

26,85

Note: N – number of respondents t - the total time of visual-motor reaction: it is calculated for each color separately and then summed; L - distance in sm at the moment of the determination of the color (the length of visual-motor reaction). of visual functions on ICP shows that dynamic visual acuity often suffers when there is a disturbance of the functions of the vestibular system, the functions of the parietal cortex and other locations of the pathological process in the Central nervous system that disturbs visual functions. It is worth noting that the objects visible to the color range are seen to be colorless. Research with adolescents in the norm was performed in groups and individually on the base of two Odessa secondary schools №13 and №73. Time of research: from 14.00 to 16.00. All respondents were informed about the purposes and objectives of the research of spatial disturbances. The task didn`t cause any difficulties in respondents. During the performance of experimental technique ‘dilation view fields’ in adolescents without deviations in the development there was identified the following peculiarity: on all the stimuli presented in the methodology were reached maximal values (the total time of visual-motor reaction, the distance at the time of determination of color). The exception was green because from the entire visible spectrum it is in the centre and the recognition of it using peripheral vision is difficult.

From the analysis of Table 2 we can make next conclusions: All adolescents without development disabilities showed the results above the average. In adolescent boys stands out a group of 16-year-olds (n=40), the overall result which is in the region of the maximal values on the criterion t (overall response time: defined for each color separately and then summed). Minimal results are in a group of 12 year-old boys (n=5). In adolescent girls the maximal measures on the applied method are in the group of 16-yearolds (n=11). Minimal indicators are in the group of 13-year-olds girls (n=6). Conclusions 1. The usage of the research method of the color sensitivity of the visual system (dilation of the fields of view) at the time of visual-motor reaction (t) and the distance in the time of determination of color (the length of visual-motor reaction to stimuli presented to the spectral composition (12 monochrome pages) implemented in the experimental technique ‘the dilation of the fields of view’ allows to identify the functional state of the fields of view of the 55


American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

Table 2 Test results of research ‘dilation of view fields’ by copyright method VSS (n=200 in norm) Number (N) of respondents

Age (completed years)

Boys

Girls

Total

N

t

L

N

t

L

N

t mean

L mean

5

192

15

2

180

16

7

186

15,5

184

14,5

6

198

18

16

191

16,25

14

10 18

182

14,5

10

192

17

28

187

15,75

15

27

180

14

7

176

15

34

178

14,5

16

40

166

15

11

172

14

51

169

14,5

17

60

172

14

4

180

15

64

176

14,5

12 13

Total 160 40 200 Mean 179,3 14,5 183 15,85 181,15 15,15 Note: N – number of respondents t - the total time of visual-motor reaction: it is calculated for each color separately and then summed; L - distance in sm at the moment of the determination of the color (the length of visual-motor reaction). respondents that are caused by factors of deviations in development. Experimental data confirm the high dependence of the condition of the field of view of the respondents (visual perception) to defective and in some cases to a distorted perception of objects and phenomena of the surrounding reality. 2. In adolescents with ICP the dynamic visual acuity, color perception (narrowing of the view fields, loss of vision fields) are significantly reduced due to the pathology of the functions of the parietal cortex (the area of visual radiance) and with the other locations of the pathological process in the Central nervous system (basal tumor, focal inflammations, bleeding and other disturbances of vascular nature) which disturb the visual functions. 3. In adolescents without deviations in the development we revealed an increase in average light sensitivity while reducing the investigated area of the visual field. Time t (the total time of visual-motor reaction on each of the 12 stimuli) is within the high standards. References: 1. Gudkova T.V. Features of the organization in the conduct of correctional work with children 56

2.

3. 4.

5. 6.

with cerebral palsy / T.V. Gudkova // Problems and prospects of development of education: proceedings of III Intern. nauch. proc. (c. Perm, January 2013). Perm: Mercury, 2013. - p. 97-99. Ivanov V.V., Bakhareva Е.L., Bauer O.V., Romanovskaya T.A., Pashnina E.V. Baranova E.V., Amelina A.O., Dubnyak S.S. “Loss of visual apparatus with cerebral disorders in children. Collected papers of scientific and practical conference on ophthalmology / Ed. by M. M. Bickbova.// East West 2012. Section VII. Ufa-2 0 1 2. 383 p. Ippolitova M.V., Babenkova R.D., Mastukova E.M. Education of children with cerebral palsy in the family. M., 1993. Ckubarcko A. I., Chuprin B.P., Ckubarcko N. P., Ckubarcko Yu. A. System of computer testing the functions of the visual analyzer. Theory and practice of medicine. Scientific and practical annual № 3. / Ckubarcko A. I. // Minsk - 2002, p. 195-197 Shipitsyna L.M., Mamaichuk I.I. Infantile cerebral palsy. SPb.: Publishing house «Didactics Plus», 2001, 272 p. Lueck C. J., Gilmour D. F, McFiwaine G. G. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry./Lueck C. J. //- 2004. - Vol. 75. - P. 2-11.


American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

UDC 159.9 : 65.012.23 FORMING OF ENTREPRENEURIAL POTENTIAL OF PERSONALITY IN THE PROFESSIONAL TRAINING AT UNIVERSITIES Lyubchuk Olga Professor, Doctor of Science in Public Administration, PhD. in Psychology, Pryazovskyi State Technical University, Mariupol, Ukraine lyubchuk@ukr.net

Presented in this article is the technology of the development of entrepreneurial capacity. The necessity of self-knowledge and the development of entrepreneurial capacity of students and would-be masters while studying at universities of economic profile are also substantiated. Key words: entrepreneurial capacity, selfknowledge, personality, management system, technology. В статті представлено технологію розвитку підприємницького потенціалу з психологічних засад дослідження проблеми. Обґрунтовано необхідність актуалізації самопізнання і розвитку підприємницького потенціалу студентів бакалаврату та майбутніх магістрів під час навчання в університетах економічного профілю. Ключові слова: підприємницький потенціал, самопізнання, особистість, система управління, інформаційні технології. Introduction Under the conditions of post-industrial progress of the developed countries of the world an innovative, entrepreneurial resource is becoming one of the main strategic resources. In order to facilitate the decisive impact of business on the social and economic development of the region it is necessary to provide changes in training of a new generation of professionals in management capable to effectively operate both in stable and non-standard and crisis economic conditions, become not only leaders, but also create small businesses, which is especially important for Ukraine. This involves increasing the role of universities of management profile in providing high-quality training of managerial personnel, each prepared individually to ensure an intensive development of small businesses according to the current needs and strategic plans of social and economic development of the region. Entrepreneurship has a lot to do with creativity, which is understood as the ability to integrate separate elements of knowledge in completely new

Lunov Vitalii PhD. in Psychology, Professor of RANH, Leading Research Fellow of G.S. Kostiuk Institute of Psychology of NAPS of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine lunyov_vitaliy@ukr.net

combinations. Identification of those among wouldbe managers who have entrepreneurial capacities, who are prone to innovation and innovative solutions, would facilitate the development of entrepreneurial capacity as early as during their training at university. It has been found in recent research that senior managers of corporations prefer not to risk it, and therefore focus on short-term projects which bring stable incomes (Lozhkin, Spasyennikov, Komarovs’ka, 2004). Success in business activity, manifestation of the entrepreneurial capacity depend on a number of factors: (1) on the necessary knowledge obtained, and understanding of the forms and principles of entrepreneurship; (2) on the knowledge of economics, finance, management, law and other social and economic disciplines which help enterprising individuals establish, organize and carry out economic activities, and (3) on the knowledge of psychology that enables to achieve in-depth understanding of the nature of economic processes, the ways the “human factor” may have influence on the economy. The essence of entrepreneurship is more vividly revealed through its basic functions: innovation (creativity), resource, organizational and incentive (motivational). Success in business activity also depends on personal entrepreneurial capacity, which is understood as a set of personal psychological characteristics that ensure successful entrepreneurship. It mainly contains universal psychological characteristics: intellectual, communicative, volitional, and some business competencies, which may have impact on the results of business activity as a whole or on any of its components (Druzhynyna, 2000). The abovementioned qualities of a successful entrepreneur imply the following: commitment, independence, self-confidence, propensity to take risks, observation, initiative, tenacity, persistence etc. According to the study of 1997 based on the results of the factor analysis the leading factor of business activity of entrepreneurs had been established. It is characterized by the following key indicators: assessment of the level of their competitiveness (0.7), reliability of most partners (0.6), changes in the standard of living of the family in 57


American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

the past year (0.6), evaluation of the achievements of their business activities (0.6), attitude to competition (0.5), expected changes in the standard of living of the family (0.5), attitude to risks (0.5) and the assessment of their own capabilities in enhancing the success of their businesses (0.5) (Povazhnyy, 2007). Formulation of goals and objectives of Article The objective of this study is to develop the psychological basis of controlling the components of entrepreneurial capacities of students of management profile during their professional training. The main material In order to create a new generation of managers able to work effectively under conditions of market economy, leadership qualities, business, communicative and organizational competences are required. And this implies fundamental changes in professional training of managers and creating an appropriate environment at universities of management so as to reveal and develop their entrepreneurial capacities. The most sensitive period for the formation of entrepreneurial capacities is the students’ age. The students specializing in management acquire the necessary knowledge, abilities and skills to be able to perform professional management activities. Their educational capacity, as well as their social and professional experience, is to become the necessary prerequisite for understanding their personal capabilities in developing their own entrepreneurial capacities. According to the experts, the state policy in the field of training the managerial personnel is to be transferred to the micro level. This will make it possible to relieve the financial burden on the state budget on the part of the educational institutions that provide educational programs for training managerial personnel, to bring the content of the curricula closer to the needs of the market economy, more actively raise funds of the citizens, organizations and businesses that are interested in highly-qualified managerial personnel. The educational activity of the university which is engaged in training of managerial personnel should be based on the innovative model of entrepreneurial behavior, which is aimed at the development of their own creativity and innovation initiatives of employees (Dorofiyenko, 2010). According to the theoretical analysis of the problem domestic researchers believe that the components of managerial capacity include a certain level of motivation, intelligence, creativity, availability of communicative and organizational skills, assertiveness, and internality. They presume that the factors that limit the managerial capacity include the inability to govern themselves, vagueness of personal values​​, lack of creative approach to solving management problems, inability to influence people, inability or unwillingness to assist employees in their personal development. In addition, discussed 58

in a number of papers are such components of management capacity as leadership, life experience, education and professional competence etc (Karamushky, 2015). It has been found that entrepreneurial capacity is understood as a set of psychological characteristics that lead to success in business. The structural components of entrepreneurial capacity include professional orientation, intellectual qualities (nonverbal and verbal), emotional and volitional qualities (psycho-emotional tone and volitional persistence); communicative qualities (sociability, organizational and leadership potential, flexibility), competencies (independence and enterprise), internality. The competences determined as those of an entrepreneur are as follows: independence, entrepreneurship as an innovation capacity, entrepreneurship as practical implementation (Obodets, 2010). The degree of their development serve as indicators of the development of the above-mentioned components. The main characteristics of an entrepreneur’s intelligence include wealth of vocabulary, ability to identify similarities and establish logical connections between different types of verbal information, ability to combine knowledge from different areas, flexibility and speed of switching over in verbal thinking, the ability to find the most accurate solution, as well as quick wits, rate and the performance of mathematical (financial and economic) analysis. Sociability as a communicative quality of an entrepreneur includes the ability to quickly initiate contact (with any partner in a broad social range) and to maintain it at the appropriate level, depending on the goal, psychological readiness to cooperate with the environment, taking into account social values ​​and traditions, collectivism; the best representation of the natural and emotional component in communication (“charm”), hospitality and friendliness, durability under high neuroemotional stress associated with communication in an unfavorable social environment, lack of expressed egocentrism or hostility. Organizational and leadership capacity of an entrepreneur is a set of personal characteristics and qualities: confidence, dominance, desire and ability to lead a team to meet the challenges facing it, organize joint activities; readiness to accept personal responsibility for the results of the group work; the desire to gain credibility and secure the status growth. Flexibility as a communicative quality of an entrepreneur involves diplomacy in establishing contacts, politeness, knowledge and proper application of communicative and social standards; the ability to understand people and foresee the development of relations with them, the ability to predict and avoid conflicts, lack of aggressiveness, focus on cooperation and search for a compromise when there is conflict of interests. Independence as a business quality of an entrepreneur involves the desire and ability to work offline, focus on one’s own vision, absence of suggestibility, independence in forming one’s own


American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

opinion, making decisions and determining strategies, as well as life or professional concepts. Entrepreneurship as an innovation capacity includes the ability to generate or select new ideas, approaches and projects; the ability to determine the promising areas of investment; a critical attitude to the out-of-date cliches and stereotypes, a conceptual approach and striving for maximum awareness in one’s business; initiative, a tendency to experimentation, tolerance to uncertainty. Entrepreneurship as a practical implementation includes energy, commitment, activity; the ability to implement ideas and projects; realism and practicality in setting goals and defining the means for their achievement; pragmatic orientation of initiatives, which is to be taken into account when solving the current and future economic problems; tolerance for opposition, competitiveness. Internality is understood as willingness to actively and creatively manage one’s life and destiny, take personal responsibility for one’s own actions and decisions, properly analyze one’s mistakes and failures, and make necessary conclusions so as to prevent them. Psycho-emotional tone implies emotional stability and overall balance; self-confidence and positive self-esteem; optimism, absence of fear of the possibility of failure, stress-resistance in difficult situations, the ability to withstand significant neuropsychiatric loads; the ability to make responsible decisions when there is lack of time and information, or when they are associated with risk. Volitional persistence is revealed in purposefulness, in the ability to smooth implementation of planned strategies despite any difficulties and obstacles, in volition makings, resistance to external influences. A comparative analysis of managerial and entrepreneurial capacities revealed the following: - managerial and entrepreneurial capacities are integral personal formations; - managerial and entrepreneurial capacities have common components that are important for the formation of innovation managerial and entrepreneurial personnel; - personal components that are necessary and common for the performance of managerial and entrepreneurial activities include: intellectual abilities; communicative qualities; creativity (for the managerial capacity) and innovative entrepreneurship (for the entrepreneurial capacity); leadership and organizational capacity; internality. Organization of professional training of students for starting their own business requires different ways of psychological support of the educational process intended for increasing the number of students of management profile, personally prepared for entrepreneurial activity: elaboration of psycho-diagnostic tools for conducting psychological monitoring of students readiness to entrepreneurial activity; identification of those who are prepared to start their own business and providing them with

the necessary information, education, marketing and other forms of assistance; conducting behavioral trainings, trainings on creative and innovative thinking to enhance personal preparedness for entrepreneurial activity; introduction of trainings on collaboration in business teams in conditions of the innovative educational infrastructure. The research that has been carried out shows that the degree of development of entrepreneurial capacity may be different, which, in its turn, may prevent the achievement of success in business. Therefore, the issues of identification of those among the students specializing in management and economics, who are potentially prepared to carry out entrepreneurial activities, as well as providing them with the support of the business incubator in creating their own small business, are pressing and well grounded (Lyubchuk, Lunov, Kebas, 2015). We believe that the system of psychological support in solving this problem should include: - psychological diagnostics of the degree of students’ readiness to start their own business; - introduction of innovative forms of training in the educational process and additional education, including behavioral trainings, which include “School of leadership”, trainings on the development of creative and innovative thinking, trainings on the psychological foundations of the ability to learn throughout one’s life for the development of prompt consideration, intellectual labìlity, contextual reflection; trainings “Congruential communication of an entrepreneur”, “Prevention and overcoming of communicative barriers in conversation”, “Mental health - adequate communication – success”, providing of special psychological training on recruitment for the team according to the principle of complementarity of business qualities required for successful business. Business communication needs highly developed psychological culture of communication, as well as constant study and consideration of the emotional component of business relations. For the students with a low degree of development of communicative skills it is recommended to master the following five techniques in the location of interlocutors: “own name” technique; “the mirror of relations” technique; “a patient listener” technique; “personal life” technique; “compliment” technique. It is recommended to learn how to make use of these techniques in everyday life so as to be prepared for using them in professional communication. In order to be successful in business communication it is necessary to know the most typical psychological errors of communication most often made by one’s business partners, as well as the possibilities to correct them according to the developments of humanistic (American) psychology. In addition to the psychological mechanisms of avoiding psychological errors in personal and business communication it is necessary to be able to use three techniques of congruential communication: “You – a message” 59


American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

technique; “I - a statement” technique; “Resolving of conflicts” technique. In order to achieve effectiveness in business communication it is recommended to use twelve ways of persuasion which will allow you to make interlocutors share your point of view: avoidance of disputes; expression of respect for the opinions of others; recognition of one’s own wrongness; expression of one’s friendly attitude at the beginning of communication; application of techniques that will make the interlocutor say “Yes” from the very beginning; giving the interlocutor an opportunity to speak out; creating the situation in which an interlocutor will become confident that the idea belongs to him/her; trying to see the situation through the eyes of the other person; expression of compassion to the thoughts and desires of other people; providing “visibility” to one’s ideas; promoting nobility, noble motives; creating the situation of competition to disclose the abilities of other people. For business communication in unfavorable, strenuous circumstances it is recommended to apply nine rules which will allow you to influence people, without causing them to feel resentment or contempt: recognition of dignity of your interlocutor; pointing out the errors indirectly rather than directly; first recognition of one’s own mistakes, and only then the criticism of the others; giving the others an opportunity to save their dignity; expression of sincere endorsement, even about small success; use of incentives; asking one’s interlocutor questions instead of giving orders; creating situations in which one’s subordinates are happy to do what the head has suggested them. Conclusions Improvement of the technology of training would-be managers must take into account the modern methodology of resource approach, which implies the notions of “creative abilities”, “competence”, “professionalism”, and requires the advanced approach to training managers, creation of conditions for the creative development of personality, securing the formation of the following features and advantages that will allow them to make a successful management career or become a social innovator in business. Analysis of the results of the studies shows that the innovative approaches, required for training of innovative managerial staff should include restructuring of the educational and professional space of an institution of higher education into the component of the innovative and educational infrastructure in the region. Identification, development and promoting the entrepreneurial capacity of students specializing in management during their professional training at the university of management is an innovative approach in solving the problem of formation of innovative personnel for the economy of the region.

60

References: 1. Dorofiyenko V.V. Innovatsiyni pidkhody shchodo rozvytku upravlins’koyi osvity v rehioni (kontseptual’ni zasady bahatorivnevoyi adaptyvnoyi systemy pidhotovky upravlins’koho personalu) / V.V. Dorofiyenko // Transfer tekhnolohiy: vid ideyi do prybutku: materialy I mizhnar. nauk.-prakt. konf. stud., asp. i mol. uchenykh (m. Dnipropetrovs’k, 27-29 kvitnya 2010 r.). – [u 2 t.]. – Dnipropetrovs’k: Natsional’nyy hirnychyy un-t, 2010. – T.1. – S.157-161. 2. Lozhkin H.V. Mistse innovatsiy v teoriyi pidpryyemnytstva. Ekonomichna psykholohiya : [navch. posibnyk]/ H.V. Lozhkin, V.V. Spasyennikov, V.L. Komarovs’ka. – K. VD Profesional, 2004. – 304 s. 3. Lyubchuk Olga, Lunov Vitalii, Kebas Diana. Development of entrepreneurial potential of students in the professional training // Фундаментальные и прикладные исследования в практиках ведущих научных школ. – 2015. – № 4(1); URL: fund-issled-intern.esrae. ru/12-199 4. Obodets R.V. Podhotovka visokokvalyfytsyrovannikh spetsyalystov v sfere vedenyya byznesa na prymere raboty obshchestvennoy orhanyzatsyy «Donetskyy horodskoy byznesynkubator» y Donetskoho hosudarstvennoho unyversyteta upravlenyya / R.V. Obodets, O.K. Lyubchuk // Sotsial’nyy menedzhment i upravlinnya informatsiynymy protsesamy: zb. nauk. prats’ Donets’koho derzhavnoho universytetu upravlinnya. - Donets’k, 2010. T.11. vyp.147, seriya «Derzhavne upravlinnya». – S. 244–256. 5. Povazhnyy S.F. Doslidzhennya problemy stanovlennya pidpryyemnyts’koho potentsialu studentiv vuziv upravlins’koho profilyu / S.F. Povazhnyy, O.K. Lyubchuk // Sotsiolohiya upravlinnya: zb. nauk. prats’ Donets’koho derzhavnoho universytetu upravlinnya. – T. 8, vyp. 3 (80), seriya «Spetsial’ni ta haluzevi sotsiolohiyi». – Donets’k : DonDUU, 2007. – S. 8-17. 6. Psykholohyya : [uchebnyk dlya ekonomycheskykh vuzov] / Pod red. V.N. Druzhynyna. – SPb. : Pyter, 2000. – 672 s. 7. Tekhnolohiyi roboty orhanizatsiynykh psykholohiv: [navch. posibnyk dlya studentiv vyshchykh navchal’nykh zakladiv ta slukhachiv instytutiv pislyadyplomnoyi osvity] / Za red. L.M. Karamushky. – K. : INKOS, 2015. – 366 s. 8. Shpalins’kyy V.V. Psykholohiya upravlinnya: [navch. posibnyk dlya kerivnykiv navch. zakladiv, prakt. psykholohiv, uchyteliv ta vykhovateliv] / V.V. Shpalins’kyy, K.A. Pomazan. – Kh. : Vesta: Vydvo «Ranok», 2002. – 128 s.


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UDC 37.018.46 + 37.015.311 PSYCHOLOGICAL BASES OF TEACHERS’ PREPARATION TO STUDENTS’ SELF-DEVELOPMENT Olga Orlova PhD of Pedagogic Sciences, Senior lector of department of pedagogy and andragogy in Zhytomyr Regional In-Service Teacher Training Institute Zhytomyr orlovaZHIT2007@yandex.ru

The psychological background of the challenges by teacher’s training in students’ self-development is outlined in the article. The subject of the work is the theoretical foundation of the challenges by teacher’s training in students’ self-development. The aim of this work is the historical interpretation of the scientific heritage of the dominant doctrine developed by A. Ukhtomsky as improving of teacher’s training in students’ selfdevelopment in adult education. The author analyzes the basic concept of the individual and motivates the urgency of the dominant doctrine developed by A. Ukhtomsky. The main features of a fully functional personality which enables to consider the identity of classical point of view as a biosocial being. The doctrine of the dominant of O. Ukhtomsky is justified and shown in studies that have philosophical, physiological, psychological, medical, sociological, pedagogical direction and can be applied in these fields. Key words: personality, development, self improvement, dominant, synergistic approach. У статті в контексті дослідження проблеми підготовки вчителя до особистісного самовдосконалення учнів окреслено її психологічне підґрунтя. Предметом роботи є теоретичне обґрунтування проблеми підготовки вчителя до особистісного самовдосконалення учнів. Метою даної роботи є історична інтерпретація наукової спадщини вчення про домінанту, розроблене О. Ухтомським як підґрунтя удосконалення підготовки вчителя до особистісного самовдосконалення учнів у освіті дорослих. Проаналізовано основні концепції розвитку особистості. Обгрунтовано актуальність вчення

про домінанту, розроблене О. Ухтомським. Визначено основні риси повнофункціональної особистості, які дають можливість розглядати особистість з класичної точки зору як біосоціальну істоту. Вчення про домінанту О.  Ухтомського є нуково обґрунтованим і відображається у дослідженнях, які мають філософські фізіологічні, психологічні, медичні, соціологічні, педагогічні направлення і можуть бути застосовані у цих галузях науки. Ключові слова: особистість, розвиток, самовдосконалення, домінанта, сенергетичний підхід. Introduction The social policy of Ukraine and the National Doctrine of Education Development identified the priority task of school and pedagogic science student development on the basis of personal improvement. The personal self-development is considered as ways of mastering their own interests, using their own capabilities, resulting in continuous self-knowledge, the development of the necessary for modern man qualities, building a culture of thinking and behavior. In the context of the challenge the assimilation of students means not only spiritual, intellectual, but also physical self-development, emotional selfregulation, mastery of healthy lifestyle skills, safe health behavior. The main factors of the effective challenge resolution are teacher’s personality, his lifestyle and personal example. However, the study of the secondary schools practice showed that under current conditions there is a gap between the new challenges facing the teaching staff in that direction and quality of their implementation in professional work of teachers. The aim of this article is the historical interpretation of the scientific heritage of the dominant doctrine developed by A. Ukhtomsky as improving of teacher’s training in students’ selfdevelopment in adult education. The main tasks of the article are to analyze the pedagogical and psychological aspects of 61


American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

personal students’ self-development and to prove the relevance of the doctrine. Presenting the main material To the issue of self-development attention was paid by the representatives of ancient philosophers Socrates, Aristotle, Seneca and Quintilian. The problem of self-development studied such famous scientists as G.M. Andreev, I.D. Bekh, L.I. Bozovic, L.S. Vygotsky, V.M. Grinyova, A.J. Cape, O.M. Piechota, S.O. Sysoieva. This issue is now the subject of modern scholars’ research (A.V. Bordenyuk, N.M. Losev, A.S. Prokopova, K.G. Skvortsova). However, the theoretical and practical bases of teacher’s training in students’ self-development were almost not considered. Like any scientific and educational facility, this challenge requires its comprehensive examination. The aim of our study was to outline its psychological background. Modern conditions require identity formation that could function optimally in society and is able to realize its intrinsic strength. In different contexts such person was considered in the works of A. Adler, Erich Fromm, K. Rogers, A. Maslow, G. Allport and other researchers (Adler, 2002; Maslow, 2001; Allport, 1998; Rogers, 2001; Fromm, 1999). To refer to the individual who can best interact in modern society such concepts were used as of socially useful type in a variety of psychological concepts (A. Adler), productive type (Erich Fromm), a fully functioning man (Carl Rogers) self-actualized personality (A. Maslow), psychologically mature man (G. Allport) and others. With reference to the different features the mentioned types had vested relevant traits and characteristics. Thus, in the theory of Adler, which is based on ideas about lifestyle as a unique by human selected way to achieve its objective, is highlighted the social and useful personality type (Adler, 2002). This type is described by scientists on the basis of such characteristics as high activity, high social interest, concern for others interested in communicating with others, cooperation, personal courage, willingness to contribute to the lives of others. Similar to the described type is highlighted by Erich Fromm social character type in modern society, which is marked as productive type or productive orientation (Fromm, 1999). This type is considered by the author in three dimensions: work, love and thought. Within the phenomenological theory of personality Rogers described the features of a fully functioning individual (Rogers, 2001). Among these traits researcher considers opening experience (ability to listen to yourself, to feel the whole sphere of visceral, sensory, emotional and cognitive experiences in themselves, without feeling the threat), existential way of being (the tendency to live fully and intensely 62

in each moment of existence, so that each experience is seen as a fresh and unique, different from what it had been before), organismic trust (the ability to rely on internal feelings, feeling as the basis for making important decisions), empirical freedom (subjective feeling that you can live freely as you are pleased, adherence to principle “I am alone responsible for my actions and its consequences”), creativity (the ability to produce unique ideas, results, methods of solving problems). Another representative of the humanist paradigm A. Maslow described personality selfactualized traits as efficient perception of reality and comfortable relationship with reality, acceptance (of one-self, others, nature), spontaneity, simplicity, naturalness, service, detachment, the need for solitude, autonomy, independence of culture and environment, will and activity, a fresh look at things, mystical and high emotions, sense of community, interpersonal relations, democracy, the ability to distinguish means from goal, good from evil, philosophical sense of humor, creativity, resistance to cultural influences, cultural transcendence (Maslow, 2001). Ideas of Maslow tune with the provisions were made in the context of personality psychology by G. Allport (Allport, 1998). In his concept, based on perceptions of proprium as a positive, creative quality of human nature that strives for growth and development, are described the psychological traits of a mature man. They attributed the following characteristics: a wide margin of “I” (the ability to look at ourselves from the outside, active participation in various forms of social relations), warm social relations (friendly intimacy and compassion), emotional unconcern and self-acceptance (positive attitude towards myself), realistic perception, experience and harassment (perception of things and people as they have high skills and knowledge in their field of activity, the pursuit of personally meaningful and realistic goals), the ability to self-knowledge and sense of humor (a clear idea of their strengths and deficiencies ability to laugh favorite and continue to love and appreciate it), coherent philosophy of life (systematic and consistent selection important in their lives). To study the personality that would best function in modern society, it can be applied to each of the above concepts. One of the most successful in the context of the study of personality in the modern Ukrainian society are the ideas of modern Ukrainian researchers M. Velazquez, B. Berry, V. Volynki, V. Gusev, N. Mozkova, that suggest using the term “fully functional ideal personality” and describe the main characteristics such a person (Volinka, Gusiev, Mozgova, 2006). According to scientists, the main features of a fully functional personality are the ability for independent thinking, forming their own attitudes and beliefs, making it a separate and independent; deep consciousness, the capacity of which is closely


American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

linked to the development of philosophical view to the world and themselves; flexibility associated with lability of the nervous system, the ability to switch quickly attention from one object to another; creativity, manifested the ability to go beyond their own limits, to transform the inner world, or in general - the ability of self-development. The mentioned fully functional personality characteristics make us to consider the identity of classical point of view as a biosocial being. Therefore it is necessary to appeal to the creative heritage of national scientists, physiologists of late nineteenth early twentieth century. Among them the dominant doctrine developed by A. Ukhtomsky [9] is relevant even today. In his works he sought to find a common ground of science and religion, moral made adjustments to science - on the one hand, and on the other - scientifically analyzed trends in moral and spiritual development. In his teaching O.Uhtomskyy developed the idea of ​​social interaction and physiological factors in the development of the individual, substantiated study of the physiological mechanisms of human development as the basis of the study of the life laws in the broadest sense. The concept of man as a biosocial creature allowed O. Ukhtomsky to put forward the concept of bodily integrity, mental and spiritual qualities of man and his inner freedom. The doctrine of the dominant of O. Ukhtomsky is now reflected in the philosophical, physiological, psychological, medical, sociological and pedagogical research. It offers the prospect not only for individual development in these areas, but also for systems research and synergistic approach which is in our point of view represented in these provisions (Zueva, Efimov Ukhtomsky, 2008; Knyazev, Kurdyumov, 2005): – By the intensification in all spheres of life, we cannot talk about the presence of a dominant. When dealing with large flow of information in modern, humans may have two or more centers of excitation, which determine their behavior. In the context of the individual student it can be interpreted as the need to prepare for its effective cooperation in various spheres of life, to use different strategies to achieve success; – The idea of the irreversibility of time and the manysided perception of time continuum is relevant. – In parallel with the existing traditional society’s linear concept of time, the cyclical and spiral are present today. It turns out that modern man is constantly in search of new information. Thus, there is a problem preparing students to search for and acquisition of new information developments; – For the dominant process is irreversible transition to a new determinant. At this stage it is appropriate analogy with dynamic systems where stability in small changes can lead to changes in the system, and at the bifurcation point (in a state of disequilibrium) minor fluctuations can lead to transition into one of the new

areas of sustainability; – The interaction of organism and environment O. Ukhtomsky believed to be nonequilibrium, as it involves energy from the environment and energy costs in such cooperation; – Dominant model of O. Ukhtomsky does not reflect a process and set of interaction of mental processes that are the basis of forward motion of the whole system. Dominant by definition of O. Ukhtomsky is currently the predominant of pathogen central nervous system, which provides mental processes and behavior of a person’s focus and activity in this area. Dominant, as the scientist includes installation on selfeducation, self-upbringing, self-esteem, self-regulation and self-actualization, it is in these conditions in the pedagogical process and objective way (Selevko, 2006). Conclusion Thus, dominant is the interaction of various processes in which there is one center advantage over all others subordinate to all others. This means that under certain conditions, the individual parameters begin to grow rapidly and strongly prevail over all others. However, given the trend of social benefits on the biological process of change becomes dominant acceleration today, as once wrote S. Kurdyumov, noting the current trend of aggravation of some parameters (Knyazev, Kurdyumov, 2005). On the territory of the Soviet and post-Soviet society doctrine of O. Ukhtomsky was supplemented by G. Selevko and author proposed to prepare students for self-development and self-improvement. Presented psychological basis should be the basis for further defining the term “personal selfdevelopment”. References: 1. Adler A. Essays on individual psychology; per.[ .]with nem. - M .: Kogito Center, 2002. - 220 p. 2. Volinka V. I., Gusiev V. I., Mozgova N.G. and oth. The history of philosophy in its relationship with education: Textbook / Ed. GI- K .: 2006. - P. 55-60. 3. Zueva E.Y., Efimov G.B. Problems of artificial intelligence and the dominant theory. A.A. Ukhtomsky // Mathematic machines and system. - 2008. - №1. S.98-105. 4. Knyazev, E.N., Kurdyumov S.P. Foundations of Synergetics. The synergistic vision of the world. - M .: KomKniga, 2005. - 240 p. 5. AG Maslow Motivation and Personality: .]AM Tatlybaevoy - SPb. : Eurasia, 2001. - 478 p. 6. G.V. Allport Personality psychology. - M .: KSP +; SPb. : Juventa, 1998. - 345 p. 7. Rogers K.R. Identity formation. Look at psihoterpiyu; M .: Eksmo-Press, 2001. - 416 p. 8. Selevko GK Encyclopedia of Educational Technology. The 2m. V.2. - M .: Research Institute school of technology, 2006. - 816 p. 9. A.A. Ukhtomsky. Dominant. - SPb .: Peter, 2002.- 448 p. 10. E. Fromm Anthology of human destructiveness; per.[ .] with angl. - Mn .: “Potpourri” Ltd., 1999. - 624 p. 63


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UDC 159.923:[331.101.3+331.102.24] SAFETY OF PERSONALITY IN MIGRATION TERMS WITHIN THE MILITARY CONFLICT: ORGANIZATIONAL CONDITIONS OF EDUCATION AND PSYCHOTHERAPY Zhanna Virna Doctor of Psychology, Professor, Dean of Psychology Faculty, Lesya Ukrainka Eastern European National University Lutsk annavirna@mail.ru

The presented material is devoted to the fundamental problem of analyzing priorities in the interpretation of personality security problems in terms of the military conflict at all levels of psychological optimization of the learning environment and psychotherapy of its active subjects. The subject of the analysis is psychological characteristics of the organization of training and psychotherapy of the participants in military conflict. The main idea is to identify psychological safety standards of personality in migration terms within the military conflict of the participants and to create the data-analytical systems concerning the restoration and preservation of their mental health, that will provide an effective integrated social and psychological support, as well as improve their quality of life. The analysis and systematization of categorical understanding of personality security and also psychological factors of the impact on security of personality in migration terms of the military conflict was conducted; the research outlines the limits of real mechanisms to respond to psychological trauma experience of the events of the military conflict by the participants; reasonable suggestions were offered for the development of innovative technologies to overcome the psychological syndrome PTSD of the participants of the military conflict. The value of the expected results of the research on safety of personality has undeniable practical result for the country and the human community in the form of: specific provisions of global security ensuring in migration terms within military conflict in the Concepts of Public security; introduction of psychotherapeutic technologies of selfpreservation, self-reproduction and self-development 64

of the participants of the military conflict; optimization of organizational conditions of the specially organized educational activities for the active participants of the military conflict. Key words: security of personality, military conflict, social and psychological support, therapeutic technologies, specially organized educational activity. Презентований матеріал присвячений фундаментальній проблемі аналізу пріоритетів в інтерпретації проблеми безпеки особистості в умовах військового конфлікту на усіх щаблях психологічної оптимізації організаційних умов навчання та психотерапії його активних суб’єктів. Предметом аналізу є психологічні особливості організації навчання і психотерапії учасників військового конфлікту. Основна ідея полягає у виявленні психологічних норм безпеки особистості в міграційних межах військового конфлікту його учасниками та створенні інформаційно-аналітичної системи щодо відновлення та збереження їх психічного здоров’я, яка забезпечить ефективну комплексну соціальнопсихологічну підтримку, а також покращить їх якість життя. Проведено аналіз і систематизацію категоріального розуміння безпеки особистості, а також психологічних факторів впливу на стан безпеки особистості в міграційних межах військового конфлікту; окреслено дослідницькі межі вивчення реальних механізмів реагування на психологічну травму переживання подій військового конфлікту його учасниками; запропоновано обґрунтовані пропозиції щодо розробки інноваційних психологічних технологій подолання синдрому посттравматичного стресового розладу учасниками військового конфлікту. Цінність очікуваних результатів


American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

дослідження безпеки особистості має безперечний практичний результат для країни та загальнолюдської спільноти у вигляді: конкретних положень забезпечення глобальної безпеки в міграційних межах військового конфлікту у Концепцію суспільної безпеки; впровадження психотерапевтичних технологій самозбереження, самовідтворення і саморозвитку учасників військового конфлікту; оптимізації організаційних умов спеціально організованої освітньої діяльності для активних суб’єктів військового конфлікту. Ключові слова: безпека особистості, військовий конфлікт, соціально-психологічна підтримка, психотерапевтичні технології, спеціально організована освітня діяльність. To solve the problem of security of human beings and society social efforts are needed not only from the side of the state but also from the society as a whole and from every personality. The full value life of a human being is full of real values and principles determines the trajectory of the deployment, vectoring of which is stipulated by psychological fact of security. The community, the state and the biosphere, acting as independent objects of security at all its significance play an important role concerning human security as the main objects of protection without which any security measures of nature, society and state are impossible or meaningless. In this connection, the idea of formation of human security is gaining special importance as the main target set that serves as a guide of social development and social progress. In these terms, it is very important to study psychological aspects of security of the personality in migration limits within the military conflict in Ukraine to ensure socio-psychological identification and integration into the environment of its participants. Optimization of organizational conditions of education and therapy should be focused on the recommendation package as to providing the necessary psychological support for the participants of the military conflict (participants of the military conflict and their families, migrants from the area of the military conflict and their children) in the form of individual consultations, workshops, scientific seminars. Considering the analysis of the main theoretical and empirical studies of the individual psychology of security as in national as well as in foreign psychology, it can be stated that the existing theoretical work in

this field of knowledge has no complex nature and it is limited by fragmentary studies of some of its aspects. In particular, traditional underestimation of humans and the value of their safe existence that unfortunately are typical of the modern society determine the fact that most discussions about human security are held in the light of national (state) security (V. Antonets, S. Belov, G. Zabarniy, V. Lipkan, G. Myhal, O.Myagchenko and others). Psychological parameters of consideration of these problems are primarily related to the study of the problems connected with the evaluation of behavior in stressful situations (F. Vasilyuk, S. Koleda, R. Tigranyan, D. Shapiro, and others); real behavior of a person in extreme situations (Y. Alexandrovsky, Ts. Korolenko, V. Lebedev, A. Lobastov, K. Selchenok and others); by peculiarities of impact of extreme conditions on human psychophysiology (I. Havrylets, J. Kalashnyk, O. Kokun, M. Reshetnikov, Y. Shcherbatykh and others); by peculiarities of manifestations of panic and human survival during natural disasters (P. Drachov, B. Kudryashov, N. Muhamadiyev, G. Cheurin and others; and also with the specificity of psychological training and psychotechnique of self-defense under the influence of socio-political, informational-psychological and economic factors (V. Vasyutinskii, L. Korobka, G. Lozhkin, M. Slyusarevskyy, M. Slobodyan, S. Yakovenko and others). However, military and political realities of the present time of Ukraine desperately demonstrate the need of concretization of psychological support specifying the security of personality in such aspects as military, legal, environmental safety and etc., where you can clearly investigate the social and psychological nature of the individual security in migration terms within the military conflict. In general, the overall fundamental problem of the presented material is stipulated by the need to review priorities in the interpretation of the problem of individual security in terms of military conflict at all levels of psychological optimization of organizational conditions of learning and psychotherapy of its active participants (participants of the military conflict and their families, migrants from the area of the military conflict and their children). Therefore, we consider the main goal is to develop a system of integrated social-psychological analysis of psychological safety standards for a personality in migration terms within the military conflict. Considering the modern complex of security problems we immediately note the psychological 65


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aspect of this psychological phenomenon, which is formed in psychology branch of security that scrutinizes the general laws of human activity in extreme, intense, dangerous conditions to make this activity more safe and reliable (Podolyak, 2009, p. 10). Speaking of a theoretical construct of security psychology, it is necessary to begin with logical and methodological interpretation of this psychological phenomenon. As we know, not all theoretical objects can be projected into reality, because most of them are partially correlated with the investigated reality. As O. Lazorko points out: “to get the design for a theoretical contstruct in the system of semantic connections and relations of the system of science it must acquire the operational sense, i.e. it should be linked by means of special rules of accordance (operational definitions) with the objects that appear and develop in the experience” (Lazorko, Virna, Akimova, 2015 ). We will try to outline some general provisions which specify the concept of safety and security of the individual: 1. Safety is one of the basic values in life. This value is potential and it is actualized at experiencing of threats or other possible security breaches. 2. Security is a multidimensional phenomenon reflecting bodily, psychological and social modi of human existence, as the subjective assessment of threats in human consciousness is differentiated into threats of physical existence, threats of psychological well-being and threats of social isolation. 3. Safety is a state and an experience simultaneously that accompanies a dynamic process of maturation and personal development as a result of which, the person reaches a state of maturity. Maturity involves mastering the ways of achieving security involving both internal and external resources and formation (institutionalization) of such modes. 4. Category of «security» is twofold by its nature, as it provides an objective (collective) and subjective (individual) assessment of potential and actual violations. State of security is personalized, and in each case requires specific consideration. 5. A person can feel safe under the certain conditions of life. The situation which is evaluated by one person as to be safe, can be evaluated as dangerous and threatening by other people. Identification of factors and principles of formation of subjective assessments of risks and threats to the own safety will allow us to recognize the state of helplessness 66

and trauma, and will give us an opportunity to apply technologies for providing psychological help adequately. 6. “Security – danger” concerns to the number of dialectically interrelated concepts. Their study involves understanding of nature and essence of man. 7. The dynamics of states “security – danger’ depends on a combination of external and internal factors that provide security, which in turn are stipulated by age. Abilities and skills should be regarded as external factors in implication of external means of protection and their application and also in compliance with the rules and requirements as to providing safety. Social, intellectual, personal and physical resources of the subject form internal conditions of security. The combination of internal and external factors provides control of the personal safety of the subject. 8. For the assessment of human security a reference sample of safety and well-being state is needed, on the one hand, and on the other – an understanding of regularities of occurrence and dynamics of insecurity, the process of threat recognition and risk assessment. Psychology of safety is based on various concepts in which it comes to protection and preservation of personality and society. In particular, urgent problems of global security are discussed in the Concept of Public Safety. This concept identified the following factors that threaten society – methodological, chronological, factual, economic, genetic, military, the content of which illustrates methodological composition of casual interaction that considers the structural elements diachronically and simultaneously, which belong to the sphere of invariant laws between the classes of causes and effects, anthropocentric, where man is in the center in all variety of manifestations of mental processes, states and properties from psycho-physiological to socio-psychological and psycho-social approaches that allow you to examine the way of person’s functioning in real life situations and relationships. In any case, psychology of security concerns man and his individual reactions in difficult conditions of life activity that should provide mental health and stress resistance (Timchenko, 1997). In terms of psychology dangerous human behavior depends on the following factors: biological (heredity, genotype, properties of nervous system, inheritance of parents’ behavior in dangerous conditions), psychological (the


American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

level of emotional, volitional and cognitive features), immediate environment (negative emotional psychological climate of family, improper relationships with fellow workers, financial and housing problems, poor conditions of life and work) and social environment (ecological, toxigenic pollution, lack of information on professional risk and mass accidents, poor organization of leisure and work, bad manners, social economic and political crises) . The perspective feasibility of using the outlined provisions are seen in the development of the system of integrated socio-psychological analysis of psychological safety standards of personality in migration terms within the military conflict and the creation of information-analytical system as to the restoration and preservation of mental health of the participants of the military conflict will constitute a further basis for security of human experience in the post-conflict situations, namely situations of experiencing medical interventions connected with physical injuries; changes in prevailing psychological attitudes as to the manipulative information space; and situations of social and psychological adaptation to the new conditions of training and professional implementation. Understanding security as a system of measures aimed at protection from various threats connected with the notions of danger management abilities and formation of skills to prevent and avoid threatening situations. Danger is seen as the presence and action of certain forces (factors) that are dysfunctional, destabilizing and / or destructive towards the personality. Hazards are prospective by nature, and their actualization occurs under certain conditions. One of the features of human consciousness is that it does not give priority to danger that is probabilistic by nature. The sign that defines influence as dangerous is the threat. Presentation of the threat is associated with feelings of fear that person experiences in the face of survival danger, development, deprivation of basic material and spiritual values. Creation of information-analytical system concerning restoration and preservation of mental health of the participants of the military conflict and their families and migrants from the area of the military conflict and their children, the proposed project will outline the central moments of expansion activities in the field of educational and psychotherapeutic services through the implementation of psycho-pedagogical patronage and protection; inclusive assistance for

children of the participants in the military conflict and migrants from the area of the military conflict through the forms of organization and carrying out of entertainment, animation, recreational and healthimproving activities; prevention of bulling in different forms, both in relation to migrants from the area of the military conflict and their children (bulling at work, school bulling) as well as bulling manifestations from the part of the migrants; preventive help in avoidance of negative social phenomena (deviations, addictions, delinquency) among the participants and migrants from the area of the military conflict. The main scientific approach of the project as to the development of the system of integrated social-psychological analysis of psychological safety standards of personality in migration terms within the military conflict of the participants and creation of information system for the restoration and preservation of mental health of the participants and migrants from the area of the military conflict and their children is a complex approach to the interpretation of psychological security of personality as the state of public consciousness through which the society as a whole and every personality accept the existing quality of life as an adequate and reliable, as it creates real possibilities for satisfaction of natural and social needs of citizens in the present life and gives the reason for confidence in the future (Efimova, 2010; Krasnyanskaya, Nepomnyaschiy, 2005). Security of personality is a reflection of the psychological state of society and is dependent on all the objective conditions of life in society. Military events in the east of Ukraine actualized a series of migration issues related to the stay of soldiers, doctors and volunteers directly in the area of the military conflict and then their return to peaceful life that requires them to mobilize personal resources for successful adaptation. Also, a significant number of people forced migrants from the area of the military conflict are going through a series of social and psychological emotions associated with the change of residence, work and education of their children. Usually such events require the involvement of powerful psychological resources of mobilization of the participants in the military conflict and under the terms of their exhaustion or lack, they need mandatory psychological support for the training and psychotherapy. The proposed integrated approach of studying psychological security of personality contains a staged empirical explication of psychological safety standards 67


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of personality in migration terms within the military conflict. Among the main methodological tools of the project implementation we can single out: work with psychological trauma and its consequences (emotional abuse and post traumatic stress disorder syndrome); correction and psychotherapy of obsessional states, sleep disorders; correction and psychotherapy of psychosomatic disorders and sexual dysfunction; work with the families of the combatants (their parents, spouses, children); work with the people who have experienced the loss of their loved ones; work with the people who are in difficult circumstances e.g. job loss; work to overcome difficulties in communication with the opposite sex; child correction and psychotherapy; providing telephone consultations on prevention of suicidal behavior and providing emergency psychological help for the people with suicidal intents; psychological help on the prevention and correction of emotional burnout. Psychological help can be provided in the form of individual and group family consultations, group consultations and correctional classes with children as well as with adults. Regarding the features of the structure and the components of the research, the successful realization needs: 1) to develop a clear classification of social and psychological problems of the participants and persons from the area of the military conflict and their families with a clear system of psychodiagnostic procedures with the studied; 2) to create Mobile Brigade team consisting of psychologists and rehabilitators to provide comprehensive social and psychological rehabilitation of the participants and persons from the area of the military conflict and members of their families and their children; 3) to conduct assistance to the indicated category besides individual and group consultations, in the form of interactive training using art technology seminars (including scientific workshops), round tables. Social and psychological rehabilitation can be carried out under the conditions of specially organized educational activity (including - Universities of the Third Age) with the aim of maintenance and development of resource potential of individual viability. Generally within global and national psychology, the value of the expected results will make theoretical and empirical basis for the appropriate development of security psychology of personality in migration terms within the military conflict into the separate 68

scientific direction where a large portion will belong to the developments of innovative educational and psychotherapeutic arrangements aimed at overcoming the consequences of psychological traumas that emerged within the military conflict. The work in this area must become the basis for formation of sciencebased concept of human security conditions under the terms of joint participation of psychologists from different countries, and as a result – the adoption of relevant legislative material. References 1. Efimova N.S. Osnovyi psihologicheskoy bezopasnosti : ucheb. posob. / N.S. Efimova. – M. : ID «FORUM»: INFRA-M, 2010.– 192 s. 2. Krasnyanskaya T. M. Bezopasnost cheloveka: psihologicheskiy aspekt: uchebnoe posobie / T.M. Krasnyanskaya, A.V. Nepomnyaschiy. – Stavropol: ZAO Pressa, 2005 – 216 s. 3. Lazorko O.V. Profesiyna bezpeka osobistosti v sistemi psihologichnih yavisch / O.V.  Lazorko. – Psihologiya profesiynoyi bezpeki: tehnologiyi konstruktivnogo samozberezhennya osobistosti : kolektivna monografiya / O.  Lazorko, Zh.  Virna, L. Akimova [ta in.] ; za red. Zh. Virnoyi. – Lutsk : Vezha-Druk, 2015. – S. 8-29. 4. Podolyak Ya.V. PsihologIya bezpeki: monografiya / Ya.V. Podolyak. – Harkiv, 2009. – 324s. 5. Timchenko A.V. Psihologicheskie aspektyi sostoyaniya, povedeniya i deyatelnosti lyudey v ekstremalnyih usloviyah i metodyi ih korrektsii / A. V. Timchenko – Harkov, 1997. – 184 s.


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UDC 378.147:159.98 DYNAMICS OF PROFOUND COGNITION OF MIND Tamara Yacenko Academician of NAPS of Ukraine, Doctor of Psychological Sciences, Professor, Head of the department deep correction and psychosocial rehabilitation, the Bohdan Khmelnytsky National University of Cherkasy Cherkasy, Ukraine ts_yacenko@mail.ru

In the article an issue is raised on methodology of forming competency in a future psychologist on the basis of adequate understanding of wholeness of the psychic; comparison of academic and psychodynamic approaches to the problem of academic training of a psychologist is done as well as analysis of the leading sects in psychology relevant to psychodynamic approach. There were introduced main positions of psychodynamic theory, which are accordant with orthodox psychoanalysis in the same way as the principles of psyche in its integrity. Content of the given article stresses the importance of taking into account interconnections between the spheres of the conscious and the unconscious in their integrity and functional asymmetry in deep psychocorrection of the future psychologists. Researches are also directed to an issue of statics and dynamics of organization of the psychical in the integrity of its functioning. Moreover, the passage of deep correction catalyses personal changes towards the harmonization of the psyche structure, development of those characteristics of a person that are desirable for the formation of professional excellence and ensuring the effectiveness of psychological counselling. Key words: active social-psychological perception (ASPP), probabilistic forecasting, deep correction, deep perception, methodology, objective-subjective, competency of a psychologist, psychodynamic approach, sense, theory. Article main body The way of forming competency in a future psychologist cannot stay out of methodology, which involves not only mastering of theoretical knowledge by a future psychologist but also the practice of diagnostic and correction process in groups of active social-psychological perception (ASPP).

It has been established that a theory is a set of beliefs, ideas aimed at the interpretation of certain events; the highest organization form of knowledge that promote a holistic view of a certain area of reality in its comprehensive interconnections. Methodology is a system of principles and methods of organization and construction of theoretical and practical activities, and a theory of this system. Methodology is based on a system of proven rules and norms of perception (and their relevant actions) that best relate to the properties and laws of reality. The objective of this research is determined by necessity of development of the methodology of cognition of the mind in its entirety, which is based on the indissolubility of the spheres of conscious and unconscious, regardless to their functional incompatibility. The latter requires solution of the following problems: to reveal the phenomenological nature of the mental, which concerns its general functioning schemes as well as its individual uniqueness that finds its manifestation in objective factors and in subjectivism of their display in humanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s behavior; to ground methodologically the procedure of profound cognition respectively to the nature of mental in uniformity of its statics and dynamics; to ensure the procedure of dialogical interaction between the psychologist and respondent for the actualization of the latent causes of the respondentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s behavior, which generates the impulses of spontaneous activity, catalyzed by the inner implicative order of mentality. to make methodologically-interpretational generalization of the obtained data. Psychodynamic paradigm aligns attention with the joint progress to the truth in an active interaction of a psychologist with a respondent (participant in the process of deep perception of the psyche). Ethical appropriateness of perception acquires the significance in the context of perception of the psyche in its integrity (conscious/unconscious). The purpose is defined only in general, like a guide of a psychodynamic process that is clarified in the dynamics of semantic 69


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appropriateness of the subject activity, progress of which becomes consistent with the objective logic of perception. These are positions that underlie psychodynamic approach to the training of a psychologist, overcoming a simplistic mechanistic view of the understanding of the subject of psychology. Psychodynamic theory (due to positive results of diagnostic and correction practices over years) evidenced that the psyche is whole in the presence of functional differences and autonomy of the conscious and unconscious spheres. Psychodynamic approach is based on the following: a holographic structure of the unconscious (thereby “psyche knows everything” and at the same time “it does not know what it knows”); involuntary activity of a subject (in which some elements of the psychic embody the essence of the whole), procedural diagnostics, which is the basis of deep perception. Empirical material persuades of the existence of internal functional arrangement of the psychic that has relevance to information equivalents, which combine both spheres of the psyche. The article states the continuity of information exchange between subsystems (conscious/unconscious), including the transfer of ideal (spiritual) reality into materialized not only into physiological (“brain”), but also into external subjectified, visualised one, which opens perspectives of deep perception according to laws of the conscious to a psychologist. That is why the process of deep perception in ASPP groups is invariably mediated by presenter (sculpturing, drawing, stone models, etc.) created by its participants. Deep psychologist relies on the assumption of unity of the conscious and the unconscious, which focuses on the horizon of their contact, and not the line of their separation. The entire procedure of active socialpsychological perception is aimed at objectification and restoration of damaged interconnections (information exchange) between substructures of the psyche that finds expression in subjectivism (distortion) of displaying activity of an individual and leads to social failures, maladaptation under pressure of consistence of objective reality. Subjectivism of psychic image is caused by objective (though ideal) reality of laws of functioning of the unconscious (i.e., other sphere), which manifests itself in the invariance of psychic characteristics generated by the defensive system. The latter give rise to the effect of possible predictability of behaviour by external observer (psychologist). Humanistic organizational principles of the process of active social-psychological perception contribute to levelling of contextual (peripheral) forms of psychological defence, opening the prospect of approaching the perception of basal forms of defence based on implied core values. Given the deep selfperception, a future expert surveys diagnostic and correction process in the “probabilistic forecasting” 70

oriented to perception of behavioural material logical ordering. The latter facilitates detection of inconsistency of energy direction of the “logic of the conscious” and the “logic of the unconscious” (“other logic”) in the ASPP process. An important step in professional development of a future psychologist is mastering the category of “probabilistic logic”, which includes interim true value (the probability of the truth of statements), which is the base for forecasting their further proof by empirical material. If the term “probability” is associated with a particular event, act, which finds empirical evidence, then “reliable logic” is elaboration of “inductive logic”. In this case, there is transfer from the language of forecasts (under the influence of statements (behaviour) of a respondent) to their confirmation by revealing the ordering (consistency) of behavioural material obtained in dialogic interaction. The specificity of reliable logic of deep perception is due to the lack of capacity of complete elimination (reduction) of the probability. In other words, a factor of incomplete probability is invariably present in deep perception, with dynamics up to clarification of meanings of behavioural acts, in the direction from the field of the significance to the uniqueness. Researches in psychodynamic format confirm the fact that the probabilistic logic is a kind of multiplevalued logic that is not limited to two-valued property (“true or false”) only. The process of deep perception takes into account the availability of symbolism and its polyvaluedness. The latter implies the probability of the truth through the lack of a priori certainty of content (meaning) of spontaneous behaviour that can be overcome by batch supply of information to a respondent by a psychologist. Spontaneity of behaviour of one or another respondent is distinguished with the frequency of manifestations of iterative, invariant, repetitive behaviour patterns, having proximity to the concept of relative frequency by its content. Researches are also directed to an issue of statics and dynamics of organization of the psychical in the integrity of its functioning. In this context, the role is played by concepts such as disposition, setting, tendency, a dynamic stereotype that contribute to defining the vector of direction of an individual’s energy, depending on “mortido” or “libido”. So, probabilistic forecasting underlying deep perception facilitates to revealing the internal “need” that makes its way through a set of coincidences in their multiplicity and polyvaluedness of symbols. Specification of “need” is predetermined by logical ordering of the psyche, which is narrowed by a process of interpreting of the associative interconnections in behavioural material (dynamics from symbolic polyvaluedness to significance). In such circumstances, the factor of spontaneous actions will be effective until its underlying causes get revealed.


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Deep psychological perception introduces changes to circumstances of inner world of a future psychological expert exclusively by revealing the true significance of a visualized presenter (meaning), as well as its impact on energy direction of the psyche. The latter occurs by obtaining the reflective knowledge by a perception person, dispelling their own illusions generated by defences and deepening the understanding of infantile determinants of personal issues (internal contradictions). All this contributes to the reconstruction of primitive structures of the psyche through multiple-level expansion of a person’s self-consciousness. Logical or inductive probability characterizes the relationships between a message (foundation, postulate) and conclusions of inductive thinking. Unlike deduction, initial inductive positions do not guarantee true conclusions, but merely make them probabilistic, that is believable. Under such circumstances, the probability expresses not so much a degree of subjectivity, as reveals a “reasonable belief” predictability of a desired result. Activity of the ASPP team leader is based on probabilistic assumptions of logical ordering of behavioural material, and rationallogical interpretations of diagnostic and correction process relate to an analysis of features of perception of spontaneous (“subjective”) person’s activity. The ability to prevent algorithmization of acts of a deep correction process leader is an integral part of both a general methodical strategy of the ASPP method and its partial methodologies, which are adjusted to current diagnostic and correction issues in the “here and now” situation. The latter corresponds to theoretical and methodological foundations of deep perception as well as a psychodynamic model of optimal diagnostic and correction, analytical and dialogue work of a psychologist with a respondent. General personal changes in a future psychologist have been already set by group principles of work arrangement in ASPP groups: acceptance of other people (and yourselves) as they are; sincerity; an analysis of behaviour of other people (and selfanalysis); a lack of criticism (and self-criticism); formation of skills “to be in the situation and be over it”; decentration of attention; overcoming the “tunnel vision” effect; transforming yourselves into a “research subject”; weakening both tendencies to own “psychic importing” and tendencies “towards psychological death” and so on. Individual personal changes: dynamics of individualized development is catalysed by a process of positive disintegration and secondary integration of the psyche at the higher level of development, due to revealing its internal ordering detection and resolution of personal issues (inner contradictions)

by a future psychologist, leading to harmonization of his/her psyche. Personal professional changes correspond to general psychodynamic line of creative selection of working methods and tools to meet the needs of a deep process of “here and now” according to the individual psychical uniqueness of a particular person. The ASPP process encourages the development of empathy, sensitivity, intuition, self-analysis skills (selfreflection) and longitudinal analysis (interpretation) of behaviour of other people. Development of abilities to procedural psychical diagnosis in its unity with correction takes place in a future psychologist during studies. Personal growth generalized indicators of future applied psychologists as a result of ASPP groups: openness to new experiences; attention to acts of spontaneous behaviour of another person; prevalence of objectivity in assessing the conduct of another person on projective-emotional (subjectivized) assessment; social activity, adequacy and adaptability; weakening of stereotypes and automation of behaviour; reduction in depressive and regressive tendencies of behaviour; ability to reveal their own constructive potential, which implies reducing the mortido (destructive) energy and expanding the creativity horizons in the form of professional self-realization, etc. The main advantage of psychodynamic approach to revealing the theoretical and methodological and methodical foundations of deep perception of the psyche by a future expert is his/her focus on universal laws of nature of the psychical that allows him/her to find methodological support in understanding of general and individualized aspects of the psyche. Own internal motivation of a future psychological for self-perception (as well as the choice of profession), which is a powerful catalyst for optimization of his/her personal characteristics, is important. Researches convince of the need to ensure a holistic approach to improvement of the training of applied psychologists. The psychodynamic theory integrates seamlessly into the general training programme for psychologists, expands the horizons of personal growth, development of reflective intelligence and sensitivity of a future expert. All this greatly complements a format of academic training of psychologists in its orientation to mastering the standard knowledge. Moreover, the passage of deep correction catalyses personal changes towards the harmonization of the psyche structure, development of those characteristics of a person that are desirable for the formation of professional excellence and ensuring the effectiveness of psychological counselling. Progressive philosophic views, which imply the results of various sciences, help in the study of professional and personal issues in the training of future psychologists. The psychodynamic approach, 71


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which has been developed over past thirty-five years, has influenced the content of psychologists’ training at universities and the Psychological Service of Ukraine. However, methods, which take into account possibilities of perception of the psychic in its integrity on the basis of reflexive knowledge, have been still not enough implemented in the training process. The main task of the perception theory is connected to revealing the dynamics of this process. Psychodynamic paradigm has gained demarcation of academic and experimental psychology. We associate ourselves with K. Lewin, who noted that “experimental psychology generates semi-pattern” (Lewin, 2001). By perceiving the sphere of the conscious only, the person’s inner world will be perceived and studied only halfway, thus, academic search for the truth of revealing the nature of the psyche within classical determinism does not provide an adequate solution to the issue of perception of the psychic. Determinism (from Latin determine – I define) is a philosophical doctrine of objective, logical interconnection and interdependence of phenomena of the material and the spiritual world. The essential feature of determinism is causality that determines connections between phenomena where the cause (under sufficiently certain conditions) with the need creates another phenomenon like after-effect. Of course, there is no phenomenon beyond causality. At the same time, the psychic cannot be attributed to onecausal phenomena. Considering the methodological positions of professional training of a psychologist, we should note that perception subject is the holistic psyche in its conscious and unconscious aspects. With this in mind, we cannot perceive the psychic in its integrity with a limited focus on perception cause-andeffect aspects of the conscious, where the unconscious can be never directly represented. Famous Georgian scholar A.E. Sherozia indicates: “... from the very beginning of its development psychology let us know that it is incapable to reproduce a holistic picture of the psyche, relying on one Galilean principle only” (Bassin, Prangishvili, Sherozia, 1978). We hold to the position that, like quantum physics, we need to introduce a complementarity principle into the research space for perception and adequate understanding of the psychic. Given the fact that the complementarity principle has been introduced by N. Bohr (Bohr, Tamm, Fock, Kuznetsov, 1971) in quantum physics with the aim of perception of quantum and Newtonian circumstances of the world in their unity, A.E. Sherozia notes: “...in some way, the complementarity principle connects two large and equally fundamental sciences of the world: physics as a science of physical (transpsychic) reality (broadly defined) and psychology as a science of psychic reality (similar broadly defined), linking them so that one and another sciences complement each other in a holistic scientific picture 72

of the world” (Bassin, Prangishvili, Sherozia, 1978). N. Bohr clearly pointed to “the need to replace the classical ideal of causality to the complementarity principle (simplified – complementarity)” (Bohr, Tamm, Fock, Kuznetsov, 1971). Said above principle relates to those objects which exhibit asymmetry of functions. In the case of the psychic, such asymmetry is functionally inherent to the spheres of the conscious and the unconscious, making the rectilinear determinacy perception of connections between them impossible. Connection is done through certain information equivalents (in the noncompliance of functions and direction of energy potential). So, complementarity concerns establishment of connections between the sphere of the conscious and the other sphere (the unconscious). More accurately, we are referring to certain logical compatibility, balance. Information equivalents connect contradictory aspects (the consciousunconscious) of the same reality – the psychic. Therefore, “psychology, just like quantum physics, should use the complementarity principle as a method of reproduction and perception of the integral psyche” (Bassin, Prangishvili, Sherozia, 1978). Due to the fact that the unconscious represents the “objective reality” (due to its unconsciousness, and therefore no intervention of the conscious) it could be perceived as reality in general through the conscious. S. Freud pointed out that “all our knowledge is always connected with the conscious: we can even perceive the unconscious only by its transformation into the conscious” (Freud, 1990). The unanimous opinion is that the unconscious in its directly unobservable form is not subject to rectilinear consciousness (perception). However, just as direct access is closed for the consciousness to the other sphere, so vice versa the unconscious cannot be rectilinearly explicated, and this encourages looking for a third way associated with the mediation, which creates visualization of the psyche, and dialogic interaction with a respondent. The latter corresponds to the guidelines of S. Freud: “... in order to bring the unconscious to the conscious, you need to create mediated chains first. Internal processes become perceptions through the verbal mediation” (Freud, 1990). The above material shows that the training of future psychologists requires attention to the methodology of perception of the psyche in its integrity (conscious/unconscious). The research proves that perception of the unconscious cannot be achieved without attention to dynamic and structural aspects of the psychic (superego, I and It). A process of repression plays an important part in the formation of psychic substructures. However, the unconscious not only consists of the repression processes, but it is just repressed itself that turns it into the unperceived and gains dynamics during calling its like. In perception of


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integrity of the psyche, we believe that our knowledge is constantly connected to the conscious that is why we can perceive the unconscious only by one way, which is turning it into the conscious. The central methodological position lies in this moment and requires methodical and instrumental art of deep perception related to the objectification of information equivalents. The latter means the presence of something third (i.e. a mediator) between the spheres of the “conscious/unconscious”. A remark by Freud of a way of psychoanalytic perception “through a combination of relevant verbal representations” (Freud, 1990) is important. With this in mind, a visualized presenter gains a mediation function only through its “revitalization” in dialogic interaction of a psychologist with a respondent. S. Freud stressed the importance of actualization of “visual intelligence”, especially in the practice of psychoanalysis of dreams. In this case, relationships between images, which require perception, are left beyond visual intelligence. Given the figurativeness of language of the unconscious imagery, the ability of symbols to embody the more synthesized content of the other (unconscious) becomes understandable, and this involves their research purposiveness of using the visualized material (toys, stone models, drawings, sculpturing, etc.) in deep perception. However, visual images are not enough for perception of the unconscious, it is necessary to identify interconnections between symbols in their many-valuedness and verbal aspects of thinking. It is a moment that is considered when a psychologist gives an impulse (stimulus) of visualization, self-introduction of a person, providing the next step, which is dialogic interaction with a respondent. Our practice over many years has proved the possibility and unconditional effectiveness of introduction of mediations in the study of latent aspects of the psychic and its study in the “observable plane”. So here are the conclusions: deep perception should have a mediated nature; visualization of primary “mediation” is desirable; materialized fixation of a “mediator” serves as an objective benchmark of perception; secondary mediation requires “revitalization” of self-presenter in the dialogic interaction (psychologist respondent); a process of dialogic interaction is carried out in a step-by-step, multi-level manner, with adherence to the rules of positive disintegration of the psychic and its integration at the higher level (through partial disintegration and integration); psychologist’s questions are oriented to the internal implied ordering of the psychic, which is in synthesis with archetypal essence of the psychic; diagnostic capacity of questions (in terms of compliance with the internal ordering) generated an impulse in a person, a flow of energy that manifests itself in a person’s motivation to both self-perception and the activity as a whole.

Summarizing, we would like to note that dialogic interaction of a psychologist with respondent gains mediation between two spheres of the psychic given its consistency with the internal ordering of the psyche. A dialogue, following the phenomenon of the psychic (spontaneous activity of a respondent) has no direct relationship to one or to another spheres of the psyche, it is focused on the horizon of their contact. Work is carried out not with individual components of the psyche, but with a person, the activity of whom is caused by motivation and self-improvement. A dialogue is not aimed at establishing the personal relationships, but at the information exchange, all of which contribute to the interpretation and objectification of information equivalents potentially relevant to the psychic in its integrity. Psychodynamic paradigm empirically confirms the fact of holistic essence of the psychic (ideal) and its ability of presentation in observed (visualized) presenters, undergoing their conscious comprehension. Information equivalents combine the conscious and the unconscious, which is not within eyeshot in itself. This is because of the following: a) the unconscious never objectifies its content rectilinearly; b) a presenter of the “other” (ideal) in objectified, static form cannot convey the meaning of a living instance with emotive potential. Such specific format view of deep perception is stated by a classic thesis: “any knowledge comes from external perception”, which has been taken as a basis for behavioural direction. Everything from the outside has a prospect to gain a note of the truth. Pretty often, adequate perception of the psychic in its integrity is limited by an academic approach, in particular, the desire of mathematical evidence of phenomena. Hegel pointed to the onesidedness of this approach: “Mathematization gives the matter only the properties of space-time” (quote from Prigogine, Danilova, Archinov, Klimontovich, Sachkov, 2005). Conclusion: mathematization pushes into the darkness the perception of the other, timeless and spaceless sphere, which is the unconscious. ASPP dialogue-based deep perception takes into account continuum of manifestation of internal system organization of the psychic which is possible in the event of dialogue following a “respondent”, semantics of his/her language symbolism. By the way, I. Kant condemned that science which does not enter into a dialogue with nature, and imposes its language to the latter. In productive dialogic interaction, a single act of behaviour (question-answer), with a code already present, becomes important, given the holographic essence of the other (unconscious) sphere – the partial, single “speaks” about the characteristics of the whole, that is available for perception in ASPP groups. 73


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It is interesting that S. Freud has also used the “other” term compared with the conscious, indicating that it integrates repression (Freud, 1990). We find the common in the understanding of the mediation issue that cannot directly touch the Id (as a reservoir of energy of instincts), it is inaccessible to verbal stimulation. Verbum may correlate only with that sphere that was formed as a result of unrealized Id instincts through the action of the Superego censorship. This is one aspect of the formation of the preconsciousness, which is in the field of our research attention. Against the background of transparency of the abovementioned thoughts that unite us with psychoanalysis, there is a problem left in the dark: what exactly aspects of the unconscious will be drifted “at the surface” in case of a spontaneous behaviour of a respondent? Let us try to explain. Experiences (feelings) facilitate the transition of the internal into the external. The satisfaction – dissatisfaction series serves as an energy stimulus. Experiences that appropriate to the satisfaction principle lead to relaxation, while dissatisfaction retains the potential of motivation for activity. Conventionally, satisfaction can be designated as reduced energy, dissatisfaction as increased energy, “begging” to the implementation in action. It is not for nothing S. Freud said that “we draw energy for creativity in unsatisfied needs”. Id foci repressed through the synthesis and integration with the priority of emotive trace dominance, influence the formation of such a phenomenon as “beyond the experiential”, which explains the preservation of energy potential of person’s unsatisfied needs. Therefore, the objectification of the unconscious in deep perception is accompanied by revitalization of negative and sometimes dramatic trace effects that find their symbolic and figurative expression in the process of creating the visualized presenters (drawings, stones models, sculpturing). The psychodynamic approach, pointing to integrity of the psychic, is far from perception thereof as “additive sum”. We are dealing with holographic integrity, and this is true integrity, which does not occur by means of “arithmetic” – a sum of its parts, and provides high-quality, system integration thereof. The unconscious can only be included in dynamicintegrity, which is reflected in each partial manifestation. Deep perception is aimed at revealing the meanings of these “manifestations” by their deployment in the temporal (time) characteristics. Conclusions Deep perception requires the consideration of the following: 74

Specificity of functional interconnections in the integral psyche (conscious/unconscious); Energy activity of the sphere of the unconscious, manifestation of which is possible in minimizing (levelling) the external stimuli of the ASPP participants’ activities in the situation of “here and now”; Archetypal psychic capacity to selfobjectification (sculpturing, drawings, etc.), with recoding the latent meanings into visualized form; Mediation “mission” of a visualized presenter between the external and internal aspects of the psychic (conscious/unconscious); Nature of dialogic interaction of a psychologist with a respondent that promotes emotional “revitalization” of a presenter as a prerequisite for its transformation into a mediator; Need to focus on the significance of the events experienced by a respondent shown in trace effects that define the impulse of responses of a respondent to question of a psychologist; Differences between two aspects of psychic reality (conscious/unconscious): their autonomy and inexistence apart from each other; Need for probabilistic forecasting based on probability of interconnections, mutual transitions from the energy (unconscious) sphere into the semantically understandable as a result of interpretation (explanation); Information privacy of presenters, which stipulates the need for their decoding in dialogic interaction of a psychologist with a respondent. Research perspectives are seen by us in the more functionally capacious and reliable detection of the “information equivalents” category as a form of information “merging” of two spheres of the integral psychic. References: 1. N. Bohr. Causality and Complementarity / N. Bohr // Selected Research Papers / Edited by I.E. Tamm, V.A. Fock, V.G. Kuznetsov (in two volumes). – M.: Nauka, 1971. – V. 2. – P. 204-212. 2. K. Lewin. Field Theory in Social Science / K. Lewin // Dynamic Psychology: Selected Papers. – М.: Smysl, 2001. – P. 251-270 3. I. Prigogine. Order out of Chaos: Man’s New Dialogue with Nature / Ilya Romanovich Prigogine, Isabelle Stengers / [translated from English by Y.A. Danilova; general editorship and afterword: V.I. Archinov, Y.L. Klimontovich, Y.V. Sachkov]. – Edition 5. – М.: KomKnigaа, 2005. – 294 p. 4. S. Freud. I and It / S. Freud. – М.: Mottem, 1990. – 55 p. 5. A.E. Sherozia. Dialectics, Complementarity Principle и Psychological Integrity Perception Problem: to Nonclassically Oriented Strategy of Scientific Experiment in Psychology / A.E. Sherozia. // The Unconscious [In 4 volumes] / [edited by F.V. Bassin, S. Prangishvili, A.E. Sherozia]. – Tbilisi: Metsniereba, 1978. – Volume 3. – P. 751-788.


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The pride of the nation

They are your talents, Ukraine

Then summer comes to life on the wall When a person comes into this world, one is already encoded to live in harmony with nature. The plants that surround him become an integral part of his life. For Ukrainians as a creative nation the flora world has always been of an exceptional value – it was glorified in songs, depicted in paintings, reproduced in embroidery and weaving. While communicating with other nations there was an exchange on the spiritual level: the experience of rendering feelings and emotions in art adopted. Apparently, this way the ancient art of painting without paints and brushes settled down and developed in Ukraine, but only with the help of dried plants. It called “pressed flower craft” and came to us from the Far East. It is about collecting and drying flowers, herbs, leaves, bark under pressure and pasting them on a basis. The author creates a flat image – ornaments, landscapes, still-lives, portraits and narrative paintings.

she came on a visit a year later, she was happy to see that her gift was still hanging on the wall, therefore her friends liked it. Then there was the fateful meeting with the master of folk art Nina Fedorivna Minchenko. She opened to Tetiana the wonderful world of pressed floristry, taught her the “language” of flowers. To the opinion of the artist, the floristry is the peak of popularity now more than ever. Flowers have always been a powerful source of natural energy. That is why they are especially attractive to us. The crisis of technological civilization that takes place before our eyes, the catastrophic destruction of the biosphere require immediate greening of our consciousness, and this is impossible without the greening of art. As none of any activities pressed flower craft helps us, urbanized people, to get a little away from the stress, time trouble, delusions. This is a kind of meditation. “Working with plants is a continuous pleasure”, says the artist. “All the feelings are recalled in memory that overwhelmed me during collecting “real colors”. I take not just a petal from the book, but the memory of the place where I found it. This art indeed borders on witchcraft as the ability to see with “the third eye” develops: this is the bush the leave of which were gnawed by a pest. But this is what you need for the next landscape - what a wonderful crown of trees can be made out of it! And with this red hibiscus petals I can make a charming dress of a romantic lady. We are all from childhood “The ecological niche of our spirituality is our childhood”, is convinced Tetiana. She seeks the origins of her passion in her childhood. Her father, known in

Floral soul Her collection includes over a thousand plants dried under pressure of Ukrainian and world flora – leaves, stalks, petals... Not all of their botanical names are known to her, but she knows what each of them can, what image is hidden in each petal, bending of a stalk, form of a leaf. It is important in pressed flower craft to listen and to understand the language of flowers. For already more than 18 years, the heart of Tetiana Berdnyk, known in Ukraine and abroad as an artist-florist, belongs to this amazing art. Everything started with the desire to impress friends. She started doing post cards, little pictures from dry petals. When 75


The pride of the nation

American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

his time as a songwriter and journalist Ilia Berdnykov, often took the girl with him in the country, taught her to see an animal in a cloud over the head, a bird in a piece of pine bark. Tetiana’s childhood passed among the green of Batyi mountain, in this “lost paradise in the big city”, among fragrant roses, jasmine and dogroses, a small orchard planted by her father near a normal 9-storey house. The Berdnyks never had cottages, cars ... But they had the opportunity to walk quietly through the woods, listen, enjoy, lie in the grass and watch the sky painting its plots with clouds ... Today Tetiana is a recognized master of applied arts, organizer and participant of numerous exhibitions. She willingly shares her achievements with all who care about the world of pressed floristry. So in 2003, along with associates, she founded a unique creative association “Palette Flora” which includes today more than 15 artists of the pressed flower craft from all over Ukraine. In the flower miniatures of Iryna Blazhchuk we can “hear” the whisper of the grasses in the variegated field. Lyubov Silchenkova combines in her paintings thousands of shades of leaves of various trees. And Valentina Protsko uses in her graphic pieces of work only one material - a net of physalis. Black and white portraits and landscapes from poplar down of Tetiana Mykhailychenko from Sumy are unique. Equally fascinating are mosaic pictures of different breeds of grain by the artist Petro Kozlovskyi from Odesa. The iconostasis of a local church is decorated with his floral icons. Every year the pieces of art of local artists are exhibited in the best halls and galleries of Kyiv- Culture Fund of Ukraine, the House of Scientists, the Kyiv City house of nature, palace “Ukraine”, Verkhovna Rada, the galleries “Lavra”, “Artist”, “Chocolate house”, “ Interior”, in the galleries of the Kiev Polytechnic Institute, of the University Shevchenko, in the office of the United Nations in Ukraine, in the Russian Cultural Centre. “Palette Flora” participated in creative festival in the city of Iuzhnyi, Odessa region, the city of Kaleliia in Spain. In 2011, there was a personal exhibition of Tetiana Berdnyk in the city of Brovary. And in May 2012, Tetiana’s work won the first place in the National Competition of exhibitions “Formula of hand”. Many of her paintings are kept in private collections in Canada, USA, Europe, Japan, France and Russia. Tetiana is a member of the Union of Journalists, the Union of Artists of Ukraine, an active promoter of floral art. She is a welcome guest on television and radio on major national television and radio channels. Tetiana is the author and heroine in the articles in popular printed media: magazines “Eve”, “Pleasant garden”, “Flowershow”, “Burda-Ukraine”, “Flowers of Ukraine”, “Polina”, “Power of money”, “Status”, “Cosmo”, newspapers “Segodnia”, “VV”, “Kiev’s Newspaper” 76

and others. Since 2003 Tetiana Berdnyk teaches an author’s master class. She has prepared over 200 grateful students. Tetiana is a volunteer at children’s Cardiac Surgery Center of the hospital OKHMATDYT where she monthly conducts art therapy classes with ill children and their parents. Handmade with natural material soothes psychologically and this was proven by specialists-doctors. Stimulation of nerve endings on fingertips responds as positive emotions in the human brain. “Indeed, the floristry is able to heal!” says one of the visitors of the master class. “Within 15-20 minutes of such work fatigue, nervousness goes away, head becomes free from oppressive thoughts”. Experience has shown that pressed flower craft improves psycho-somatic condition of a child in the pre- and post-operative period. A child receives positive feelings during work forgetting about his/ her illness, and during the recovery period he/she is tuning into continuing occupation with pressed flower craft. - “We conduct educational and volunteer activities: master classes, presentations, classes at schools and with sick children in hospitals, wounded warriors of ATO in hospitals. Pressed flower craft filled our lives with new, bright light which we are trying to carry to the souls of other people”, says Tetiana.


American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

“We are open for cooperation and ready to replenish our ranks with new talented artists-florists. My bookguide “Ukrainian pressed flower craft - living pictures” is ready to be printed. It could be a wonderful gift for school libraries, a good adviser for teachers and kindergarten teachers. There remains a “small thing” to print it in full color. But without the help of sponsors, unfortunately, it is impossible now…” The voice of Motherland Thanks to our unique nature, colorful flora and unique, talented masters the Ukrainian pressed flower craft has its own special, unique style with a touch of nostalgia in their national coloring. Emigrants often take these “live” pictures overseas. They say there is nothing that touches the hearts in a foreign land as a sprig of native heather or lilies, because if you let freedom to your bird-fantasy the frame disappears and homeland nature takes you into the warm summer embrace. But the masters still find most of supporters in Ukraine. This is not surprising, because the themes and plots of paintings are very close to each Ukrainian - the village where barefoot childhood passed, flower meadows, spreading oaks over ravines, boats, small houses, Carpathian Mountains, floral ornaments made in an unusual “plant” technology - exactly this touches the soul, causing a range of emotions - from crazy joy to light sadness. Maybe because of the fact that masters genuinely fill their pieces of art with a sense of happiness and love, many people visit the artist’s exhibitions. The popularity of pressed flower craft is gaining momentum every year. Both professional arrangers and ordinary plant lovers take an interest in it. Why? It is not sufficient to explain this is only due to fashion. “What concerns me”, says Tatiana Berdnik, “pressed flower craft is one of the most democratic forms of art! It does not require significant material costs, it is available at any age, has infinite plant base

The pride of the nation

for unique creative ideas - garden, meadow, forest, mountain, home, even water plants are at our service! Pressed flower craft, unlike ikebana, is kept for decades. Such pieces of work do not require special care, have an extremely wide range of application in the arrangement of objects and interiors. A master of pressed flower craft uses only manual labor that will be never and under no circumstances transferred to an industrial basis. This is a merger of craft and high art that requires special life philosophy from a person. From this comes veneration and high commercial price for such pieces of art which is an important part of success of a master. So, my friends, never hesitate about whether you have time for this activity! No matter where the fate brings you - either to your home country, or the exotic islands - just take with yourself a few old books. By the way, Ukraine is the richest land on the variety of flora. In the mountains, steppes and fields, and even in Kiev you can find everything you need for floral painting. You got a bouquet as a gift? Do not wait until it withers! Give the plant a second life as pressed flower craft, and at the same time you will fill your own life with a new content!” Copyright master classes, presentations, exhibitions: floristika.org.ua

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Genocide by Famine

American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

1932

r o . t c r o m o d o l o h . w w w

In June of 1933, at the height of the Holodomor, 28,000 men, women and children were dying each day in Ukraine. The land known worldwide as the breadbasket of Europe was being ravaged by a man-made famine of unprecedented scale. Stalin and his hangmen engineered it to teach Ukraine’s independent farmers “a lesson they would not forget” for resisting the collectivization, which meant giving up their land and livestock to the state (most of Ukraine was already under Soviet domination). Moreover, it was meant to strike “a crushing blow” to any national aspirations of the Ukrainian people, 80 percent of who were peasant farmers. While millions of men, women and children in Ukraine and in the mostly ethnically Ukrainian areas of the northern Caucasus, Volga region and Far East were dying, the Soviets denied the famine and continued to confiscate from Ukrainians the amount of grain sufficient to feed the entire population of USSR. The purpose of this page is to serve as a portal to the information about the Holodomor: this is a tragic story, and it’s important for today’s world. Only understanding the genocides of the past we can hope to prevent the future ones.

Голод-геноцид України, 1932-1933 g

The famine-genocide of Ukraine, 1932-1933

У червні 1933 року, в розпал Голодомору, 28.000 чоловіків, жінок і дітей в Україні вмирали щодня. Земля, відома в усьому світі як житниця Європи, була розорена рукотворним голодом безпрецедентного масштабу. Голод був спланований і здійснений Сталіним і його катами як покарання незалежних селян України, як «урок, який вони не забудуть» - за опір колективізації, яка означала для селян втрату власної землі і худоби. (В той час Україна знаходилась під радянським пануванням). Крім того, кара голодом мало нанести «нищівний удар» будь-яким національним прагненням українського народу, 80 відсотків якого складали селяни. У той час, коли мільйони чоловіків, жінок і дітей в Україні і в основному етнічно українських районах Північного Кавказу вмирали від голоду, Радянський Союз заперечував голод, і експортував стільки зерна з України, що ним можна було б нагодувати все населення країни. Мета цієї сторінки - служити порталом для висвітлення інформації про Голодомор: донести до світової громадськості правду про цю трагічну історію. Тільки тоді, коли ми осягнемо, як, за яких обставин і з яких причин міг відбутися геноцид у минулому, ми можемо сподіватися, що зуміємо запобігти аналогічним жахіттям у майбутньому.

In memory of Holodomor victims (Gorodishe Cherkassy region, Ukraine) 78

1933


American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

Witnesses language

Lupashco Yuhim, Lupashco Luba and their two teenage daughterswere killed by famine

Лупашко Юхима, Лупашко Любу і їхніх двох неповнолітніх доньок вбив голодомор

My father, Lupashco Ivan Y., was born in April 1918 in the village of Mliev Gorodishchensky district of Cherkasy region.

Мій батько, Лупашко Іван Юхимович, народився в квітні 1918 року в селі Мліїв Городищенського району Черкаської області.

Family of my father was big: father - Yuhim Lupashco, mother - Lupashco Luba, and five children - four sisters and one brother, my father, Ivan.

Сім’я у тата була велика: батько - Лупашко Юхим, мати - Лупашко Люба, п’ятеро дітей - чотири сестри і брат, мій батько Іван.

The most tragic events of his life my father considered the death of his relatives of hunger in the spring of 1933. Although father was a secret-service agent of the war 1941 - 1945, and was always in the thick of the military events. He participated in the crossing of the Dnieper, he liberated Berlin and Prague, has three military orders: two Orders of the Red Star and the Order of Alexander Nevsky: several combat medals, including “For courage” and, of course, he had seen many human tragedies and deaths. But he always said that the most tragic memory of his life was a famine of 1932-33 and that he had always before his eyes the picture of starving family: father - Yuhim Lupashco, mother - Lupashco Luba, and two younger sisters. I remember these moments, when my father, holding his head in his hands, remembered the Famine. He said that even when he was adult he saw his mother in his dreams many times. With pain in his voice he spoke bitterly about one of the younger sisters: “How terribly Stepanida was dying!”. She was 12 years old at that time, she was swollen from hunger, dying in front of him slowly and painfully. The horror pictures of her agonizing death, he could not forget for the rest of his life.

Найбільш трагічними подіями свого життя батько вважав загибель рідних від голоду навесні 1933 року. Хоча батько пройшов розвідником всю війну з 1941 по 1945 рік і завжди був у гущі військових подій. Він брав участь у переправі через Дніпро, визволяв Берлін і Прагу, мав три бойових ордени: два ордени Червоної Зірки і орден Олександра Невського; кілька бойових медалей, в тому числі «За відвагу», і, звичайно, він бачив багато людських трагедій і смертей. Але він завжди говорив, що найтрагічнішим спогадом його життя залишився голод 1932-33 років і що у нього завжди перед очима картини вмираючих від голоду рідних: батька - Лупашко Юхима, мами - Лупашко Люби, і двох молодших сестричок. Я пам’ятаю ці моменти, коли батько, обхопивши голову руками, згадував Голодомор. Говорив, що йому і в дорослому віці не раз снилася мати. З болем і гіркотою розказував про одну з молодших сестричок: «Як страшно помирала Степанида!». Їй тоді було 12 років, вона опухла від голоду, вмирала у нього на очах повільно і важко. Весь жах картини її болісної смерті він не міг забути до кінця свого життя.

My father, Ivan Lupashco, was 14 years old. Realizing that he will have the same end as his sisters, he secretly left the village at night, and went to Donbass. It was rumored that those who worked in the mine, were given daily food. Father crept through the cordons and forest to Donbass at nights. There, a teenager, he found work in the mine, pushing trolleys loaded with coal, and for that work he could eat. His two older sisters, Olga and Anna, also survived, they were adult at that time, and, the grace of God, remained alive. But many, many people died of hunger in that terrible time. Until now people show the place in Mlieve, in the village center, where was the hut of people who cooked and ate one of their children in 1933.

Батькові, Івану Лупашко, тоді було 14 років. Розуміючи, що його чекає такий же кінець, як і сестер, він вночі потайки пішов з села на Донбас. Ходили чутки, що тим, хто працював в шахті, щодня давали їжу. Батько ночами пробирався через кордони і ліс на Донбас. Там, підлітком, він влаштувався працювати у шахті, штовхав вагонетки з вугіллям, за що міг прогодуватися. Вижили і дві його старші сестри Ольга і Анна, вони були на той час дорослі, і, Божою милістю, залишилися живі. Але багато, дуже багато людей померли від голоду в ті страшні часи. До цього часу у Млієві, в центрі села, показують місце, де стояла хата людей, які в 33-му зварили і з’їли одного зі своїх дітей.

Unfortunately, the tragedy of Lupashco’s family is not inscribed in the Book of Memory, because at the time of the census the house burned down and there was no one of their acquaintances, who could tell the story of our family. And there were many such families in Mliev.

На жаль, в Книгу пам’яті трагедія родини Лупашко не вписана, тому що на момент цього перепису будинок згорів, і не залишилося нікого зі знайомих, які могли б розповісти історію нашої родини. І таких сімей в Млієві немало.

My mother, Lupashco Helena, nee Krischuk, lived in 1933 in the town Berdichev of Zhytomyr region. She was 9 years old and her sister Eugenie - 20 years. Grandfather’s work saved my mother’s family from hunger - he sewed and repaired shoes, although earnings were meager - people could not pay. The family survived thanks to the fact that during this time they sold their gold items – grandmother’s rings, earrings, and for this they were given some flour, cereals or some bread.

Мама моя, Лупашко Олена Іванівна, в дівоцтві Крищук, жила в 1933-му році в м. Бердичів Житомирської області. Їй тоді було 9 років, а її сестрі Євгенії - 20 років. Від голоду сім’ю мами рятувала дідусева робота - він шив і ремонтував взуття, хоча заробітки були мізерні - у людей не було чим платити. Вижили завдяки тому, що здавали в торгсин золоті речі - обручки, сережки, які були у бабусі, а за це їм давали невеличкі жмені борошна, крупи або трохи хліба.

Report of Lupashco Larisa Ivanovna, Cherkassy (Address and biographical data concerning the witnesses are kept in the archive of editorial office.)

Повідомлення Лупашко Лариси Іванівни, м. Черкаси (Адреса та біографічні дані свідків зберігаються в архіві редакції.)

79


Charity

American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

CHARITY Mikhail Shik and Bella Beletsky-Shik

Donated equipment and toiletries for the disabled and bedridden patients in excess of 1,000 dollars.

Donations were given to

Cherkassy Geriatric pension and

Central City Hospital â&#x201E;&#x2013;1 in Zhytomyr Dear Mr. Shik and Mrs. Beletsky-Shik, your donations help frail due to age and illness people feel your care and attention. Thank you for your ability to empathize and desire to support those in need.

We appeal to all not indifferent hearts! Letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s help disabled in Ukraine. Please participate in the collection of walkers, strollers, rollers, diapers and other things for care. (Please bring donations after the previous arrangement by phone)

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American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

Dear Colleagues!

Вельмишановні колеги!

Serial interdisciplinary periodical «American Journal of Fundamental, Applied and Experimental Research» / «Американський журнал фундаментальних, прикладних і експериментальних досліджень» invites for publication of works scientists who have scientific and academic degrees, degree applicants and students, whose scientific achievements are approved by academic councils/faculty councils of higher education institutions and have the appropriate expertise. The magazine was founded in the USA for the realization of goals and objectives of the organization «Ukraine and Ukrainians Abroad» and designed to guide the global scientific community with fundamental and practically significant achievements of professionals who are interested in theoretical and applied problems of the following research areas: Biological Sciences, Cross-Sectoral Research, Cultural Studies, Economic Sciences, Governance, Historical Sciences, Jurisprudence, Medical Sciences, Pedagogical Sciences, Philological Sciences, Philosophical Sciences, Political Sciences, Psychological Sciences, Social Communication, Social Sciences. Editorial Board is presented by scientists who have scientific degrees and titles in Austria, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Israel, Poland, USA and Ukraine. The manuscripts to the journal are accepted in English, and if the author wants, the article can be duplicated in Ukrainian in the electronic version of the journal (in such case author should send two manuscripts: in English and Ukrainian).

Багатосерійне міждисциплінарне періодичне видання «Американський журнал фундаментальних, прикладних і експериментальних досліджень» / «American Journal of Fundamental, Applied and Experimental Research» запрошує до публікації праць вчених, які мають наукові та академічні ступені, здобувачів наукових ступенів, а також студентів, наукові здобутки яких схвалені вченими радами / радами факультетів вищих навчальних закладів та підтверджені відповідними експертними оцінками. Журнал заснований у США для реалізації мети і завдань організації ”Ukraine and Ukrainians Abroad” і призначений для ознайомлення світової наукової громадськості з фундаментальними і практично значимими напрацюваннями фахівців, які цікавляться теоретичними та прикладними проблемами з наступних наукових напрямків: Біологічні науки, економічні науки, історичні науки, культурологія, медичні науки, міжгалузеві дослідження, педагогічні науки, політичні науки, психологічні науки, соціальні зв’язки, соціальні науки, управління, фізикоматематичні науки, філологічні науки, філософські науки, юриспруденція. Редакційна рада представлена вченими, які мають наукові ступені та звання у США, Україні, Австралії, Австрії, Азербайджані, Грузії, Ізраїлі, Польщі. Рукописи до журналу приймаються англійською мовою і, за бажанням автора, стаття може бути продубльована українською мовою (у такому випадку автор надсилає два рукописи: англійською та українською мовами).

The quality of scientific material and its presentation should meet modern international standards. Articles are thoroughly checked for plagiarism. Editorial Board takes articles fully prepared for publication and submitted electronically. The author is responsible for the accuracy of information, relevance of links in the text, adherence to the provisions of the law that protects the copyright and property rights, adherence to general codes of ethics and research ethics. Editorial staff reserves the right to amend the articles without changing the basic content. Accepted for consideration by the editorial staff: • Author’s articles that meet the demands of modernity, original text, the essence of which is submitted for publication in a special edition in an article for the first time. • Author’s articles that have been published in another periodical, the originality and authenticity of the text representation of which allows to recommend to reprint this article (if not restricted by copyright) that is reasonable in relation to relevance and practical importance of content of the article, the novelty of which has not decreased over time (if the research of other authors do not refute the results). • The original experimental works, which give a complete picture of the evidence obtained and contain materials that characterize their authenticity. • Methodical articles containing original methodological developments and ways of application in social, humanitarian, health, natural areas. • Review articles - in addition to what has been discussed before, and with the need of verification metatheoretical comprehensive analysis of new scientific research (opinions, achievements, generalizations). Review article should be devoted to the dynamics and prospects of development of a particular science industry or market segment / practice, cover and integrate the experience of several scientific paradigms / schools, or have an interdisciplinary approach. • Short reports about inventions or outstanding events in various scientific fields.

Якість наукового матеріалу та його подання мають відповідати сучасним міжнародним вимогам. Статті ретельно перевіряються на плагіат. Редакція приймає статті, повністю підготовлені до друку і подані в електронному варіанті. Автор несе відповідальність за точність надання інформації, відповідність посилань у тексті, дотримання положень Законів, що оберігають авторські та майнові права, Кодексів загальнонаукової етики та етики проведення наукових досліджень. Редакція залишає за собою право вносити поправки до статей, не змінюючи основного змісту. Редакцією до розгляду приймаються: • Авторські статті, які відповідають вимогам новітності, оригінальності тексту, основний зміст яких подається до друку в спеціалізованому виданні у вигляді статті вперше. • Авторські статті, які вже були надруковані в іншому періодичному виданні, оригінальність та автентичність подання тексту яких дозволяє рекомендувати статтю для передруку (якщо це не обмежено авторськими правами), що є доцільним у зв’язку з актуальністю та практичною значимістю змісту статті, новизна якої з перебігом часу не знизилась (якщо дослідження інших авторів не спростовують отримані результати). • Оригінальні експериментальні роботи, які дають повне уявлення про отримані фактичні дані і містять матеріали, що характеризують їх достовірність. • Методичні статті, які містять оригінальні методичні розробки та шляхи їх використання у соціальних, гуманітарних, медичних, природничих сферах діяльності. • Оглядові статті – як доповнення до того, що було розглянуто раніше, і з необхідністю верифікації, метатеоретичного комплексного аналізу нових наукових досліджень (поглядів, досягнень, узагальнень). Оглядова стаття повинна бути присвячена динаміці і перспективам розвитку певної галузі науки або сегмента ринку / практики, охоплювати та інтегрувати досвід кількох наукових парадигм / шкіл, або мати міждисциплінарний підхід. • Короткі інформаційні повідомлення про винаходи або видатні події у різних наукових галузях.

All materials are considered and reviewed by our editorial board, as well as independent experts prior to publication. By submitting a manuscript and an application to the: Journal@usa.com, the author agrees with the procedures of admission and review of manuscripts, that the Editorial Board put forth for consideration. The magazine «American Journal of Fundamental, Applied and Experimental Research» is published quarterly, four times a year, within the last month of the current quarter.

Всі матеріали перед публікацією розглядаються і рецензуються нашою редколегією, а також незалежними експертами. Надсилаючи рукопис та заявку на адресу: Journal@usa.com , автор погоджується з процедурами прийому та розгляду рукописів, що висуваються редколегією до розгляду. Журнал «American Journal of Fundamental, Applied and Experimental Research» виходить щоквартально, чотири рази на рік, не пізніше останнього місяця поточного кварталу.

More detailed information on the structure and sequence of articles’ organizing can be found on our website: www.journal.ua-usa.org

Більш детально ознайомитися зі структурою та послідовністю організації статті ви можете на нашому сайті: www.journal.ua-usa.org

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American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research

Scientific Journal

*

Multidisciplinary Approach

American Journal of Fundamental, Applied and Experimental Research Founders and Publishers:

Current Entity Name: UKRAINE AND UKRAINIANS ABROAD, INC. County: NEW YORK Jurisdiction: NEW YORK Entity Type: DOMESTIC NOT-FOR-PROFIT CORPORATION Current Entity Status: ACTIVE

170 WEST 82 STREET NEW YORK NY, 10024 Tel.: 1 (919) 536 9702 +380 (68) 701 71 50 E-mail: Journal@usa.com Web: www.journal.ua-usa.org 82

American Journal of Fundamental, Applied & Experimental Research. Issue: 1 (1).  
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