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American Indian

GRADUATE Spring 2002

Inside this Issue: •

John Rainer In Memory

Meet the AIGC Board

Tribal Leader Perspectives

The Gates Millennium Scholars

Alumni Profile

AIGC Student Profile

Table of Contents


American Indian


The American Indian Graduate Volume 1, Number 2

Volume 1, Number 2 • Spring 2002


A Publication of the American Indian Graduate Center 4520 Montgomery Blvd., NE Suite 1B Albuquerque, NM 87109 Phone: (505) 881-4584 Fax: (505) 884-0427

In Memory

John Rainer, Sr. Howard Rainer’s tribute to his dad, John Rainer

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Meet the AIGC Board

Publisher Norbert S. Hill, Jr. Executive Director

John Rainer—In Tribute by Perry Horse – A true native elder, education advocate, and nationally known tribal leader.

Perry Horse Consulting Editor


Jim Weidlein Production Editor

Dreaming to Achieve: Rainerisms at Work by Molly Tovar and Marveline Vallo – Anecdotal insights into John Rainer’s philosophy and how they guided others.

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Carolyn S. Tate Design & Layout

American University Fellowships

Cover Photo by Howard Rainer

AIGC Student Profile

Leslie Crow

AIGC Board of Directors Rhonda Whiting, President

A major in the Master of Science program at East Central University, Ada, Oklahoma, shares insights about health needs in rural Oklahoma.


Confederate Salish & Kootenai Tribe

Ada Pecos Melton, Vice President Jemez Pueblo

AIGC Alumni Profile

Steven Stallings, Secretary-Treasurrer

Barbara Grimes

Rincon Luisen Band of Mission Indians

An M.Ed. in Education, Barbara discusses the importance of giving back to the community.

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Shenan Atcitty Diné

David Powless

Gates Millennium Scholars-Into the Four Directions


by Michelle Pasena – An update on the Gates Millennium Scholars program.

Beverly Singer Santa Clara Pueblo/Diné

Gates Student Profile

Kathryn Shanley

Steven Yazzie

Nakota (Assiniboine)

How one student used goal setting and support from family and mentors to best advantage.

Louis Baca Santa Clara Pueblo

Joanne Sebastian Morris Cayuga

Continued on page 4

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Table of Contents


Tribal Leader Perspectives

The Honorable Ernie Lovato, Governor, Santo Domingo Pueblo, New Mexico by JoAnn Melchor – The first in a series of essays and interviews with contemporary American Indian leaders about education and economic development.


Guest Commentary

Bring Our People Home by Richard Fairbanks – On the need for new place-based economic development strategies to lure our graduate students home. Note: Richard “Dick” Fairbanks is White Earth Chippewa is currently on special leave from Sandia National Laboratories where he is a human resource manager. He has been there since 1979, and is now based at the University of New Mexico facilitating business development for American Indian Tribes.


The Career Vision Quest


Council of One Hundred Update

by Perry Horse – Career planning begins with a vision for oneself and builds on education, experience, and wise choices among many options and opportunities.

Giants and Little People by Vine Deloria – A call for information from those who want to hear some real stories about the long ago in Native America.


Healing — A Native Perspective



by Phil Lane, Sr. – (Yankton Sioux 100 Group)

A new feature about the activities of AIGC staff and related current events.

When asked what he would do if he won the lottery, John immediately answered, “I would make sure that each of my grandchildren have enough to complete their college education.”


The American Indian Graduate

In Memory…

John Rainer Sr. By Howard Rainer


ince the passing of my father, John Rainer Sr., I have had time to reflect on my father’s work, his influence as a father, and his contribution to Indian education. His contribution as a public servant has given me a powerful example to follow. He was a man who cared about others and instilled this worthy value in our family. I marvel at what his unselfishness accomplished for our tribe and all people regardless of color or nationality. His impact in Indian education is inspiring. Today there are many Native American men and women who are now serving their communities and tribes because they were able to receive financial assistance while in graduate school. My father, along with others tried with total commitment to ensure that there would be help for

those daring Indian people willing to pay the price to attain a good education. His vision was to see our people progress and have opportunities in this nation. His efforts were not in vain. I have met many grateful Indian men and women who are now in positions of power and influence in Indian America. As a son, I relish the times spent with my father sitting around the drum singing our tribal songs. I find myself singing those songs now, yearning to have him sit near me and hearing his assuring voice. His influence, his love, and his impact upon my life I want to share with many more Native American communities in the future. My tribute to my father’s legacy is to serve others as the Creator God has admonished all of us to do! ✦

Right: John Rainer with grandchildren

Above: John Rainer and granddaughter at Taos Pueblo Right: The Rainer Family

The American Indian Graduate


Meet the AIGC Board Rhonda Whiting (Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes) Rhonda Whiting is the mother of three daughters and grandmother of two grandchildren, Isaiah and Adrianna. Rhonda has received three degrees from the University of Montana: a BA in Elementary Education, Masters of Education with a focus on reading and a Juris Doctorate. She has taught kindergarten, middle school, high school and at the university level, and has served as Legal Counsel for her Tribe. She was the first Native American political Director for the Rhonda Whiting Democratic National Committee, and coordinated the Indian Vote nationally for the Clinton/Gore ticket in 1996. Rhonda owned and operated WANZI, an Indian women’s consulting firm, for fourteen years. WANZI undertook a variety of projects, including strategic political planning on issues focused on Native Americans. Achievements of the firm included a National Legislative Education Project on the Indian Child Welfare Act and a welfare reform study applied to Tribes; more specifically, the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe. Rhonda has worked nationally in economic development and was appointed to serve as Assistant Administrator/National Coordinator of National Native American Affairs for the US Small Business Administration. Rhonda is currently the Vice President of a Tribal Corporation, Salish and Kootenai Technologies, Inc. The company reaches out globally and specializes in Information Technology. Rhonda is the President of the Board of Directors for the American Indian Graduate Center. Her e-mail address is:

Ada Pecos Melton (Jemez) Ada Pecos Melton, a past AIGC fellow, brings a distinguished record of accomplishment and experience to the AIGC board. She has received numerous awards for public service and is widely recognized for her work in the field of juvenile justice. Ada holds baccalaureate and master’s degrees from the University of New Mexico in Criminal Justice and Public Administration respectively. In 1991 she was a Fellow under the Asia Foundation Ada Pecos Melton


The American Indian Graduate

and studied indigenous justice systems in five South Pacific Islands. Currently, she is President of the American Indian Development Associates (AIDA), a technical assistance, training, and research firm. AIDA specializes in public policy development as well as research in indigenous methods of conflict resolution. This work addresses crime, delinquency, violence and victimization issues throughout Indian Country. Ada’s e-mail address is:

Steven L. A. Stallings (Rincon Luiseno Band of Mission Indians) Steve Stallings has extensive experience in banking and financial services. As Senior Vice President & Director of Native American Banking for Wells Fargo, he delivers such services to Native American communities throughout the 23-state territory of Wells Fargo. Steve is wellversed in business assistance programs that support Indian owned enterprises. He serves on Atlatl, a national Native arts organization in Phoenix and is a Director of the Ft. McDowell Yavapai Nation Enterprises Board. Steven L. A. Stallings He and his wife Peggy (Navajo) reside in Chandler, AZ, with daughters Stefanie and Celena. He is a business school graduate of Cal State Long Beach and the University of Southern California. His e-mail address is:

Shenan R. Atcitty (Diné) Shenan is Senior Counsel with the law firm of Holland & Knight LLP in Washington, D. C. Her law practice focuses on representing Indian tribal governments before Congress and Federal agencies. For over ten years she has represented or worked with tribal governments in litigation, business, economic development, gaming, housing, health care, education, taxation, infrastructure development, and Congressional lobbying. Prior to entering private practice she served as a law clerk and contract attorney for the United State’s Attorney’s Office in New Mexico. She is a member of the D.C. and New Mexico bars. She is licensed to practice law in New Mexico and before Shenan Atcitty the Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit, the Court of Federal Claims, The Court of Appeals for D.C., and the

Meet the AIGC Board U.S. Supreme Court. She received her bachelor’s and law degrees from the University of New Mexico, the latter as an AIGC fellow. She is married to Mark C. Van Norman (Cheyenne River Sioux); they have a son, Mark II, and reside in Upper Marlboro, Maryland. Her e-mail address is:

Louis Baca (Santa Clara) Louis Baca has been involved in education for over 30 years including the past seven years (1994-2001) as the AZ Site k12 Education Program Manager for Intel Corporation. Louis joined Intel in 1987 and in his 14 year career with the company has filled various educational positions including: instructional designer/human resource development specialist who developed and taught technical training courses at Fab 9 in Albuquerque, New Mexico; a designer and developer of interactive multimedia programs and systems for educational and marketing applications in Princeton, NJ; and a pioneer in the design and Louis Baca development of electronic performance support systems utilizing state-of-the-art PC-based digital video technology in Phoenix, Arizona. Louis earned his MA in education at the University of New Mexico in 1986 and completed the coursework on a Ph.D. in education before joining Intel Corporation. He is the recipient of numerous awards including: a Ford Foundation Fellowship to conduct independent study on alternative education programs for American Indian children; Business Person of the Year from the AZ Vocational Education Association; a Distinguished Service award from the American Indian Science and Engineering Society; and an Intel Achievement Award, the highest recognition awarded to less than 1% of the 90,000 worldwide Intel employees. A member of the Santa Clara Pueblo Tribe of New Mexico, Louis was selected as a consultant for the planning and design of technology applications at the National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Louis was instrumental in the design, development and implementation of Intel Corporation’s $2.2 million dollar Native American Initiative that provided the Gila River Indian Reservation schools in AZ, and the Santa Fe Indian School in NM, with state-of-the-art technology labs and educational programs, which promote technical literacy and the innovative and culturally appropriate utilization of technology among American Indian

communities. Louis currently sits on various educational and technology advisory boards including the American Indian Graduate Center. You may reach Louis at

Joann Sebastian Morris (Cayuga) Joann Sebastian Morris is the Director of the Pacific Comprehensive Assistance Center in Honolulu, where she directs the delivery of technical assistance services to educators in Hawaii and nine other Pacific Island jurisdictions from American Samoa to Yap. The Center is housed in Pacific Resources for Education & Learning (PREL), one of the 10 education labs funded by the U. S. Department of Education. Prior to her move three Joann Sebastian Morris years ago, Joann served as the Director of Indian Education in the Bureau of Indian Affairs for 3 years, and 2 additional years as the Special Assistant on Education to the Assistant Secretary for Indian Affairs. Joann began her career as a teacher and has been active in Indian and international indigenous education issues for over 25 years. Her B.A in Education is from the University of New Mexico and her MA in Anthropology is from UCLA. You may reach Joann via e-mail at

David Powless (Oneida) David Powless has extensive experience in management and economic development with expertise in contract procurement, marketing, sales, and business start-up. David has received numerous awards and wide recognition for his work in developing tribal and small businesses. He is a graduate of the University of Illinois and is a former player with the NFL New York Giants and Washington Redskins. Along with NFL Hall of Famer, Dick David Powless Butkus, he is owner and cofounder of BEARPAW, Inc., which specializes in employee benefits education. The company serves corporations, non-profits, governmental agencies, and Native American Continued on page 32

The American Indian Graduate


In Tribute…

John Rainer: In Tribute By Perry Horse


he vitality of the American Indian Graduate Center is one tribute to the life and leadership of John Rainer. The two will be intertwined in memory for a long time. Thousands of students have been touched by the life of this remarkable person. No doubt, thousands more will benefit in the future from the work he started back in 1969. That alone would be an impressive legacy for anyone. But John’s legacy goes beyond that. His life in totality is more fully defined by his family, his tribal community, and the land from which he came. As a tribal person, as a Taos man, he most assuredly would want to be remembered in that light. The Rainer-isms in the following John and Wynema Rainer pages provide anecdotal glimpses into John’s philosophy. It is abundantly clear that his beliefs rested on the bedrock of education; the need to learn and to set goals. Education was his lifelong passion. He worked hard to make sure that others had an opportunity and the means by which to obtain an education. It was an integral part of his personal vision. Across the broader spectrum of Native American issues John Rainer stood as a role model. He was active on the national scene and well-known throughout Indian America. He was always available to provide guidance and mentorship. Late in his life he was a respected elder; a wise spokesman for native causes. When John had something to say, people listened. In turn, he was a good listener. His countenance bespoke compassion as well as benevolence. Within that exterior, though, was a deep commitment to the betterment of his fellow citizens. Native people across this land look up to our elders when they are recognized as such. Simply growing old is not necessarily the criterion for such status. Rather it is the accumulation of specific knowledge, experience, and outstanding accomplishment on a consistent basis over time. Each native language has a word or terminology that describes such people. John Rainer was an elder. He was an American Indian. The lesson of his life is a lesson about ourselves. That lesson is that the native nations of this land have the ability to produce such a man. When we think about great Indian leaders John will stand tall in the ranks of those who preceded him as well as those to come. ✦

“Without an education, you can only go so far. Whether you choose formal education, technical training, or learning a trade, education will prepare you for life.” —John Rainer


The American Indian Graduate


Dreaming to Achieve: Rainerisms at Work


or millennia, American Indians have dared to dream, rejecting despair to overcome countless obstacles in their quest to grab the wind and catch their dreams. When the wind has blown the hardest and the dreams have been most difficult to catch, American Indians searched themselves for the strength necessary to continue their dreamquest, seeking refuge in the dreams themselves. This perseverance and inner strength in the face of adversity is our legacy, a legacy personified by the life and words of John Rainer. At a time when support and encouragement for Indian education was unbelievably low, John Rainer sought to create opportunities and encouragement for Indians to pursue academic study. Rainer spent many years in civic service to others. Through his efforts, over 10,000 American Indians attended graduate school. Rainer dared to dream, and when he reached out to catch the wind carrying his dreams, he caught it and held fast. We dedicate this issue of The American Indian Graduate to the memory of John Rainer.

Rainer’s Hope in 2002 Many of the dreams of John Rainer are captured in the “Rainerisms” printed throughout this issue. His hopes and ideals articulated in these quotes have helped many to catch their own dreams of a time when educational opportunity would become a reality for American Indians. Two of his most popular aphorisms are highlighted here. It is not by accident that these two Rainerisms should be the most popular. While each offers a different perspective on life, each paints a picture of optimism in the future and the importance of maintaining that hope. John Rainer spent his life believing in the abilities of others he helped. He drew strength from their confidence as much as they relied on his. “Education will reward you in ways you may never expect; ways you will be grateful for.” This Rainerism holds a special meaning for Trina Valeros (Cherokee), currently pursuing a Master’s degree in Counseling at the University of Phoenix. She writes, “One of my professors once told me that education changes the way you think and behave. I kept that in my mind but thought professors were too biased by their own success to make a

By Molly Tovar and Marveline Vallo

statement that bold. I did not think anything impersonal as education could change your personality in any significant way. However, I was wrong…with more information, more options become available.” For John Rainer, education was critical to a person’s personal and professional success. As Trina said, “with more information, more options become available.” In this statement, Rainer recognizes the scope of the challenge presented by education: that you must have faith in it. Its myriad rewards appear only after you’ve persevered and proven yourself capable of realizing them. Danelle J. Daugherty (Oglala Sioux), a student at the University of South Dakota School of Law, offers this: “I wanted to go to law school for two main reasons: to be able to support my daughter a little bit better and to increase my ability to work effectively in tribal jobs requiring more technical skill than I currently possessed. I was scared to move away from my reservation, especially since I had finally gotten to a point in my life with a little stability for my 9-year old daughter and myself. I knew law school was hard and the risk of failure and the resulting debt and shame frightened me.” Most students gradually come to grips with the academic and family rigors and realized that the impossible is possible. Danelle is now halfway through her law program and has conquered many challenges. She realizes she took a risk in reaching for her educational goals but has been rewarded in many ways and states, “my fellow Native students are like family to me.” Danelle’s experience is not unusual. Many students initially only see a professional reward from education, but come to appreciate the relationships fostered through their academic careers. Another well-known Rainerism that has inspired many to continue to catch their dreams is: “Don’t give up in achieving your goal. Keep reaching for what your heart is set on and eventually it will happen.” Tamara Clay (Omaha of Nebraska), is an AIGC Fellow from the University of Hawaii-Manoa working on her Continued on page 10

The American Indian Graduate


Rainerisms Master’s degree in Social Work writes, “I dropped out of school when I was 16. Eventually, I took my GED and started college when I was 18, with the dream that I would someday be a counselor or a social worker. However, things didn’t go as I planned and I dropped out (again). I worked as a waitress off and on. When I was in my late thirties…I made the decision to go back to school and finish my undergraduate degree in Psychology. With the assistance of programs like AIGC and the Omaha Tribe, hard work and perseverance, I was able to finally make my dream a reality.” Tamara’s story is not unusual; After an initial period of adjustment and shock, many students regain their perspective on education. Tamara’s dream is even more valuable because of the length of her search. Joanie Buckley (Oneida), a student at St. Louis University, continues her search, and finds strength in the Rainerism’s optimism: “I have worked in the international arena, and now I am fortunate through the auspices of the AIGC to return to academia and retrain on the latest concepts and strategies for international business growth. Along the way, I am fortunate to have my only part-time job as an adjunct teacher in international business management at the college level where I can share my knowledge and experience with others. My students fuel my passion, and I can contribute to their development, as I myself continue my education and follow my heart to unknown frontier[s]. Lucy Ramirez (Onondaga) attends Daemen College and has recently been nominated for the International Nursing Honor Society. She stated that her journey has been rigorous, difficult and stressful and realizes it will start all over again when she enters a doctorate program. “At 17 (1966), I entered Nursing school in Oklahoma. Immature behavior stopped my career goals in March; I would have graduated in May ’68. I blew my second chance too. For twenty years, I raised my family of five and worked as an aide in a psychiatric center. In 1988, I started picking up free college courses offered through the union, courses required for an Associates and Nursing. At first, I didn’t think I could apply myself after all these years, but I really enjoyed being back in school, so much so I entered Nursing school again and became a registered nurse in 1993, at age 45. In 1998, I earned my Bachelor’s degree and on April 17, I will defend my thesis and graduate with my Master’s in Nursing in May”


The American Indian Graduate

Not surprisingly some students begin to reassess their futures after realizing the true nature and potential of college. Students are often surprised and even overwhelmed by the academic expectations. Again, Rainer acknowledges this potential obstacle, but tempers it with his belief in the innate confidence of the individual. He knew that once we realize we want something bad enough, we can achieve it.

Building on Rainer’s Legacy Catching our academic and professional dreams requires support from many sources. Financial encouragement is available from agencies such as AIGC, but financial assistance is just one kind of support necessary to achieve success. There are many support areas our educational system must address. Areas of support that are easily identified but which we must continually remind ourselves of are: • The need for talent development. Talent is not something inherent, but must be nurtured and grown to its fullest. Many of our most talented graduates are not the ones who were viewed as the most talented at the inception of their programs. • The need for substantial, constant encouragement. To help ensure students’ academic success, friends, educators, and families must provide a support system. Many Indian students do not have educational role models among their extended families, which often makes it more difficult for them to visualize academic success. • The need for guidance while preparing for an educational program. Some American Indian students have little experience in taking entrance exams, building vitas, seeking financial assistance, and preparing applications. Investing, however modestly, in efforts to guide students can provide an enormous return in their ability to continue their education. • The need for retention efforts. Institutions seeking to support American Indian students must make a continuous effort to provide them with the mentoring and advising that helps them remain focused on their dreams. Following the dreams of John Rainer, the AIGC has thrived in its support of many American Indian students in the last several decades. However, statistics continue to show that under-representation of American Indians in higher education continues to remain as a challenge to be overcome. Only by partnerships among organizations like AIGC, Indian communities, and higher education institutions can we help more students to catch their dreams of a new reality for Indian people. ✦



O N , D C

OF INTERNATIONAL SERVICE SCHOOL A M E R I C A N U N I V E R S I T Y The School of International Service at American University offers the Ph.D. in International Relations as well as professionally oriented master’s degrees in the following fields of study: Comparative and Regional Studies Environmental Policy International Communication International Development International Economic Policy International Peace and Conflict Resolution International Politics United States Foreign Policy M.A. in International Affairs/M.B.A. In addition, the School of International Service and American University offer unique learning opportunities for undergraduate students, including: B.A. in International Relations B.A. in Language and Area Studies Washington Internship for Native Students Financial aid is available for all programs including the Lou Torres Graduate Fellowships for Native American Students at the master’s degree level. For more information contact: School of International Service, American University 4400 Massachusetts Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20016-8071 Phone: 202-885-1600 Web:

American University is an equal employment opportunity/affirmative action university.

Graduate Fellowships

American University Graduate Offers Fellowships in International Relations for Native Americans By Louis W. Goodman, Ph. D. Dean of the School of International Service, American University

Announcement of the Lou Torres Graduate Fellowships In October 2001, as Dean of the School of International Service (SIS), I was pleased to announce the establishment of the Lou Torres Graduate Fellowships for Native American students attending SIS at American University in Washington, D.C. The Torres Fellowships for Native Americans studying in International Relations at the graduate level are intended to help Native Americans and their communities respond to the challenges produced by the fast-moving globalized world of the 21st century including sovereignty and economic stability. In speaking of these fellowships, Mr. Torres stresses how critical it is for young Native American people to overcome fear of the unknown and to apply themselves with bravery and intelligence to shape a future for themselves and their communities.

Lou Torres — A Role Model These fellowships recognize the outstanding achievements of Mr. Guadalupe “Lou” Torres. Lou Torres is a member of the White Mountain Apache Nation. He served as one of the first Native American fighter pilots in the United States Navy, then went on to enjoy a highly successful career as an outstanding electrical engineer, and became an active businessman and highly successful entrepreneur. Mr. Torres served as a chief naval aviation pilot from 1941 to 1962, flying combat missions in World War II and the Korean conflict. Overcoming fear was critical for him again later in pursuit of his degree in electrical engineering from the University of CaliforniaIrvine. Following military service and academic study, he was a field engineer at Lockheed Corporation before becoming President and CEO of his own firm, Systems Integration and Research, Inc. He retired from SIR, Inc. in January, 2001, and now directs several new enterprises including Sage Spirit, a Native American Art and Artifact business emphasizing fair trade for tribally produced works of art and craft (see He resides in Rhode Island with his wife, Barbara, and travels extensively in connection with his new business ventures.

The Torres Fellowships — A Vision of the Future The Lou Torres Graduate Fellowships for Native American students are part of comprehensive efforts by American University to be as inclusive as possible in the diversity of its student body and its programs. Already, SIS’s student body and faculty come from more than 150 countries throughout the world. Many Native American students have attended SIS, and it is a natural step therefore to include more Native American students, leaders, and cultural experiences. The emphasis of the Torres Fellowships and of the School of International Service is on service to communities, nations, and unique cultures – learning, then giving back. These Fellowships will introduce Native American students to leadership pathways in the area of international affairs. Students will be empowered to help shape the growing influence of their own cultures in national and world politics, understand and expand the role of Native American peoples in the international arena. Most important, the fellowships allow young people from native cultures the opportunity to contribute to the future sustainability of their nations. This will be perhaps the most significant and difficult goal to achieve.

WINS program for Undergraduates Currently, American University offers an undergraduate summer and semester internship program, the Washington Internships for Native Students (WINS). For the past nine years, American University has brought undergraduate students from tribal colleges and other universities to its special WINS program. WINS is administered as part of the Washington Semester Program, the premier experiential learning program of its kind in the country, and admits 100 undergraduate Native American students in summer sessions plus 15 fulltime undergraduate students in each fall and spring semester in Washington. The WINS program provides full scholarships to admitted students including all costs of tuition, housing, meals, transportation and cash stipend. WINS is designed to give American Indian students the chance to study issues Continued on page 30


The American Indian Graduate

AIGC Student Profile

Leslie Crow (Muscogee Creek Nation) M.S. Human Resources and Counseling East Central University, Ada, Oklahoma


ducation has always been valued highly in Leslie Crow’s family. Her mother, Shelly Crow is a Registered Nurse and has a Master’s degree in Nursing. Her father, John, also has Master’s degrees in Business Administration and Public Health. As she was growing up, Leslie never thought for one minute, that she would not go to college. Her parents inspired her to pursue her Master’s degree. Leslie is a current American Indian Graduate Center fellow and is in the Human Resources and Counseling Master of Science program at East Central University in Ada, Oklahoma. She also works at the Eastern Oklahoma Youth Services program and her employer has allowed her to work flexible hours so she can attend classes and school-related activities. She is married to Mark Taylor and they have two children, Morgan and John. Leslie is determined to complete her Master’s degree; she currently maintains a 3.9 grade point average in addition to her job and family responsibilities. She is planning to graduate in December 2002. Shortly after graduation, she will test for the therapist license, Licensed Professional Counselor (LPC). Leslie plans to give back to her community when she completes her Master’s Degree. She feels that there is a great need for providing prevention, mental health, and social services in her family’s home community in rural southeastern Oklahoma. Leslie states that when mental health laws started changing, it greatly reduced the availability of services, mainly in rural areas. Poverty, domestic violence, mental illness, substance abuse and other problems are prevalent in rural Oklahoma. In 1995, her brother, John, was killed in an auto-pedestrian accident. In his memory, her parents formed the John Crow IV Memorial Foundation. It is a non-profit organization that started by awarding scholarships to Native American athletes. She is a board member of this foundation and is

Leslie Crow

also the mental health coordinator for some of the programs. She says that with her Masters degree, she will also increase her knowledge and abilities so she can do more work for the Foundation. Leslie feels that the American Indian Graduate Center has been a wonderful resource in furthering her education. She states “AIGC is helping me to improve my job marketability, my income, my children’s futures, and my self-esteem. I would say AIGC has had an incredible impact in my life.” Leslie would like to commend and congratulate anyone who is working towards a college degree. She says “Native Americans are very under-represented in most professional areas. I strongly encourage those pursuing undergraduate degrees to continue their education at some point. It is important not to get “burnt out” on school, that education is very valuable and rewarding. At the risk of sounding like a cliché, "if I can do it, anyone can do it.” ✦

“Education will reward you in ways you may never expect; ways you will be grateful for.” —John Rainer The American Indian Graduate


Alumni Profile

Barbara Grimes (San Felipe Pueblo) M.Ed. Indian Education, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona


arbara’s commitment to American Indian students is evident as she talks about her current position as the American Indian Educational Outreach coordinator for the Los Alamos National Laboratory. She enjoys working with youth to help them find scholarships and learn about other educational programs and opportunities. She feels that with the kind of outreach she is doing, she is giving back to community. In the past fifteen years, her jobs have included working with tribal communities and American Indian youth from elementary school through college. Barbara is from San Felipe Pueblo and is an alumna of the American Indian Graduate Center (AIGC). She received her B.S. in Elementary Education from the University of New Mexico and learned of the graduate program at Arizona State in Tempe. She applied to AIGC during the time when John Rainer was the director of the organization. She was inspired to go to graduate school and felt that it was a great opportunity for her. With her motivation and commitment to attend graduate school and with assistance from AIGC, she received her M.Ed. in Indian Education. In her current job, she works with numerous Indian education programs and organizations; she recruits and places American Indian students in Los Alamos Laboratory's student and employment programs. She also coordinates workshops annually on American Indian culture,

Barbara Grimes

history, tribal sovereignty, and tribal government structures. She has given back to community through her work with youth and through contributions to AIGC. She feels that “AIGC is a great resource for scholarships and other resource information.” When asked what she would like to tell other AIGC alumni, she said, “I would encourage the alumni to work with American Indian students and provide support and opportunities for them, as the students look to us as role models.” ✦

“Don’t give up in achieving your goal. Keep reaching for what your heart is set on and eventually it will happen.” —John Rainer Christa Moya, Michael V. and Michelle Pasena


The American Indian Graduate

The Key to a Bright Future . . . The Minority Scientists Network

The American Association for the Advancement of Science’s online career development magazine Next Wave ( and its Directorate for Education and Human Resources Programs are teamed together to address the problem of recruiting and retaining minority science students. The online community features role model essays offering personal testimonials and career advice, profiles of effective mentors, live chats, a listserv to match students with faculty looking for interns and a database of funding opportunities!

Science’s Next Wave is a weekly online publication dedicated to career development and job market trends for early career scientists. All of the articles, written by experts and role models from the international scientific community, seek to prepare Next Wave readers for today’s ever-changing employment market. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF SCIENCE

Whether you are planning a career in academia or want to explore other options, Next Wave will help guide you in the right direction. Log on today and find out what many other early career scientists have already discovered.


Gates Millennium Update

Gates Millennium Scholars

Into the Four Directions


hroughout history our Indian ancestors developed some very effective methods of gathering and disseminating information. For example, tribes who lived on the mesas of northern Arizona would send explorers out in all four directions for such purposes. They were referred to as runners. Those runners would return with vital information about new technologies, tools, food sources, and so forth. It was our way of ensuring survival and maintaining our way of life. Similarly, the Outreach Department at the American Indian Graduate Center (AIGC) is working diligently to gather and disseminate information for our students. Such information will help them develop strategies for making the transition to college as well as strategies for successfully completing their programs of study. Having just completed our first year of operation, we would like to share some of what we have learned and done in terms of program activities, needs of Indian communities, ways that higher education practitioners and others can help, and the expected “ROI”, return on investment. Our first priority was to implement an intensive outreach effort—literally in all the four directions—to disseminate information about the Gates Millennium Scholars Program. Its purpose was to generate as many applications as possible from the various communities and colleges involved. This intensive effort included the following activities: • contacted over 9,000 individuals by mail, direct phone calls, conferences, and traditional Indian gatherings, • conducted site visits to high schools and unversity programs, • initiated one-on-one contacts with potential students and provided technical assistance and application materials, and • conducted four regional workshops on financial aid throughout New Mexico.

By Michelle Pasena

and religious practices. While they are different, one from the other, there are similarities and needs among Indian communities as pertains to educational outreach activities; for example: • many students in our communities lack basic counseling services, • high school and college counselors need training to help native students, • outreach activities should include community workshops to disseminate information on scholarship and financial aid, and • support services for college admissions purposes would be very helpful.

How you can help If you are a working professional in higher education— deans, counselors, admissions officers, etc.—you can help by becoming better versed about the circumstances affecting needs of Indian students. You could attend American Indian educational conferences as well as outreach activities sponsored by your institution. If you are a community member you can help by encouraging Indian students to focus on their future educational plans; you can attend outreach activities and community Continued on page 18

Needs of Indian Communities Indian tribes/nations differ in significant ways from other citizens of the United States. Foremost, is the fact that native tribes are sovereign nations. The federal government recognizes more than 500 tribes as such and they each have their own language, traditions, culture,


The American Indian Graduate

Michael Pavel, Council of One Hundred member and a Gates scholar

Scholar Profile Gates Millennium Scholar Profile

Steven E. Yazzie (Navajo-Hopi)


teven E. Yazzie (Navajo-Hopi) began his undergraduate studies at Northern Arizona University (NAU) majoring in Environmental Technology Management. Steven overcame many obstacles in his pursuit of higher education including a long stint in the unemployment line after moving to a remote area of the Navajo Reservation to care for his grandmother. With few prospects for making a living, he eventually turned to an ancient craft that was taught him by his grandfather, i.e., the art of carving Kachinas. However, this proved to be an economically infeasible occupation, and Steven opted to explore other opportunities. He was determined not to become just another dismal “statistic” among a litany of ailments and adversities experienced by many Native Americans. Steven is convinced that one of the most effective ways of overcoming institutional and socio-economic barriers facing Indian people is to set an example of academic and workplace success. Thus, he set out to prove to himself and others that success in the non-Indian scheme of things can be achieved with hard work, dedication, and support from family and mentors. Two people who played a major role in Steven’s life are his mother, Grace Pooley, and Phillip Huebner, Director of the American Indian Program at Arizona State University (ASU). He enrolled at ASU in the spring semester of 1999. Steven has achieved a number of milestones, accomplishments, and awards including the following: • President of the One Nation Club at ASU’s east campus • ASU East Student Leaders • Arizona State University Advocates • Student Housing Task Force (a program of the United Native Development Corporation) • Navajo Tribal Scholarship (1986) • Distinguished service in the United States Navy • FAA’s Certificate of Training “Ruby Award” in aviation education • Fort McDowell Wassaja Scholarship recipient, and • Barrett Honors College, ASU East Campus. In the fall semester of 2000 Steven was selected to receive a Gates Millennium Sholarship. He states that the scholarship, “…afforded me the opportunity to meet and interact with other Gates’ scholars, who are committed to their communities and work to contribute to those com-


The American Indian Graduate

munities. And, as a result of the financial security of the award, it gave me the confidence to leave my position in Steven Yazzie aviation and pursue my education and extracurricular activities with full conviction.” Most recently, Steven has developed an interest in pursuing studies toward a degree in law after completion of his undergraduate studies. His vision for himself includes the opportunity to address the protection of tribal natural resources, promotion of Native American human rights, and accountability of the United States government to Native peoples. Steven says, “My education will help achieve a position where I can contribute to environmental issues, economic development, and development of Indian law.” ✦

Into the Four Directions Continued from page 16

workshops, and you can seek the support of tribal elders and government leaders. If you are a college student or graduate you can help by providing advice to younger people or by volunteering as discussion leaders in community outreach workshops.

Return on Investment Ultimately, we are talking about the betterment of Indian communities through the education of our future leaders. This will be manifested in many ways. One way is through the measurable outcomes of the Gates Millennium Scholars Program. We have preliminary data but the first year’s outcome is only a start. Another way is to monitor the results of AIGC’s outreach program and its effect on influencing the development of summer bridge programs, enrichment programs, and other student support services, especially in areas where they do not presently exist. And, like the runners from our past, we will continue to gather and disseminate information from the four directions for the benefit of our people. ✦

Tribal Leader Perspectives

The Honorable Ernie Lovato, Governor, Santo Domingo Pueblo, New Mexico By JoAnn Melchor This is the first in a series of essays or interviews based on conversations with contemporary American Indian leaders that pertain to current issues about education and economic development under the broad theme of “returning home to help our people.”


overnor Ernie Lovato is anticipating a meeting with the Santo Domingo Pueblo Tribal Council when he is asked to talk about his perspective on education and economic development. Mr. Lovato is resuming a fourth term as Governor for the pueblo. He is moving forward with new ideas and plans to help his community. The governor has amassed a wealth of knowledge and expertise based on experiences he has had away from home over a period of 12 years in the military service, his formal university training, and his professional endeavors as a consultant. Such experience includes being a spokesman for his people in the halls of Congress, serving as a trainer in native leadership, cross-cultural learning techniques, and developing skills training in specialized topics, e.g., “The Power of Humor and Praise.” His re-entry back into the New Mexico Pueblo milieu came when he was appointed as Secretary, then Vice Chairman for the All Indian Pueblo Council (AIPC). The AIPC is based in Albuquerque. His extensive background gave him confidence in taking on the responsibilities of leadership in the face of many challenges facing our native Indian people in New Mexico. However, he realized that he needed guidance from our elders. Governor Lovato recalled that, back then, the AIPC leadership comprised mostly of elders from the 19 Pueblos. From them he learned many important lessons such as the proper protocol when addressing Native leaders. He sensed that with all of his skills, education, and motivation, there were other areas in which he needed to develop as a young professional. The elders helped him to grow as a leader. They stressed the importance of maintaining a

cultural connection with “home” and its interrelationship with nature. Mr. Lovato feels that being an effective leader requires all these elements. Moreover, there must be a balance between the outside world of formal education and what is needed to maintain the cultural and environmental aspects that are not written in books. As Governor he is making education a priority within the community. He intends to create a focus group that will address education issues from pre-school to graduate school. He has set a goal of recruiting educated people; those who have the desire and commitment to work hard on behalf of the community and its youth. He wants them to succeed. Governor Lovato states that, “Indian youth should be encouraged to stay in school and focus on completing their goals.” Mr. Lovato insists that we as American Governor Lovato Indians need to be more aggressive in moving forward and being successful. The Governor states that, “Education and economic development are parallel in their importance to create better lives for American Indian people. Education is critical in furthering the economic development goals of Santo Domingo Pueblo. Our youth need to be prepared to take on future jobs within the Pueblo as well as outside the Indian Land. These jobs will require excellent communication, management, and marketing skills.” As he looks ahead the Governor has set goals to: • Create businesses on Santo Domingo Indian Land, • Build a restaurant, a Laundromat, and a grocery store, and • Create a branch bank, Continued on page 21

“Learn all that you can and be the best at what you do; in the advancement of your occupation you will be satisfied with the outcome.” —John Rainer The American Indian Graduate


Guest Commentary

Bringing Our People Home By Richard Fairbanks


s there a brain drain in Indian Country? Is our biggest export our own people—those in whom we have invested so much to become educated? Would our people prefer to live and work in their home communities? In most cases, I believe the answer would be a resounding YES! Our self-determination journey began over a quarter century ago. This opened doors to countless opportunities and challenges to improve the operation of our tribal governmental functions, hospitals, clinics, and schools, to name a few. Much success has been realized on these fronts. We have seen spectacular success, in some instances, in the area of economic development. Most notable are the gaming operations along with their spin-off activities that provide opportunities never before available to many Native communities. Non-gaming Tribes, too, have found ways of strengthening their economic bases in terms of well-conceived and professionally managed enterprises. Their success is reason to celebrate. Over half the Native population in the United States lives away from the reservations. Why? This is complicated. One variable stands out, however. We live in a country that functions on the basis of free enterprise. Competition is its hallmark. In my view, these are not necessarily foreign or negative concepts among Native people. We have fervently promoted a belief that education is the panacea. “Education, we proclaim, will land you a good job; you will be able to compete. Most importantly, you will be able to return home and help your people.” Now after thirty or forty years of promoting this belief, we are in a dilemma. Educated Indians do indeed find good jobs. They compete well. They just don’t come home! Yes, I know, some do. But I also know from thirty years of experience that far too many do not. The American economic system, combined with success in promoting education among Indian youth, creates “deals you can’t refuse” in many cases. For instance, the

American Indian Science and Engineering Society (AISES) has facilitated the creation of an amazing array of scientists and engineers most of whom cannot find employment in their home communities. Indeed, they are lured away by deep pocket corporations and public sector employers. Some start their own businesses. Bottom line: they may never return home to work. How do we reverse this trend? I have worked for many years alongside many talented and sincere colleagues addressing this issue. Many factors come into play. One of the most prominent is tribal politics. But that aspect may be overstated. Here’s why. When the fundamental economic system of a tribe is still “under construction,” as it were, it is extremely difficult to compete with the American system. After all, that system has a two hundred year head start. This begs the question: Should we fix tribal politics or try something easier? Tribes and rural native communities have recognized the dilemma outlined above. While I will always applaud the outstanding efforts of native education professionals (NIEA, AISES, the Tribal Colleges, and many others) and Tribal leaders, I believe a renewed effort and commitment is necessary to build Native economic systems. In fact, the groundwork is already being laid to support this next phase of native economic development. Here are some trends I have recognized over the past ten years that have the potential to bring our people home. First, many gaming Tribes have shown what can be done with wealth (capital) in terms of investing in education, health, and further business development. The key is creating wealth by owning businesses, not simply creating jobs. Creating wealth sometimes requires help from many sectors. Therefore, a second trend—one that I have personally been involved in—is to seek and build partnerships with other entities to either conduct business or gear up for it. For instance, joint venturing with other tribes, neighboring businesses, and municipalities Continued on next page

“Education provides you with the tools you need to succeed in life both financially, vocationally, and in your personal life.” —John Rainer


The American Indian Graduate

can work to combine resources and create synergy rather than having to go it alone or having to compete outright with those same partners. This paradigm is playing out in several areas of the country and has the potential to significantly increase the mix of employment opportunities in local native communities. Such opportunities often bring higher salaries as part of the mix. The third trend may be the most exciting. Remoteness or isolation from markets seem to have eliminated many Native communities from the American free enterprise system. Though difficult to overcome, we have seen a shift in thinking due to modern telecommunications, information technology, the internet, and other forms of new technology. This, combined with the emergence of globalization, offers native communities a brand new set of opportunities to not only close the so-called digital divide but to jump out ahead in some cases (e.g., wireless telecommunication). We continue to encourage our people to “get an education.” Then, to our delight, they do! In doing so, they seek a balance between their cultural needs and their economic needs. Such decisions are difficult. But, if we build smart economic systems, we can better compete for our own people and bring them home. ✦



This collection of ceremonial, social, and contemporary music from throughout the Western Hemisphere features 17 titles, including a Kwakiutl Ladies Dance, a Prairie Chicken Dance by the Blackfoot Crossing Singers, and a Navajo Two-Step by D.J. Nez. Selected by noted ethnomusicologist Charlotte Heth (Cherokee). CD: $14.00/Cassette: $8.50.

WOOD THAT SINGS: INDIAN FIDDLE MUSIC OF THE AMERICAS This album represents the first recorded anthology ever of Native American fiddle music, featuring 23 performances by Indian musicians from the United States, Canada, and Latin America. Executive Producer: Charlotte Heth (Cherokee). CD: $14.00/Cassette: $8.50.


Tribal Leader Perspectives Continued from page 16

• Build a new health center, new Headstart facilities, indoor & outdoor recreation center for youth and children, • Enhance the community through environmental improvement, a clean community is the key; this is a major emphasis in this administration. Santo Domingo is renowned for its arts and crafts. The jewelry and pottery trades, for example, have been handed down over many generations. The Governor wants to build on this reputation to promote tourism—a staple in the economy of New Mexico. Mr. Lovato encourages American Indian and Alaskan Native students throughout the nation to accomplish their educational goals and dreams. He states, “The Indian nations need to work together and promote Indian interests. American Indians need to have more representation in all professional areas. Indians need to consider running for political office so they can help make changes to benefit our Indian nations. And—most importantly— to never forget where they came from; that "home" offers teachings that will have an impact on their future and the future of coming generations.” ✦

Maximize Your Potential with a Graduate Degree from Northern Illinois University Quality – Over 100 areas of study, outstanding faculty and facilities Community – College town with easy access to Chicago Support – Fellowships and other financial support for underrepresented students including: Illinois Consortium for Educational Opportunity (ICEOP) Fellowships Illinois Minority Graduate Incentive Program (IMGIP) Fellowships Rhoten A. Smith (RAS) Assistantships Carter G. Woodson (CGW) Fellowships Graduate School Fellowships Minority Tuition - Waiver Scholarships

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The Career Vision Quest By Perry Horse


uck, I am told, is the crossroads where preparation and opportunity meet. Being in the right place at the right time. So what is it when ambition runs headlong into the real world of choices and options? Finding one’s way from the campus to the future world of work and career can be serendipitous. Or, depending on one’s field of study and one’s vision for oneself, the career journey can follow a somewhat orderly path as opposed to one that is freewheeling or seemingly circuitous in nature. The general course or direction in one’s life, especially in one’s profession, is the standard definition of career. Depending on age, one usually finds oneself planning for or facing a career choice, in the middle of a career, or at the end of it. Looking back on one’s lifetime is the point once thought of as “the future.” In that sense, I can now affirm what Yogi Berra allegedly said; “The future ain’t what it used to be.” The only thing we know about the future is that it cannot be predicted. And, it gets here real quick. Years ago, as a teen-ager, I stood in the middle of a forty acre cotton patch in rural Oklahoma. It was midsummer. The heat and humidity were stifling. I had paused to rest; to take a drink of water. The sand underneath my feet was scorching. Heat waves shimmered in the distance. The rows of cotton seemed endless. I think it was precisely at that point in time when I decided that the work of a field hand, e.g., chopping cotton, was not my first career choice. Other than that, I did not have a clue. But that was then. Nowadays, young people have an almost overwhelming choice of career options or possibilities. Similarly, numerous opportunities for scholarship assistance now exist for Indians that were scarce or non-existent up until about 1970. The trick is to link one’s ambition and training to one’s options for career growth. Self-help books are available in abundance along with school-towork programs, career counseling, job fairs, and internet-based job postings. Such sources represent the “how” aspect of getting through the career doorway. The first step, though, is to define the “what.”

Stephen Covey, in The 7 Habits of Highly Productive People, writes about beginning with the end in mind. For some, the end may be simply “getting a job,” which is understandable. Beyond that, however, one should try to create a vision for oneself in terms of career aspiration. We know from working in organizational development that visions take a while to shape in one’s mind. They take even longer to formulate into an articulate statement. At the personal level, one must rely on one’s intuition as much as anything else. Ask yourself, In the end, what would I like people to say about my life’s work? What contribution can I make—to my community, my tribe, my nation, my profession? For many young people, this is not an easy task. Standing in that hot cotton field so long ago I had envisioned myself vaguely as an office worker where the environment was cool and clean. I did, in fact, work in a number of offices and did a stint in the Army. By the time I reached graduate school I began to see a much larger picture and a possible role for me as a teacher, preferably at the university level. That is what eventually led me into a doctoral program. I did become a teacher but not university-based. Instead, I would up as an instructor in a corporate human resources department conducting research and training in management and organizational effectiveness. Teaching was my vision— the setting was unexpected. Among numerous Indian tribes—long ago—individuals often set out on solitary vision quests seeking spiritual guidance and inspiration. In sacred locations some were able to enter a dream like state whereby they received instruction relative to certain tasks, missions, or personal commitments. Similarly, it is customary in many tribes for one to receive a name in the native language that is unique to him or her. In tribal tradition these served as a kind of benchmark for future service or duty for those so endowed. Nowadays the vision quest may be less tenable Continued on page 24

“There’s a whole world out there. When you don’t work toward obtaining an education, you limit yourself.” —John Rainer The American Indian Graduate


The Career Vision Quest Continued from page 23

as a practical matter. But the idea of seeking or setting out the broad outlines of one’s future goals is still advisable. And, it still requires disciplined thinking. Once in the workplace, further career planning is usually guided by three questions. 1) Who am I? 2) How am I perceived by others? 3) What are my options? Answers to the first two questions can be most efficiently obtained via self-assessment instruments. Information on these are available in most human resources departments. The most instructive, in my experience, are the so-called 360° feedback surveys. These give feedback from one’s superiors, subordinates, peers, and family who are knowledgeable about the individual. Question one has to do with one’s talents, interests, and skills. Question two provides answers that most people usually do not get unless they ask. We all know what our driving passions are but we ordinarily do not know how we come across to others—how we are perceived. Such information can be very useful in helping us make any adjustments that may be worthwhile. Question three is simply one of exploring options, which could include leaving one’s current job or company for better opportunities elsewhere.

Native American students at American University


The American Indian Graduate

Research indicates that one tends to grow through four stages of development in white collar jobs. Stage one is the entry or apprentice level. Stage two is when one becomes recognized as an independent contributor in one’s own right and recognized as such by colleagues. Stage three is when one begins to willingly share one’s expertise and become a respected spokesperson in the profession. Stage four occurs when one exercises power and influence across organizational lines. One grows through these stages over time. It is important to note that growth through the stages is not dependent on promotion to management in the usual sense. Rather, it occurs imperceptibly. The late Gene Dalton, an acquaintance of mine, described such transitions as similar to a novation which is legal terminology for renegotiating a contract. One renegotiates one’s role according to the stages. Dr. Dalton was co-author of the ground-breaking book, Novations: Strategies for Career Management. Regrettably, there is no freeway to the future; no detailed road map. Instead, it is akin to making one’s way by general compass headings. By charting a general course or direction we can use our own ingenuity in making choices depending on available options and our own sense of where we would like to go. ✦

Council of One Hundred

Giants and Little People By Vine Deloria


any oral traditions of our people speak of conditions that no longer exist and creatures that once lived but do so no more. A close comparison of our traditions and the findings of modern science often shows that our people knew many things that science did not know until very recently. A good example is the explosion of Mount Mazama creating Crater Lake; another example is the insistence of the Cheyennes that the giant buffalo of the Pleistocene and the modern buffalo are of the same species. Our plan knowledge was superior in many ways to contemporary science. California tribes identified over 100 plants in the desert that could be used as food and medicines. New discoveries are changing the idea about North American prehistory very rapidly; the Bering Strait has been abandoned by many scientists as dates of human occupation are getting earlier and earlier. We should begin to examine ideas that are prevalent in many tribes and not yet conceived by academic scientists. To that end we are asking the Council of One Hundred to assist us in identifying elders who would know the traditions of their people regarding Giants and Little People. Consider the following: Some species of human inhabited parts of North America long ago, and, for the tribal accounts we have, were exceptionally cruel to our people. The Paiutes cornered them in a cave and smothered them to death; the Choctaws invented the blow gun with poison darts and killed them at night in guerilla warfare; the Delawares say that a disaster killed them and the mammoths they used to hunt. In the period 1920-1950, six skeletons of tiny humans, about two feet tall, were found in caves in Wyoming.

Authorities who examined these creatures were split on their explanations; some felt they were infants who had contracted some mysterious disease; others thought they were fully developed humans. The Crow and Shoshone have stories describing these little people, as do many tribes in the eastern United States. Sometimes they are described as having special medicine powers, and sometimes they are described as living the same kind of life that our ancestors lived—hunting and gathering. We do not take a position on the reality of these creatures in defiance of science, but we ask whether or not they had a physical reality for our ancestors. Many giant bones have been dug up or discovered accidentally in the past 200 years so there is a basis for asking what we can do to examine this fascinating topic. It is impossible for us to track down elders who might know stories of these people, but with the cooperation of the Council of One Hundred, we can make a good effort to locate these stories. Could each of you look around, ask people you know, stir up your memories, and help us put together a few names that we might contact for a possible conference on Giants and Little People? You could help us begin to compile a listing of traditional people who know the traditions and revere them. We already have enough people out there pretending to be Indians and offering everything from Atlantis to New Age meditations. Contact the Council of One Hundred at the American Indian Graduate Center. If we decide to have a meeting on Giants and Little People, you are all invited to attend and hear some real stories about the long ago. ✦

John realized that the world was changing and he needed to adapt to the demands of life. He began school at 13 and although he didn’t speak English, he studied until he could understand the lessons. He didn’t believe in giving up. Eventually he received a gold medal for the best academic performance and outstanding graduate of his high school class.

The American Indian Graduate


Christa Moya and Kathleen Dragoo at a financial aid workshop

Howard Rainer

AIGCS Outreach meeting

Howard University Graduate School A National Leader in Graduate Education • Doctoral/Research University-Extensive, highest classification of doctoral granting universities of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching • Nation’s largest producer of African American Ph.D. recipients • Multicultural, racially diverse faculty and student body • 27 Ph.D., 30 Master’s, 9 M.D./Ph.D. Degree Programs • Competitive tuition • On-campus housing with Internet connectivity • A wide variety of financial aid packages • Access to national health, science, educational, and policymaking resources



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We’re investing in the future of this community. It’s an everybody’s interest to make certain that the young people of today receive not just a solid education but also the community-based sports, arts and cultural experiences that will help them become productive adults tomorrow. We’re proud to invest funding and volunteer hours in achieving that goal.

© 2002 Wells Fargo Bank New Mexico, N.A.

Member FDIC

Healing – A Native Perspective By Phil Lane, Sr.


itakuyepi.” Some of the Lakota people know what this word means; it means “my relatives” in the Sioux language. Instead of addressing a group by the term “Ladies and Gentlemen” or other appropriate salutations, our people respectfully addressed them as “Mitakuyepi.” They did this because in their old aboriginal way of life, they felt related to everyone and all living things. They felt a need to be related to everyone, everywhere. These old people will tell you that no matter where you go in Indian country, you will always find relatives. I believe that all Native people have this beautiful idea in common, so I address you, “Mitakuyepi.” Our old people believed we were born into this world to enjoy every moment of it. They had proof of this when they saw the young colts running, playing and kicking; the birds singing; the little puppies chasing one another and playing, and in my Northwest country, the beautiful salmon and other fish jumping and splashing in the water. These creatures of course, do not have the reasoning of a human being yet; they enjoy life as the Creator intended it. Our people say that we are born into this world to fulfill a destiny and if we look to the Creator for guidance, we will grow and develop on four sides: physically, mentally, morally and spiritually. Our old people lived in their aboriginal ways, completely in harmony with nature and so they naturally grew up developed on all four sides. Now we all know that to grow on the physical side, we need to eat well, to work, to exercise and rest the body. To grow mentally, we must exercise the brain and learn the things we need to be able to accomplish whatever mental problems we face throughout our lives. To grow on the moral side generally starts very early in our lives by the influence of our parents, grandparents and

relatives. This, of course, comes when the responsible people are themselves morally strong. As we mature, we continue to grow on the moral side by being constantly aware of our actions and thoughts, particularly in association with our fellow humans. Lastly, but probably most importantly, is our growth on the spiritual side. At one time this growth commenced prior to birth. To grow spiritually is to develop the soul, the spiritual seed, which is the real being. This is an adventurous journey which we pursue throughout our lives until we go to the “other side camp” as is said by the old people. First we must recognize that we are all the grandchildren of Wakan Tanka, the Creator of all things, the Great Spirit. We must first know all that we can about our Creator. Much of this knowledge comes from those who raise us through our adolescent years. At early childhood we begin this development by learning as much as we can about all the wonders of nature, the seasons, and the teachings of our elders and spiritual leaders. We learn to love and respect all of life that we see in all of creation. The use of the Sweat Lodge and the Pipe are used to come into complete harmony with all about us. Through this we can come to a greater understanding of who we are and experience peace of mind and joy in living. When we grow and develop on all four sides, we become well-balanced human beings able to be positive forces throughout our lives. We can find true happiness in every respect – we are not lopsided people. ✦ Phil Lane, Sr., was born and raised on the Standing Rock Indian Reservation and went to Haskell Institute. He has lived in the Northwest for many years, working as a civil engineer while being a true traditional teacher.

John knew what it was like to struggle financially through college. The scholarships he assisted others with were his way of supporting students in their efforts to succeed.


The American Indian Graduate

Be the Face of America to the World The U.S. Department of State has careers in a wide variety of areas as a Foreign Service Officer, Foreign Service Specialist or Civil Service employee. We’re looking for people interested in managing and supporting the operations of a U.S. embassy, helping American citizens, analyzing political and economic events, and handling public affairs abroad. Student employment and internship opportunities are also available.

Experience the challenge and excitement of being on the frontline diplomatic team of the United States while making a difference in the world. As an equal opportunity employer, the Department of State encourages Native Americans to contact one of the Diplomats in Residence about the hundreds of careers available.To locate a Diplomat in Residence near your graduate program, please visit

U . S . D E PA R T M E N T O F S TAT E

The Opportunity of a Lifetime

American University Fellowships Continued from page 12

of interest to the Native community and to gain valuable work experience through internships in the nation’s capital. Interns are placed in a variety of federal agencies. The academic component of the program is focused on issues such as tribal sovereignty, trust responsibilities, education, tribal language retention, health and social welfare in Indian communities, and economic development. The internship is also part of a separate academic class. The WINS Program maintains regular close contact with all the internship sites and supervisors and holds regular internship classes with assigned readings and written work, designed to ensure that each internship is rigorous and substantive and promotes the greatest academic and professional development for each student. Numerous social activities and a summer powwow have become regular features of the WINS program.

The School of International Service Since 1957, the School of International Service has offered programs designed to encourage peace and human dignity worldwide, and thus the School promotes the concept central to its name: service. Graduate and undergraduate students, mid-career professionals, and ambassadors have been attracted to SIS for its special emphasis on service — learning much within their SIS studies and generously giving back to their countries and cultures. The School plans to strengthen this distinctive experience and to continue to provide flexibility as it encourages Native American students to pursue any and all of its programs. For students at all levels, the School of International Service offers unusual opportunities to study with distinguished professors in small classes, to study a variety of subjects of international and domestic concern, and to undertake internships and independent study that relate to the pressing needs of communities in this and many nations. Central to its program are human rights questions, cross-cultural study, peace, economic development, and nation building.

Fields of Study in the School of International Service With more than 100 scholars and practitioners on its faculty, the School of International Service is the largest center for international affairs education in the US, offering degree programs at all levels. The School has extraordinary breadth in its eight fields of study, all of which are available for Native American students including: Comparative and Regional Studies. Students compare and explore the inter-relationship between and among various communities, nations, and cultures. International Environmental Policy. Students learn the processes of policy-making through a concentration on political economy, international diplomacy, environmen-


The American Indian Graduate

tal ethics, sustainable development, and environmental justice. The Program's goal is to advance local, national and global environmental protection efforts. International Communication. Students learn how to help communities deal with the challenges of globalization. The program prepares students for involvement in cultural rights, national sovereignty, and global cooperation. International Development. The program trains students to participate more effectively in implementing and shaping socioeconomic, political, and environmental change around the world including small enterprise development, gender equity, and education. International Economic Policy. The emphasis in IEP is on real world economic policy and transactions among sovereign communities, international organizations, multinational corporations and non-governmental organizations including trade, finance, development, investment, energy, and natural resources. International Peace and Conflict Resolution. Students examine various approaches to peacemaking, basic assumptions about conflict, and application of theory to current conflict situations. Students have the opportunity to develop practical skills in conflict resolution and its techniques. United States Foreign Policy. The program concentrates on ten themes, including leadership, the role of small groups in U.S. foreign policy decision-making, institutions and procedures of the federal government as they relate to policy, and U.S. policies and practices concerning immigration, human rights, international law, and international peace operations. All School programs emphasize economic development and poverty alleviation, cross-cultural communication and communication technologies, complex emergency management, diplomacy and conflict prevention, negotiation between nations, and policy analysis including treaties and cooperation between nations. Most important, no matter what their field of study or planned occupational path, all members of the SIS community share a commitment to making a difference in the world — to taking action in a positive, principled way in this increasingly interconnected yet divided world. SIS is poised to build upon its distinctive foundation, and we invite Native American peoples to join us in a mission of vital significance in coming years. For more information about the School of International Service, please review our web site at or contact us by e-mail at or by phone at 202-885-1599. ✦


American Indian Graduate Center News


eri Walker (Choctaw) is taking a leave of absence. She has accepted an invitation to participate for six weeks in an ongoing research project of Donald Brightsmith, Ph.D., Duke University Department of Zoology. Dr. Brightsmith is studying macaw reproduction and management, and their utilization of clay licks—cliff banks containing clay which, when ingested, is believed to neutralize the toxins common in the birds’ food. The research site is in the Tambopata National Reserve in southeastern Peru, an area containing some of the most pristine and biologically diverse rainforest in the world. Teri is a birder and has been fascinated by the neotropics since childhood.So this is an opportunity for her to realize a lifelong dream. Teri is AIGC Administrative Associate. ✦


he American Indian Graduate editor, Dr. Perry Horse, participated in a memorial ceremony for the late Lloyd H. “Kiva” New, President Emeritus of the Institute of American Indian Arts (IAIA) in Santa Fe. The two-hour ceremony on February 23 was attended by approximately 300 people and featured speakers such as: Dr. N. Scott Momaday, artists and IAIA alums Kevin Red Star (Crow) and Dan Namingha (Hopi), as well as other notables in the Indian art world. Perry, a former president of the Institute, sang a traditional Kiowa memorial song. This was followed by presentation of the U. S. flag to Dr. New’s widow by an honor guard of the U. S. Navy. Dr. New was a deck officer in the navy in WWII. He was born February 18, 1916, and passed away on February 8, 2002. ✦


he American Indian Graduate Center receives financial support from alumni, special friends, contributors, staff, businesses and foundations. Special thanks are extended to all those who have sent contributions this year. AIGC receives BIA funding for graduate fellowships, but there is a continued need to raise funds for our programs and fellowships. So please keep those contributions coming. The American Indian Graduate Center would like to especially thank the following organizations for their support of our American Indian Graduate students: • Pojoaque Cities of Gold, Pojoaque, New Mexico • Acoma Business Enterprises, Acoma, New Mexico • San Felipe Casino Hollywood, San Felipe Pueblo, New Mexico • Tamaya Enterprises, Inc., Santa Ana Pueblo, New Mexico The AIGC made a presentation to the NM Indian Gaming Association and its members who wholeheartedly support the work of the graduate center. Contributions from the businesses listed above represent AIGC’s first ever support from these gaming tribes. Such support is vital to help in meeting our mission of creating selfsustaining communities through education. ✦

The American Indian Graduate


Meet the AIGC Board Continued from page 7

tribal governments and entities. David was instrumental in helping the Arctic Slope Regional Corporation to expand its services into the lower 48 states. Based in Anchorage, the ASRC is wholly owned by Inupiat Eskimos. At that time David served ASRC as Vice President of Marketing. His e-mail address is:

Kathryn W. Shanley (Assiniboine) Kathryn is an enrolled Assiniboine (Nakota) from the Ft. Peck Reservation in Montana. She earned her Ph.D in English Literature and Language Studies at the University of Michigan in 1987, with a focus on the study of American Indian and Third World literatures. She has published widely in the field of American Indian literary criticism, writing about such authors as James Welch, Maria Campbell, Leslie Silko, N. Scott Momaday, Linda Hogan, Thomas King, and others. Most recently, she edited a special edition of Paradoxa Journal of World Literary Genres entitled: Native American Literature: Boundaries and Sovereignties. Kathryn is also on the Board of Directors for the American Indian Graduate Center.

The American Indian Graduate 4520 Montgomery Blvd., NE Suite 1-B Albuquerque, NM 87109

Beverly R. Singer (Tewa/Diné) Beverly R. Singer is Tewa and Diné from Santa Clara Pueblo, New Mexico. She is an award-winning documentarian whose video productions explore the subject of cultural revitalization in Native American communities. Active in media for two decades, she is on the Board for the Chiapas Media Project and a founding member of the Native American Producers Alliance. Prior to becoming the inaugural director in 2001 of the Alfonso Ortiz Center for Intercultural Studies at the University of New Mexico, she was a public program specialist with the American Museum of Natural History, the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian Film and Video Center, and taught at Beverly Singer Parsons School of Design and at California Polytechnic State University. She received her Ph.D. in American Studies from the University of New Mexico and her M.A. in Social Service Administration from the University of Chicago, and her film training from the Anthropology Film Center in Santa Fe, New Mexico. You may reach Beverly via e-mail at ✦


American Indian Graduate Magazine Spring 2002  
American Indian Graduate Magazine Spring 2002