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2007 Buyers’ Guide

Issue 2 • 2007

Economic, Abundant/Secure and Environmentally Sound

In this issue... Climate Change Emissions Reduction Technologies The Growing Role of Computing in the Industry Industry Equipment: Changes and new developments

“Our future starts here”


NRG 398 American Coal 8-07

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Published for: American Coal Council 1101 Pennsylvania Ave. N.W., Suite 600 Washington, DC 20004 Tel: 202-756-4540 www.americancoalcouncil.org ACC Editorial Review Board Trygve Gaalaas, Pace Global Energy Services Janet Gellici, American Coal Council Jason Hayes, American Coal Council Rick James, We Energies Vic Svec, Peabody Energy Published by: Lester Publications, LLC 2131 NW 40th Terrace - Suite A Gainesville, FL 32605 Main line: (352) 338-2700 Toll Free: (877) 387-2700 President Jeff Lester | (866) 953-2189

Economic, Abundant/Secure and Environmentally Sound

Contents Message from ACC President���������������������������������������������������������������� 3 Message from ACC Executive Director ������������������������������������������������ 5 Message from ACC Communications Director ������������������������������������ 7 ACC Events������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 9 ACC Vision and Mission Statement���������������������������������������������������� 10 2007 Board of Directors���������������������������������������������������������������������� 10 ACC Member Companies������������������������������������������������������������������ 11 ACC Champion & Patron Sponsors���������������������������������������������������� 11 Climate Change

Sales Director Sean Davis | (888) 953-2190

Dealing With Uncertainties in Climate Change Policy: A rational risk management approach������������������������������������������������� 15 A recap of the USCAP guiding document, “A Call for Action”������������ 21

Managing Editor Bonnie Winter Fedak | (866) 953-2181

Emissions Reduction Technologies

Graphic Designer Andy Carney | (204) 953-2180 Account Executives Shannon Evans, Kari Morgan, Louise Peterson, Tom Anderson, Jennifer Shurvell © 2007 American Coal Council. All rights reserved. The contents of this publication may not be reproduced by any means, in whole or in part, without the prior written consent of the ACC. Disclaimer The opinions expressed by the authors of the editorial articles contained in American Coal magazine are those of the respective authors and do not necessarily represent the opinion of the American Coal Council or its member companies

Technologies to Reduce or Capture and Store CO2 Emissions������������ 25 Installing North America’s First Large Utility WFGD������������������������� 29 Activated Carbon Injection for Mercury Control�������������������������������� 35 Clean Power: New coal technologies providing fuel for the future������ 43 The Growing Role of Computing in the Industry

Leading Edge Computer-based Engineering Makes Coal-handling Systems Cleaner ���������������������������������������������������������� 51 The Industry: In the eyes of a new graduate���������������������������������������� 55 Industry Equipment: Changes and new developments

Advances in Mining Equipment���������������������������������������������������������� 59 New Product Development – Coal Car: The development of the RDL™������������������������������������������������������������ 65 Index to Advertisers���������������������������������������������������������������������������� 68 2007 Buyers’ Guide ����������������������������������������������������������������������� Insert On the cover: “Our Future Starts Here” – Training for equipment operators has gone virtual. Now operators can practice their skills in the comfort and safety of a virtual reality simulator. Image courtesy of 5DT, Inc., mining.5dt.net Photographer – Jaco le Roux Model – Liehan Korff

Printed in Canada Please recycle where facilities exist.

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A Message from the ACC President

Coal - Economic, Abundant and Secure Keith Drohan, ACC President & Senior Market Originator, Dominion Energy

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s we go to press with this issue of American Coal, the global markets are in a state of flux. Over the past months, the major indices – the Dow and NASDAQ – as well as investors have experienced a roller coaster ride of ups and downs. The Dow, although still strong compared with trading over the past few years, has been “correcting” itself and market experts are calling for several more months of ups and downs. Much of this instability has been brought on by deteriorating mortgage and housing markets. Several mortgage and lending firms are experiencing serious upheavals and some major firms are seeking Chapter 13 protection. Foreclosure rates are up over 90 percent from this time last year. In response, the Fed has injected money into the market and is cutting its discount rate to banks. Amidst all of this, there are still people proposing that we limit or cut our use of coal-fueled energy as a means of protecting the environment. While no one questions the need to ensure efficiency and strong environmental performance from our energy sources, restricting the use of coal now would be like throwing gasoline on the fires that are burning holes in our markets today. american coal council

Think of it this way: If consumers are already struggling to make mortgage payments and possibly staring foreclosure in the face, how can raising the cost of their monthly electrical bill help? Our country’s future prosperity is intimately tied to our ability to provide economic, abundant/secure, and environmentally sound energy. Moving away from our most affordable domestic energy options will only cause further economic disruptions. We can’t escape the fact that, as our energy costs rise, our quality of living decreases. Coal remains our single best choice for providing affordable, domestic, and clean energy. Coal is Economic Our society is demanding more and more affordable electricity every year. Coal-based electricity continues to provide stable, easily predictable costs. Even if the price of coal-fueled energy were to double, it would still easily compete with other fuels. The August 2007 edition of EIA’s “Electric Power Monthly” noted that “year-to-date through April 2007, the average price paid for natural gas by electricity generators was $7.40 per MMBtu”; petroleum liquids were $8.22 per MMBtu. In comparison, coal was less than a quarter the cost of either of these fuels at $1.77 per MMBtu. Coal is Abundant and Secure The North American coal supply is stable. At current use rates, the BP Statistical Review of World Energy estimates that we have approximately 230 years worth of reserves remaining. In comparison, oil and gas reserves are estimated at 12 and 11 years, respectively. Some folks are suggesting that alternative and renewable energy sources should be used in place of coal. Their use is certainly needed and warranted where it’s

economically, socially and technologically feasible. The reality is, however, that even with the increased use of alternatives and renewables, coal will still be needed to meet our growing demand for energy. Coal is Environmentally Sound As the articles throughout this edition of American Coal demonstrate, the coal industry is actively involved in developing and implementing new technologies that reduce the environmental costs of coalfueled energy. We’re addressing the issue of carbon emissions through improved efficiency and direct capture of CO2. And we continue to improve on emissions reductions for SOx, NOx, particulates, mercury, and other criteria pollutants. As research by Americans for Balanced Energy Choices indicates, coal use in the United States has more than tripled since 1970. At the same time, “EPA data show that … the average emissions rate for coal-based power plants has improved by about 77 percent for SO2, 60 percent for NOx and 96 percent for PM10.” The average 33 percent reduction in the criteria pollutants monitored by the EPA has been largely driven by our use of new technologies. Industry, government, and academia are partnering around the world to ensure that pattern continues. Our economy and our energy use are negatively correlated; when our energy costs go up, our well being goes down. Coal’s ability to provide a stable and secure energy source for the country contributes to a stable and secure economy. At the same time, we recognize that our need for affordable energy does not allow us to ignore the social and environmental costs of our decisions. As this edition of American Coal shows, by relying on our coal resources, we can effectively have our cake and eat it too. We can have economic, abundant/secure, and environmentally sound energy.  u 3


A Message from the ACC Executive Director

Things are Heating Up This Autumn Janet Gellici, CAE

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t’s late August in Washington, D.C. and while the temperatures and humidity have mercifully begun to subside, it’s expected to get hot on the energy policy front when Congress reconvenes in September. Increasing energy prices, spurred by tight energy markets and the hurricanes of 2005, along with the change in leadership in the House and Senate in 2006 have refocused Congressional activity on energy issues. In June, the Senate passed H.R. 6, the Renewable Fuels, Consumer Protection & Energy Efficiency Act of 2007. The bill increases the nation’s corporate average fuel economy standards (CAFÉ), sets appliance efficiency standards and authorizes funding for R&D programs, including carbon capture and storage options. In August, the House passed H.R. 3221, the New Direction for Energy Independence, National Security & Consumer Protection Act. The bill establishes a renewable electricity mandate (electric utilities would be required to generate 15 percent of their power from renewable energy by 2020) and efficiency standards for household appliances, lighting and buildings. It also authorizes funds american coal council

for research into clean and alternative fuels (principally biofuels) and establishes an Office on Global Climate Change. The House and Senate will meet in September to hammer out the differences between their two energy bills. Congress is also expected to begin addressing policy initiatives related to climate change. More than 50 bills and resolutions have already been introduced in the 110th Congress on this issue, with many more expected to follow. It’s unlikely the Halls of Congress will be cooling down at all this autumn. In response to the need for information to help support these policy deliberations, industry groups have been active over the past months developing reports and studies that detail various aspects of energy supply and demand. Technologies to Reduce or Capture & Store Carbon Dioxide Emissions – National Coal Council – June 2007 This report focuses on a broad suite of technologies to reduce, capture and store CO2 emissions from coal generation, gasification and liquefaction facilities. A summary of the report is included in this edition of American Coal. Facing the Hard Truths About Energy – National Petroleum Council – July 2007 This report examines a broad range of global energy supply, demand and technology projections through 2030, identifying risks and challenges to a reliable and secure energy future. It notes that while the world is not running out of energy resources, there are accumulating risks to continuing expansion of oil and natural gas production from conventional sources. These risks will create significant challenges to meeting projected energy demand. Betting on Bad Numbers – Penn State Study – July 2007 The results of this study were published in Public Utilities Fortnightly (July 2007) in an article by Penn State University profes-

sors Tim Considine and Frank Clemente. The authors illustrate how the Energy Information Agency (EIA) computer model used to calculate the cost of climate legislation consistently produces systematically flawed data, significantly underestimating the cost of climate legislation. The EIA model over estimates natural gas production, underestimates natural gas consumption by electric utilities, over estimates LNG imports and underestimates prices. The Power to Reduce CO2 Emissions: The Full Portfolio – EPRI – August 2007 This study shows that the aggressive development and implementation of a full portfolio of advanced electricity technologies could reduce the economic cost of cutting U.S. CO2 emissions by more than 50 percent while meeting the continuing growth in demand for electricity. The report presents a framework for achieving a 45 percent CO2 emissions reduction by 2030 for the electric power sector. Under the scenario presented, renewable power, nuclear generation, advanced coal plants, and carbon capture and storage would significantly contribute to reduce GHG emissions. These information resources can be accessed on the ACC Web site at www. clean-coal.info/industrypubs. You can also test your knowledge of climate change issues by taking a simple global warming test. You’ll find answers to 10 basic questions, including: • Is global warming real? • What’s the major cause of global warming? • How much have temperatures increased in the last 100 years? Take the test at www.clean-coal.info/ global_warming_test. Your knowledge on these issues will contribute significantly to the outcome in the current climate change debate. Get smart!  u 5


The Pittsburg & Midway Coal Mining Co. is now Chevron Mining Inc. More than one hundred and twenty years of operating excellence, now fourteen hundred employees strong. A company committed to safety above all else - that was P&M Coal. And today, we are Chevron Mining Inc. Our name has changed, but our values remain the same: Protecting our people, our communities and our environment that’s the Chevron Way. Founded in 1885, P&M Coal is one of the oldest continuously operating mining companies in the United States. Striving to be the mining company most admired for our People, Partnership and Performance, Chevron Mining Inc. is a proud member of the Chevron family of companies.

Same great company, new exciting possibilities.

Chevron Mining Inc.

Our Power is Our People.


A Message from the ACC Communications Director

Our future starts here Jason Hayes, American Coal Council

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ver the past few months we have witnessed an increasingly vocal effort to shut down or phase out our coal-fueled generation capacity. That effort is driven by a number of factors: the recent change in governments; the tragic accident in Utah; the climate change issue. Unfortunately, many of the efforts to end the use of coal are extending beyond reasonable discussion in that they are missing simple facts and offer no reasonable alternatives to coal. As the authors in this issue demonstrate, safety and the clean use of our coal resource are always foremost in the industry’s mind. Articles is this issue demonstrate that coal is an economic, abundant/secure, and environmentally sound energy resource and that through the development and use of advancing technologies, the United States has, can, and will continue to address the challenges that are being raised with regard to coal use. When left unanswered, the ‘reduce coal’ effort succeeds in glossing over facts with frightening headlines and misleading comment. Perhaps the most egregious example of this agitprop occurs when respectable media outlets use their editorial pages to publish inflammatory anti-coal rhetoric. For example, a recent Boston Globe editoamerican coal council

rial actually labeled coal as a “lethal form of energy.” The editorial went on to link the American coal industry with the poor safety record of a relatively uncontrolled Chinese industry, to attack coal’s environmental record, and then closed with this brash statement: “In comparison to coal, no other energy solution – not wind, solar, nuclear, biomass or natural gas – takes as heavy a toll in lives and environmental destruction.” Lost in that rhetorical flourish is the fact that no other energy source supplies the sustained level of affordable, secure, and clean energy that coal supplies. To provide some context, if you similarly compared bicycles and automobiles, automobiles would also come out with higher accident statistics and a greater environmental impact. Not surprising considering automobiles are used far more than are bicycles. However, given the incalculable benefits we enjoy from using automobiles, no reasonable voices are suggesting that we move, en masse, over to two-wheelers any time soon. Amidst the fiery rhetoric, cooler heads in industry, government, and academia are offering reasonable answers to the question of how we can continue to use our most abundant, domestic energy resource in a safe and environmentally sound manner. This edition of American Coal reviews some of their work. The first two articles consider differing views on the issue of climate change. Tom Harris and Dr. Timothy Ball, from the Natural Resources Stewardship Project, describe a rational risk assessment approach to dealing with climate change. Then I review the founding document for the U.S. Climate Action Partnership (USCAP), a cooperative effort by industry and NGOs to push for strong federal climate change legislation. Both approaches target technology as the key to improving efficiency, reducing emissions, and meeting our energy needs.

Moving forward, we consider the role of technology in addressing our industry’s challenges. Janet Gellici, ACC executive director, describes the findings of the recently released National Coal Council study and the potential for use of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies. Linda Lea, from Black & Veatch, shows how technology can bring about significant reductions in emissions of SOx, NOx, and particulates. A group of writers from ADA-ES considers the development of activated carbon injection as a means of mitigating mercury emissions. Brad Jones, from Americans for Balanced Energy Choices, enlightens us on a few specific examples of current CCS technologies. Then Lola Green, from Environmental Products & Applications, Inc., provides a quick introduction to the use of acrylic copolymers as a dust control option. Andy Marti, with Martin Engineering, describes the integral role that computing technologies now play in designing coal handling systems. Finally, we hear from recent university graduate, Robert Vaughn, and see, among other things, the role that technology plays in his day-to-day work in the coal industry. We then take a look at the role of technology in producing new, safer, more efficient, and clean equipment for the industry. In the first article, I consider the changing designs and uses of some key surface and underground mining equipment. I also look at how new technologies are being used to improve operator and employee training. Randy Thomure, with TrinityRail, then wraps up the magazine by describing the processes followed in the development of a new rail car. This edition of American Coal continues the industry’s tradition of striving to find reasonable answers to tough questions by considering the integral role that technology plays in making this industry safer, more productive, more efficient, and more environmentally friendly.  u 7


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Membership benefits include educational programming and technical seminars, advocacy support, broad-based networking, Web site,

Membership Coupon Join the 170 companies that recognize the importance of belonging to an Association that serves as the pre-eminent business voice of the American coal industry and advocates for coal as an economic, abundant/secure and environmentally sound fuel source. The American Coal Council (ACC) is an alliance of coal, utility, trading, transportation, terminal and coal support service companies, advocating a non-adversial, partnering approach to business. The ACC facilitates the lawful exchange of ideas and information regarding the American coal industry. It serves as a essential resource for companies that mine, sell, trade, transport or consume American coal. The ACC also serves as a resource for those wishing to expand or enhance business relationships in North American and international coal markets.

electronic and printed membership directory inclusion, newsletter and members-only electronic updates, database resources, policy input, referrals and discounts on events and industry publications.

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please send me membership information!

Name_________________________________________________________ Title___________________________________________________________ Company______________________________________________________ Address_______________________________________________________ City________________________State______________ Zip______________ Phone_______________________FAX_______________________________ E-mail_________________________________________________________ Mail or FAX to: American Coal Council 1101 Pennsylvania Ave. N.W., Suite 600 • Washington, DC 20004 • 202-756-7323 ~ FAX

2007 – 2008 Event Dates Coal Market Strategies October 8-10, 2007 – Tucson, AZ Coal Trading Conference December 3-4, 2007 – New York, NY Spring Coal Forum March 10-12, 2008 – Miami, FL

For additional information visit www.clean-coal.info or call 202-756-4540

american coal council

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American Coal Council 2007 Board of Directors

American Coal Council

Vision Statement The American Coal Council (ACC) strives to serve as the pre-eminent business voice of the American coal industry.

Mission Statement The American Coal Council (ACC) is dedicated to advancing the development and utilization of coal as an economic, abundant/secure and environmentally sound fuel source. The Association promotes the lawful exchange of ideas and information regarding the coal industry. It serves as an essential resource for companies that mine, sell, trade, transport,

Coal Suppliers Andy Cox Vice President Sales Rhino Energy LLC VP Coal Suppliers Bill Davison Vice President Sales & Marketing Foundation Energy Matt Levar General Manager Sales & Marketing Rio Tinto Energy America Coal Consumers Keith Drohan Senior Market Originator Dominion Energy ACC President 2007 Ken Jenkins VP Fuel Management Services Louis-Dreyfus Highbridge Energy Bud Walker Regional Vice President, Fuels Midwest Generation VP Coal Consumers Energy Traders Steve Miller President Coaltrade, LLC VP Energy Traders Dan Vaughn Director Coal Services ICAP United, Inc.

Transportation Bob Brautovich AVP Coal Marketing-West BNSF Railway Jim Garrett Plant Manager AEP MEMCO, LLP Danny Smith Senior Vice President Energy & Properties Norfolk Southern Corporation VP Transportation Coal Support Services Mike Durham, Ph.D. President ADA Environmental Solutions, Inc. VP Coal Support Services Kirk Weber Vice President & General Manager Norwest Corporation Immediate Past President John Ward VP Marketing & Government Affairs Headwaters Incorporated At Large Tom Vorholt Vice President Dry Cargo Sales Ingram Barge Company ACC President-elect 2008/Treasurer/HR & Compensation Committee Chair

or consume coal. The ACC provides educational programs, advocacy support, peer-to-peer networking forums and market intelligence that allow members to advance their marketing and

Thank You Editorial Review Board • • • • •

Trygve Gaalaas, Pace Global Energy Services Janet Gellici, American Coal Council Jason Hayes, American Coal Council Rick James, We Energies Vic Svec, Peabody Energy

management capabilities. 10

american coal council


American Coal Council Member Companies ADA Environmental Solutions, Inc. AEP Memco LLP AEP/Cook Coal Terminal Alliance Coal, LLC Alliant Energy Alpha Natural Resources LLC ALSTOM Power, Performance Projects Ameren Energy Fuels & Services Co. American Coal Ash Association American Commercial Lines LLC American Electric Power Arch Coal, Inc. Argus Media, Inc. Arizona Public Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative Benetech, Inc. BHP Billiton Black & Veatch BNSF Railway Co. Boral Material Technologies BP Energy Company Carpenter Creek, LLC Cargill, Inc. Center for Energy & Economic Development (CEED) Coal Marketing Company (USA), Inc. Coal Utilization Research Council CoalTek, Inc. Commonwealth Coal Services, Inc. Compass Coal Services, LLC CONSOL Energy, Inc. Constellation Energy Crounse Corporation CSX Transportation Dakota, Minnesota & Eastern Railroad Corp. David J. Joseph Company Dayton Power & Light Co. Diversified Energy Corporation Dominion Energy Drummond Company, Inc. DTE Coal Services DTE Rail Services Duke Power Company Dynegy Coal Trading & Transportation LLC

E.ON U.S. LLC East Side River Transportation Entergy Environmental Risk Management Consulting Ernst & Young Evergreen Energy, Inc. Evolution Markets LLC Fervim Ingenieria SA DE CV Fine Coal Inc. FirstEnergy Generation Corp. Foundation Energy Sales, Inc. FreightCar America Fuel Tech, Inc. Gainesville Regional Utilities GE Rail Services Glencore Ltd. Global Energy Decisions Golder Associates Inc. Grain Processing Corporation Great River Energy Hazen Research, Inc. Headwaters Incorporated Hellerworx, Inc. Helm Financial Corporation Hill & Associates, Inc. Holcim (US) Inc./St. Lawrence Cement Co. ICAP United, Inc. ICF Consulting Ingram Barge Company Interlake Steamship Company Intermountain Power Agency James River Coal Company James River Coal Sales, Inc. John T. Boyd Company Kansas City Southern Railway KCBX Terminals Company Kiewit Mining Group, Inc. Kinder Morgan Bulk Terminals, Inc. Koch Carbon LLC Lafarge North America Inc. Lakeland Electric Louis Dreyfus Highbridge Energy Lower Colorado River Authority

Luminant Energy Marston & Marston, Inc. Martin Engineering McGuireWoods LLP MidAmerican Energy Company Midwest Energy Resources Midwest Generation EME, LLC Mineral Resource Technologies, A CEMEX Co. Minnesota Power Mitsui Rail Capital, LLC Murray Energy Corporation Natural Resource Partners L.P. Newmont Mining Corporation NexGen Coal Services Ltd. Norfolk Southern Corporation Norwest Corporation NRG Energy, Inc. Omaha Public Power District Ontario Power Generation Orlando Utilities Commission (OUC) Pace Global Energy Services PacifiCorp Peabody Energy Pincock, Allen & Holt Pittsburg & Midway Coal Mining Platte River Power Authority Platts PNC Bank N.A. Portland General Electrric Powerspan PPL Energy Plus Pratt & Whitney PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP Progress Energy Progress Fuels Corporation Public Service Company of New Mexico Railroad Financial Corporation Rentech Resource Technologies Corporation Rhino Energy Rio Tinto Energy America Roberts & Schaefer Company Salt River Project

Sampling Associates International Savage Services SCANA Corp. SCH Terminal Co., Inc. Separation Technologies LLC SGS Minerals Services Southern Company SSM Coal Americas, LLC Standard Laboratories, Inc. Storm Technologies, Inc. Taggart Global LLC TECO Coal Corp. TECO Transport The C. Reiss Coal Company The Coal Association of Canada The McCloskey Group Thunder Bay Terminals Ltd. TrinityRail Troutman Sanders LLP TTI Railroad, Inc. Tucson Electric Power Company TXU Energy Union Pacific Railroad Company University of Kentucky - Center for Applied Energy Res. University of North Dakota, Energy & Environmental Research Center Upper Kanawha Valley Development Corporation URS Corporation Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc. We Energies Westar Energy Western Region Ash Group (WRAG) Western Research Institute Westmoreland Coal Sales Co. WPS Resource Corporation WV University, Nat'l. Research Center for Coal & Energy Xcel Energy Xcoal Energy & Resources

Thank You ACC Champion & Patron Sponsors 2007! Champion Sponsors

Patron Sponsors

Matt Paul President, Coal Services 414 S. Main St., Ste. 200 Ann Arbor, MI 48104 Phone: (734) 887-2053 www.dtecs.com

James Turner Vice President Sales & Marketing One Martin Place Neponset, IL 61345 Phone: 309-594-2384 x.295 www.martin-eng.com

Christopher Blazek Vice President Marketing 1851 Albright Rd. Montgomery, IL 60538 Phone: (630) 844-1300 x214 www.benetechusa.com

John Ward VP Marketing & Government Affairs 10653 S. Riverfront Parkway, Ste. 300 South Jordan, UT 84095 Phone: (801) 984-9400 www.headwaters.com

Marc Rademacher Vice President Business Development West 4665 Paris St., B-200 Denver, CO 80239-3117 Phone: (303) 373-4772 www.us.sgs.com/minerals

Terry Walsh 3333 Walnut Street Boulder CO 80301 Phone: 720-548-5776 www.platts.com

Stevan Bobb Group Vice President-Coal Marketing PO Box 961051 Ft. Worth, TX 76161-0051 Phone: (817) 867-6253 www.bnsf.com

Andrew Cox Vice President Sales 3120 Wall Street, Suite 310 Lexington, KY 40513 Phone: 859-519-3610 www.rhinoenergyllc.com

american coal council

Michael Durham, Ph.D. President 8100 SouthPark Way, Unit B Littleton, CO 80120 Phone: (303) 734-1727 www.adaes.com

11


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Dealing With Uncertainties in Climate Change Policy: A rational risk management approach By Tom Harris and Dr. Timothy Ball

Editor’s note: The issue of how we plan to address climate change is becoming increasingly important to our industry and is now impacting our every day lives. As we move into the fall ’07 congressional session, the word on the street is that the development of climate change-related mitigation policies will be a major focus for our elected representatives. Although the issue is diverse, technical, widely disputed, and increasingly political, it is still possible to focus on two responses that are being suggested by industry members. First, there is the rational risk assessment method that questions whether the science can be fully understood. Given the continued debate amongst scientists and policy makers, they argue for a restrained approach; an approach that involves voluntary moves toward efficiency and emissions reductions. This “no regrets” option is discussed in our first article. Second, there is the push to enact mandatory caps on carbon and to implement policies that require minimum efficiency gains. Where the first approach relies on voluntary measures and restraint, this option argues that the science is settled – or at least sufficiently sure that there is no longer any reason to delay – therefore, immediate legislative action is required to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and stave off potentially devastating changes in the global climate. This push to legislate mandatory action is discussed in our second article.

Tom Harris

Dr. Timothy Ball

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ew companies can afford to ignore popular environmental concerns. To do so risks significant damage to their reputation, and possibly their bottom line. This applies to issues that are based on reliable science (and that are, consequently, of genuine concern), those that are merely fashionable, and those that fall somewhere in between. Media, environmentalists and politicians have created a climate in which a display of “green credentials” concerning all categories of environmental issues is a crucial public relations activity for all but the most resilient of companies. Behind closed doors, however, corporate executives must differentiate between known, bogus, and hypothesized enviamerican coal council

ronmental issues. Such a task is critical to deciding on a cost-effective approach – both the projects to be allocated significant resources and how (or if ) these projects are publicized. Current concerns that are well-substantiated scientifically will likely remain important for the foreseeable future. These issues must be taken seriously and many require significant commitment of resources. Continuing to reduce air pollution and toxic waste are prime examples. Issues that are popular, but not substantiated scientifically are worthy of lip service only. Companies may still be legislated (or bullied) into considerable expenditures on bogus “problems,” but executives should not lend them support even if there are shortterm public relations benefits. The goal is to help ensure that public interest in spurious environmental issues dissipates quickly. Hypothesized problems require an understanding of the level of certainty in the underlying science. The likelihood that an environmental concern will remain as an issue in the future can then be properly assessed and prepared for. A “no regrets” approach to hypothetical threats is best as corporate leaders who are non-committal regarding the validity of the hazard can pursue business practices that still deliver real benefits, regardless of the findings in continued scientific enquiry.

So, how should the climate change issue be categorized? Most media, environmentalists and politicians assert that climate change is a known problem, humanity is causing it, the science is “settled,” and all serious scientists agree. We are informed that only through severe reductions in our greenhouse gas emissions (primarily carbon dioxide, CO2) can future catastrophe be averted. Evidence presented includes the United Nation’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), as well as joint statements from national science academies and individual researchers. Al Gore claims that a survey of 928 relevant scholarly articles found not a single doubter of anthropogenic (human-caused) global climate change. Even many scientists believe there is a consensus among their peers about climate change causes. But this is highly unlikely. First, the IPCC does not represent the opinion of the world climate science community. How could it? Most of the world’s tens of thousands of climate experts are not involved, wanting nothing to do with the politicized and time-consuming activities of the UN climate body. Of the 2,500 scientists often cited as taking part in the IPCC process (and ostensibly agreeing with anthropogenic climate change theory) only about 600 were involved in Working Group I (WG I) that examined 15


Figure 3: Mars, Jupiter, Pluto and Triton (Saturn’s largest moon) are now all known to be experiencing warming. Do they have anything in common with our planet? Yes, a brightening Sun, which, many scientists believe, may be the primary cause of warming on Earth as well.

the extent of recent change, its possible causes and computer model projections for the future. The other 1,900 IPCC participants – some not scientists at all – merely reported on the impacts of climate change (however caused), proposed methods of reducing CO2 emissions (whether necessary or not), and ways to adapt to global climate change. Most WG I contributors are qualified in narrow disciplines and are only responsible for a page or two of the massive final report.

They were not asked for their opinions on the report as a whole. Furthermore, many have openly disagreed with the Summary for Policymakers (SPM) – the primary information source on this topic for media and politicians – that supposedly summarizes the findings of IPCC scientists. The SPM, signed by 51 individuals, “represents a consensus of government representatives, rather than of scientists,” says IPCC lead author Professor Richard Lindzen of MIT. “The resulting document has a strong ten-

Al Gore and fellow climate campaigners insist that there is a consensus in the climate science community that phenomena such as glacier retreat is caused by human emissions of greenhouse gases. In reality no such consensus exists. 16

dency to disguise uncertainty, and conjures up some scary scenarios for which there is no evidence.” In fact, the latest SPM was released three months before the report it was supposedly summarizing, allowing the UN to modify the science report so as to “ensure consistency with” the summary. This clearly degraded the IPCC’s credibility. Joint national science academy statements about climate change also should be viewed skeptically. Their most significant recent statement (2005) included a press release from the Royal Society (London) that gave the impression of unanimity about global climate change causes. But Yury Izrael, director of the Global Climate and Ecology Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) and IPCC vice president said RAS President Yury Osipov's signature on the statement was “a misunderstanding” and Russian academicians asked Osipov to withdraw it. Russian scientists said they considered the Kyoto Protocol scientifically ungrounded: “There is no proven link between human activity and global warming,” writes Izrael. Then president of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences Bruce Albert wrote, "We definitely did not approve the Royal Society press release, and I have sent a letter to Bob May [of the Royal Society] expressing my dismay at his misleading and political statements there." Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada (RSC), J.A.L. Robertson explains how the Royal Society initiative was corrupted in Canada. “The President of the RSC, not a member of the Academy of Science, american coal council


Figure 4: North Antelope Rochelle Coal Mine, Wyoming, as seen from the International Space Station. Activists want all new coal-fired power plants to collect and store carbon dioxide from coal combustion to “stop global warming.” However, there is no scientific agreement that these emissions are a significant contributor to climate change.

received the invitation. He considered it consistent with the position of the great majority of scientists as repeatedly, but erroneously claimed by Kyoto proponents, and so signed it. The resolution was not referred to the Academy of Science for comment, not even to its council or president.” Finally, the science paper survey cited by Gore is unreliable. Dr. Benny Peiser of John Moores University (UK) checked the work and found that only 13 paper abstracts explicitly endorsed the supposed consensus view while several actually opposed it. Of the thousands of climate papers written every year, many indicate that anthropogenic CO2 is not a significant climate driver. A 2003 poll of more than 530 climate scientists from 27 countries conducted by German environmental researchers Dennis Bray and Hans von Storch found that two-thirds of respondents did not believe that "the current state of scientific knowledge is developed well enough to allow for a reasonable assessment of the effects of greenhouse gases." All this leads to one inescapable conclusion: despite the rhetoric, there is no known consensus among climate experts about the causes of the past century’s modest warming. Reputable scientists understand that forecasts of future change are even less ceramerican coal council

tain. Therefore, climate change, as an issue to be addressed by industry, clearly does not fall into the “known” category. Whether it then falls into the bogus or hypothetical category depends on which scientists are consulted. Even within the Natural Resources Stewardship Project (NRSP), there is significant diversity of opinion, just as in the scientific community at large. Therefore, it is safest for executives to treat the issue as “hypothetical” and plan accordingly. But how do you do this in the real world? Reacting to looming climate change legislation, many executives have resigned themselves to the belief that this issue is here to stay and we’d better plan for a severely carbon-constrained world. We beg to differ. There are serious and growing cracks in the foundations supporting the push to legislate. Besides increasingly frequent scientific evidence refuting the IPCC, polls indicate that the extravagant predictions of Gore, Senator Barbara Boxer and others are leading many citizens to take a skeptical second look at the whole affair. To the dismay of alarmists, over one-third of survey respondents in the general public now regularly indicate a lack of confidence in the science-backing schemes to “stop climate change.” Radio

show hosts, newspaper reporters and even some in TV are responding by ramping up their coverage of contrarian views. This trend frightens alarmists. They understand how quickly public support for multi-billion dollar climate change programs will wither once the Pandora’s Box of modern climate science is fully opened to the public. That is why groups like NRSP that focus specifically on the flaws in the science, draw so much fire from alarmists. As they say in the Air Force: “You get the most flak when you are over the target.” But how soon will society awake from this nightmare? Probably very soon, if events continue to unfold as they are now. In the meantime, corporate leaders must steer clear of supporting the claims of Gore, Boxer and others. When cornered by media about the veracity of the climate threat, the best response for most executives is simply “I don’t know; I am not a climate expert. We are, however, implementing ‘no regrets’ policies – regardless.” “No regrets” policies include measures to increase energy efficiency and reduce pollution – activities that in many cases also reduce CO2 emissions. Economists have shown that by focusing directly on solving real understood environmental problems, instead of the hypothetical climate threat, real-world benefits will be vastly greater. By contrast, focusing specifically on CO2 emission reduction (e.g. “carbon sequestration”) reduces energy efficiency and greatly increases costs. This outcome should be avoided as much as possible. In his book “Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds,” Charles Mackay wrote 150 years ago, “Men think in herds; it will be seen that they go mad in herds, while they only recover their senses slowly, and one by one.” NRSP was launched in October 2006 to try to speed up this recovery process. By publicizing what scientists really say about climate change, we are working to hasten the day when this matter is seen for what it really is: a hypothetical, potentially bogus issue that is an exceptionally expensive diversion from working on our real challenges.  u Tom Harris is an Ottawa-based mechanical engineer and executive director of the Natural Resources Stewardship Project (www.NRSP. com). Dr. Timothy Ball is a Victoria-based environmental consultant, former climatology professor at the University of Winnipeg, and chairman of NRSP. 17


         

      

  





 

         

           


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Climate Change:

A recap of the USCAP guiding document, “A Call for Action” by Jason Hayes, American Coal Council

“We, the members of the U.S. Climate Action Partnership (USCAP) have joined together to recommend the prompt enactment of national legislation in the United States to slow, stop and reverse the growth of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions over the shortest period of time reasonably achievable.”

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n the USCAP guiding document, titled “A Call For Action: Consensus Principles and Recommendations from the U.S. Climate Action Partnership: A Business and NGO Partnership,” the member companies make a clear call for the immediate enacting of mandatory limitations on the production of greenhouse gases (GHG)1. This article is a recap of the information found in this document. As described on their Web site www.uscap.org, USCAP is comprised of business and environmental organizations. They have paired their efforts to demand that the United States federal government swiftly bring about “strong national legislation to require significant reductions of greenhouse gas emissions.” The motivating factor behind their push is the concept that “we know enough to act.” Referring to the June 2005, National Academies of Science joint statement that noted, “the scientific understanding of climate change is now sufficiently clear to justify nations taking prompt actions,” USCAP is moving forward with their intentions to see climate change legislation put in place in the United States. The members of this group see the carbon restrictions as an opportunity for the United States to take a commanding lead in the development of new low-carbon or american coal council

carbon-neutral technologies. Innovation, they argue, will create new markets and new business opportunities. It will also help provide energy security and improve American trade balances with the remainder of the world. They argue that the challenge of developing low carbon energy options will provide “more economic opportunities than risks for the U.S. economy.” At the core of “A Call for Action” and the USCAP framework is the requirement for a “mandatory, flexible climate program.” This program is made up of three key points: • Mandatory approaches to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the major emitting sectors including emissions from large stationary sources, transportation, and energy use in commercial and residential buildings that could be phased in over time, with attention to near-, mid- and long-term time horizons. • Flexible approaches to establish a price signal for carbon that may vary by economic sector and could include, depending on the sector: market-based incentives; performance standards; cap-and-trade; tax reform; incentives for technology research, development, and deployment; or other appropriate policy tools.

• Approaches that create incentives and encourage actions by other countries, including large emitting economies in the developing world, to implement GHG emission reduction strategies. USCAP members have agreed that the three key points listed above will require United States’ legislators to prepare climate legislation founded on the following design principles and recommendations. Global Issue USCAP documents indicate a clear conviction that GHG emissions and the impacts of climate change are global in nature. The group is calling for the U.S. government to be intimately involved in post-2012 international negotiations.2 This type of involvement will help to safeguard U.S. interests and markets, reduce the possibility of pushing industrial activity off-shore, and will help to implement a strong international carbon control framework. They do, however, argue that the United States should take on a leadership role by implementing carbon-reduction plans on its own (if necessary) and providing aid and technology to developing nations to help steer their energy use away from inefficient sources. 21


Technology is the Key USCAP documents indicate that the use of existing technologies that can reduce emissions and improve efficiency is a key means of reducing GHG production. They argue that the best way to ensure new technologies are developed and deployed is the creation of market value for GHG emissions. Climate change policies should seek to expand “significant research, development and deployment of hyper-efficient end-use technologies, low- or zero-GHG emitting technologies, and cost-effective carbon capture and storage.” Through these attempts to expand the implementation of new technologies it is expected that the American energy system could be transformed. As it is impossible to accurately determine the nature and type of all future technologies, it is imperative that transition technologies and timelines be focused on “what … can be cost effectively achieved over the next twenty to thirty years.” Environmentally Effective Stringent climate change policies must be implemented immediately and sustained over the long-term. USCAP members assert that moving quickly to stabilize GHG concentrations will preserve options and allow us to avoid “an unacceptable level of climate change in the future.” Specifically, legislation should seek to limit GHG emissions and stabilize the atmospheric concentration of CO2 at 450 to 550 parts per million. Economic Opportunity and Advantage While immediate action is described as essential, “A Call for Action” outlines the need to ensure that actions are both “highly cost-effective” and market-based means of achieving GHG reductions. Mitigation strategies may require alterations to fit various business sectors and they must be targeted toward “sustained economic growth.” For example, recognizing that coal accounts for approximately 50 percent of our current energy supply, it is unrealistic to assume that this valuable energy source could be phased out or replaced. Therefore, policies that focus on the development of, and transition to, low- or zero-emissions technologies, as well as the capture and sequestration of carbon, must be enacted. As a means of promoting carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), USCAP is calling on Congress to immediately fund at 22

“A Call for Action” outlines the need to ensure that actions are both “highly cost-effective” and market-based means of achieving GHG reductions. Mitigation strategies may require alterations to fit various business sectors and they must be targeted toward “sustained economic growth.” least three CCS demonstration projects. USCAP is also calling for new strict guidelines, research and development in the areas of transportation for fuels and vehicles, as well as building and construction. USCAP members contend that the development of an economy-wide market approach will allow emissions reductions targets to be achieved while ensuring investment in newer, more efficient technologies. Moving beyond this, a strong American market will help to promote a larger global market for carbon and other GHG. Specific requirements for the cap and trade program include an “upstream” aspect that requires fossil fuel producers to be covered by allowances equivalent to the GHG released during the combustion of the fuel they produce. It should also include a “hybrid” program that sets a “downstream cap” on emissions from large stationary sources, along with another policy tool that is applied to the carbon content in the fuels used by other sources. Be Fair USCAP guiding principles require that all climate mitigation strategies must recognize, account for, and address the potential of disproportionate impacts of climate change and GHG reduction strategies on the disadvantaged. They must also plan for the implementation of transition programs that help to diminish economic dislocations associated with the increasing price of fuels. Early Action, Matched with Longer-term Goals GHG reduction strategies put in place prior to the implementation of mandatory limits should be given full credit. “A Call for Action” makes a clear argument that while moving toward a cap and trade program and while implementing mandatory GHG reductions, there will be firms that adopt reduction polices early on. USCAP members believe that their actions should be recognized and rewarded.

Congressionally established targets will move beyond the actions of early achievers to demonstrate the United States is committed to the stabilization and reduction of GHG emissions – moving from targets of 100 percent to 105 percent of emissions within five years; 90 percent to 100 percent within ten years; 70 percent to 90 percent of emissions within fifteen years. The creation of a “national emissions baseline” database would be essential to monitoring the effectiveness of emissions reductions. Legislation Now Legislation needs to be “fast track(ed) while a cap and trade program is put in place, including the establishment of a GHG inventory and registry, credit for early action, aggressive technology research and development, and policies to discourage new investments in high-emitting facilities and accelerate deployment of low-emitting technologies and energy efficiency.” The partnership argues that energy policies must build on this legislation to promote the development of diverse supplies of low GHG energy. The members of the U.S. Climate Action Program have committed themselves to seeing “environmentally effective, economically sustainable, and fair climate change program” enacted at the earliest possible date. You can learn more about USCAP member companies, as well as their suggested policies, goals, and objectives on the USCAP Web site: www. us-cap.org.  u Jason Hayes is communications director for the American Coal Council (www. clean-coal.info) Unless otherwise noted, all quotes are taken from the USCAP guiding document, “A Call for Action” available from www.us-cap.org. 1

“Post-2012” refers to the post-Kyoto phase 1 time frame. 2

american coal council


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18/11/2003, 11:04:54 AM


January 31st & February 1st 2008 Ritz Coconut Grove Miami

OFFICIAL PUBLICATION

The international networking event for the North and South American coal markets Coaltrans Americas 2008 highlights: • Expert insights from over 40 high profile speakers from the domestic and international coal industry • Topical program on the latest industry news including production and consumption trends; the return of the swing exporter?; the carbon imperative; technology and new uses for coal; and infrastructure challenges • Unrivalled networking with key end-users and suppliers from the USA, Colombia, Venezuela, Canada and beyond • And don't forget about the Coaltrans Americas Golf Classic on January 30th 2008

Very useful information was presented at the conference. The speakers were some of the industry leaders. Excellent opportunities for networking and private discussions with participants.

www.coaltrans.com/americas08 Tel: +44 20 7779 8945 • Email: jcoles@euromoneyplc.com


Technologies to Reduce or Capture and Store CO2 Emissions By Janet Gellici, Executive Director, American Coal Council

Energy and persistence conquer all things. -Benjamin Franklin

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n June 2007, the National Coal Council (NCC) submitted a report to U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Secretary Samuel Bodman, assessing the current state of technologies to avoid or capture and store carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, along with a technology-based framework for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from coal-fueled power plants. That study, “Technologies to Reduce or Capture & Store Carbon Dioxide Emissions,” detailed four major findings: • Coal must continue its vital and growing role in American energy production. • Reducing CO2 emissions presents a significant technological challenge. • It is imperative that research, development and demonstration efforts move forward quickly on a portfolio of technologies to reduce or capture and store CO2 emissions. • Public-private support for technologies to reduce or capture and store CO2 is critical to the energy independence and energy security of the United States. Global coal use is expected to grow over the next 25 years. In 2003, the world used 5.4 billion tons of coal; by 2030, coal use is estimated to reach 10.5 billion tons a year, almost double the current usage. Investments in technology offer the opportunity to accommodate the world’s growing american coal council

need for affordable energy while reducing CO2 emissions and other environmental impacts. The United States will benefit from technologies that can simultaneously address climate change, reduce emissions, allow for continued economic growth and improve energy security. Technology Maturation An important consideration in the development of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies is the fact that all technologies have a maturation curve. In the early development stage of new technologies, predicted costs and construction lead times are often underestimated. Initial, fullscale projects may be costly until experience provides a basis for accurate performance, reliability and cost projections. In addition, large capital-intensive technologies tend to have longer development cycles. For highefficiency coal and CCS technologies, the design and construction cycle is three to five years, not counting the potential for delays in permitting. Costs often are highest at the point of the first full-scale demonstration, when components, systems, controls and test programs are truly integrated for the first time. Development and demonstration of CCS technologies will take time and money. Although some CCS technologies are commercial at smaller scale in other industries (chemical), these will require substantial re-engineering and scale-up for power applications. Accelerated technical

and financial support could make a suite of these technologies commercially available within the next 15 years; commercial maturity may take an additional decade. Near Term Options CO2 mitigation technologies that are commercially feasible today are based on efficiency gains that can be achieved at existing plants and built into new plants. For existing plants, several technologies are available that can be retrofitted to enhance power plant efficiency gains. Options include steam turbine blade upgrades, improvements in condenser systems and boiler feed water systems, and in the milling systems used to grind or pulverize coal. The use of coal cleaned to higher quality levels also can increase efficiency. Plant efficiency upgrades are a practical, quick and inexpensive way to reduce CO2 emissions in the in near term. A 5 percent improvement in the efficiency of the overall coal fleet would equate to about 100 million metric tonnes per year of reduced CO2 emissions. Given current clean air regulations, however, many power plant owners are reluctant to initiate upgrades because of concerns that such improvements would trigger New Source Review (NSR) requirements, leading to large and expensive plant modifications. The NCC report notes that NSR regulations can impede retrofit applications at existing facilities, blocking efficiency improvements and corresponding 25


The actual construction of a plant takes 36 to 42 months; the permitting process often is even longer – adding as much as five additional years to the process. An unintended consequence of the long permitting process is that it delays replacing older technology with newer, more efficient and cleaner technology. CO2 benefits. Reconciliation of the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR), Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) and NSR into one clear and workable set of regulations would be a positive step in mitigating CO2 emissions. EPA rules for implementing CAIR and CAMR should align with NSR regulations so that as existing power plants come into compliance with these rules, they are given incentives to simultaneously make efficiency improvements in plant operations. Mid Term Options Another key to an effective technologybased framework for CO2 management is to address new plant construction. Advanced clean coal technologies, such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and ultra-supercritical combustion, must be

given public policy support in the form of cost and permitting incentives and financial support for initial demonstrations so they can succeed in the marketplace. These technologies can increase plant efficiencies from the 33 percent to 35 percent range up to as high as 45 percent for centralized power plants. These plants are more expensive to build and, in some cases, operate than traditional subcritical pulverized coal plants. As these technologies mature, investment tax credits are needed to speed deployment while initial costs are high. Additionally, a streamlined permitting process will incentivize the development and commercial deployment of these more efficient power plants. The actual construction of a plant takes 36 to 42 months; the permitting process often is even longer – adding as much as five

additional years to the process. An unintended consequence of the long permitting process is that it delays replacing older technology with newer, more efficient and cleaner technology. Long-Term Options The NCC study emphasizes that technology for CCS, including storage sites and related infrastructure, must be developed and demonstrated over the next 10 years. Several major CCS projects must be started as soon as possible in order to achieve commercialization within the next 15 years. One of the most successful technologybased programs in United States history was the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program initiated in 1985 and completed in 2000. Over the 15 years of its existence, CCT advanced the research, development

Artist’s rendering of the planned FutureGen complex. Courtesy: Department of Energy 26

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and deployment of major technologies at numerous coal-based electricity plants throughout the nation. A similar commitment to CCS technologies is needed to ensure that within 15 years, a suite of CCS options is commercially available and affordable. Demonstration projects for a new level of ultra-supercritical power plants also would be appropriate as this type of plant requires the development of new alloys that would carry a capital expense premium – at least in the first instance – with no real guarantee of the long-term efficiency and reliability necessary to justify the increased costs. The potential overall efficiency gains and accompanying environmental benefits should more than justify policies to support initial demonstrations of these technologies. Ideally, this type of program will be carried out as public-private partnerships to more quickly bring these technologies to a state of commercial deployment. When these technologies become available in the marketplace, other nations using coal also can access them at more reasonable costs, thus advancing “global” solutions to the challenges posed by global climate change. A framework for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions has to seriously address the

american coal council

broad context of energy production and use. It’s projected that the United States will increase its energy consumption by 37 percent over the next 25 years. As a nation, we will need every ton of coal, cubic foot of natural gas, pellet of uranium, wind turbine, solar panel and Btu that we can produce. Increased efficiency and conservation also will need to play a significant role in meeting our nation’s energy demands. Solutions to meet these future energy needs also must recognize national security concerns. Coal is domestically available in large quantities, can be safely and securely transported around the country, is less subject to foreign market pressures in terms of cost or availability, and its use has become increasingly clean with innovation and technology development. Reducing CO2 emissions presents a significant technological challenge, but the coal industry has a proven record of

successfully meeting such challenges. The National Coal Council report includes specific recommendations to address carbon management issues. The report can be accessed at the NCC Web site: www. nationalcoalcouncil.org.  u “Technologies to Reduce or Capture & Store Carbon Dioxide Emissions” – Study Chair: Mike McCall, TXU Corp.; Technical Work Group Chair: Roger Knipp, TXU Corp. The National Coal Council is a Federal Advisory Committee to the Secretary of Energy – Chair: Georgia Nelson, PTI Resources; Vice Chair: Mike Mueller, Ameren Energy Fuels & Services; Executive Director: Bob Beck. ACC Executive Director, Janet Gellici, serves on the NCC Executive Committee & Coal Policy Committee.

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Installing North America’s First Large Utility WFGD By Garry Hart, Mark Amick, Dave Harris and Jeremy Hubers, Black & Veatch

Figure 1. DP&L Killen. Overview of the site from the southeast.

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n 2005, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency issued the Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) that permanently caps emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the eastern United States. When phase-in is fully implemented by the year 2015, CAIR will help to reduce SO2 emissions in these states by more than 70 percent and NOx emissions by more than 60 percent from 2003 levels. Leading-edge emissions control equipment will ensure that coal-fueled utilities can meet the reduced emissions requirements, while also providing much needed fuel flexibility. The Chiyoda Corporation, a Japanese industrial plant engineering company, developed the Chiyoda Thoroughbred 121TM (CT-121TM) process that uses a jet bubbling reactor (JBR) to effectively remove high rates of sulfur dioxide, particulate, oxides of mercury and other pollutants. Additionally, this removal is accomplished with lower operating costs than traditional wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) technology. Black & Veatch, a global engineering, consulting and construction company, was granted exclusive license in North America for the CT-121 technology. american coal council

DP&L Teams with Black & Veatch Dayton Power & Light (DP&L) is a regulated utility that provides electricity to more than 500,000 west-central Ohio customers. In May 2005, DP&L and Black & Veatch announced their joint intention to use the CT-121 technology in a series of air quality improvement projects at the DP&L-operated Killen and Stuart coal-fueled generating stations. The CT-121 process has demonstrated a sulfur dioxide removal efficiency rate as high as 99 percent and has been proven to deliver consistently high performance and reliability rates at low operating costs in FGD plants worldwide. The first CT-121 wet FGD process – designed and constructed by Black & Veatch – began operation on May 30, 2007 at DP&L’s Killen Unit 2, an existing nominal 615 MW coal-fueled unit. Construction of CT-121TM WFGD systems and balanced draft conversion on four similar units at DP&L’s Stuart Station is currently under way and scheduled for completion in 2008. The JBR vessels and JBR internals at Stuart and Killen are constructed of fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP). Figure 1 shows a photo of the Killen site shortly before construction was completed. “We are extremely pleased to have reached this milestone and 29


The JBR is seen as the white tank with the grey platforming on top in the left center of this photo. The blue element is the outlet and mist eliminator section of the system.  The white round tubing is the flue gas duct downstream from the JBR outlet and leading to the chimney breaching.

to be part of a project that improves the air quality for our client’s customers in the region,” said Jim Hover, Black & Veatch project manager. “Today, this unit is running at full capacity and performing well. Once the units at the Stuart Station are fully operational, the improvements are expected to eliminate sulfur dioxide, plus a significant amount of fine particulate matter and mercury oxide emissions each year.” The CT-121 Process The Jet Bubbling Reactor is the heart of the CT-121 WFGD process. It functions as a flue gas scrubber, an oxidizer for converting bisulfite ions to sulfate ions, and a reaction crystallizer for calcium sulfate (gypsum). All of these processes occur simultaneously in the reaction slurry and froth formed from the sparging of flue gas (i.e., injecting the gas, as small bubbles, into the limestone slurry), making it ideal for maximizing removal of SO2, particulate, SO3, mercury, and other air toxins. Prior to entering the JBR, the flue gas is cooled and saturated by contact with quenching sprays of water and limestone slurry. While this achieves saturation of the flue gas, it also establishes the wet/dry interface in the absorber inlet and prevents solid deposition downstream. 30

The flue gas then enters the JBR central inlet plenum between the upper and the lower plenum deck plates, which span the entire horizontal area of the JBR, and the flue gas pressure is evenly distributed. The lower deck acts as a tube sheet from which an array of vertical gas sparger (injection) tubes extends downward, several inches below the scrubbing liquid level of the reaction tank. The uniform pressure distribution across the central inlet plenum, forces flue gas down through the sparger tubes at a consistent rate across the JBR. The flue gas exits violently from the spargers into the scrubbing liquid of limestone/gypsum slurry. Flue gas forced from the spargers creates the “jet bubbling zone,” a continuous layer of froth on the reaction tank liquid level surface. The jet bubbling zone dissolves SO2 and other acid gases from the flue gas and captures particulate matter. Pollutant removal performance is automatically controlled by varying the submergence depth of sparger tubes within the jet bubbling zone. Internal liquid circulation between the jet bubbling zone and the limestone/gypsum slurry in the “reaction zone” is supported by oxidation air injection and low-speed rotating agitators. This internal circulation replenishes the jet bubbling zone with oxygen and reagents to effectively drive the reaction of absorbed SO2 to sulfate ions. american coal council


Utility rack with outlet duct above and JBR beyond at ground level.

The reaction zone serves as a highly effective crystallizer for the optimal growth of calcium sulfate (gypsum) crystals. After an average retention time of 16 hours, gypsum solids are removed and dewatered through a continuous extraction loop system. Cleaned flue gas leaving the jet bubbling zone passes upward through gas risers into the upper plenum of the JBR and on to the mist eliminator system. This long exit path helps disengage droplets and minimizes the transfer of moisture and solids into the mist eliminator and stack. The installed base of operating CT-121 WFGD systems includes 19 units designed to achieve greater than 95 percent SO2 removal and 10 units designed to achieve greater than 97 percent SO2 removal. The vast majority of CT-121 WFGD systems currently in design and construction are designed for 97 percent to 98 percent SO2 removal. Many of these systems also produce a commercial grade of gypsum used either for wallboard or cement production. Construction Considerations FGD system retrofit construction costs for recent CT-121 projects range from $150 to $300 per kilowatt. Construction costs are highly site-specific and depend on the amount of infrastructure required to support operation of the system. Some factors that american coal council

influence the cost of the FGD system include unit size, design sulfur concentration in the fuel, stack requirements, electrical system upgrades, materials of construction, severity of site constraints, material handling system upgrades for reagent and FGD byproduct, availability of construction labor, and availability of fabrication shop capacity. The JBR makes extensive use of FRP internals, and the cost of the internals can be higher than other FGD technologies. The cost of the internals, however, is more than offset by lower JBR vessel, pumps and piping costs. In addition, the balance of plant costs for the CT-121TM technology are generally lower than other FGD technologies because the JBR is shorter with significantly lower access and enclosure requirements, construction requires fewer staff-hours, and the internals are mostly shop-fabricated. Shop fabrication moves work away from the field to lower cost and more controlled shop environment. Many of the same issues that impact construction costs also affect the construction schedule. In 2005, the typical duration from engineering release to FGD system ready for flue gas was 26 to 30 months. Many fabrication shops that supply equipment and materials for FGD projects also supply materials for other generation projects in the fabrication and construction phase. Capacity issues 31


JBR viewed from above during construction.

are being experienced in steel fabrication, ductwork fabrication, engineered equipment, pipe fabricators, and engineering resources. Therefore, the typical construction timeline has increased to 34 to 36 months due to limited availability of shop fabrication capacity and craft labor. The construction timeline for a typical FGD retrofit project is 16 to 18 months from the beginning of construction to completion. Once the JBR construction is complete, piping, ductwork, and electrical tie-ins can be made. Startup of the JBR and support systems can be completed in three to six months, depending on the complexity of the balance of plant systems required to support the FGD system.

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Conclusion Federal, state and local mandates will play a significant role in the number of American power plants that will need FGD in the near future. Chiyoda’s CT-121TM offers utilities a lower cost and more reliable solution for meeting current and future emissions requirements. The technology provides SO2, particulate matter, SO3 and mercury removal performance that is unsurpassed by other largescale wet limestone-type scrubbers. In addition, the technology has been proven in more than 74 installations worldwide, supporting over 33,000 MW of generation. As the exclusive licensed provider of the CT-121TM process in North America, Black & Veatch is involved in the engineering, procurement, construction, and/or commissioning of multiple active projects, encompassing 16 scrubbers using this technology, for coal-fueled units across the United States.  u

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Garry Hart is a senior vice president and director of Black & Veatch’s Air Quality Control Systems line of business. Mark Amick is an associate vice president for Business Development at Black & Veatch. David Harris is a vice president and senior project manager, and Jeremy Hubers is a mechanical engineer at Black & Veatch. The company’s Web address is www.bv.com.

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Activated Carbon Injection for Mercury Control By Sharon Sjostrom, Cam Martin, Jonathan Barr, and Linda Rathbun, ADA-ES, Inc.

The PAC storage silo for the ACI system installed by ADA-ES at PSEG Fossil’s Mercer Generating Station located south of Trenton, N.J.

Introduction or many years there has been increasing attention on mercury in the environment. A significant source of current man-made mercury emissions comes from burning coal in power plants. In 2005, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated rules to reduce mercury emissions from existing and new coal-fueled power plants. This rule, the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR), requires a 20 percent reduction in mercury emissions from coalfueled plants by 2010 and a 70 percent reduction by 2018. In addition to the CAMR requirements, many states have implemented or are considering requirements that are more stringent reductions in mercury emissions from power plants under their control. State regulations may require larger reductions, shorter timelines for compliance, or both. In response to the developing concern over mercury emissions, government and industry groups have been researching, testing, and demonstrating various technologies for reducing these emissions from coal-fueled power plants. The most promising of these technologies is activated carbon injection (ACI).

F

How Does ACI Work and What Does it Cost? In an ACI system, a powdered activated carbon (PAC) sorbent is injected into the flue gas stream of a coal-fueled power plant, where it adsorbs the mercury from the gas. The sorbent is then removed by the plant’s particulate matter removal system, such as its electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or fabric filter/baghouse (FF), along with the fly ash. (See Figure 1.) american coal council

35


Figure 1. Typical Configuration of Air Pollution Control Equipment.

Note: SO2 control equipment is not shown in this figure, since its location varies depending upon its type (e.g., wet scrubber, spray dryer absorber). An ACI system is a relatively small and inexpensive air pollution control (APC) system, compared to an ESP, FF or scrubbers. It consists of the following components: • PAC receiving and storage silo. • Blowers and feeders to transport the PAC from the silo via piping to the ductwork, where it is injected into the flue gas. • Injection lances, which are inserted into the flue gas ductwork and through which the PAC is distributed. The capital cost of an ACI system depends upon the size of the silo, the number of blowers/ feeders, and the number and location of the injection lances. Capital costs for an ACI system on a 300 megawatt to 500 megawatt generating unit are around $0.8 million, +/- 20 percent. The primary operating cost of an ACI system is the cost of PAC, which ranges from $0.5 million to $7 million per year. These costs depend upon the type and amount of PAC that needs to be injected to meet the desired reduction in mercury emissions, which, as will be discussed, depends upon a number of factors.

36

How Well Does ACI Perform? Since early 2000, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), a number of electric power producers, and other industry partners have been funding full-scale evaluations and demonstrations to determine the commercial feasibility of ACI systems. These groups have found that ACI provides a cost-effective technique to reduce mercury emissions for many types of coal-fueled power plants. Research and testing have found that ACI’s effectiveness for reducing mercury emissions is influenced by the characteristics of a plant’s flue gas, which are determined by factors such as coal type, APC equipment configura-

tion, flue gas temperature, and additions of other chemicals to the flue gas to control other pollutants (e.g., the addition of SO3 for flue gas conditioning to make an ESP perform better). ACI on Plants With Fabric Filters Testing has shown excellent mercury removal with ACI at plants that use FFs for particulate control. PAC sorbent captures some of the mercury while in flight through the ductwork, but the PAC also mixes with collected fly ash and forms a thin layer on the surface of the FF bags where it continues to adsorb mercury until the bags are pulsed to remove the ash layer. Many fabric filters on units firing PRB

Figure 2. Brominated Versus Standard PAC on PRB-Burning Plants.

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Table 1. Demonstrated Mercury Removal for Various APC Configurations and Coal Types. Coal Type

ESP

FF + SDA

Low sulfur, very low halogens (e.g., PRB or ND lignite)

78–95%*

90–95%*

Low sulfur, medium+ halogens (e.g., some TX lignite)

78–95%

90–95%*

Low sulfur, bituminous

55–70%

No data; 70–95% expected

Low sulfur, bituminous, with an SCR installed

15–70%

No data; 70–95% expected

High sulfur, bituminous

< 15%

N/A

* Using brominated PAC.

coal are configured with an upstream spray dryer absorber (SDA), or dry scrubber, for SO2 control. These devices are not effective at removing mercury on units firing PRB coal. Therefore, plants with SDAs are also good candidates for ACI. ACI on Plants With ESPs The performance of ACI on plants with ESPs varies significantly based on the type of coal the plant burns: • PRB coals: Results from testing at plants with ESPs firing 100 percent Powder River Basin (PRB) coal indicate that ACI is most effective when sufficient halogens are present in the flue gas or a halogen, such as bromine, is added to the PAC. Figure 2 includes results from testing standard PAC and brominated PAC at two plants firing PRB coal that illustrate the expected performance improvement with bromine-treated PAC. Some units firing PRB coal are configured with a wet scrubber installed downstream of the ESP for SO2 control. Wet scrubbers are not effective at removing elemental mercury, which is the primary form of mercury typically present in PRB flue gas. • Lower-sulfur bituminous coal: Testing has shown that ACI using standard PAC is effective at removing mercury from flue gas on lowersulfur bituminous coal (e.g., less than 1 percent sulfur, by weight) as long as halogens are present in sufficient quantity. Testing has not shown any improvement in the performance of american coal council

brominated PAC over standard PAC on this type of coal because the coal usually contains sufficient halogens. When a wet scrubber is installed on a unit firing lower-sulfur bituminous coal, it often contributes to additional mercury removal because a portion of the mercury in the flue gas is water soluble and is removed by the scrubber. ACI, however, is a preferred method for additional mercury removal on these units because of the low capital cost of equipment. • Higher-sulfur bituminous coal: Burning higher-sulfur bituminous coal generates higher concentrations of SOx (SO2 and SO3) in the flue gas and its presence can significantly lower the adsorption capacity of PAC for mercury, regardless of whether standard or brominated PAC is used. Some technologies are currently being developed to improve the performance of PAC in this environment, but none have demonstrated long-term effectiveness.

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Most higher-sulfur units have downstream wet scrubbers. Wet scrubbers typically remove most of the soluble form of mercury from the flue gas. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems increase the fraction of oxidized mercury and, when an SCR is used in conjunction with a wet scrubber, the need for additional mercury control such as ACI is limited. Summary Numerous full-scale tests and demonstrations of ACI have been conducted since 2001 and their findings are summarized in Table 1. Overall, the data confirm that PAC injection is an effective mercury control technology for plants firing low-sulfur coals, especially where FFs are used for particulate control. Utilities have realized the cost-effectiveness of PAC injection and have started ordering and installing ACI systems in anticipation of their upcoming regulatory deadlines. ACI’s effectiveness for plants burning medium to high-sulfur coal is less certain and additional testing is ongoing to develop better sorbents that could enhance mercury removal and offer utilities better performance from ACI. Acknowledgements The work presented here represents efforts from several utilities, research organizations, and industry participants. Funding for the tests discussed here was provided by the DOE, EPRI, power companies and industry partners. Special acknowledgments are given to the DOE and EPRI, and all the project managers of the full-scale tests. Their guidance and vision have allowed for the rapid development of sorbent injection as a viable option for mercury control for many coal-fueled power generators.  u

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Clean Power: New coal technologies providing fuel for the future By Joe Lucas, Americans for Balanced Energy Choices

E

lectricity demand will nearly double in the next 20 years according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). There is no debate over whether electricity demand in the developing world will increase. Discussion there is centered on how quickly demand will increase and the resulting global economic impacts if that increase happens apart from the influence of clean coal technologies (CCT) produced in the developed world. CCTs will play a key role in addressing public concern over climate change primarily because climate change policy is inextricably linked to the broader energy security debate, as well as economic development, and environmental policies.

Technology is Key Three decades of experience teaches us that increasing the use of coal to generate electricity does not require abandoning the pursuit of important environmental goals. During the past 35 years, the use of coal in the United States has nearly tripled, while at the same time, overall air quality american coal council

has improved and emissions from coalbased electricity are 33 percent lower than they were in 1970. This is due largely to the development and deployment of technology that enables us to burn coal more cleanly and efficiently. Technology plays a vital role in the clean combustion of coal and in meeting global demand for electricity while dramatically reducing emissions of NOx, SO2, mercury and other pollutants. While the development and implementation of new technology takes time, many companies already are committing themselves to developing the technologies and laying the groundwork for capturing and storing carbon dioxide (CO2). Contributions by Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships Many coal producers and utilities are active participants in the work of seven regional carbon sequestration partnerships. Joining more than 140 organizations representing state agencies, universities and other companies, the coal sector has combined forces with the Department of Energy

(DOE) to complete the research necessary to demonstrate carbon capture and storage on a scale that can first slow, then stabilize, and eventually dial down the build up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. DOEâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s regional partnerships are leading the way in helping to determine the most suitable technologies, regulations and infrastructure necessary to meet this important challenge. FutureGen Another important example of government and industry joining hands to leverage scientific research addressing the issue of global climate change is the $1.5-billion FutureGen project. When it becomes operational in just a few years, FutureGen will be the first commercial-scale, integrated, coal-based electricity generation, carbon sequestration, and hydrogen production research facility in existence. Spearheaded by a government/industry partnership, FutureGen focuses on the design, construction and operation of a commercial-scale generation facility and on using cutting-edge technologies 43


Approximately six million metric tons of CO2 has been sequestered since the project began in October 2000. The CO2 is expected to be permanently sequestered in the oil reservoir. to achieve near-zero emissions. It points toward a future when environmental concerns associated with coal utilization will all but disappear. FutureGen will employ coal gasification technology integrated with combined cycle electricity generation to create a concentrated stream of carbon dioxide that can be readily captured and stored deep in the Earth. It will “push the envelope” in exploring how to use coal in a less carbon-intense manner. In this way, FutureGen will be a “living prototype” capable of introducing future technology innovations into its design. CO2 Sequestration How can we be confident that carbon capture and storage is possible before the work of the regional partnerships and FutureGen is complete? Dakota Gasification Company, a subsidiary of 44

Basin Electric Power Cooperative in North Dakota, already is capturing CO2 and transporting it over two hundred miles in a pipeline for injection into depleted oil fields in Canada. The $2.1-billion Great Plains Synfuels Plant near Beulah, N.D., is using the Lurgi gasification process to convert 18,000 tons of lignite into valuable gases and liquids. In the process, Dakota Gas sends some 95 million standard cubic feet (MMSCF) of nearly 100 percent pure CO2 to the Weyburn oilfield in Saskatchewan, Canada. It is the largest carbon-storage project in the world. Approximately six million metric tons of CO2 has been sequestered since the project began in October 2000. The CO2 is expected to be permanently sequestered in the oil reservoir. To assure that it remains sequestered, the reservoir is being monitored by the International Energy Agency (IEA). Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle A growing number of utilities are committing to develop integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants that will be able to produce concentrated streams of carbon dioxide for capture and storage. At the same time, Mississippi Power is blazing new trails and building an air-blown IGCC plant to generate electricity from

locally mined lignite. Most IGCC designs rely on the use of bituminous coals and require air separation units to introduce oxygen during the gasification process. What makes the Mississippi Power design unique is the commitment to use low-rank coals with their higher moisture and ash content, while avoiding the necessity of an air separation unit. This design could be an important innovation because lignite represents half the proven United States and worldwide coal reserves, and avoiding need for an air separation unit would increase the plant’s efficiency in terms of electricity produced from every Btu in coal. Retrofitting Traditional Pulverized Coal Units American Electric Power (AEP) plans to install carbon-capture equipment on two of its coal-fueled power plants. This move would make AEP the first utility to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions from existing coal-based power plants. This is important because this new technology may allow CO2 emissions to be reduced more efficiently and at lower costs, by retrofitting existing coal-fueled plants rather than limiting the deployment of CO2 emissions control technologies to new plants. AEP is partnering with ALSTOM Power to leverage post-combustion carbon-capamerican coal council


ture technology using a “chilled ammonia” process. Using chilled ammonia to capture CO2 is expected to dramatically reduce the energy costs associated with capturing CO2 from a power plant that burns pulverized coal. The chilled ammonia process is an example of how to retrofit existing non-IGCC pulverized coal plants. Early laboratory tests sponsored by ALSTOM, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Statoil and others, demonstrate the potential to capture over 90 GRE-0641 NextGenAd BW 8/4/06 1:26 percent of CO2 at a cost competitive with

other carbon-capture technologies. If that proves to be the case in the 30-megawatt test at AEP’s 1,300 MW Mountaineer Plant in New Haven, W.Va., AEP intends to leverage its experience with the technology and scale it up for use at one of its 450-megawatt coal-fueled units at its Northeastern Station in Oologah, Okla. Yet another promising retrofit technology appears to be oxy-fuel generation, which uses an air separation unit to combust coal in the presence of almost pure oxygen. This PM Page 1 method would reduce nitrogen – which is

Energy Generation For The Next Generation.

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46

the major constituent of our atmosphere – in the boiler. Oxygen-rich combustion delivers a more concentrated stream of CO2 for capture in the same way that an IGCC unit does rather than the more dilute, difficult to capture, stream of CO2 that results from traditional coal combustion. Summary To reiterate, climate change policy cannot be separated from broader energy security, economic development and environmental policies. They are inextricably linked. Technological advances have allowed the utility sector to meet the growing list of environmental challenges that our country has faced since the passage of the Clean Air Act in 1970. Given time, innovative technologies such as ones mentioned in this article, will make it possible to reduce greenhouse gases, just as they have enabled the power generation sector to produce a spectacular increase in electricity with dramatically fewer emissions. America and nations around the world can achieve meaningful reductions in emissions by employing advanced clean coal technologies. The forward movement of research and development, as well as the deployment of new coal-use and retrofit technologies, is essential to securing our nation’s energy future. Actually, the fate of the world’s ability to address climate change concerns depends on the success of American coal-use technologies. This is because many developing nations will continue to use their most abundant energy resource – coal – and cannot be expected to employ the more efficient and lower emissions producing technologies unless the United States and the developed world are able to provide strong leadership and the necessary research, development, demonstration and deployment of CCT. This is why a technology-based approach is so critical and the timing for such an approach is now. By fostering these kinds of policies, regional and state decision makers can achieve our mutual goals of a growing economy propelled by reliable, affordable energy, as well as global leadership in addressing our pressing environmental challenges.  u Joe Lucas is executive director at Americans for Balanced Energy Choices (www.balancedenergy.org). american coal council


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Dust Control Coal mines are beginning to reap the benefits of a chemical other industry sectors have been using for years By Lola Green, Environmental Products & Applications, Inc.

Editor’s note: Here is another example of how innovative action on the part of industry is having a positive environmental impact. Dust control is one of the many issues that must be addressed in the every day operation of coal mines, transportation efforts and coal consumption.

A

crylic copolymers have commonly been used to combat dust and erosion in industries such as construction, military and copper mines. In the construction sector, acrylic copolymers are used to stabilize pads after grading; reduce fugitive dust, protect stockpiles and other exposed land areas from erosion and eliminate the need for costly water trucks. The United States Military relies on acrylic copolymers for helicopter pad stabilization. It is sprayed on the soil so dust won’t go airborne when helicopters are landing, thus, preventing “brown outs.” Copper mines have been using acrylic copolymers on tailing ponds for

many years. Tailing ponds contain contaminants that would cause health concerns if they become airborne, so acrylic copolymers are used to bond soil particles together preventing any chance of soil entering the atmosphere. Acrylic copolymers are gradually becoming common in the coal industry. Acrylic Copolymers are Revolutionising Coal Industry Standards Various applications of acrylic copolymers are being used in the coal industry. In particular, the coal industry is starting to change the way they traditionally conduct coal car

Type

Advantages

Disadvantages

Acrylic Copolymer

Flexible surface crust Non-corrosive Non-slippery Long-term effectiveness Environmentally safe

Loses effectiveness if graded through

Chloride Salts (Calcium Chloride & Magnesium Chloride)

Can be topically sprayed 30-80% dust reduction Durable

Slippery when wet, leaches away with precipitation Corrosive to metal Performs poorly in low humidity Can be harmful to vegetation/ground water Does not physically bond to soil

Organic Resin Emulsions

Non-corrosive Colorless Odorless

Will not cure in cold weather Brittle when dry Equipment cleaning is time consuming Loses effectiveness when bladed

Organic Oil Emulsions

Non-corrosive High binding strength

Offensive odor Slippery when wet, leaches away with precipitation Tracks onto vehicles

Petroleum Resin Emulsions

Creates a sealed surface on road Effective dust control

Slippery when wet, leaches away with precipitation Tracks onto vehicles Equipment cleaning is time consuming Harmful to vegetation & groundwater

Lignin Sulfonates

Adheres to soil particles Non-toxic Versatile

Slippery when wet, leaches away with precipitation Corrosive to aluminum Harmful to groundwater Requires proper aggregate/soil mix Brittle when dry

Enzymes

Environmentally acceptable Increased compaction

Normally requires an additional product to seal the surface Requires clay mineral in the soil Must be mixed into the soil Brittle when dry Lengthy time to cure

american coal council

capping. Acrylic copolymers are very competitive and help to prevent loss of product in transit. Currently, coal companies use a latex-based product that behaves similarly to acrylic copolymers. Acrylic copolymers can be applied at a lower application rate and at a substantially lower unit cost. Furthermore, acrylic copolymers do not affect coal combustion nor will they cause problems with transport conveyors. Application Strategy Existing coal car capping application hardware can be used without the need to purchase special equipment. In place of latex, it is possible to insert a diluted mix of acrylic copolymers. First, dilute at a ratio of 1 to 14 parts water. Then apply at a rate of 0.08 L/m2 (1.12 L of water) of acrylic copolymers to the top layer of coal for a total volume of 1.20L/m2. Using this strategy, a litre of product will treat a 12m2 area. Currently Used Dust Abatement Measures (Advantages and Disadvantages) Here is a tabular look at how acrylic copolymers stack up against other chemicals currently being used on coal mines for dust abatement and erosion control. As environmental laws become increasingly strict and the need to reduce costs grows, new applications for acrylic copolymers are constantly evolving. Companies facing dust control issues in their operations may consider acrylic copolymers as an innovative option.  u Lola Green is controller at Environmental Products & Applications, Inc. (www.envirotac.com). 49


Leading Edge Computer-based Engineering Makes Coal-handling Systems Cleaner By Andy Marti, Martin Engineering USA

A

s the coal industry moves forward, “clean” and “coal” will be the watchwords. These words usually refer to the clean combustion of coal. A key component of coal use in the future, however, will be the clean handling of coal. Clean coal handling will be a key ingredient in the acceptance of any proposed coal-fueled power generation plant as well as in the expansion of an existing coal-fueled facility. There are a number of technologies for improved coal handling that are now available – ready to be incorporated into new or existing facilities to improve their efficiency and assure their future competitiveness. These systems can reduce dust and fugitive material, while they eliminate plugs and blockages and improve operating efficiency. american coal council

The key to the development and application of these clean coal-handling systems is computer-based design and engineering systems. Computers in the Design of Coal-Handling Systems Previously, engineering of bulk material handling systems was based primarily on experience, rules of thumb, and guesswork. Today, however, sophisticated computers and software packages provide the design and modeling technologies that allow for better understanding and management of material flows. Software and related computing technologies allow drafters and engineers to work through a range of design possibilities to determine how a system will work with

the coal, or other material, in a range of conditions, from best to worst case. Only a computer provides the kind of calculating power required to develop the models and generate these iterations — making small, step-by-step design adjustments that allow for the comparison of alternative solutions to improve coal handling. One place where computer-driven design is already making a successful appearance is in the engineering of conveyor transfer chutes. While designs for various applications and from competing suppliers will differ, in most cases these chutes feature a hood and spoon. Components are configured to confine the moving material stream, reduce the entrainment of air and minimize impact forces while placing the material with minimal impact or “splash” 51


and moving in the proper direction on the receiving belt. Doing so helps to reduce spillage, abrasion, dust, and damage. “Engineered flow” belt-to-belt transfers are developed by using a parametric design procedure; that is, they rely on the information provided in a set of specifications to develop the chute for a given transfer point. Discrete Element Modeling (DEM), a technology made possible with the development of the computer, helps to design the systems to accommodate the moving stream of particles.

52

Dealing with DEM DEM is a computer technique intended to solve an infinite number of differential equations with a finite number of dependent and independent variables. The basic operating equation is Newton’s Second Law: Force = Mass x Acceleration (F = ma), solved for every interaction between particle and particle, and particle and chute wall, but modified with the properties of the particle and its interacting elements. The initial data and the relevant physical laws are used to compute the forces that act on each particle. Some of the forces that affect the particle motion include: • Friction, when two particles touch, or move against the wall. • Impact, when two particles collide. • Frictional or viscous damping, when energy is lost during the compression and recoil of particles in a collision. • Cohesion and/or adhesion, when two particles collide and stick to each other.

• Gravity, which is the engine for the whole process. Engineers use Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), a similar, computerbased technology, to analyze the flow of air entrained in and around the stream of moving coal. Of course, the “garbage in, garbage out” principle still applies. If the data going into the software is not accurate, the design coming out will not be accurate either. That is why material testing is critical. Testing sequences allow the properties of a coal to be measured, providing the data the computer needs to design efficient handling equipment for the materials being tested. The Difference Between Coal and Coal But if the system is handling coal, why do you need to test the material? Coal is coal, right? There are differences, from mine to mine, and power plant to power plant. Moisture american coal council


content will have a significant impact on the ability to move coal through a system without plugging, dusting or spills. Engineers introduce additional material variables relating to movement, storage, reclamation, and crushing. It requires sophisticated testing to determine the properties of the coal and the performance of the structural components that interface with the coal. Passing the Material Tests Testing typically requires a 20-liter sample – approximately a five-gallon pail full – of the material, of which the majority should be fines. The first test performed is an “as-received” moisture content of the entire sample. This consists of weighing the sample, drying it out in an oven, and then weighing it again. Then, the material is put through a sieve to remove large lumps, and then the small lumps. The material below 1400 microns (1.4 millimeters or 0.05 inches) is used for the property testing. Water is added to a american coal council

portion to determine the saturation level – the point at which the material becomes slurry. Then a range of moisture levels are tested, including the “as received” and a level very near saturation. At each of the moisture levels, researchers perform at least three different tests: direct shear, interface friction, and bulk density. In general, the direct shear quantifies the material behavior as a solid mass – its strength under loading, its internal friction and cohesion, and its flow properties under pressure or external forces. The interface friction test helps determine the friction of the material against other materials, and helps determine the best materials to use for chute liners. The bulk density test determines the material’s “compressibility” under different moisture and loading conditions, to make sure the material remains free flowing. Once parameters are established, you can design almost any material handling equipment including silos, transfer chutes, screw conveyors, and belt cleaners.

Benefits of 3-D Modeling Engineers use the detailed results to develop a computer-generated 3-D model of the chute system. One advantage of the computer-based system is that it quickly allows the incorporation and comparison of proposed changes. One can easily see the effect of alterations: How a modification in belt speed, pulley diameter, chute angle or lump size will alter the material’s trajectory and impact levels. These models create the “bouncing ball” animations that demonstrate the movement of material through engineered flow chutes. The model is a guard against the design limitations, to check for conflict between the proposed design and existing equipment. Following customer approval, the 3-D model helps produce the fabrication and installation drawings. The modeling software can produce these drawings without requiring interface with external software programs, avoiding the “something got lost in translation” syndrome. 53


The use of computer-based modeling techniques allows the efficient turnaround of a hood and spoon chute design to meet the requirements of a specific belt-to-belt transfer. New Systems for a New Age One of the keys to clean coal handling is a willingness to apply innovative systems to receive, store, size, and convey the material. Some equipment suppliers have developed collaborative research centers for the testing of bulk material properties and the design of material handling equipment. These centers will be the pathway to developing the next level of innovative systems. Forward-thinking coal-handling operations – mines, transportation companies, and power generators alike – will make the investment in computerenabled research and engineering to develop improved systems. The latest spillage and dust-control technologies for conveyor and other solids handling equipment are required to control the environmental problems associated with moving millions of tons of coal from source to destination. Computer-aided design will create the “next generation” equipment that makes possible the clean handling of clean coal.  u Andy Marti is communications specialist for Martin Engineering, Neponset, Ill. (www.martin-eng.com). 54

american coal council


The Industry: In the eyes of a new graduate By Robert Vaughn, Marston & Marston

I

still have so much to learn about the coal industry, but as a recent college graduate, I’ve already discovered something exciting: This industry offers new graduates more choices than they would ever expect. A strong desire to succeed, a willingness to work hard, and a dose of talent can lead to a rewarding career. Whether your education background is in engineering, management, business, marketing or finance, the opportunities are endless in coal and energy. My own interest in the coal industry began well before I graduated from college. My father, Dan Vaughn, has been in the industry for more than 25 years, so talk of coal has always been around in our household – whether taking a family vacation to see family friends and a mountaintop american coal council

operation in Pikeville, Ky., or entering pricing data into coal databases during the summers. I always suspected I would end up working in the coal industry. I just recently graduated from the University of Missouri-Rolla (UMR) with a degree in engineering management. I am sure, however, that my initial expectations coming into the coal industry were different than those of many new graduates, due to my previous experiences. I was fortunate to have had the opportunity for summer employment with a variety of companies while attending UMR. One of the primary reasons I chose this industry was that I enjoyed my prior internships at Kinder Morgan’s Shipyard River Terminal in Charleston, S. C.; in Black Beauty’s Civil Engineering Department; and in Arch Coal’s Market Research Department.

Through each of these assignments, I gained a better understanding of, and appreciation for, the range of work and the complexities that characterize the industry. My experiences at these companies helped me to get my feet wet in the industry and gave me a good appreciation for what to expect when I entered into a career position. At Kinder Morgan, I gained an appreciation for transportation issues involved with the trade of coal and other commodities. My time in Charleston also exposed me to the international coal market. Despite having been around the industry my entire life, I was not aware that coal was imported into the United States. At Black Beauty, I learned the values of surface mine planning and gained experience using SurvCad, a software program that I am currently using at Marston & Marston on a Southern Powder River Basin project. This software maps coal seam thickness and stripping ratios to calculate future mining costs. While working at Arch, I benefited from being exposed to the many different market issues that a coal producer faces. I gained a deeper understanding of how elements such as PRB transportation capacity constraints, coal quality limitations, consumer stockpiles, the economy, and weather all affect how a coal producer approaches the marketing of its product. 55


The broad range of topics I became familiar with throughout my various internships ultimately led me to join Marston & Marston this past February. I knew that by being a part of a consulting firm I would broaden my exposure through an array of different projects and that I could continue to learn along the way. Already, I have been a part of a supply and demand study of the Illinois Basin, a coal supply optimization study for South Africa, and a range of production forecasts and mining cost projects. Aside from gaining knowledge from the various assignments at Marston & Marston, I have also had the opportunity to learn new software programs as part of my training. Most notably, I have become capable in Microsoft Access and ArcGIS – tools with which I was unfamiliar coming out of school. A surprise to a new industry hire: Despite graduating from a technological university, I was a little “green” when it came to working with the specific software programs that my job required. (Being green in environmental terms may be a good thing. Being green on the job – not quite so good.) Learning to use Access quickly became essential for me, as that knowledge was needed to assist in preparing quarterly production reports and forecasts, as well as to help with our Mine Costs Model. In addition, pairing our data in Access with a tool like ArcGIS has enabled us to create a more accurate mine location database and calculate figures such as trucking distances for mines across the country. My training in these programs has proved to be both challenging and valuable. It seems like only yesterday that I was entering my freshmen year of college. Playing soccer, working as a DJ at the radio station, hanging out with my Phi Kappa Theta fraternity brothers and squeezing in some study time, all made for a comfortable lifestyle. Three internships and a professional position later, I am ready to make my mark in the industry. The continued growth in coal-fueled generation, competing energy sources, environmental challenges, transportation issues, and global market competition are all a part of our industry’s never ending story – and I am excited to be part of it.u Robert Vaughn joined the Marston & Marston team (www.marston.com) in February 2007. 56

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Advances in Mining Equipment Every industry strives for growth and improvement over time By Jason Hayes, American Coal Council

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ny industry that sits back on its haunches convinced that it has run the race and won is an industry that will soon witness its own demise. The mining industry is no different, and with the constant pressures of international markets, changing legislation, public perceptions, and employee needs, there also is a need for equipment manufacturers to become ever more efficient, productive, cleaner, stronger, lighter, faster, less expensive and – above all – safer. To the outsider, the machines currently rolling off the production lines might look similar to their predecessors. They’re metal, they have spinning drums or shovels, they move around on wheels or tracks … They’re the same, right? Not quite. To the well-trained eye, or to the touch of a skilled operator, the newer machines are like the new computers sitamerican coal council

Photo courtesy of Bucyrus

ting on the shelves at your local big box retailer. In its day, your old computer was as fast and as slick as they came – but it can’t hope to match the newer equipment’s speed, power and features. In the same vein, a dizzying array of equipment, as well as changes and upgrades is constantly being made to mining machines. Keeping track of them all is difficult and explaining them all in a single article is impossible. So, we’ll attempt to whittle down a very large subject to a look at the history and development of a few key pieces of equipment. We’ll consider the major workhorses of surface and underground mining – the dragline, the continuous miner and the longwall miner – and conclude by considering some of the technologies and training methods being used to improve operator proficiency.

Surface Machinery The main work of extracting coal in surface mines is accomplished with large equipment like draglines, shovels, and trucks. Draglines remove the overburden (or rock and soil over the coal seam) and shovels are used to load the coal into trucks. In 1904, needing equipment that could remove large amounts of material at and below grade, John Page devised the first dragline. It was a rough wooden contraption that possessed a swinging boom and a one cubic yard (¾ cubic meters) bucket that could be controlled with cables. It was an instant hit and newer versions expanded the size of the bucket and reach of the boom. In 1912, Bucyrus upgraded the concept by adding crawling tracks to a Class 14 dragline. The weight of the machines, however, proved too much for the ground on which most of these machines operated. 59


One year later, The Monighan Machine Company released the first walking dragline by attaching two moveable shoes on either side of the machine’s base. Draglines have advanced considerably from their early days and current models boast boom lengths of 150 feet to 330 feet (45 meters to 100 meters) and buckets from 40 cubic yards to 80 cubic yards (30 cubic meters to 60 cubic meters). The largest dragline ever built – a BucyrusErie machine named “Big Muskie” – had a bucket the size of a 12-car garage and a boom over 300 feet long. The massive power requirements of these machines 60

require that they be directly wired to the electrical grid; gasoline or diesel – the fuels for early dragline models – simply could not provide sufficient energy. As draglines have increased in size, they’ve also increased their ability to move material. Currently, the world’s largest dragline – a Bucyrus 2570WS – has a 156-cubic-yard (119-cubic-meter) bucket and can move up to 400 short tons (360 tonnes) of material in a single bucket load. Other upgrades and improvements made to draglines include moves to change from high maintenance DC motors to more reliable and lower maintenance AC induction motors to

power the hoist, drag, and swing. Remote monitoring systems now allow engineers to “log in” to a dragline, from anywhere in the world and diagnose or even repair problems before they require downtime. In each case, these changes have allowed for improved efficiency, productivity and safety, as well as reduced maintenance costs and downtime. Future developments for draglines include work being carried out by the Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation’s (CSIRO) Mining Robotics Project and Dragline Swing Assist (DSA) system. american coal council


Photo courtesy of Bucyrus

CSIRO is completing research on dragline automation and real-time digital-terrain mapping. The research is showing how draglines can be put into a type of “cruisecontrol” that allows robotics to take over and refine the repetitive actions involved with earth moving. Using computers like this also will ensure 3-D mapping of the mine will be constantly updated and that earth moving will be carried out in as efficient a manner as possible. Underground Machinery In underground mining, the heavy lifting and production of coal is carried out with american coal council

continuous miners and longwall miners. Continuous miners were first developed and used in England in the late 1800s. They didn’t see wide use in the United States, however, until the 1940s and 1950s. They were developed as a means to increase production and move miners away from the face of the coal and from the need for direct labor with hammers, picks, and explosives. During their development, these machines had a variety of cutting heads affixed to them, including belt-like ripper heads, boring and auger heads, oscillating heads, and rotating drums. Most continuous miners used in coal mining today tear coal from

the seam with a large rotating steel drum that is covered with hardened cutting bits. The coal falls onto a conveyor and is transported onto shuttle cars and removed from the mine. Developments in these machines have promoted them to the forefront of underground mining and they now make up 45 percent to 49 percent of all underground production. Newer machines can extract coal from a seam at rates of over 330 tons (300 tonnes) per hour – where seam thickness and geology allow. As manufacturers have continued to make the machines safer and more operator-friendly, they have made them remote or robotically controlled, further removing operators from potentially dangerous situations. Joy Machines is now marketing their “wethead” miner that sprays water onto the rotating drum and coal face as a means of reducing fine particles and dust created during the mining process, reducing wear on cutting bits, and reducing the possibility of coal-face ignitions. They are also marketing refinements such as their OPTIDRIVE system, which improves traction and overall maneuverability of the mining units. Longwall miners were introduced in the United States in the 1960s as a means of achieving higher coal removal rates – where continuous miners remove approximately 60 percent of the coal in traditional room and pillar mining, longwall miners can remove 80 percent or more in favorable geologic conditions. Longwall operations involve separating out a “panel” or distinct section of coal, as much as two miles (3.2 kilometers) long and 1,200 feet (365 meters) wide with continuous miners. The longwall equipment is then set up on the face of the panel and the cutting machine (shearer) is pulled across a coal face, much like a typewriter moving across a page. When the cutting head reaches the end of the face it is pulled back to start the cutting process over again; in each pass, a section of coal approximately 6 feet (1.8 meters) high and 3 feet to 4 feet (.9 meters to 1.2 meters) deep is removed. Coal is removed from the seam and transferred to the surface via conveyor belts. Large steel plates (or “chocks”) held up by hydraulic supports hold the roof up until after the equipment passes. When the supports advance, along with the cutting head, the gap left where the coal once was (the “gob”) is allowed to collapse. Mining rates in a longwall operation are impressive and 61


Photos courtesy of Joy Mining Machinery

an area as large as 350 acres (140 hectares) can be removed in under six months. Development of the longwall miner was a significant advance in mining technology. It allowed increased coal removal from the seam, increased safety for miners â&#x20AC;&#x201C; who are protected by working under the chocks â&#x20AC;&#x201C; and increased efficiencies and decreased mining costs. With increased automa-

62

Computer graphic of a Komatsu PC5500 Shovel. Photo courtesy of Fifth Dimension Technologies (www.5dt.com)

tion, longwall mining is becoming even more efficient and safe. Machines now can be monitored from the surface to ensure proper operation, predict downtime and improve production rates. Additionally, automatic systems can help to protect against overloads and to avoid bottlenecks in feeding coal to conveyor systems.

Moving into the Future: Training Equipment development cannot be limited solely to designers and engineers rolling the newest, most efficient version of a product off the production line. Neither should it be limited to incorporating new features into existing equipment. Although some nice new products are being developed, employee ergonomics (for example) is now a key factor in equipment development. Where old-school techniques might have involved using a chunk of plywood as a replacement for a worn out seat, some current mining equipment is almost as comfortable as sitting in a Lazy Boy recliner. Many ads for new equipment describe ergonomically designed computer monitors and chairs with foot and arm rests, lumbar support, and even heat and massage features. Another foundational aspect of product development is the training that goes into making operators better able to use the equipment. Through proper training, companies can see substantial gains, not only in employee safety, but also in extended equipment life, reduced downtime, improved servicing, and more efficient operations. In recent years, one tool has emerged as a key training option: virtual realamerican coal council


ity and training simulators. Companies such as Immersive Technologies and Fifth Dimension Technologies have developed simulators that allow employees to have near real-life experiences in the driverâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s seat of a $100 million dragline (or other trucks and tracked machines) without risking the actual equipment or taking that equipment out of production. For â&#x20AC;&#x153;greenâ&#x20AC;? employees, the simulators provide an opening for instructors to cut training schedules on some machines in half. They also can ensure proper handling techniques or â&#x20AC;&#x153;best practicesâ&#x20AC;? are learned before an operator ever touches the controls of a real piece of equipment. For experienced employees, the simulators help reinforce good practices and can provide a type of â&#x20AC;&#x153;traffic school experienceâ&#x20AC;? to reduce the incidence of poor-handling practices. A recent issue of Australian Mining described how simulators can provide training situations that could never occur on real equipment. The Western Australia and Southern Australia Mining Manager for Thiess Pty. Ltd., Andy Haslam, noted, â&#x20AC;&#x153;We can do some pretty scary safety simulations (in the simulators) without hurting anybody or the equipment. We pull fire drills on them, or a tyre blow-out on a ramp â&#x20AC;&#x201C; you just canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t do that in a real situation â&#x20AC;Ś More than anything itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s the safety and the training efficiency, and not upsetting the production cycle â&#x20AC;Ś thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s beneficial â&#x20AC;Ś We reckon weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re taking two weeks off the typical four-week training cycleâ&#x20AC;Śâ&#x20AC;? No industry can afford to sit back and expect that it has achieved everything possible. To its credit, the mining industry is leading the charge to become better, faster and more efficient. By encouraging advances and implementing new technologies, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s possible for mining companies to improve employee safety, productivity and understanding of their equipment. It is also possible to minimize equipment downtime and the need for repairs. There have been many advances and attempts to move the mining industry forward through the development of new mining equipment. While some were tried and then abandoned as unworkable, the tradition in the industry is to consistently push forward, always demanding more.â&#x20AC;&#x201A; u Jason Hayes is communications director for the American Coal Council (www. cleancoal.info). american coal council

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Leading the U.S. Market in Engineered Performance Improvements UĂ&#x160; "ÂŤĂ&#x152;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x201C;Â&#x2C6;âi`Ă&#x160;ÂŤÂ?>Â&#x2DC;Ă&#x152;Ă&#x160;Ă&#x20AC;iĂ&#x152;Ă&#x20AC;Â&#x153;wĂ&#x152;Ă&#x192;Ă&#x160;Ă&#x153;Â&#x2C6;Ă&#x152;Â&#x2026;Ă&#x160;`iÂ&#x201C;Â&#x153;Â&#x2DC;Ă&#x192;Ă&#x152;Ă&#x20AC;>Ă&#x152;i`Ă&#x160; ÂŤiĂ&#x20AC;vÂ&#x153;Ă&#x20AC;Â&#x201C;>Â&#x2DC;ViĂ&#x160;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x201C;ÂŤĂ&#x20AC;Â&#x153;Ă&#x203A;iÂ&#x201C;iÂ&#x2DC;Ă&#x152;Ă&#x192; UĂ&#x160; *, Ă&#x160;VÂ&#x153;Â&#x2DC;Ă&#x203A;iĂ&#x20AC;Ă&#x192;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x153;Â&#x2DC;Ă&#x192;Ă&#x160;Ă&#x152;Â&#x2026;>Ă&#x152;Ă&#x160;Â&#x2026;>Ă&#x203A;iĂ&#x160;Â&#x201C;>Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2DC;Ă&#x152;>Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2DC;i`Ă&#x160;Â&#x153;Ă&#x20AC;Â&#x2C6;}Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2DC;>Â?Ă&#x160; Â&#x2DC;>Â&#x201C;iÂŤÂ?>Ă&#x152;iĂ&#x160;Ă&#x192;Ă&#x152;i>Â&#x201C;Ă&#x160;yÂ&#x153;Ă&#x153; UĂ&#x160; VÂ&#x153;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x153;Â&#x201C;Â&#x2C6;âiĂ&#x20AC;Ă&#x160;iĂ?Â&#x2C6;Ă&#x152;Ă&#x160;}>Ă&#x192;Ă&#x160;Ă&#x152;iÂ&#x201C;ÂŤiĂ&#x20AC;>Ă&#x152;Ă&#x2022;Ă&#x20AC;iĂ&#x160;VÂ&#x153;Â&#x2DC;Ă&#x152;Ă&#x20AC;Â&#x153;Â?Ă&#x160; Â&#x201C;Â&#x153;`Â&#x2C6;wV>Ă&#x152;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x153;Â&#x2DC;Ă&#x192;Ă&#x160;vÂ&#x153;Ă&#x20AC;Ă&#x160;- ,Ă&#x160;>ÂŤÂŤÂ?Â&#x2C6;V>Ă&#x152;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x153;Â&#x2DC;Ă&#x192; UĂ&#x160; -Ă&#x152;>Ă&#x152;iĂ&#x160;Â&#x153;vĂ&#x160;Ă&#x152;Â&#x2026;iĂ&#x160;>Ă&#x20AC;Ă&#x152;Ă&#x160;wĂ&#x20AC;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2DC;}Ă&#x160;Ă&#x192;Ă&#x17E;Ă&#x192;Ă&#x152;iÂ&#x201C;Ă&#x192;Ă&#x160;vÂ&#x153;Ă&#x20AC;Ă&#x160; "XĂ&#x160;VÂ&#x153;Â&#x2DC;Ă&#x152;Ă&#x20AC;Â&#x153;Â? UĂ&#x160; Â&#x153;Ă&#x192;Ă&#x152;Ă&#x160;ivviVĂ&#x152;Â&#x2C6;Ă&#x203A;iĂ&#x160;Â&#x201C;iĂ&#x20AC;VĂ&#x2022;Ă&#x20AC;Ă&#x17E;Ă&#x160;Ă&#x20AC;i`Ă&#x2022;VĂ&#x152;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x153;Â&#x2DC;Ă&#x160;Ă&#x192;Â&#x153;Â?Ă&#x2022;Ă&#x152;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x153;Â&#x2DC;Ă&#x192;

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63


MAR TIN ENGINEERING

guaranteed to cut dust by 98%

...And they did it! At AmerenUE’s Meramec Power Station, w e h a n d l e t h re e t o f o u r m i l l i o n t o n s o f P R B c o a l a y e a r. B u t w e n e e d e d t o i n crease the flow rate, and control the dust.

Mike Schimmelpfennig A m e ren Energy Fuels & Services

So we decided to get some new engineered chutes. We looked at them all... Mar tin Engineering was the only supplier to give us the written guarantee we wanted. M A R T I N ® I N E R T I A L F L O W ™ Tr a n s f e r C h u t e s a re c u s t o m - e n g i n e e re d t o m a t c h our coal, our conveyors, and our operating re q u i re m e n t s . T h e s e c o m p u t e r - m o d e l e d hood-and-spoon chutes minimize impact, control air flow, and reduce dust. And Martin Engineering guaranteed the new chutes would cut our dust levels by 98%. We couldn’t believe they would put that in writing.

Now, flow rate is up, time needed to fill the bunkers is down. And the before-and-after testing shows the dust has been reduced by more than 98%. Just like they said. They did what they said they would do. That’s the real stor y. Mike Schimmelpfennig General Executive - Coal Operations A m e ren Energy Fuels & Services St. Louis, Missouri

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Visit martin-eng.com 800-544-2974 or 309-594-2384 Fax: 309-594-2432

Coal Handling


New Product Development – Coal Car: The development of the RDL™ By Randy Thomure, TrinityRail

T

rinityRail® created and commercialized the concept of automatic unloading coal hopper cars. Over the years, the company has manufactured thousands of Rapid Discharge® coal cars. These cars have been in service for decades, moving coal efficiently and reliably from mine to utility. But TrinityRail didn’t rest there. When seeking the next step in the evolution of the Rapid Discharge® car, TrinityRail looked to its service experience, engineering expertise, and gathered input from field service personnel and customers. A common request kept coming back from customers: Could we develop a universal car – a car that could be used in either rotary gondola or hopper service? Although existing designs for hopper cars, including TrinityRail’s R.D. VI, incorporated features to allow use in rotary dump service, it was locked out of a number of rotary dump facilities due to the car’s overall height. Our engineers found themselves challenged by the physical envelope of the car – the length, end slopes, etc. From this challenge, an idea was born. Why not make doors that mimic the longitudinal tubs of the TrinityRail’s MaxGon gondola car? This would address the two main issues – lowering the height of the car to fit virtually all-rotary dumpers, but at the same time increase the cubic capacity. With the american coal council

concept set, the engineers focused on the details of the design. Longitudinal doors are hardly a new concept on coal cars. For the most part, previous designs suffered from overly complicated mechanisms that created reliability and maintenance issues. With these thoughts in mind, TrinityRail’s New Product Development Group, led by Sr. Vice President George Creighton, dove in. The solution was simply a question of leverage. Adjustable links were connected to a single operating beam. When the air cylinder extends, the operating beam moves forward. As the beam moves forward, the hinged links connected to the beam move, causing the two doors to open. The short travel and simple mechanism causes the gates to open quickly and efficiently. The result is quicker and more complete unloading of coal than usually found in conventional cars. When empty, the air cylinder retracts, returning the link arms to their original position, which pushes the doors closed. The leverage action of the door arms move over center to lock against a solid stop, one of several key features of the R.D. VI retained in this new car. This keeps the doors latched until there is enough force to overcome the over center locking action.

In fact, when loaded there is greater force acting to keep the doors closed. This patented design was now complete, but would the efficiency gains anticipated be realized? The only reliable means to test a concept is to try it out – to take a concept on paper, move it to a railcar production plant and build a prototype. In 2004, a R.D. VI from the production line in TrinityRail’s Cartersville, Ga. plant was retrofitted with this new longitudinal door concept. The effort was headed by John Herzog of TrinityRail’s Field Service Group, who brought with him decades of Rapid Discharge experience. The tireless efforts of John and untold numbers of additional TrinityRail employees helped to bring TIMX 1000, TrinityRail’s first RDL prototype, to life. The hardware development consisted of achieving proper door adjustment, finding the right balance of over center leverage and setting door opening pressures. For the next phase of testing, tons of rock was loaded into the car to determine the performance of the doors under load. This phase was physically challenging since the shop did not have an unloading pit. A crew was called in to manually shovel out the aggregate from under the car after every test. Live, in-service, testing of the car was the next step. The first unloading of coal came 65


in June 2006 at Southern Company’s Plant Yates in Newnan, Ga. More test unloadings and demonstrations followed to validate the design and collect service data for maintenance implications, as well as gain direct feedback from other coal car users. With positive initial feedback, the next phase of the project was initiated. A production design was finalized utilizing the longitudinal door concept. It was this car that became today’s RDL. Without trans-

verse doors, the car needed greater lateral strength. The engineers tackled the problem from two fronts. First, an innovative spider connection was developed to tie the sides, the outside slope sheets and the side posts together at the centersill. Bringing the connections down to the centersill enhanced the car structure and, when under load, allows the door mechanism to operate easily. The second challenge was the top chord. For some aluminum coal cars, the Achilles

AmerenEnergy Fuels and Services Company (AFS) provides a full range of fuel-related and business development services to the Ameren group of companies. AFS also provides assistance to some unafliated business, assisting with specic fuels, ash management and emission related issues. AFS procures over 40 million tons of coal from the Powder River and Illinois Basins for use in the Ameren generation eet. In addition to procurement, AFS provides transportation services related to negotiation and administration of rail, barge and truck contracts, as well as the management of over 5000 system railcars. Management and marketing of coal river terminals on the Mississippi River is another area of expertise for AFS. AFS has the ability to provide blending and rail to water trans-loading services for both in-house and third party users. Combustion by-product services for benecial use such as owable ll projects as well as ash disposal options are additional services provided by the AFS team. AFS provides all procurement of natural gas on both the wholesale and retail level to over 925,000 customers in the Ameren UE, Ameren Energy Generating Company, Ameren CILCO and AmerenIP territories. Market research is an additional function of AFS, providing senior management as well as plant operations with the necessary information required to keep on top of the ever-changing fuel and transportation markets. The Business Development group of AFS is also responsible for activities related to renewable energy resources and the development of “green generation projects.” Visit our web-site at www.ameren.com.

Ameren_Q1_07.indd 1

66

Heel has been the top chord. In many instances, problems from overloading, rough handling and severe bouncing from uneven track is first seen in the top chord. The goal was to increase the lateral stiffness while at the same time improving the strength of the car body. This was done through the application of a “double P” top chord. The top chord design, developed by TrinityRail and found on many of the company’s coal cars, was incorporated into the RDL. This increases the lateral strength and alleviates many of the issues found in typical top chord failures. The last feature the engineers tackled was the door seal. Sealing the doors has always been an issue with hopper doors. For the RDL, TrinityRail’s engineers have incorporated a positive door seal. This cantilevered door seal provides a positive seal to mitigate dust and fines leakage from the bottom of the car. The beauty of the design is that the seal has minimal contact when loaded and swings completely clear during unloading, promoting enhanced seal life. The next phase of the RDL’s development was the completion of two additional prototypes. The first car, completed in June 2006, was sent to the National Research Council’s test facility in Toronto, Ont. Under the supervision of TrinityRail’s Vice President of Research and Testing, Shawn Richmond, the car was subject to the full battery of AAR tests, as well as additional tests designed by TrinityRail’s engineers to fully explore the structural integrity of the design. With miles of wire and hundreds of sensors attached to the car, numerous tests were conducted. The car was subjected to

2/13/07 3:55:21 PM

american coal council


bounces, squeezes and impacts, experiencing more stress and strain than a typical coal car might see in 30 years of service. After testing was complete, the car was pronounced ready for the marketplace. While this prototype car was being exercised by the test engineers in Canada, a second prototype was gathering additional in-service feedback from various end users. The second prototype made the rounds from east to west. It was unloaded over trestles and pits, used in rotary dump service, placed in unit train service moving western coal, and hauled more difficult eastern coal. Following this long development path of technical and customer feedback, the design was finalized and moved into production. On April 17, 2007, the first RDL rolled off the production line in Cartersville, Ga. The feedback from test engineers and customers had proved invaluable. It was incorporated into the final design in many areas. An example is a visible door lock indicator on the car to assist on-site personnel unloading the car. In keeping with TrinityRailâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s commitment to bringing this car to as wide an audience as possible, the first two cars off the production line were additional demonstrator cars. As a sign of pride of all those that helped bring this car from concept to production, the first car off the line included a plaque with the names of all those that participated in the project. America relies on coal, and utilities will continue to rely on dependable, state-ofthe-art rail equipment to move their coal. With increasing amounts of coal expected to be moving on our rail system in the years ahead, the future of the coal transportation

american coal council

industry appears bright. With its versatility, ease of operation and ability to achieve efficiency gains for its end-users, the RDL is well positioned to gain an ever-growing share of this market. From a creative solution to address a customerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s request to a production-ready car, the RDL has traveled a long road. After thousands of engineering hours, untold miles of testing and demonstrations, and continual feedback from our customers, TrinityRail has delivered a technologi-

cally advanced Rapid Discharge coal car, designed and tested to meet a specific market need. New product development may be challenging, but if done right the results are worth the effort.â&#x20AC;&#x201A; u Randy Thomure is vice president, Product Marketing at TrinityRail www.trinityrail.com

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Ad Index Advanced Detection Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Ameren Energy Fuels & Services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Alstom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Boral Material Technologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Borton LC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 BNSF Railway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Chemetron Fire Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Chevron Mining Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Coal Marketing Company (USA) Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Coaltrans Conferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 CSX Transportation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62 DM&E Railroad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Damascus Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Dings Company. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 DTE Coal Services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IFC Energy Publishing, LLC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Environmental Products & Applications, Inc.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 E S & S Company. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58 Ernst & Young . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Fuel Tech, Inc.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Great River Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Hard Steel. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Headwaters Incorporated. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OBC Helm Financial Corporation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 ICAP United, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Independent Drug Testing Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Ingram Barge Company. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IBC Interlake Steamship Company. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56 Jennmar Corporation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 KCBX Terminals Company. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 Marshall Miller and Associates Inc (MM&A). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Martin Engineering. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64 Marston. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Material Control, Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Midwest Generation EME, LLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Miner Elastomer Products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Mole•Master Services Corporation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67 Nex Gen Coal Services Ltd.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Norwest Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Peabody Energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 PEBCO ®, Incorporated. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 PICOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 Pincock, Allen & Holt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Platts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 PricewaterhouseCoopers, LLP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Railworks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Roberts & Schaefer Company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Savage Services Corp.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 SCH Terminal Company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Strata Safety Products. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Superior Highwall Miners, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 TEMA Systems, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 The David J. Joseph Company Rail Equipment Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50 Thunder Bay Terminals Ltd.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58 Trianco Corp. - Welsh Miners’ Lamps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 TrinityRail® . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 Weir International, Inc.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Wiley Consulting, LLC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 68

american coal council


Ingram Marine Group Ingram Barge Company Dry and liquid transportation service throughout the entire Mississippi River and Gulf Intracoastal Waterway System

Triangle Fleet / Triangle Anchorage Services Barge fleeting and ship anchorage at Reserve, LA

St. Louis Fleet Barge fleeting at St. Louis Harbor

Huntington Terminal Coal transfer from rail (CSX) to barge at Mile 306.5 Ohio River

Custom Fuel Services Midstream fuel service at New Orleans, Baton Rouge, Columbus (Cairo), Paducah, Hartford, Davenport, Catlettsburg and Point Pleasant

Ingram Materials Company Sand producer and distributor in Tennessee, Kentucky and Alabama

INGRAM BARGE COMPANY P.O. Box 23049 • Nashville, TN 37202-3049 615-298-8200 Phone • 615-298-8213 Fax www.ingrambarge.com


40

4,500 EMPLOYEES

STATES

Headwaters offers the

ONE

industry’s most diverse portfolio of services and technologies that make coal cleaner and more valuable for our nation’s dynamic energy future.

common vision… Adding Value to EnergyTM

Pre-combustion Clean Coal Technologies for Power Generation • Deploying both wet and dry coal cleaning technologies to make productive use of waste coal • Commercializing low rank fuel enhancement technology (coal drying) • Applying nanocatalyst technology for creation of emissions reducing coal treatments • Ethanol production utilizing waste heat from coal fueled power stations Coal Conversion for Ultra Clean Transportation Fuels • Only technology provider with footprint in all coal conversion methods: – Direct Coal Liquefaction – Indirect (Fischer Tropsch) Coal Liquefaction – Heavy Oil / Coal Co-processing • Leading developer of America’s first coal-to-liquids projects Post-Combustion Resources Management • Largest manager and marketer of coal combustion products: – Marketing nearly 7 million tons of coal fly ash annually – Expertise in FGD systems installation and operation – Comprehensive utility and industrial services – Technologies for controlling ammonia and carbon in ash • Leading manufacturer of building products containing coal ash: – Regional market leader in concrete blocks, mortars and stuccos – National market leader in architectural stone veneer and siding accessories

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– Developer of innovative FlexCrete aerated concrete


2007 Buyers’ Guide

Issue 2 • 2007

Economic, Abundant/Secure and Environmentally Sound

“Our future starts here”


CONTENTS ACC Vision and Mission Statement .............. 1 Board of Directors................ 1 Membership Coupon and Information.................... 2 ACC Events........................... 2

American Coal Council 2007 Board of Directors Coal Suppliers Andy Cox Vice President Sales Rhino Energy LLC VP Coal Suppliers

Buyers’ Guide Listings.................................. 3

Bill Davison Vice President Sales & Marketing Foundation Energy

On the cover: “Our Future Starts Here” – Training for equipment operators has gone virtual. Now operators can practice their skills in the comfort and safety of a virtual reality simulator. Photo Courtesy: Fifth Dimension Technologies (www.5dt.com).

Matt Levar General Manager Sales & Marketing Rio Tinto Energy America

Published for: American Coal Council 1101 Pennsylvania Ave. N.W., Suite 600 Washington, DC 20004 Tel: 202-756-4540 www.americancoalcouncil.org ACC Editorial Review Board Trygve Gaalaas, Pace Global Energy Services Janet Gellici, American Coal Council Jason Hayes, American Coal Council Rick James, We Energies Vic Svec, Peabody Energy Published by: Lester Publications, LLC 2131 NW 40th Terrace - Suite A Gainesville, FL 32605 Main line: (352) 338-2700 Toll Free: (877) 387-2700 President Jeff Lester | (866) 953-2189 Sales Director Sean Davis | (888) 953-2190 Managing Editor Bonnie Winter Fedak | (866) 953-2181 Graphic Designer Andy Carney | (204) 953-2180 Account Executives Shannon Evans, Kari Morgan, Louise Peterson, Tom Anderson, Jennifer Shurvell

Coal Consumers Keith Drohan Senior Market Originator Dominion Energy ACC President 2007 Ken Jenkins VP Fuel Management Services Louis-Dreyfus Highbridge Energy Bud Walker Regional Vice President, Fuels Midwest Generation VP Coal Consumers Energy Traders Steve Miller President Coaltrade, LLC VP Energy Traders Dan Vaughn Director Coal Services ICAP United, Inc.

Transportation Bob Brautovich AVP Coal Marketing-West BNSF Railway Jim Garrett Plant Manager AEP MEMCO, LLC Danny Smith Senior Vice President Energy & Properties Norfolk Southern Corporation VP Transportation Coal Support Services Mike Durham, Ph.D. President ADA Environmental Solutions, Inc. VP Coal Support Services Kirk Weber Vice President & General Manager Norwest Corporation Immediate Past President John Ward VP Marketing & Government Affairs Headwaters Incorporated At Large Tom Vorholt Vice President Dry Cargo Sales Ingram Barge Company ACC President-elect 2008/Treasurer/HR & Compensation Committee Chair

American Coal Council Vision Statement

© 2007 American Coal Council. All rights reserved. The contents of this publication may not be reproduced by any means, in whole or in part, without the prior written consent of the ACC.

The American Coal Council (ACC) strives to serve as the pre-eminent business voice of the American coal industry.

Disclaimer The opinions expressed by the authors of the editorial articles contained in American Coal magazine are those of the respective authors and do not necessarily represent the opinion of the American Coal Council or its member companies

The American Coal Council (ACC) is dedicated to advancing the development and utilization of coal as an economic, abundant/secure and environmentally sound fuel source. The Association promotes the lawful exchange of ideas and information regarding the coal industry. It serves as an essential resource for companies that mine, sell, trade, transport, or consume coal. The ACC provides educational programs, advocacy support, peer-to-peer networking forums and market intelligence that allow members to advance their marketing and management capabilities.

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Mission Statement

2007 buyers’ guide

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Membership benefits include educational programming and technical seminars, advocacy support, broad-based networking, Web site,

Membership Coupon Join the 170 companies that recognize the importance of belonging to an Association that serves as the pre-eminent business voice of the American coal industry and advocates for coal as an economic, abundant/secure and environmentally sound fuel source. The American Coal Council (ACC) is an alliance of coal, utility, trading, transportation, terminal and coal support service companies, advocating a non-adversial, partnering approach to business. The ACC facilitates the lawful exchange of ideas and information regarding the American coal industry. It serves as a essential resource for companies that mine, sell, trade, transport or consume American coal. The ACC also serves as a resource for those wishing to expand or enhance business relationships in North American and international coal markets.

electronic and printed membership directory inclusion, newsletter and members-only electronic updates, database resources, policy input, referrals and discounts on events and industry publications.

Yes

,

please send me membership information!

Name_________________________________________________________ Title___________________________________________________________ Company______________________________________________________ Address_______________________________________________________ City________________________State______________ Zip______________ Phone_______________________FAX_______________________________ E-mail_________________________________________________________ Mail or FAX to: American Coal Council 1101 Pennsylvania Ave. N.W., Suite 600 • Washington DC 20004 • 202-756-4540 ~ FAX

2007 – 2008 Event Dates Coal Market Strategies October 8-10, 2007 – Tucson, AZ Coal Trading Conference December 3-4, 2007 – New York, NY Spring Coal Forum March 10-12, 2008 – Miami, FL

For additional information visit www.clean-coal.info or call 202-756-4540

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american coal council


Analytical & Sampling Standard Laboratories, Inc. 1880 North Loop Ave. Casper, WY 82601 307-234-9957 Fax: 307-234-0013 www.standardlabs.com  Contact: Steve Miladinovich Jr.  stdlabs@vcn.com 

SGS Minerals Services 1919 South Highland Ave., Suite 210-B Lombard, IL 60148 630-953-9300 Fax: 630-953-9306 www.us.sgs.com/minerals  Contact: David Smercina, Senior Vice President Energy Minerals  dave.smercina@sgs.com

Thermo Scientific 501 90th Ave., N.W. Minneapolis, MN 55433 763-783-2500 Fax: 763-780-2315 www.thermo.com  Contact: Don Bina  don.bina@thermofisher.com 

University of Kentucky - Center for Applied Energy Research 2540 Research Park Drive Lexington, KY 40511 859-257-0305 Fax: 859-257-0220 www.caer.uky.edu  Contact: Marybeth McAlister  mcalister@caer.uky.edu 

Barge, Train, Truck Loadouts 200 East First Ave. P.O. Box 2108 Hutchinson, KS 67501 620-669-8211 Fax: 620-662-3225 www.borton.biz  Contact: Chuck Burleigh  cburleigh@borton.biz

Batch Weighing PEBCO, Incorporated P.O. Box 7506 Paducah, KY 42002-7506 270-442-1996 Fax: 270-442-5214 www.pebco.com  Contact: Mark Kettler, Director of Sales & Marketing  sales@pebco.com 

PICOR 1730 Old Gray Station Road Gray, TN 37615 423-282-9900 Fax: 423-282-3118 www.picor.biz  Contact: C.F. “Chuck” Walton, Marketing Manager  chuck.walton@picor.biz 

Belt Cleaners, Enclosures, Lacing, Scale Systems

Pratt and Whitney 3633 136th Place S.E., Suite 310 Bellevue, WA 98006 425-278-2448 Fax: 860-622-3847 www.shock-system.com  Contact: Andrew Tofa-McCormick, Sr. Analyst Marketing and Communications  andrew.mccormick@pw.utc.com 

Barge Crounse Corporation 2626 Broadway Ave. Paducah, KY 42001 270-444-9611 Fax: 270-444-9615 www.crounse.com  Contact: Robert L. Englert, Jr.  renglert@crounS.E..com 

Ingram Barge Company 4400 Harding Road Nashville, TN 37205 615-298-8200 www.ingrambarge.com

2007 buyers’ guide

Mole Master Services Corporation Reno Business Park 27815 State Route 7 Marietta, OH 45750 1-800-322-6653 Fax: 740-374-5908 www.molemaster.com  Contact: Dave Laing, Sales/Marketing Manager  info@molemaster.com 

Bin Gates P.O. Box 7506 Paducah, KY 42002-7506 270-442-1996 Fax: 270-442-5214 www.pebco.com  Contact: Mark Kettler, Director of Sales & Marketing  sales@pebco.com 

Blending Systems PICOR 1730 Old Gray Station Road Gray, TN 37615 423-282-9900 Fax: 423-282-3118 www.picor.biz  Contact: C.F. “Chuck” Walton, Marketing Manager  chuck.walton@picor.biz 

Pratt and Whitney One Martin Place Neponset, IL 61345 309-594-2384 Fax: 309-594-2432 www.martin-eng.com  Contact: Gini Bennison  info@martin-eng.com 

3633 136th Place S.E., Suite 310 Bellevue, WA 98006 425-278-2448 Fax: 1-860-622-3847 www.shock-system.com  Contact: Andrew Tofa-McCormick, Sr. Analyst Marketing and Communications  andrew.mccormick@pw.utc.com 

Belt Support Systems

Cage Mills

Martin Engineering

Mitsui Rail Capital, LLC 71 South Wacker Drive, Suite 1800 Chicago, IL 60606 312-803-8880 Fax: 312-803-8890 www.mrc-rail.com  Contact: David Kerr, Director of Marketing  dkerr@mrc-rail.com 

Chutes

PEBCO, Incorporated

Boiler Cleaning

Ameren Energy Fuels & Services

Ash/Slag Removal

Cars

Borton LC

Ash Management 1901 Chouteau Ave., MC 611 St. Louis, MO 63103 Contact: Mark Bryant 314-554-2340 Fax: 314-554-4188  mbryant@ameren.com 

Bin Cleaning Services

Benetech Inc. 1851 Albright Road Montgomery, IL 60538 630-844-1300 Fax: 630-844-0064 www.benetechusa.com  Contact: Christopher Blazek, VP Marketing  blazekc@benetechusa.com 

PEBCO, Incorporated P.O. Box 7506 Paducah, KY 42002-7506 270-442-1996 Fax: 270-442-5214 www.pebco.com  Contact: Mark Kettler, Director of Sales & Marketing  sales@pebco.com 

Coal Analysis Argus Media, Inc. 1012 14th St. N.W., Suite 1500 Washington, DC 20005 713-968-0063 www.argusmediagroup.com  Contact: Susan Teves  susan.teves@argusmediagroup.com 

Coal Marketing Co. USA-Inc.

GUNDLACH Equipment Corporation Martin Engineering One Martin Place Neponset, IL 61345 309-594-2384 Fax: 309-594-2432 www.martin-eng.com  Contact: Gini Bennison  info@martin-eng.com 

One Freedom Drive Belleville, IL 62226 618-233-7208 Fax: 618-641-6974 www.gundlach.us  Contact: Arlene Willmann  bettercrushers@gundlach.us

1180 Peachtree St., Suite 2420 Atlanta, GA 30309 678-608-2840 Fax: 678-608-2843 www.cmc-coal.com  Contact: Colin Blyth, VP Sales & Marketing  colin.blyth@cmc-coal.com 

SGS Minerals Services 1919 South Highland Ave., Suite 210-B Lombard, IL 60148 630-953-9300 Fax: 630-953-9306 www.us.sgs.com/minerals  Contact: David Smercina, Senior Vice President Energy Minerals  dave.smercina@sgs.com

Standard Laboratories Inc 1880 North Loop Ave. Casper, WY 82601 307-234-9957 Fax: 307-234-0013 www.standardlabs.com  Contact: Steve Miladinovich Jr.  stdlabs@vcn.com 

3


Thermo Scientific

Dayton Power & Light Company

Great River Energy

Midwest Generation EME, LLC

501 – 90th Ave., N.W. Minneapolis, MN 55433 763-783-2500 Fax: 763-780-2315 www.thermo.com  Contact: Don Bina  don.bina@thermofisher.com 

1065 Woodman Drive Dayton, OH 45432 937-259-7163 Fax: 937-259-7250  Contact: Gary Stephenson, VP Commercial Operations  gary.stephenson@dplinc.com 

Coal Consumers

Diversified Energy Corporation

17845 East Highway 10 P.O. Box 800 Elk River, MN 55330-0800 763-241-2490 Fax: 763-241-6290 www.greatriverenergy.com  Contact: Carlyle Sulzer, Manager Generation Services  csulzer@grenergy.com 

440 South La Salle St., Suite 3500 Chicago, IL 60605 312-583-6041 Fax: 312-583-4916 www.mwgen.com  Contact: Bud Walker, Regional Vice President, Fuels  ewalker@mwgen.com 

Holcim US-Inc./ St. Lawrence Cement Co.

NRG Texas Genco RR1, Box 85 Jewett, TX 75846 903-626-9534 Fax: 903-626-1098  Contact: Mark D. Berend Manager, Fuel  mark.berend@nrgenergy.com 

Alliant Energy 4902 North Biltmore Lane P.O. Box 77007, MSN GO 3S Madison, WI 53718-2148 608-458-3125 Fax: 608-458-0137 www.alliantenergy.com  Contact: Dan Checki, Director Fossil Fuel Procurement  danielchecki@alliantenergy.com 

Ameren Energy Fuels & Services 1901 Chouteau Ave., MC 611 St. Louis, MO 63103  Contact: Dan Lidisky  314-554-2645 Fax: 314-554-4188 dlidisky@ameren.com  Contact: Tony Konsky  314-554-3345 Fax: 314-554-4188  akonsky@ameren.com  Contact: Brian Poettker 314-554-3249 Fax: 314-554-4188 bpoettker@ameren.com 

P.O. Box 1239 Gilbert, AZ 85299 480-507-0297 Fax: 480-507-0780  Contact: Jeff Hassannia, VP - Business Development  jeff.hassannia@diversified-energy.com 

DTE Coal Services 414 South Main St., Suite 200 Ann Arbor, MI 48104 734-887-2053 Fax: 734-887-2248 www.dtecs.com  Contact: Matt Paul, President  paulm2@dteenergy@com

E.ON U.S. LLC 220 West Main St., 4th Floor Louisville, KY 40202 502-627-2274 Fax: 502-627-3243 www.lgeenergy.com  Contact: Caryl Pfeiffer, Director Corporate Fuels & By-Products  caryl.pfeiffer@lgeenergy.com 

American Electric Power

Entergy

155 West Nationwide Boulevard Suite 500 Columbus, OH 43215 614-583-6303 Fax: 614-583-1619 www.aep.com  Contact: Ron Young, Managing Director Transportation Services  rlyoung@aep.com 

555 Point Ferry Road Newark, AR 72562 870-698-4500 Fax: 870-698-4595 www.entergy.com  Contact: Michael Kolbus, Plant Manager  mkolbus@entergy.com 

Arizona Public Service 400 N. 5th Street Phoenix, AZ 85004  Contact: Matthew Reid Fossil Fuel Procurement Manager  602-250-3109 Fax: 602-250-3658 z78047@apsc.com  www.apsc.com  Contact: Jennifer Cannon, Commodity Lead 602-250-3188 Fax: 602-250-3628 jennifer.cannon@aps.com 

Basin Electric Power Cooperative 1717 East Interstate Ave. Bismarck, ND 58503 701-355-5648 Fax: 701-255-5144 www.basinelectric.com  Contact: Joe Leingang, Director Fuels & Transportation  jleingang@bepc.com 

Constellation Energy 111 Market Place, Suite 200 Baltimore, MD 21202 410-230-4910 Fax: 410-230-4669 www.constellation.com  Contact: John T. Long, Senior Vice President Power Generation  john.long@constellation.com 

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Entergy 3500 Houston River Road Westlake, LA 70662 337-494-6100 Fax: 337-494-6107 www.entergy.com  Contact: James Marbury, General Manager – Nelson Plant  jmarbur@entergy.com 

FirstEnergy Generation Corp. 395 Ghent Road, Suite 213 Akron, OH 44333 330-315-7450 Fax: 330-315-7464 www.firstenergycorp.com  Contact: Jim Mellody, Director Fuel Supply  mellodyj@firstenergycorp.com 

Gainesville Regional Utilities P.O. Box 147117 Station A 137 Gainesville, FL 32614-7117 352-334-3400, ext. 1730 Fax: 352-334-2786 www.gru.com  Contact: Karen Alford, Fuels Manager  alfordkc@gru.com 

Grain Processing Corporation 1600 Oregon Muscatine, IA 52761 563-264-4776 Fax: 563-264-4495 www.grainprocessing.com  Contact: Leona Fortenbacher, Energy Buyer  fortenbacherl@grainprocessing.com 

6211 Ann Arbor Road Dundee, MI 48131 734-529-4547 Fax: 734-529-4237 www.holcim.com  Contact: Jim Gilbert, Commodity Manager - Solid Fuels  jim.gilbert@holcim.com

Intermountain Power Agency 10653 South River Front Parkway Suite 120 South Jordan, UT 84095 801-938-1333 Fax: 801-938-1330 www.ipautah.com  Contact: Reed Searle, General Manager  reed@ipautah.com 

Lakeland Electric 501 East Lemon St. Lakeland, FL 33801 863-834-6586 Fax: 863-834-8393 www.lakelandelectric.com  Contact: Rick Snyder, Manager Wholesale Energy & Fuels  rick.snyder@lakelandelectric.com 

Louis Dreyfus Highbridge Energy 1400 Urban Center Drive, Suite 250 Birmingham, AL 35242 205-445-0772  Contact: Ken Jenkins, VP – Fuel Management Services  Ken.Jenkins@LDHEnergy.com 

Louis Dreyfus Highbridge Energy 1400 Urban Center Drive, Suite 250 St. Louis, MO 63146 314-432-7740 Fax: 314-432-7740  Contact: Raphael Pierce, VP – Domestic Coal  Raphael.Pierce@LDHEnergy.com 

Lower Colorado River Authority 3700 Lake Austin Boulevard Austin, TX 78703 512-473-3527 Fax: 512-473-4026 www.lcra.com  Contact: Ingmar Sterzing, Manager Fuels  ingmar.sterzing@lcra.com 

Luminant 1601 Bryan St., Suite 12-100 Dallas, TX 75201 214-875-9739 Fax: 214-875-9051 www.txu.com  Contact: Allen Childress, Manager Fuels Group  allen.childress@luminant.com 

MidAmerican Energy Company

NRG Energy, Inc.

Newmont Mining Corporation 3719 Quail Hollow Drive Boise, ID 83703 208-853-7525 Fax: 208-343-0729  Contact: Gary E. Kaliher, Director Global Logistics  gary.kaliher@newmont.com 

Omaha Public Power District 444 South 16th St. Mall Omaha, NE 68102 402-514-1041 Fax: 402-514-1043 www.oppd.com  Contact: Ronald Boro, Manager - Fossil Fuel  rboro@oppd.com 

Ontario Power Generation Darlington Site, D08-ESB3-N12 P.O. Box 4000 Bowmanville, ON L1C 3Z8 Canada 519-587-2201 x3413 Fax: 519-587-6827 www.opg.com  Contact: Kim Zuskan, Production Supervisor, Operations  kim.zuskan@opg.com 

Orlando Utilities Commission (OUC) 6113 Pershing Ave. (32822) P.O. Box 3193 Orlando, FL 32802 407-384-4081 Fax: 407-384-4067 www.ouc.com  Contact: Jan Aspuru, Director Fuel Division  jaspuru@ouc.com 

PacifiCorp 1407 West North Temple Salt Lake City, UT 84116 801-220-4607 Fax: 801-220-4725 www.pacificorp.com  Contact: Dave Smaldone, Managing Director Fuel Handling  dave.smaldone@pacificorp.com 

Portland General Electric 121 S.W. Salmon St. Portland, OR 97204 503-464-8304 Fax: 503-464-2605 www.portlandgeneral.com  Contact: Terri Peschka, General Manager, Power Operations  terri.Peschka@pgn.com 

106 East 2nd St. Davenport, IA 52804 563-333-8131 Fax: 563-333-8696 www.midamerican.com  Contact: Robert Quast, Coal Portfolio Manager  rquast@midamerican.com 

american coal council


Progress Energy

Xcel Energy

BHP Billiton

410 South Wilmington Ave. Raleigh, NC 27601 919-546-2400 Fax: 919-546-4721 www.progress-energy.com  Contact: Sasha Weintraub, Director Coal  sasha.weintraub@pgnmail.com 

1099 18th St., Suite 3000 Denver, CO 80202 303-308-2830 Fax: 303-308-2738 www.xcelenergy.com  Contact: Kathryn Valdez, Regional Manager Coal  kathryn.valdez@xcelenergy.com 

1150 Omega Drive Pittsburg, PA 15205 412-788-7170 Fax: 412-788-7177 www.bhpbilliton.com  Contact: George Karpakis  george.j.karpakis@bhpbilliton.com 

Coal Inspection

Carpenter Creek, LLC

Public Service Company of New Mexico 2401 Aztec Road N.E. Albuquerque, NM 87107 505-855-6200 Fax: 505-855-6320 www.pnm.com  Contact: Duane J. Farmer, Director Fuels & Wholesale Market Policy  dfarmer@pnm.com 

Rentech

Coal Marketing Co. (USA-Inc.) 1180 Peachtree St., Suite 2420 Atlanta, GA 30309 678-608-2840 Fax: 678-608-2843 www.cmc-coal.com  Contact: Colin Blyth, VP Sales & Marketing  colin.blyth@cmc-coal.com 

Coal Marketing

1331 17th St., Suite 720 Denver, CO 80202 www.rentechinc.com  Contact: Richard Sheppard, Senior Vice President Project Development  ros@rentk.com 

Salt River Project Mail Station P.O.B001 P.O. Box 52025 Phoenix, AZ 85072-2025 602-236-4305 Fax: 602-236-4322  Contact: Tom Abdali, Senior Fuels Analyst  txabdali@srpnet.com 

SCANA Corp. 1426 Main St. MC 191 Columbia, SC 29201 803-217-9321 Fax: 803-933-8201 www.scana.com  Contact: Sarena Burch, Senior Vice President  sburch@scana.com 

Tucson Electric Power Company 3950 East Irvington Road Tucson, AZ 85714 520-745-7130 Fax: 520-571-4052 www.tucsonelectric.com  Contact: David Jacobs, Director Fuel and Resource Planning  djacobs@tucsonelectric.com 

We Energies 333 West Everett St., Room A226 Milwaukee, WI 53203 414-221-2620 Fax: 414-221-2683 www.we-energies.com  Contact: Klaus Mylotta, Manager Coal Resources & Emissions Trading  klaus.mylott@we-energies.com 

Westar Energy 818 Kansas Ave. P.O. Box 889 Topeka, KS 66612 785-575-1864 Fax: 785-575-1797 www.wr.com  Contact: Jerry Kroeker, Manager Fuels  Jerry_kroeker@wr.com 

WPS Resource Corporation 600 North Adams St. Green Bay, WI 54307-9002 920-433-1301 Fax: 920-433-1011 www.wpsr.com  Contact: Karen J. Kollmann, Director - Fossil Fuel Services  kkollma@wpsr.com 

2007 buyers’ guide

60 East 42nd St., Suite 1531 New York, NY 10165-1531 636-399-7266 Fax: 636-329-0448  Contact: Jerry Daseler  jdaseler@sbcglobal.net

Chevron Mining Inc. 116 Inverness Drive East, Suite 207 Englewood, CO 80112 303-930-4220 Fax: 281-276-9237 www.chevron.com  Contact: Kirsten Knoepfle Thorne  kknoepfle@chevron.com 

CoalTek, Inc. Xcoal Energy & Resources P.O. Box 551 Latrobe, PA 15650 724-520-1630 Fax: 724-537-6475 www.xcoal.com  Contact: Ernie Thrasher, President  xcoal@xcoal.com 

Coal Preparation Headwaters Incorporated 10653 South River Front Parkway Suite 300 South Jordan, UT 84095 801-984-9400 Fax: 801-984-9410 www.headwaters.com  Contact: John Ward  jward@headwaters.com 

Taggart Global, LLC 2090 Greentree Road Pittsburgh, PA 15220 412-253-8057 Fax: 412-429-9801 www.taggl.com  Contact: Dave Batanian  taggart@taggl.com 

Coal Suppliers Alliance Coal, LLC P.O. Box 22027 Tulsa, OK 74121-2027 918-295-7655 Fax: 918-295-7360 www.arlp.com  Contact: Tim Whelan, Vice President, Sales  tim.whelan@arlp.com 

Alpha Coal Sales Co., LLC 2137 Vermillion St., Suite 150 Hastings, MN 55033 651-437-9455 Fax: 651-437-9496 www.alphanr.com  Contact: Frank Kelly  fkelly@alphanr.com 

Arch Coal, Inc. Once City Place Drive, Suite 300 St. Louis, MO 63141 314-994-2803 www.archcoal.com  Contact: Mark Canon, Vice President of Regional Sales  mcanon@archcoal.com 

2189 Flintstone Drive, Suite A Tucker, GA 30084 734-227-0095 Fax: 770-934-7753 www.coaltek.com  Contact: Rolando Sanz-Guerrero, President  rsg@coaltek.com 

Commonwealth Coal Services, Inc. 5413 Patterson Ave., Suite 200 Richmond, VA 23226-2023 804-282-9822 Fax: 804-282-9836  Contact: Robert H. Scott, President  bobscott@commonwealth.com 

Compass Coal Services, LLC P.O. Box K-206 Richmond, VA 23288 804-288-9500 Fax: 804-288-9502 www.com passenergy.net  Contact: William E. Massey, Jr., President  wmassey@compassenergy.net

CONSOL Energy, Inc.

Fine Coal Inc. 6043 Triphammer Road Lake Worth, FL 33463 561-296-2773 www.finecoal.net  Contact: Alberto Gamboa  finecoal@yahoo.net

Foundation Energy Sales, Inc. 391 Inverness Parkway, Suite 333 Englewood, CO 80112 303-749-8430 Fax: 303-749-8449 www.foundationcoal.com  Contact: Larry Deal, Vice President Sales  ldeal@foundationcoal.com 

Foundation Energy Sales, Inc. 999 Corporate Boulevard, Suite 300 Linthicum, MD 21090 410-689-7657 Fax: 410-689-7651 www.foundationcoal.com  Contact: Bill Davison, Vice President Sales & Marketing  bdavison@foundationcoal.com 

Glencore Ltd. 301 Tresser Boulevard Stamford, CT 06901 203-328-4958 Fax: 203-978-2630 www.glencore.com  Contact: John McConaghy, Coal Executive  john.mcconaghy@glencore-us.com 

ICAP United Inc. 250 Lakewood Drive, Suite 5502 Hollister, MO 65672 417-336-5582 www.icapenergy.com  Contact: Dan Vaughn  daniel.vaughn@us.icapenergy.com 

Ingram Barge Company 4400 Harding Road Nashville, TN 37205 615-298-8200 www.ingrambarge.com 

James River Coal Company

1800 Washington Road - Consol Plaza Pittsburgh, PA 15241-1421 412-831-4401 Fax: 412-831-4594 www.consolenergy.com  Contact: Robert F. Pusateri, President - CONSOL Energy Sales  bobpusateri@consolenergy.com 

901 East Byrd St., Suite 1600 Richmond, VA 23219 859-543-0090 Fax: 859-543-0992 www.jamesrivercoal.com  Contact: Mike Weber  mike.weber@jamesrivercoal.com 

Drummond Company, Inc.

120 Prosperous Place, Suite 110 Lexington, KY 40509 859-543-0090 Fax: 859-543-0992  Contact: Mike Weber, President  mike.weber@jamesrivercoal.com 

530 Beacon Parkway West, Suite 800 Vestavia Hills, AL 35209-3196 205-945-6410 Fax: 205-945-6440  Contact: George E. Wilbanks, President - Sales  gewilbanks@drummondco.com 

Evergreen Energy, Inc. 55 Madison St., Suite 745 Denver, CO 80206 303-293-2992 Fax: 303-293-8430 www.kfx.com  Contact: Ted Venners, Chairman & CEO  tvenners@kfx.com 

Fervim Ingenieria SA DE CV 45 North Washington St., PMB 138 Eagle Pass, TX 78852 512-440-1564 Fax: 512-440-1564  Contact: Fernando Mendoza  fervim@yahoo.com 

James River Coal Sales, Inc.

Murray Energy Corporation 29325 Chagrin Boulevard, Suite 300 Pepper Pike, OH 44122 216-765-1240 Fax: 216-765-2654  Contact: Robert E. Murray, Chairman, President & CEO  bobmurray@coalsource.com 

Natural Resource Partners L.P. 1035 Third Ave. P.O. Box 2827 Huntington, WV 25727-5401 304-522-5757 Fax: 304-522-5401  Contact: Nick Carter, President & COO  ncarter@wpplp.com 

5


Natural Resource Partners L.P.

Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc.

FreightCar America

PNC Bank N.A.

601 Jefferson St., Suite 3600 Houston, TX 77002 713-751-7590 Fax: 713-751-7563  Contact: Chuck Kerr, President - Great Northern Power Development  ckerr@quintanaminerals.com 

100 Cushman St., Suite 210 Fairbanks, AK 99701-4674 907-452-2625 Fax: 907-451-6543 www.usibelli.com  Contact: Bill Brophy, VP Customer Relations  info@usibelli.com 

249 Fifth Ave. Pittsburgh, PA 15222-2707 412-762-2540 Fax: 412-705-3232 www.pncbank.com 

NexGen Coal Services Ltd.

Westmoreland Coal Sales Co.

Two North Riverside Plaza, Suite 1250 Chicago, IL 60606 312-928-0850 Fax: 312-928-0890 www.freightcaramerica.com  Contact: Edward J. Whalen, Senior Vice President - Marketing & Sales  ewhalen@jacorp.com 

3300 South Parker Road, Suite 520 Aurora, CO 80014 303-751-9230 Fax: 303-751-9210 www.nexgen-group.com  Contact: Charles S. McNeil, President - CEO  cmcneil@nexgen-group.com 

2 North Cascade Ave., 14th Floor Colorado Springs, CO 80903 719-448-5802 Fax: 719-448-5824  Contact: Todd Myers, President  todd.myers@westmoreland.com 

Peabody Energy 701 Market St., Suite 900 St. Louis, MO 63101-1826 314-342-7525 Fax: 314-342-7529 www.peabodyenergy.com  Contact: James Campbell, Jr., Senior Vice President Sales & Marketing  jcampbell@peabodyenergy.com 

Progress Fuels Corporation P.O. Box 308 Ceredo, WV 25507 304-526-0711 www.progressfuels.com  Contact: Butch Smith  butch.smith@progressfuels.com 

Rhino Energy 3120 Wall St., Suite 310 Lexington, KY 40513 859-519-3610 Fax: 859-389-6588  Contact: Andy Cox  awcox@rhinoenergyllc.com 

Rio Tinto Energy America 8051 East Maplewood Ave. Building 4 Greenwood Village, CO 80111 303-713-5607 P.O. Box 6609 Englewood, CO 80155-6609 www.rtea.com  Contact: Matt Levar, General Manager, Sales & Marketing  matt.levar@riotinto.com 

TECO Coal Corp. 11523 Glen Abbey Way Charlotte, NC 28277 704-844-0407 Fax: 704-844-0408 www.tecocoal.com  Contact: Joe W. Lee, Vice President Sales  jlee17@carolina.rr.com 

TECO Coal Corp. P.O. Box 2135 Pikeville, KY 41502 606-437-5910 Fax: 606-437-5912 www.tecocoal.com  Contact: Edward L. Billips, Director Utility & Industrial Sales  billipS.E.@bellsouth.net

Upper Kanawha Valley Development Corporation 200 Association Drive, Suite 140 Charleston, WV 25311 304-341-8043 Fax: 304-341-3798  Contact: John H. Wellford III, President  jwellford@ukvdc.com 

6

Fuel Tech, Inc. 512 Kingsland Drive Batavia, IL 60510 630-845-4461 Fax: 630-845-4501 www.fueltechnv.com  Contact: Chris Smyrniotis, Vice President Marketing & Technology  csmyrniotis@fueltechnv.com 

Separation Technologies LLC

Xcoal Energy & Resources P.O. Box 551 Latrobe, PA 15650 724-520-1630 Fax: 724-537-6475 www.xcoal.com  Contact: Ernie Thrasher, President  xcoal@xcoal.com 

Coal Support Services – Analytical & Environmental Services ADA Environmental Solutions, Inc. 8100 Southpark Way, Unit B Littleton, CO 80120 303-339-8842 Fax: 303-374-0330 www.adaes.com  Contact: Jon Barr, Vice President, Sales & Marketing  jonb@adaes.com 

Golder Associates Inc. 44 Union Boulevard, Suite 300 Lakewood, CO 80228 303-980-0540 Fax: 303-985-2080 www.golder.com  Contact: Neil Eurick, Business Development Manager  neurick@golder.com 

Sampling Associates International P.O. Box 338 Newport New, VA 23607 757-928-0484 Fax: 757-928-0482  Contact: Paul Reagan, President  preagan@samplingassociates.com 

Coal Support Services Equipment & Materials Suppliers ALSTOM Power, Performance Projects 2000 Day Hill Road Windsor, CT 06095 860-285-4010 Fax: 860-285-4304 www.power.alstom.com  Contact: Patrick Jennings, Business Development Manager  pat.jennings@power.alstom.com 

101 Hampton Ave. Needham, MA 02494 781-455-6600 x302 Fax: 781-455-6518 www.stiash.com  Contact: Dave Timmerman, Vice President, Business Development  dtimmerman@stiash.com 

Coal Support Services - Financial, Capital & Marketing Associates David J. Joseph Company 300 Pike St. Cincinnati, OH 45202 513-621-8770 Fax: 513-345-4374 www.djj.com  Contact: Trey W. Savage, Vice President, Marketing & Sales  tws@djj.com 

DTE Rail Services 13949 West Colfax Ave. Building One, Suite 120 Lakewood, CO 80401 303-216-4269 Fax: 303-216-4282 www.dtets.com  Contact: Nick Keys, Director of Sales  nkeys@dtets.com 

GE Rail Services 161 North Clark St., 7th Floor Chicago, IL 60601 312-853-5395 Fax: 312-853-5182 www.gerail.com  Contact: James Zoellick, Asset Manager  james.zoellick@ge.com 

Helm Financial Corporation 505 Sansome St., Suite 1800 San Francisco, CA 94111 415-229-1604 Fax: 415-229-1605 www.hlmx.com  Contact: Ed Garvey, Senior Vice President

Mineral Resource Technologies, A CEMEX Co. 2700 Research Forest Drive, Suite 150 The Woodlands, TX 77381 281-362-1060 Fax: 281-362-1809 www.mrtus.com  Contact: Mike Silvertooth, Business Development Manager  msilvertooth@mrtus.com 

Railroad Financial Corporation 676 North Michigan Ave., Suite 2800 Chicago, IL 60611 312-222-1383 Fax: 312-222-1470  Contact: David Nahass, Senior Vice President  dnahass@railfin.com 

Coal Support Services - Technical & Economic Consultants Black & Veatch 11401 Lamar Ave. Overland Park, KS 66211 913-458-9740 Fax: 913-458-2934 www.bv.com  Contact: April Anderson-Higgs, Fuels Consulting Project Manager  anderson-higgsaa@bv.com 

Global Energy Decisions 2379 Gateway Oaks Drive, Suite 200 Sacramento, CA 95833 916-609-7750 Fax: 916-569-0999 www.globalenergy.com  Contact: Gary Hunt, President  ghunt@globalenergy.com 

Global Energy Decisions 1495 Canyon Boulevard, Suite 100 Boulder, CO 80302 720-240-5544 Fax: 720-240-5501 www.globalenergy.com  Contact: Hans Daniels, Manager Coal Advisory Service  hdaniels@globalenergy.com 

Hazen Research, Inc. 4601 Indiana St. Golden, CO 80403 303-279-4501 Fax: 303-278-1528 www.hazenusa.com  Contact: Charles W. Rick-Kenney, Vice President  kenneycw@hazenusa.com 

Hellerworx, Inc. 4803 Falstone Ave. Chevy Chase, MD 20815 301-654-1980 Fax: 301-718-1878 www.hellerworx.com  Contact: Jamie Heller, President  jamie@hellerworx.com 

Hill & Associates, A Wood Mackenzie Company P.O. Box 3475 Annapolis, MD 21403 410-263-6616 Fax: 410-268-0923 www.hillandassoc.com  Contact: Jeffery A. Watkins, President  jeff.watkins@woodmac.com 

ICF Consulting 9300 Lee Highway Fairfax, VA 22031 703-934-3367 Fax: 703-934-3968 www.icfconsulting.com  Contact: John Blaney, Managing Director  jblaney@icfconsulting.com 

american coal council


John T. Boyd Company

Troutman Sanders LLP

1500 Corporate Drive, Suite 100 Canonsburg, PA 15317 724-873-4400 Fax: 724-873-4401 www.jtboyd.com  Contact: Bill Wolf, Senior Analyst  w-wolf@jtboyd.com 

401 9th St. N.W., Suite 1000 Washington, DC 20004-2134 202-274-2959 Fax: 202-654-5603  Contact: Sandra L. Brown  sandra.brown@troutmansanders.com 

John T. Boyd Company 999 18th St. 1400 South Tower Denver Place Denver, CO 80202 303-293-8988 Fax: 303-293-2232 www.jtboyd.com  Contact: Richard Bate, Vice President  rlb@jtboyd.com 

Waterfront Plaza One 325 West Main, Suite 1200 Louisville, KY 40202 502-217-1516 Fax: 502-569-2301 www.urscorp.com  Contact: Jerry Hollinden, Senior Vice President  jerry_hollinden@urscorp.com 

McGuireWoods LLP

Coal Terminals

625 Liberty Ave., 2nd Floor Pittsburgh, PA 15222 412-667-7987 Fax: 412-667-7956 www.mcguirewoods.com  Contact: Leonard J. Marsico, Partner  lmarsico@mcguirewoods.com 

McGuireWoods LLP 901 East Cary St. Richmond, VA 23219 804-775-4322 Fax: 804-698-2069  Contact: Leslie A. Grandis, Partner  lgrandis@mcguirewoods.com 

Pace Global Energy Services 4401 Fair Lakes Court, Suite 400 Fairfax, VA 22033 703-227-8802 Fax: 703-818-9100 www.paceglobal.com  Contact: Gary Vicinus, Vice President  vicinusg@paceglobal.com 

Platts 3333 Walnut St. Boulder, CO 80301 720-548-5573 Fax: 720-548-5001 www.platts.com  Contact: Mike McKevitt   mike_mckevitt@platts.com 

Resource Technologies Corp. P.O. Box 242 State College, PA 16804-0242 814-237-4009 Fax: 814-237-1769 www.resourcetec.com  Contact: Jeffrey Kern, President  jrkern@resourcetec.com 

The McCloskey Group Unit 6, Rotherbrook Court, Bedford Road Petersfield, UK GU32 3QG Hampshire +44 0 1730 265095 Fax: +44 0 1730 260044 www.mccloskeycoal.com  Contact: Tony Tabner, Sales & Marketing Manager  tony.tabner@mccloskeycoal.com 

Storm Technologies, Inc. P.O. Box 429 Albemarle, NC 28002 704-983-2040 Fax: 704-982-9657 www.stormeng.com  Contact: Richard F. Storm, President/CEO  rfstormsea@aol.com 

2007 buyers’ guide

URS Corporation

Ameren Energy Fuels & Services 1901 Chouteau Ave. MC 611 St. Louis, MO 63103  Contact: Ron Sonby  314-554-2160 Fax: 314-554-4188 rsonby@ameren.com 

Coal Testing SGS Minerals Services 1919 South Highland Ave., Suite 210-B Lombard, IL 60148 630-953-9300 Fax: 630-953-9306 www.us.sgs.com/minerals  Contact: David Smercina, Senior Vice President Energy Minerals  dave.smercina@sgs.com

Standard Laboratories Inc 1880 North Loop Ave. Casper, WY 82601 307-234-9957 Fax: 307-234-0013 www.standardlabs.com  Contact: Steve Miladinovich Jr.  stdlabs@vcn.com 

University of Kentucky - Center for Applied Energy Research 2540 Research Park Drive Lexington, KY 40511 859-257-0305 Fax: 859-257-0220 www.caer.uky.edu  Contact: Marybeth McAlister  mcalister@caer.uky.edu 

Coal Washing Coal Marketing Co. USA-Inc. 1180 Peachtree St., Suite 2420 Atlanta, GA 30309 678-608-2840 Fax: 678-608-2843 www.cmc-coal.com  Contact: Colin Blyth, VP Sales & Marketing  colin.blyth@cmc-coal.com 

Consulting Services

University of Kentucky - Center for Applied Energy Research

Energy Publishing, LLC

2540 Research Park Drive Lexington, KY 40511 859-257-0305 Fax: 859-257-0220 www.caer.uky.edu  Contact: Marybeth McAlister  mcalister@caer.uky.edu 

224 South Peters Road, Suite 202 Knoxville, TN 37923 865-584-6294 Fax: 865-558-6101 www.energypublishing.biz  Contact: John Norris  jnorris@energypublishing.biz 

Ernst & Young LLP 190 Carondelet Plaza, Suite 1300 Clayton, MO 63105 314-290-1000 Fax: 314-290-1814 www.ey.com  Contact: Andy Miller  andy.miller@ey.com 

ICAP United Inc.

PICOR 1730 Old Gray Station Road Gray, TN 37615 423-282-9900 Fax: 423-282-3118 www.picor.biz  Contact: C.F. “Chuck” Walton, Marketing Manager  sales@picor.biz 

250 Lakewood Drive, Suite 5502 Hollister, MO 65672 417-336-5582 www.icapenergy.com  Contact: Dan Vaughn  daniel.vaughn@us.icapenergy.com 

Marston 13515 Barrett Parkway Drive, Suite 260 St. Louis, MO 63021 314-984-8800 Fax: 314-984-8770 www.marston.com  Contact: William Merster  infomarston@marston.com 

Norwest Corporation 136 East South Temple, 12th Floor Salt Lake City, UT 84111 801-539-0044 Fax: 801-539-0055 www.norwestcorp.com  Contact: Kirk Weber  slc@norwestcorp.com 

Pincock, Allen & Holt 165 Union Boulevard, Suite 950 Lakewood, CO 80228 303-986-6950 Fax: 303-987-8907  Contact: Raja Upadhyay  pah@pincock.com 

Roberts & Schaefer Company 10150 South Centennial Parkway Sandy, UT 84070 801-984-0900 Fax: 801-984-0909 www.r-s.com 

Roberts & Schaefer Company 10150 South Centennial Parkway Sandy, UT 84070 801-984-0900 Fax: 801-984-0909 www.r-s.com 

Conveyor Belts & Parts Rulmeca Corporation 6508-B Windmill Way Wilmington, NC 23405 910-794-9294 Fax: 910-794-9296 www.rulmecacorp.com  Contact: Mike Gawinski  mgawinski@rulmecacorp.com 

Crusher Parts

GUNDLACH Equipment Corporation One Freedom Drive Belleville, IL 62226 618-233-7208 Fax: 618-641-6974 www.gundlach.us  Contact: Arlene Willmann  bettercrushers@gundlach.us

Crushers

GUNDLACH Equipment Corporation

Headwaters Incorporated 10653 South River Front Parkway Suite 300 South Jordan, UT 84095 801-984-9400 Fax: 801-984-9410 www.headwaters.com  Contact: John Ward  jward@headwaters.com 

Conveying Systems

The Raring Corporation 12007 N.E. 95th St. Vancouver, WA 98682 360-892-1659 Fax: 360-892-1624 www.raringcorp.com  Contact: Kathleen M. Putele  kputele@raringcorp.com 

One Freedom Drive Belleville, IL 62226 618-233-7208 Fax: 618-641-6974 www.gundlach.us  Contact: Arlene Willmann  bettercrushers@gundlach.us

7


Detonation Cleaning

Environmental Products and Applications, Inc.

Pratt and Whitney

73 – 710 Fred Waring Drive, Suite 220 Palm Desert, CA 92260 760-779-1814 Fax: 760-779-1815 www.envirotac.com/mines.htm  Contact: John or Justin Vermillion  info@envirotac.com 

3633 136th Place S.E., Suite 310 Bellevue, WA 98006 425-278-2448 Fax: 860-622-3847 www.shock-system.com  Contact: Andrew Tofa-McCormick, Sr. Analyst Marketing and Communications  andrew.mccormick@pw.utc.com 

9701 Research Drive Irvine, CA 92618 949-727-3750 www.drugtestconsulting.com  Contact: Steve Stahovich  714-417-6781  sstahovich@randomdrugtesting.net

Dryers

Roberts & Schaefer Company 10150 South Centennial Parkway Sandy, UT 84070 801-984-0900 Fax: 801-984-0909 www.r-s.com 

Martin Engineering One Martin Place Neponset, IL 61345 309-594-2384 Fax: 309-594-2432 www.martin-eng.com  Contact: Gini Bennison  info@martin-eng.com 

PEBCO, Incorporated P.O. Box 7506 Paducah, KY 42002-7506 270-442-1996 Fax: 270-442-5214 www.pebco.com  Contact: Mark Kettler, Director of Sales & Marketing  sales@pebco.com 

7806 Redsky Drive Cincinnati, OH 45249 513-489-7811 www.tema.net sales@tema.net

Dust Control, Collectors Air-Cure Inc. 8501 Evergreen Boulevard Minneapolis, MN 55433 763-717-0707 Fax: 763-717-0394 www.aircure.com  Contact: Alyssa Pierro  sales@aircure.com 

13515 Barrett Parkway Drive, Suite 260 St. Louis, MO 63021 314-984-8800 Fax: 314-984-8770 www.marston.com  Contact: William Merster  infomarston@marston.com 

250 Lakewood Drive, Suite 5502 Hollister, MO 65672 417-336-5582 www.icapenergy.com  Contact: Dan Vaughn  daniel.vaughn@us.icapenergy.com 

Koch Carbon LLC 20 East Greenway Plaza Houston, TX 77046 713-544-5678 Fax: 713-544-6052 www.kochind.com  Contact: Brad Speer  speerb@kochind.com 

NexGen Coal Services Ltd. 3300 South Parker Road, Suite 520 Aurora, CO 80014 303-751-9230 Fax: 303-751-9210 www.nexgen-group.com  Contact: Charles S. McNeil, President - CEO  cmcneil@nexgen-group.com 

SSM Coal Americas, LLC

The Raring Corporation

Tema Systems, Inc.

Marston

10 Bank St. White Plains, NY 10606 914-323-0250 Fax: 914-328-3701 www.evomarkets.com  Contact: Tom Hiemstra, Vice President, Coal Services  thiemstra@evomarkets.com 

ICAP United Inc.

Drug & Alcohol Testing Products Independent Supply

Evolution Markets LLC

12007 N.E. 95th St. Vancouver, WA 98682 360-892-1659 Fax: 360-892-1624 www.raringcorp.com  Contact: Kathleen M. Putele  kputele@raringcorp.com 

10500 Little Patuxent Parkway Columbia, MD 21044 410-910-0640 Fax: 410-910-0630 www.ssmcoal.com  Contact: Charles E. Rountree, Vice President  charles.rountree@ssmcoal.com 

The C. Reiss Coal Company

Energy Traders

P.O. Box 688 Sheboygan, WI 53082-0688 920-451-8910 Fax: 920-457-4417 www.kochcarbon.com  Contact: Bill Reiss, President

BP Energy Company

The C. Reiss Coal Company

501 Westlake Park Boulevard Houston, TX 77079 281-366-7159 Fax: 281-366-7909 www.bp.com  Contact: Matthew Reed, Director, Coal & Emissions Trading  matthew.reed@bp.com 

Cargill, Incorporated 12700 Whitewater Drive, MS 153 Minnetonka, MN 55343 952-984-3329 Fax: 952-249-4043  Contact: Peter Hernke, Senior Coal Trader  peter_hernke@cargill.com 

2525 Harrodsburg Road, Suite 130 Lexington, KY 40504 859-296-2100 Fax: 859-224-0782 www.kochcarbon.com  Contact: Fletcher Dennis, General Manager, Sales & Distribution  dennisf@kochind.com 

Engineering Services

8

Marshall Miller & Associates

Dominion Energy P.O. Box 25593 Richmond, VA 23219 804-787-5765 www.dom.com  Contact: Keith Drohan  keith.drohan@dom.com 

One Martin Place Neponset, IL 61345 309-594-2384 Fax: 309-594-2432 www.martin-eng.com  Contact: Gini Bennison  info@martin-eng.com 

Norwest Corporation 136 East South Temple, 12th Floor Salt Lake City, UT 84111 801-539-0044 Fax: 801-539-0055 www.norwestcorp.com  Contact: Kirk Weber  slc@norwestcorp.com 

Pincock, Allen & Holt 165 Union Boulevard, Suite 950 Lakewood, CO 80228 303-986-6950 Fax: 303-987-8907  Contact: Raja Upadhyay  pah@pincock.com 

Taggart Global, LLC 2090 Greentree Road Pittsburgh, PA 15220 412-253-8057 Fax: 412-429-9801 www.taggl.com  Contact: Dave Batanian  taggart@taggl.com 

Environmental

Marshall Miller & Associates 534 Industrial Park Road P.O. Box 848 Bluefield, VA 24605 276-322-5467 Fax: 276-322-5460 www.mma1.com  Contact: Scott Keim, C.P.G., President  corp@mma1.com 

Marston

Benetech Inc. 1851 Albright Road Montgomery, IL 60538 630-844-1300 Fax: 630-844-0064 www.benetechusa.com  Contact: Christopher Blazek, VP Marketing  blazekc@benetechusa.com 

Martin Engineering

534 Industrial Park Road P.O. Box 848 Bluefield, VA 24605 276-322-5467 Fax: 276-322-5460 www.mma1.com  Contact: Scott Keim, C.P.G., President  corp@mma1.com 

13515 Barrett Parkway Drive, Suite 260 St. Louis, MO 63021 314-984-8800 Fax: 314-984-8770 www.marston.com  Contact: William Merster  infomarston@marston.com 

Norwest Corporation 136 East South Temple, 12th Floor Salt Lake City, UT 84111 801-539-0044 Fax: 801-539-0055 www.norwestcorp.com  Contact: Kirk Weber  slc@norwestcorp.com 

american coal council


Equipment Installation

Fly Ash Marketer

Industry Newsletters

Boral Material Technologies

Energy Publishing, LLC

200 East First Ave. P.O. Box 2108 Hutchinson, KS 67501 620-669-8211 Fax: 620-662-3225 www.borton.biz  Contact: Chuck Burleigh  cburleigh@borton.biz 

45 Northeast Loop 410, Suite 700 San Antonio, TX 78216 210-349-4069 www.boralmti.com  Contact: Troy Williams  troy.williams@boral.com 

224 South Peters Road, Suite 202 Knoxville, TN 37923 865-584-6294 Fax: 865-558-6101 www.energypublishing.biz  Contact: John Norris  jnorris@energypublishing.biz 

Fuel Combustion

Longwall Systems

Erosion Control Products

PPL Corp

Jenmar Corporation

Borton LC

Environmental Products and Applications, Inc. 73 – 710 Fred Waring Drive, Suite 220 Palm Desert, CA 92260 760-779-1814 Fax: 760-779-1815 www.envirotac.com/mines.htm  Contact: John or Justin Vermillion  info@envirotac.com 

2 North Ninth St. Allentown, PA 18101 610-774-5500 Fax: 610-774-5141 www.pplweb.com  Contact: Ben E. Stothart  bestothart@pplweb.com 

Geological Consultants

Feeders PEBCO, Incorporated P.O. Box 7506 Paducah, KY 42002-7506 270-442-1996 Fax: 270-442-5214 www.pebco.com  Contact: Mark Kettler, Director of Sales & Marketing  sales@pebco.com 

Filters Air-Cure Inc. 8501 Evergreen Boulevard Minneapolis, MN 55433 763-717-0707 Fax: 763-717-0394 www.aircure.com  Contact: Alyssa Pierro  sales@aircure.com 

Financial Services Ernst & Young LLP 190 Carondelet Plaza, Suite 1300 Clayton, MO 63105 314-290-1000 Fax: 314-290-1814 www.ey.com  Contact: Andy Miller  andy.miller@ey.com 

Norwest Corporation 136 East South Temple, 12th Floor Salt Lake City, UT 84111 801-539-0044 Fax: 801-539-0055 www.norwestcorp.com  Contact: Kirk Weber  slc@norwestcorp.com 

PricewaterhouseCoopers LLC 1850 North Central Ave., Suite 700 Phoenix, AZ 85004-4545 602-364-8000 www.pwc.com/mining  Contact: Steve Ralbovsky or Jennifer Baska  mining@us.pwc.com 

2007 buyers’ guide

Marshall Miller & Associates 534 Industrial Park Road P.O. Box 848 Bluefield, VA 24605 276-322-5467 Fax: 276-322-5460 www.mma1.com  Contact: Scott Keim, C.P.G., President  corp@mma1.com 

Marston 13515 Barrett Parkway Drive, Suite 260 St. Louis, MO 63021 314-984-8800 Fax: 314-984-8770 www.marston.com  Contact: William Merster  infomarston@marston.com 

Norwest Corporation 136 East South Temple, 12th Floor Salt Lake City, UT 84111 801-539-0044 Fax: 801-539-0055 www.norwestcorp.com  Contact: Kirk Weber  slc@norwestcorp.com 

Mass Foundations Borton LC

258 Kappa Drive Pittsburgh, PA 15238 412-963-9071 Fax: 412-963-9767 www.jenmar.com info@jenmar.com 

Magnetic Separators

Materials Handling

Dings Company 4740 West Electric Ave. Milwaukee, WI 53219 414-672-7830 Fax: 414-672-5354 www.dingsmagnets.com  Contact: Harold Bolstad  magnets@dingsco.com 

Magnets Dings Company 4740 West Electric Ave. Milwaukee, WI 53219 414-672-7830 Fax: 414-672-5354 www.dingsmagnets.com  Contact: Harold Bolstad  magnets@dingsco.com 

Market Information Energy Publishing, LLC

Benetech Inc. 1851 Albright Road Montgomery, IL 60538 630-844-1300 Fax: 630-844-0064 www.benetechusa.com  Contact: Christopher Blazek, VP Marketing  blazekc@benetechusa.com 

Boral Material Technologies 45 Northeast Loop 410, Suite 700 San Antonio, TX 78216 210-349-4069 www.boralmti.com  Contact: Troy Williams  troy.williams@boral.com 

224 South Peters Road, Suite 202 Knoxville, TN 37923 865-584-6294 Fax: 865-558-6101 www.energypublishing.biz  Contact: John Norris  jnorris@energypublishing.biz 

DTE Coal Services

Marketing, Management & Economic Consultants

10653 South River Front Parkway Suite 300 South Jordan, UT 84095 801-984-9400 Fax: 801-984-9410 www.headwaters.com  Contact: John Ward  jward@headwaters.com 

425 South Main St., Suite 200 Ann Arbor, MI 48104 734-913-2097 Fax: 734-994-5842 oliveira.c@dteenergy.com 

Headwaters Incorporated

Fine Coal Inc.

Highwall Systems

6043 Triphammer Road Lake Worth, FL 33463 561-296-2773 www.finecoal.net  Contact: Alberto Gamboa  finecoal@yahoo.net

Superior Highwall Miners, Inc.

Headwaters Incorporated

351 Ragland Road Beckley, WV 25801 304-253-0206 Fax: 304-253-0513 www.shm.net  Contact: Jennifer Hawley  jhawley@shm.net

13515 Barrett Parkway Drive, Suite 260 St. Louis, MO 63021 314-984-8800 Fax: 314-984-8770 www.marston.com  Contact: William Merster  infomarston@marston.com 

200 East First Ave. P.O. Box 2108 Hutchinson, KS 67501 620-669-8211 Fax: 620-662-3225 www.borton.biz  Contact: Chuck Burleigh  cburleigh@borton.biz 

Pincock, Allen & Holt 165 Union Boulevard, Suite 950 Lakewood, CO 80228 303-986-6950 Fax: 303-987-8907  Contact: Raja Upadhyay  pah@pincock.com 

Marston

10653 South River Front Parkway Suite 300 South Jordan, UT 84095 801-984-9400 Fax: 801-984-9410 www.headwaters.com  Contact: John Ward  jward@headwaters.com 

Martin Engineering One Martin Place Neponset, IL 61345 309-594-2384 Fax: 309-594-2432 www.martin-eng.com  Contact: Gini Bennison  info@martin-eng.com 

PEBCO, Incorporated P.O. Box 7506 Paducah, KY 42002-7506 270-442-1996 Fax: 270-442-5214 www.pebco.com  Contact: Mark Kettler, Director of Sales & Marketing  sales@pebco.com 

9


PICOR

Ingram Barge Company

1730 Old Gray Station Road Gray, TN 37615 423-282-9900 Fax: 423-282-3118 www.picor.biz  Contact: C.F. “Chuck” Walton, Marketing Manager  sales@picor.biz 

4400 Harding Road Nashville, TN 37205 615-298-8200 www.ingrambarge.com 

Roberts & Schaefer Company 10150 South Centennial Parkway Sandy, UT 84070 801-984-0900 Fax: 801-984-0909 www.r-s.com 

Taggart Global, LLC 2090 Greentree Road Pittsburgh, PA 15220 412-253-8057 Fax: 412-429-9801 www.taggl.com  Contact: Dave Batanian  taggart@taggl.com 

Mine Machinery Coal Marketing Co. USA-Inc. 1180 Peachtree St., Suite 2420 Atlanta, GA 30309 678-608-2840 Fax: 678-608-2843 www.cmc-coal.com  Contact: Colin Blyth, VP Sales & Marketing  colin.blyth@cmc-coal.com 

Miner Elastomer Products 1200 East State St. Geneva, IL 60134 630-232-3166 Fax: 630-232-3172 www.minerelastomer.com  Contact: Terry Koehn, National Sales Manager  tkoehn@minerelastomer.com 

Superior Highwall Miners, Inc. 351 Ragland Road Beckley, WV 25801 304-253-0206 Fax: 304-253-0513 www.shm.net  Contact: Jennifer Hawley  jhawley@shm.net

Mining Chevron Mining Inc. 116 Inverness Drive East, Suite 207 Englewood, CO 80112 303-930-4220 Fax: 281-276-9237 www.chevron.com  Contact: Kirsten Knoepfle Thorne  kknoepfle@chevron.com 

Fine Coal Inc. 6043 Triphammer Road Lake Worth, FL 33463 561-296-2773 www.finecoal.net  Contact: Alberto Gamboa  finecoal@yahoo.net

10

James River Coal Company 901 East Byrd St., Suite 1600 Richmond, VA 23219 859-543-0090 Fax: 859-543-0992 www.jamesrivercoal.com  Contact: Mike Weber  mike.weber@jamesrivercoal.com 

Jenmar Corporation 258 Kappa Drive Pittsburgh, PA 15238 412-963-9071 Fax: 412-963-9767 www.jenmar.com info@jenmar.com 

Kiewit Mining Group Inc. 3555 Farnam St. Omaha, NE 68131 402-536-3630 Fax: 402-271-2908 www.kiewit.com  Contact: Mike Nimmo  mike.nimmo@kiewit.com 

Pincock, Allen & Holt 165 Union Boulevard, Suite 950 Lakewood, CO 80228 303-986-6950 Fax: 303-987-8907  Contact: Raja Upadhyay  pah@pincock.com 

Rio Tinto Energy America 8051 East Maplewood Ave. Building 4 Greenwood Village, CO 80111 303-713-5607 P.O. Box 6609 Englewood, CO 80155-6609 www.rtea.com  Contact: Matt Levar, General Manager, Sales & Marketing  matt.levar@riotinto.com 

Mirrors, Convex, Assembly E S & S Company P.O. Box 742 Pleasanton, CA 94566 925-462-4393 Fax: 925-484-5173  Contact: Barbara Eirls

Motors & Accessories Rulmeca Corporation 6508-B Windmill Way Wilmington, NC 23405 910-794-9294 Fax: 910-794-9296 www.rulmecacorp.com  Contact: Mike Gawinski  mgawinski@rulmecacorp.com 

Personal Carriers Damascus Corporation P.O. Box 610 Abingdon, VA 24212 276-676-2376 Fax: 276-676-0300 www.damascuscorp.com  Contact: Walter Stewart  wstewart@damascuscorp.com 

Pipe & Accessories

Power Generation

Jenmar Corporation 258 Kappa Drive Pittsburgh, PA 15238 412-963-9071 Fax: 412-963-9767 www.jenmar.com info@jenmar.com 

Pollution Control Systems Air-Cure Inc. 8501 Evergreen Boulevard Minneapolis, MN 55433 763-717-0707 Fax: 763-717-0394 www.aircure.com  Contact: Alyssa Pierro  sales@aircure.com 

Powerspan Corp. 100 International Drive, Suite 200 Portsmouth, NH 03801 603-570-3000 Fax: 603-570-3100 www.powerspan.com  Contact: Stephanie Procopis  info@powerspan.com 

The Raring Corporation 12007 N.E. 95th St. Vancouver, WA 98682 360-892-1659 Fax: 360-892-1624 www.raringcorp.com  Contact: Kathleen M. Putele  kputele@raringcorp.com 

Ports & Terminals

Dominion Energy P.O. Box 25593 Richmond, VA 23219 804-787-5765 www.dom.com  Contact: Keith Drohan  keith.drohan@dom.com

Dynegy 1000 Louisiana St., Suite 5800 Houston, TX 77002 713-767-6097 Fax: 713-767-6695 www.dynegy.com  Contact: West G. Boettger  west.boettger@dynegy.com 

Ingram Barge Company 4400 Harding Road Nashville, TN 37205 615-298-8200 www.ingrambarge.com 

Minnesota Power 1259 N.W. 3rd St. Cohasset, MN 55721 218-328-5036 x4624 www.mnpower.com  Contact: Kathy Benham  kbenham@mnpower.com 

Platte River Power Authority

Dominion Energy P.O. Box 25593 Richmond, VA 23219 804-787-5765 www.dom.com  Contact: Keith Drohan  keith.drohan@dom.com 

Midwest Energy Resources Company (MERC) P.O. Box 787 West Winter St. Superior, WI 54880 715-395-3505 Fax: 715-392-9137 www.midwestenergy.com  Contact: Robert M. Sarvela  bsarvela@midwestenergy.com 

Savage Services Corporation 6340 South 3000 East, Suite 600 Salt Lake City, UT 84121 www.savageservices.com  Contact: Charlie Monroe  801-944-6629 Fax: 801-944-2208 charliem@savageS.E.rvices.com  Contact: David Wolach  801-944-6613 Fax: 801-944-6519 davew@savageservices.com 

Thunder Bay Terminals Ltd. P.O. Box 1800 Thunder Bay, ON P7C 5J7 Canada 807-625-7800 Fax: 807-623-5749  Contact: John Kepes

2000 East Horsetooth Road Fort Collins, CO 80525 970-226-4000 Fax: 970-229-5244 www.prpa.org  Contact: Jason Frisbie  Frisbiej@prpa.org

PPL Corp 2 North Ninth St. Allentown, PA 18101 610-774-5500 Fax: 610-774-5141 www.pplweb.com  Contact: Ben E. Stothart  bestothart@pplweb.com

Southern Company Generation 600 North 18th St. Birmingham, AL 35203 205-257-0298 www.southerncompany.com  Contact: Jeff Wallace or Susan Comensky

Power Generation Consultants

Marshall Miller & Associates 534 Industrial Park Road P.O. Box 848 Bluefield, VA 24605 276-322-5467 Fax: 276-322-5460 www.mma1.com  Contact: Scott Keim, C.P.G., President  corp@mma1.com 

american coal council


Precision Train PICOR 1730 Old Gray Station Road Gray, TN 37615 423-282-9900 Fax: 423-282-3118 www.picor.biz  Contact: C.F. “Chuck” Walton, Marketing Manager  sales@picor.biz 

Preparation Plants

Roberts & Schaefer Company 10150 South Centennial Parkway Sandy, UT 84070 801-984-0900 Fax: 801-984-0909 www.r-s.com 

Project Finance & Development

Xcoal Energy & Resources P.O. Box 551 Latrobe, PA 15650 724-520-1630 Fax: 724-537-6475 www.xcoal.com  Contact: Ernie Thrasher, President  xcoal@xcoal.com 

Pulleys Rulmeca Corporation 6508-B Windmill Way Wilmington, NC 23405 910-794-9294 Fax: 910-794-9296 www.rulmecacorp.com  Contact: Mike Gawinski  mgawinski@rulmecacorp.com 

Reclamation – Land Management Marston 13515 Barrett Parkway Drive, Suite 260 St. Louis, MO 63021 314-984-8800 Fax: 314-984-8770 www.marston.com  Contact: William Merster  infomarston@marston.com 

Resin Jenmar Corporation 258 Kappa Drive Pittsburgh, PA 15238 412-963-9071 Fax: 412-963-9767 www.jenmar.com info@jenmar.com 

River Transportation Crounse Corporation 2626 Broadway Ave. Paducah, KY 42001 270-444-9611 Fax: 270-444-9615 www.crounse.com  Contact: Robert L. Englert, Jr.  renglert@crounse.com 

2007 buyers’ guide

Safety Equipment & Accessories

Slipform Silos

E S & S Company

200 East First Ave. P.O. Box 2108 Hutchinson, KS 67501 620-669-8211 Fax: 620-662-3225 www.borton.biz  Contact: Chuck Burleigh  cburleigh@borton.biz 

P.O. Box 742 Pleasanton, CA 94566 925-462-4393 Fax: 925-484-5173  Contact: Barbara Eirls

Sampling Equipment

Borton LC

Spraying Equipment

Tema Systems, Inc. 7806 Redsky Drive Cincinnati, OH 45249 513-489-7811 www.tema.net sales@tema.net

Thermo Scientific 501 – 90th Ave., N.W. Minneapolis, MN 55433 763-783-2500 Fax: 763-780-2315 www.thermo.com  Contact: Don Bina  don.bina@thermofisher.com 

Screen & Screen Accessories

7806 Redsky Drive Cincinnati, OH 45249 513-489-7811 www.tema.net sales@tema.net

Scrubbers Powerspan Corp. 100 International Drive, Suite 200 Portsmouth, NH 03801 603-570-3000 Fax: 603-570-3100 www.powerspan.com  Contact: Stephanie Procopis  info@powerspan.com 

Silo Cleaning Services

P.O. Box 961051 Fort Worth, TX 76161-0051 817-867-6242 Fax: 817-352-7939 www.bnsf.com  Contact: Stevan B. Bobb, Group Vice President, Coal Marketing  stevan.bobb@bnsf.com 

Crounse Corporation 2626 Broadway Ave. Paducah, KY 42001 270-444-9611 Fax: 270-444-9615 www.crounS.E..com  Contact: Robert L. Englert, Jr.  renglert@crounS.E..com 

CSX Transportation The Raring Corporation 12007 N.E. 95th St. Vancouver, WA 98682 360-892-1659 Fax: 360-892-1624 www.raringcorp.com  Contact: Kathleen M. Putele  kputele@raringcorp.com 

Synfuels Headwaters Incorporated 10653 South River Front Parkway Suite 300 South Jordan, UT 84095 801-984-9400 Fax: 801-984-9410 www.headwaters.com  Contact: John Ward  jward@headwaters.com 

James River Coal Company Tema Systems, Inc.

BNSF Railway

901 East Byrd St., Suite 1600 Richmond, VA 23219 859-543-0090 Fax: 859-543-0992 www.jamesrivercoal.com  Contact: Mike Weber  mike.weber@jamesrivercoal.com 

NexGen Coal Services Ltd. 3300 South Parker Road, Suite 520 Aurora, CO 80014 303-751-9230 Fax: 303-751-9210 www.nexgen-group.com  Contact: Charles S. McNeil, President - CEO  cmcneil@nexgen-group.com 

Transportation AEP/Cook Coal Terminal P.O. Box 870 Metropolis, IL 62960 618-524-9345 Fax: 618-524-1969 www.aep.com 

Mole Master Services Corporation

AEP Memco LLP

Reno Business Park 27815 State Route 7 Marietta, OH 45750 1-800-322-6653 Fax: 740-374-5908 www.molemaster.com  Contact: Dave Laing, Sales/Marketing Manager  info@molemaster.com 

16090 Swingley Ridge Road Chesterfield, MO 63017 636-530-2156 Fax: 636-530-4177 www.memcobarge.com  Contact: Robert M. Blocker, Vice President Sales & Logistics  bobb@memcobarge.com 

American Commercial Lines LLC 1701 East Market St. Jeffersonville, IN 47130 812-288-1980 Fax: 812-288-0256 www.aclines.com  Contact: Michael P. Ryan, Senior VP Sales & Marketing  michael.ryan@acbl.net

500 Water St., J842 Jacksonville, FL 32202 904-366-5693 Fax: 904-359-3443 www.csx.com  Contact: Chris Jenkins, Vice President Coal and Automotive  chris_jenkins@csx.com 

Dakota, Minnesota & Eastern Railroad Corp. 140 North Phillips Ave. Sioux Falls, SD 57104 605-782-1200 Fax: 605-782-1299 www.dmerail.com  Contact: Lynn A. Anderson, SVP Marketing  landerson@cedaramerican.com 

East Side River Transportation 6 Executive Woods, Suite 3 Belleville, IL 62226 618-277-4481  Contact: Jim McEvilly, President  mcevilj@esrtco.com 

Ingram Barge Company 4400 Harding Road Nashville, TN 37205 615-298-8200 www.ingrambarge.com 

Interlake Steamship Company 4199 Kinross Lakes Parkway Richfield, OH 44286 330-659-1402 Fax: 330-659-1445 www.interlake-steamship.com  Contact: John Hopkins, Vice President - Marketing  jhopkins@interlake-steamship.com 

Kansas City Southern Railway P.O. Box 219335 Kansas City, MO 64121-9335 816-983-1040 Fax: 816-983-1418 www.kcsouthern.com  Contact: Darin S.E.lby, AVP Sales & Marketing - Coal  dselby@kcsouthern.com 

KCBX Terminals Company 3259 East 100th St. Chicago, IL 60617 773-978-8317 Fax: 773-375-3153 www.kochind.com  Contact: Tom Kramer, General Manager  kramert@kochind.com 

11


Kinder Morgan Bulk Terminals, Inc. One Allen Center 500 Dallas St., Suite 1000 Houston, TX 77002 713-369-8766 Fax: 713-369-8775 www.kindermorgan.com  Contact: Brian Feyereisen  brian_feyereisen@kindermorgan.com 

Midwest Energy Resources Company (MERC) P.O. Box 787 West Winter St. Superior, WI 54880 715-395-3505 Fax: 715-392-9137 www.midwestenergy.com  Contact: Robert M. Sarvela  bsarvela@midwestenergy.com 

SCH Terminal Co., Inc. 2850 North Main St. Madisonville, KY 42431 270-821-5149 x8131 Fax: 270-825-3158  Contact: Bill Rager, Vice President Operations  brager@sch-ces.com 

Valuation & Appraisal

TECO Transport 800 Veterans Boulevard, Suite 255 Metairie, LA 70002 504-834-2274 Fax: 504-834-2772 www.tecotransport.com  Contact: Brian Miles, Corporate Sales  brian.miles@tecoenergy.com 

TECO Transport 702 North Franklin St., Plaza 9 Tampa, FL 33602 813-209-4258 Fax: 813-273-0248 www.tecotransport.com  Contact: Cliff Johnson, General Manager of Sales  cliff.johnson@tecotransport.com 

Marshall Miller & Associates 534 Industrial Park Road P.O. Box 848 Bluefield, VA 24605 276-322-5467 Fax: 276-322-5460 www.mma1.com  Contact: Scott Keim, C.P.G., President  corp@mma1.com 

Pincock, Allen & Holt 165 Union Boulevard, Suite 950 Lakewood, CO 80228 303-986-6950 Fax: 303-987-8907  Contact: Raja Upadhyay  pah@pincock.com 

Washers Coal Coal Marketing Co. USA-Inc.

Mitsui Rail Capital, LLC 71 South Wacker Drive, Suite 1800 Chicago, IL 60606 312-803-8880 Fax: 312-803-8890 www.mrc-rail.com  Contact: David Kerr, Director of Marketing  dkerr@mrc-rail.com 

NexGen Coal Services Ltd. 3300 South Parker Road, Suite 520 Aurora, CO 80014 303-751-9230 Fax: 303-751-9210 www.nexgen-group.com  Contact: Charles S. McNeil, President - CEO  cmcneil@nexgen-group.com 

Norfolk Southern Corporation 3 Commercial Place Norfolk, VA 23510-9205 757-629-2813 Fax: 757-533-4918 www.nscorp.com  Contact: Daniel Smith, Senior Vice President Energy & Properties  danny.smith@nscorp.com 

Savage Services Corporation 6340 South 3000 East, Suite 600 Salt Lake City, UT 84121 www.savageservices.com  Contact: Charlie Monroe  801-944-6629 Fax: 801-944-2208 charliem@savageservices.com Contact: David Wolach 801-944-6613 Fax: 801-944-6519 davew@savageservices.com 

Trinity Rail Group 2525 Stemmons Freeway Dallas, TX 75207 1-800-631-4420 www.trinityrail.com  Contact: Randy Thomure  randy.thomure@trinityrail.com 

TTI Railroad, Inc. 205 Winchester St. Paris, KY 40361 859-987-1589 Fax: 859-987-1625  Contact: C. Randall “Randy” Clark, President  crclark@ttirailroad.com 

Union Pacific Railroad Company 1400 Douglas St. STOP 1260 Omaha, NE 68179-1260 402-544-5678 Fax: 402-544-6772 www.up.com  Contact: Doug Glass, Vice President & General Manager  djglass@up.com 

Truck & Truck Accessories Miner Elastomer Products 1200 East State St. Geneva, IL 60134 630-232-3166 Fax: 630-232-3172 www.minerelastomer.com  Contact: Terry Koehn, National Sales Manager  tkoehn@minerelastomer.com 

1180 Peachtree St., Suite 2420 Atlanta, GA 30309 678-608-2840 Fax: 678-608-2843 www.cmc-coal.com  Contact: Colin Blyth, VP Sales & Marketing  colin.blyth@cmc-coal.com 

Contributing Supporters American Coal Ash Association 15200 East Girard Ave., Suite 3050 Aurora, CO 80013-3955 720-870-7897 Fax: 720-870-7889 www.acaa-usa.org  Contact: David Goss, Executive Director  dcgoss@acaa-usa.org

Center for Energy & Economic Development (CEED) 1110 Innsbrook Lane Buffalo, MN 55313 703-302-1213 Fax: 703-302-1243 www.ceednet.org  Contact: Mark Ourada, National Vice President External Affairs  mourada@ceednet.org

The Coal Association of Canada 100, 205 - 9th Ave. S.E. Calgary, AB T2G 0R3 Canada 403-262-1544 Fax: 403-265-7604 www.coal.ca  Contact: Allen Wright, Executive Director  wright@coal.ca Contact: George White, Chairman of the Board of Directors  416-935-2479 gwhite@sherritt.com 

Coal Utilization Research Council 1050 Thomas Jefferson St. N.W. Washington, DC 20007 202-298-1857 Fax: 202-338-2416 www.coal.org  Contact: Ben Yamagata, Executive Director  bny@vnf.com Contact: Shannon Angielski, Associate Director 202-298-1825 Fax: 202-338-2416

University of Kentucky - Center for Applied Energy Research 2540 Research Park Drive Lexington, KY 40511-8410 859-257-0261 Fax: 859-257-0360 www.caer.uky.edu  Contact: James C. Hower, Senior Scientist  hower@caer.uky.edu 

University of North Dakota, Energy & Environmental Research Center 15 North 23rd St., Stop 9018 Grand Forks, ND 58202-9018 701-777-5261 Fax: 701-777-5181 www.undeerc.org/carrc  Contact: Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett, Program Manager Coal Ash Research  dphasS.E.t@undeerc.org

West Virginia University National Research Center for Coal & Energy P.O. Box 6064 Evansdale Drive Morgantown, WV 26506-6064 304-293-2867 Fax: 304-293-3749  Contact: Richard A. Bajura, Director  bajura@wvu.edu 

Western Region Ash Group (WRAG) Kansas City Power & Light P.O. Box 418679 Kansas City, MO 64141-9679 816-556-2108 www.wrashg.org  Contact: Fred Gustin  fred.gustin@kcpl.com 

Western Research Institute 365 North 9th St. Laramie, WY 82072 307-721-2386 Fax: 307-721-2256 www.westernreS.E.arch.org  Contact: Dr. Alan Bland, Vice President Waste & Environmental Management  abland@uwyo.edu 

Index to Advertisers Arch Coal, Inc.������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ IFC Taggart Global ������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������IBC FreightCar America��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� OBC

12

american coal council


THEWORLDLEADERINCOALPREPARATION

TAGGART GLOBAL Experts in turnkey design, supply, construction and commissioning of coal processing plants and bulk material handling systems.

ENGINEERING DESIGN ● Conceptual Design & Surface Infrastructure ● Detailed Engineering Design

PROCESS DESIGN & TECHNOLOGY ● Resource Evaluation ● Process Engineering

MATERIAL HANDLING ● System & Services to Coal Users

PROJECT MANAGEMENT ● Design & Construction ● Engineering, procurement, and construction management

CONTRACT OPERATIONS ● Total Plant Management & Operation

UNITED STATES

2090 GREENTREE RD. PITTSBURGH, PA 15220 T: +1 412 429 9800 F: +1 412 429 9801

CHINA

8TH FL DERUN TOWER YONGANDONGLI 3A JIANWAIDAJIE CHAOYANG DISTRICT BEIJING, 100022 T: +86 10 5879 3131 F: +86 10 5879 3827

RUSSIA

DERBENEVSKAYA ST. 22 OFFICE 310 MOSCOW, RUSSIA 115114 T: +7 495 223 4376 F: +7 495 223 4874

BRAZIL

RUA JOAO CRUZ, 195 40ANDAR PRAIA DO CANTO VITORIA, ES, BRAZIL CEP 29055-620 T: +55 27 3225 9144 F: +55 27 3315 1940

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American Coal Issue 2 2007  
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