Issue 1 u 2011
Economic, Abundant/Secure and Environmentally Sound
In a Complex Business Environment
In this Issue Planning for the Utility MACT New EPA Air Toxics Regulations CC Online Information A Resources & Webcasts
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Published for: American Coal Council 1101 Pennsylvania Ave. N.W., Suite 600 Washington, DC 20004 Tel: 202-756-4540 Fax: 202-756-7323 Fax: 732-231-6581 www.americancoalcouncil.org ACC Editorial Review Board David Byford, Dynegy, Inc. Rick Felde, Martin Engineering Trygve Gaalaas, Hawk Consulting Janet Gellici, American Coal Council Jason Hayes, American Coal Council Beth Sutton, Peabody Energy Published by: Lester Publications, LLC 140 Broadway, 46th Floor New York, NY 10005 Toll Free: 866-953-2189 Toll Free Fax: 877-565-8557 President Jeff Lester | 866-953-2189 Vice President & Publisher Sean Davis | 888-953-2190 Managing Editor Stone Wallace | 877-953-2588 Graphic Designers John Lyttle Myles O’Reilly Account Executives Quinn Bogusky, Kathy Kelley, Louise Peterson © 2011 American Coal Council. All rights reserved. The contents of this publication may not be reproduced by any means, in whole or in part, without the prior written consent of the ACC.
Economic, Abundant/Secure and Environmentally Sound
Contents Message from ACC President. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Message from ACC CEO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Message from ACC Communications Director . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 ACC Vision and Mission Statement. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2011 Board of Directors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 ACC Member Companies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 ACC Champion & Patron Sponsors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 ACC Online Information Resources & Webcasts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Tomorrow’s Leadership Council. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Spotlights Planning for the Utility MACT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 New EPA Air Toxics Regulations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Features Energy Coal Policy in the 112th Congress: Objectives, Tools, and Compromises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Congressional Outlook. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Bringing Coal Online. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 The FACES of American Coal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 American Coal is Under Attack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Cutting Our Spending or Cutting Our Throats? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Canadian Coal Happenings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Engineered Coal Fuel Technologies: One Tool to Address Environmental Regulations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Index to Advertisers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Stock images, unless otherwise credited, are from photos.com
On the cover: The cover of this issue of American Coal illustrates “Decision Making In a Complex Business Environment.” Image from iStockphoto.com
Disclaimer The opinions expressed by the authors of the editorial articles contained in American Coal magazine are those of the respective authors and do not necessarily represent the opinion of the American Coal Council or its member companies Printed in Canada Please recycle where facilities exist.
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A Message from the ACC President
The Pulse of the Association Scott Hutter, ACC President and Martin Engineering President & CEO
he complex and dynamic nature of our industry insured that the American Coal Council (ACC) stayed very busy in 2010. Looking forward, 2011 promises to be every bit as busy and productive. We have worked through our publications, conferences, and committee activities to keep members, attendees, readers, and the public up to date on important issues. Our magazines and conferences have kept the broad, longer-term focus covered, while our social media outlets and webinars have focused in on detailed information-sharing. Throughout the political and policy upheavals our industry has experienced recently, the ACC’s primary focus has stayed fixed on two key concepts. First, we advance the development and utilization of coal as an economic, abundant and environmentally sound energy fuel source. Second, we provide educational programs, advocacy support, peer-to-peer networking forums and market intelligence that allow members to advance their marketing and management capabilities. To meet our mission statement, we continue to offer a strong mix of our traditional publications, events, and conferences. Plus, we have added several new offerings to our lists as well. A review of our many offerings includes: ACC Conferences Our two primary marketplace and policyoriented conferences, Spring Coal Forum and Coal Market Strategies, remain strong draws for senior level energy industry and government executives. In 2011, we will use these conferences to focus on critical industry issues, relying on guidance and input from our member companies to guide conference content. Our successful Spring Coal Forum was held in Clearwater, FL from March 8-10, and the Coal Market american coal council
Strategies will be in Colorado Springs, CO from August 22 – 24. Our Fuel Flexibility Conference has been revised and renamed. Now called the Utility Coal Conference, this event will feature information and solutions on fuel compliance and will be held June 28-29 in Minneapolis, MN. Our Coal Trading Conference continues to provide energy traders with essential information on marketplace trends and will be held December 5-6 in New York, NY. American Coal magazine Ed i t e d a n d a d m i n i s t e re d by o u r Communications Director, American Coal magazine continues to provide our 15,000+ readership with accurate and balanced information and editorial on the coal industry, clean coal technologies, and energy policy. In 2010 we released an online version of American Coal (hosted at www.americancoalonline. com). This new website also hosts the online versions of our Buyers’ Guide and Membership Directory, both serving as essential information resources on the businesses that keep our industry running – see www.americancoalonline.com/ accdirectory. As part of our year end work in 2010, we signed a multi-year contract with our magazine publisher, Lester Publications. Lester will continue to publish the print and online editions of American Coal magazine. They will also be responsible for publishing our online newsletters, our annual calendar, our newly formatted Membership Directory, as well as our print and online Buyers’ Guide. They will also be responsible for managing the suite of advertising opportunities associated with our various publications. We are confident that having a single advertising team 3
To meet our mission statement, we continue to offer a strong mix of our traditional publications, events, and conferences. will help our advertisers in managing and focusing their advertising dollars. Newsletters While they still offer the most up-to-date information on ACC and industry events, social media links, and guest editorials, our monthly newsletters have been reformatted and moved to www.americancoalonline. com/newsletter as part of our expanded work with Lester Publications. All readers are welcomed to sign up for the quarterly edition of American Coal Advisory. ACC members are welcomed to request access to the monthly Members’ Update newsletter. Social Media ACC social media outlets are just one more tool we use to provide easy to follow updates for our members and the public. Through regular posts on energy and environmental news, public policy updates, and information from other allied associations, we maintain an active presence on the Coalblog (www.coalblog.org), and also host our own Facebook, and Twitter pages. Make sure you “Like” and “Follow” us, and sign up for our RSS feeds. Committees Our Coal 2.0 Alliance brings together a diverse group of experts who are committed to development and utilization of engineered coal fuel technologies and coal preparation technologies through enhancing awareness of their environmental and efficiency performance benefits. This committee is actively involved in industry programs, advocacy efforts, and the
creation and distribution of fact sheets and other information. The Engineered Fuels fact sheet is available for free download in the “Facts” section of the ACC website. The Tomorrow’s Leadership Council (TLC) brings together a new group of executive talent each year and works to advance and vest them in the coal industry. The Council provides a meaningful opportunity for up-and-coming executives to enhance their industry knowledge and networks through projects and activities that advance industry-wide objectives as well as professional development goals. 2010 marked the completion of the second successful year of the TLC group. Both years’ projects – 2009’s “Coal Fundamentals” and 2010’s “Coal Unplugged” – are available on the Members’ section of the ACC website. The 2011 annual project involves the use of social media outlets as a business information tool. We have now had over thirty executives complete the TLC program and with twelve companies now actively involved in the 2011 program, we expect another productive year. Monthly Coal Q&A Webcasts The Coal Q&A program provides an interactive forum for industry participants to engage one another in a discussion of the critical issues affecting our industry. Each month a diverse group of 30 to 50 industry members listens to expert commentary on timely topics. After the presentation, forum attendees take part in a Q&A session, querying the presenter on further details of their topic. Background information and resources on the critical issues addressed are
available in the “Issues” section of the ACC website, and ACC members can access past Coal Q&A audio and slide decks via the Members’ section. Utility Coal Compliance (UCC) Webcasts The UCC webcast program is a new effort for 2011. In this series of six webcasts, we have invited industry experts to address the challenges utilities are facing as they use coal as a generation fuel. The programs have and will speak to the following issues: Optimizing Compliance Solutions, Increasing Fuel Flexibility Choices, Power Plant Coping Mechanisms, Reducing CO2 Density, Fuel Quality Blending, and Supply Chain Challenges in Converting to Full or Partial Biomass. While extensive, this list still does not cover all of ACC’s activities. We remain active in public presentations and industry gatherings, working closely with member companies and other allied associations, academics and researchers, elected officials, and government employees. ACC staff also regularly interacts with national media, providing insight and comment for their work, as well as publishing articles and opinion in various other publications. As I discussed in my opening lines above, all of our activities remain firmly focused on promoting coal as an economic, abundant and environmentally sound energy fuel source. Our educational programs, advocacy support, peer-to-peer networking forums and market intelligence work to meet that mission goal and to allow our members to advance their marketing and management capabilities. We’re here to help and serve your needs. So, as potential or existing members of this organization, we invite your comments and input and encourage your involvement. ◆
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A Message from the ACC CEO
Eenie, Meeny, Miny, Moe Janet Gellici, CAE, ACC Chief Executive Officer
o you remember that playground game you used to play as a kid to decide who was “it” or who was in or out? Eeny, meeny, miny, moe, Catch a tiger by the toe. If he hollers let him go, Eeny, meeny, miny, moe. I was reminded of this game by a political cartoon I recently saw that pictured a number of judges on a court bench. One judge leans over to the judge next to him and whispers “Don’t spread it around, but on the really tough ones, I just go with eeny, meeny, miny, moe.” When we were kids, eeny, meeny, miny, moe was an easy, impartial way for us to make a decision. Of course, the decisions we were making back then weren’t exactly life-altering. And while the cynical side of us may sometimes believe that our public policymakers are making eeny, meeny, miny, moe decisions, we know it’s not that easy or that impartial. The articles in this issue of American Coal provide some insights into the magnitude and scope of the decisions policymakers are addressing, as well as the implications of those decisions for coal suppliers, consumers and transporters, among others - including U.S. citizens. Those citizens certainly made their decisions clear in November 2010. Patrick american coal council
Traylor with Hogan & Hartson reviews the changing face of Congress and how key energy and environment Committee roles will factor into forthcoming policy decisions. We also hear from the Honorable Ed Whitfield (R-KY), a member of the House Energy & Commerce Committee, who, on accepting the role of Chair of the Subcommittee on Energy & Power noted that “We must embrace an ‘all of the above’ energy policy that includes natural gas, nuclear, coal and domestic resource exploration. With an ‘all of the above’ strategy, we can safely and responsibly develop our own natural energy resources and reduce our dependence on foreign sources of energy – both of which are essential to our national security.” Congressman Whitfield shares with us the potential and challenges of his Subcommittee to advance those objectives.
to be refocused on the need to enhance U.S. economic recovery. But the realities of pending budget cuts and political favoritism indicate that coal will suffer more than its fair share of the pain of restoring fiscal responsibility vis-à-vis other energy resources. How these decisions will impact U.S. trade routes, coal power plants and U.S. jobs are topics addressed herein. The decisions we’re called upon to make today will have long-lasting implications for our nation. Certainly none of those decisions are being taken lightly and there are hard lessons to be learned along the way. Learn we must. Years ago, a young reporter was given the opportunity to interview a very successful, very wealthy banker. The reporter asked him, “Sir, what is the secret of your success?” He said, “Two words, young man.”
Utility and industrial coal consumers continue to be vexed in their decision-making efforts to invest in and plan for the future by the myriad regulations being imposed by EPA. Utility and industrial coal consumers continue to be vexed in their decisionmaking efforts to invest in and plan for the future by the myriad regulations being imposed by EPA. Coal producers are also experiencing the brunt of regulatory uncertainty stemming from mine permitting regulations that appear to change mid-stream - literally and figuratively. We examine a number of these regulations in this issue. In addition to impacting business operations, regulations will have a significant effect on job creation and employment opportunities. The Administration and Congress do seem
“And sir, what are those two words?” “Right decisions.” “But how do you make right decisions?” “One word,” he said. “And sir, what is that word?” “Experience.” “And how do you get experience?” “Two words.” “And sir, what are those two words?” “Wrong decisions.” Perhaps the best we can hope for is that misguided decisions made today will, in time, contribute to our experience and guide us toward the right decisions tomorrow. ◆ 7
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A message from the ACC Communications Director
Decisions, decisions … Jason Hayes, ACC Communications Director and Editor, American Coal magazine
he ACC opened 2011, focusing much of its conference and publication program on the theme of “decision making in difficult times.” Our 2011 Spring Coal Forum featured speakers and presentations describing what to expect in our rapidly changing policy and regulatory environments. In a February presentation to the Grand Junction, CO Energy Forum & Expo, I followed this theme as well, by discussing energy generation options that exist for western states. This edition of American Coal has focused on the same theme by providing information on some of the opportunities available to energy industry participants and the changing nature of energy generation. Throughout these discussions, one thing has remained consistently clear; regardless of the challenges, considerations, and concerns, coal must remain a key energy choice in the here and now and well into our future. We need to keep it as a key energy choice because our other viable energy options simply can’t carry the weight of demand that coal shoulders on a daily basis. Despite this fact, our industry faces a growing list of challenges, from increasingly strict environmental regulation, to strident anti-development protests and NIMBYism, to restricted (or at least drastically changed) funding mechanisms, and profound political and social misunderstanding about how we produce the energy on which our society is based. For years, we have listened to stories of coal’s imminent demise and have heard all about the number of cancelled coal projects. (Make no mistake, those canceled projects were real and many of them have been shelved for good.) But, as we reported in previous issues of American Coal, the Coalblog, Coal Q&A webinars, and presentations in our conferences, the loss of those projects has not improved our energy realities. The loss of those projects has actually limited energy choices, increased energy costs, and slimmed american coal council
generating margins down to dangerous levels. There’s no evading the fact that 2008 and 2009 were difficult years and the impacts of poor energy policy choices will linger on for many years to come. On a more positive note, last year managed to stand some of those losses on their heads for the coal industry. Generation statistics for 2010 indicate a substantial turnaround in the availability of new funding and the expectations for sustaining tax policies for renewable development. According to wind industry numbers, 2010 installations were down by 50 percent from 2009 and third quarter installations dipped to 2007 levels. Without favorable tax policy and legislation encouraging “interest,” renewables waned. Coal, as it always has been, was there to beef up the generation portfolio with low cost, abundant, and clean electricity. On the international scene, the coldest December experienced in Great Britain since 1910 left citizens shivering in their homes while British wind resources sat essentially idle. One Telegraph article repeated our consistent refrain for us as it noted, “The failure of wind farms to function at full tilt during December forced energy suppliers to rely on coal-fired power stations to keep the lights on.” But we didn’t just go back to existing generation stock last year. Energy Information Administration (EIA) numbers indicated that new coal-fueled generation made up 39 percent of U.S.based generation expansion in 2010. Eleven new coal-fueled plants, totaling just under 7,000 MW were brought online in 2010. This represented a level of coal-fueled build out that has not been seen in the U.S. since 1985. Then, adding to the reminders of how much we rely on coal’s rock solid consistency, the bone-numbing cold and heavy snow experienced throughout the United States in January and February brought the potential of natural gas limitations into sharp focus for many utility 9
customers across the nation. The past few years have almost seen a shale gas-induced euphoria hit energy markets. Industry reports have opined that “the sky is the limit,” with seemingly endless supplies of shale gas being found, dropping costs, and changing utility profiles are reported as the norm now. However, the blast of icy February weather heavily impacted gas production, even if only for a few short weeks, in early 2011. Large regions of New Mexico, southeastern Arizona, and California were left high and dry; gas simply wasn’t available for them at any cost.
Those areas and others entered February with natural gas “emergencies” looming, and gas suppliers cautioning customers to restrict use as they were forced to drain their storage resources to meet even heavily rationed demand. Many southwestern customers were literally cut off as limited supplies dried up. Southwest Gas in Tucson, AZ was forced to open community shelters to accommodate customers whose gas service had been turned off during the unusual cold spell. El Paso gas providers also reported gas shortages, citing
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high customer demand and high utility demand mixing with restrictions in production. Of course, none of this should be construed to mean that markets are necessarily going back to the “good ol’ days.” Shale gas is still widely available and the push for renewables is still very strong. The coal industry is still facing demand destruction from competing energy sources, tax laws aimed at promoting other energy resources over coal, a stiffening environmental regulatory regime, (at best) a confusing mix of give and take from the current administration, and an increasingly partisan Congress – that may be (for the current session) more coal friendly, but that is also far less amenable to continued fossil research funding. We continue to face complex decisions that involve always increasing demands for clean, affordable and abundant energy. We continue to face decisions that involve millions (or billions) in investments, decades of commitments, and potentially centuries of liability. However, amidst all the negatives that we have encountered over the past few years, the coal industry has proved once again this winter why coal has been a solid energy decision for centuries, and why it will remain a solid energy choice well into the future. It’s not just the cost, because coal easily wins that game, even on our currently unlevel legislative and regulatory playing field. It’s not just the domestic abundance, because with over two centuries of reserves sitting under our feet in the U.S., coal easily wins that game as well. It’s not just the rapidly improving technologies that deal with emissions and greenhouse gases, because the improved efficiencies and dropping emissions profiles of coal installations around the world prove that coal can be used cleanly and efficiently today. Coal is and will remain a valuable energy generation resource because of a mix of all those realities, plus the reality that every time policy and special interest pressure attempt to push coal out of the mix, we must face the fact that affordable, abundant, and reliable energy is the lifeblood of our economy. Try as some might, they can’t escape the brute fact that coal provides abundant and affordable, domestically-sourced, and increasingly clean energy, along with hundreds of thousands of high-paying jobs even when the others can’t. u american coal council
Membership beneﬁts include educational programming and technical seminars, advocacy support, broad-based networking, website,
Membership Coupon Join the 170 companies that recognize the importance of belonging to an association that serves as the pre-eminent business voice of the American coal industry and advocates for coal as an economic, abundant/secure and environmentally sound fuel source. The American Coal Council (ACC) is an alliance of coal, utility, trading, transportation, terminal and coal support service companies, advocating a non-adversial, partnering approach to business. The ACC facilitates the lawful exchange of ideas and information regarding the American coal industry. It serves as an essential resource for companies that mine, sell, trade, transport or consume American coal. The ACC also serves as a resource for those wishing to expand or enhance business relationships in north American and international coal markets.
electronic and printed membership directory inclusion, newsletter and members-only electronic updates, database resources, policy input, referrals and discounts on events and industry publications.
please send me membership information!
Name ________________________________________________________ Title __________________________________________________________ Company _____________________________________________________ Address ______________________________________________________ City _______________________State _____________ Zip _____________ Phone ______________________ Fax ______________________________ E-mail ________________________________________________________ Mail or FAX to: American Coal Council 1101 Pennsylvania Ave. N.W., Suite 600 • Washington, D.C. 20004 • 732-231-6581 ~ Fax
2011 event Dates • Spring Coal Forum March, 8-10, 2011 ~ Clearwater (Tampa), FL • Utility Coal Conference June 28-29, 2011 ~ Minneapolis, MN • Coal Market Strategies August 22-24, 2011 ~ Colorado Springs, CO • Coal Trading Conference Dec 5-6, 2011 ~ New York, NY We also hold regular Coal Q&A and Utility Coal Compliance webcast events. Please refer to www.accevents.org or call 202-756-4540 for additional dates, and registration information on our events schedule. american coal council
American Coal Council
Vision Statement The American Coal Council (ACC) strives to serve as the pre-eminent business voice of the American coal industry.
Mission Statement The American Coal Council (ACC) is dedicated to advancing the development and utilization of coal as an economic, abundant/ secure and environmentally sound energy fuel source. The Association promotes the lawful exchange of ideas and information regarding the coal industry. It serves as an essential resource for companies that mine, sell, trade, transport or consume coal. The ACC provides educational programs,
President Scott Hutter President & CEO, Martin Engineering (2011-2012) ACC President, 2011 immediate Past President Jeﬀ Wallace Vice President Fuel Services Southern Company (2011) – President 2010 coal Suppliers mark canon Vice President Sales Arch Coal Sales (2009-2011) ACC VP Coal Suppliers mike Kelley Director Sales & Marketing Cloud Peak Energy (2010-2012) Bryan Galli President Peabody COALSALES (2011-2013) coal consumers caryl m. Pfeiﬀer Director Corporate Fuels & By-Products E.ON U.S. (2009-2011) charles matthews Vice President Wholesale Energy & Fuels Wisconsin Electric Power Company (2010-2012) ACC President-elect 2012/Treasurer/ HR & Compensation Committee Chair Brett Phipps Director Coal Progress Energy (2011-2013)
Transportation louis m. muldrow Director Coal Sales & Marketing CSX Transportation (2009-2011) ACC VP Transportation Doug Glass Vice President & General Manager Energy Union Pacific (2010-2012) ACC Membership Chair Jim Henry Vice President Fuel Emissions, Operations & Mining American Electric Power (2011-2013) energy Traders matt levar Director Coal Marketing Enserco Energy (2009-2011) Harry Papadopoulos Portfolio Director Coal & Emissions NRG Energy (2010-2012) coal Support Services David Smercina Sr. Vice President & Business Manager SGS North America (2009-2011) ACC VP Coal Support Services Scott Stallard Vice President Asset Management Services Black & Veatch (2010-2012) Danny Gray Executive Vice President Charah, Inc (2011-2013) Judy Tanselle, Principal JM Energy Advisors LLC (2011-2013)
thank You, editorial Board
advocacy support, peer-
• David Byford, Dynegy, Inc.
to-peer networking forums
• Rick Felde, Martin Engineering
and market intelligence
• Trygve Gaalaas, Hawk Consulting
that allow members to
• Janet Gellici, American Coal Council
advance their marketing and management capabilities. 12
ACC 2011 Board of Directors
• Jason Hayes, American Coal Council • Beth Sutton, Peabody Energy american coal council
American Coal Council Member Companies ADA Environmental Solutions, Inc.
Fuel Tech, Inc.
Pevler Coal Sales Co., Inc.
AEP River Operations LLC
Platte River Power Authority
AEP/Cook Coal Terminal
Alliance Coal, LLC
Global Commerce Forum
Golder Associates, Inc.
Alpha Coal Sales Company, LLC
Great River Energy
ALSTOM Power, Performance Projects
Green River Collieries, LLC
Ameren Energy Fuels & Services Co.
Hallador Energy Company
PSEG Energy Resources & Trading
American Coal Ash Association
Headwaters Energy Services
American Coalition for Clean Coal Electricity (ACCCE)
Rhino Energy LLC
Helm Financial Corporation
American Electric Power
Hill & Associates, A Wood Mackenzie Company
River Basin Energy
Arch Coal, Inc.
Holcim (US) Inc./ Holcim (Canada) Inc.
Argus Media, Inc.
ICAP United, Inc.
Rocky Mountain Electrical League
Arizona Public Service Company
Ingram Barge Company
B&W Resources, Inc.
Integrity Coal Sales Inc.
Salt River Project
Interlake Steamship Company
Sampling Associates International
James River Coal Sales, Inc.
Savage Services, Inc.
JM Energy Advisors, LLC
American Crystal Sugar
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ACC online Information Resources & Webcasts ACC – Coal Q & A Webcasts he American Coal Council’s Coal Q&A Program is designed to provide an interactive forum for the discussion of critical issues affecting the U.S. coal industry – including coal producers, consumers and transporters. Monthly webcast programs feature a timely topic framed as a question to evoke dialogue and participation among forum attendees. Each program begins with a topic briefing by a leading industry analyst, expert or representative, followed by a moderated Q&A session. Further information and resources on the critical issues addressed are available in the “Issues” section of the ACC website – see www.americancoalcouncil. org. For more information on the Coal Q&A program and events, please contact
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the ACC at 202-745-4545, or info@ americancoalcouncil.org, or go to the ACC events website – www.accevents.org. Utility Coal Compliance Webcast Series 2011 The American Coal Council’s Utility Coal Compliance Webcast Series is designed especially for U.S. utility and industrial coal consumers. Programs provide in-depth training and education on timely, technical topics of importance to power plant operators and managers. The webcast series complements the ACC’s Annual Utility Coal Conference: Fuel Compliance Solutions, an on-site event for fuel procurement and power plant personnel – June 27-28, Minneapolis. For dates and information on the UCC program and events, please contact
the ACC at 202-745-4545, or info@ americancoalcouncil.org, or go to the ACC events website – www.accevents.org. 2011 utility coal compliance Webcasts: • Increasing Fuel Flexibility Choices Using Applied Technology – Fuel Tech • Power Plant Coping Mechanisms for Coal Combustion Byproducts (CCBs) – Hellerworx • Reducing CO2 Density at CoalFueled Plants Through Combustion Optimization – Zolo Tech • Fuel Quality & Blending: Most Important Uncontrolled Process Variable – Ready Technologies • Supply Chain Challenges of Converting to Full or Partial Use of Biomass – Norbridge 15
ACC Critical Issues section The American Coal Council’s Critical Issues section, on the ACC website, was created to provide our members and the public with factual and balanced information on a variety of timely and pressing issues facing the coal industry. While a great deal of information is widely available in magazines/books and on the Internet, tracking it down and putting it into useful form can take a lot of time. We have done the work for you. We researched several important topics, separated the wheat from the chaff, and distilled that information into a short, useful format that you can use in your daily activities, advocacy work, background research, etc. Issues covered to date include: • Biomass Co-firing • Cap & Trade • Carbon Capture & Storage • Coal Ash • Coal Facts • Clean Coal Technologies • Engineered Coal Fuels Technologies • EPA Regulations • Impending World Energy Mess • NOX Reduction Technologies
• Renewable Portfolio Standards Watch the ACC website – www. americancoalcouncil.org – for regular updates to the Issues page. Coalblog (www.coalblog.org) In today’s world, information is essential and providing accurate, balanced information and editorial is a primary driving force behind the coal industry’s communications efforts. Working internationally to ensure the coal industry speaks with a common voice, showing its proactive measures to address environmental and efficiency challenges, as well as addressing its detractors, is becoming more important. Therefore, the American Coal Council (ACC) and the Coal Association of Canada (CAC) are working together on the Coalblog to get factual and balanced information on coal out to the public. The ACC is also active on Facebook (facebook.com/americancoal) and Twitter (twitter.com/americancoal) ACC Fact Sheets The American Coal Council has put together several short information sheets
on coal and the coal industry. These fact sheets cover a variety of topics that relate to coal or impact on the coal industry. They will be of use to people in the industry, elected officials, teachers and students, and the general public. In fact, they will help anyone, who is looking for some basic, easy to understand information on coal. Feel free to download them from the ACC website and use them to help spread the good word about coal. Feel free to link to them from your site. Feel free to cite them in articles and presentations. They are here to help you better understand coal’s role in the world around you. Fact sheets available include: • Cap & Trade • Coal: An Abundant Energy Resource • Coal: An Economic Energy Resource • Coal Ash: An Environmental & Economic Windfall • Coal Ash: Beneficial Reuse • Coal Basics • Engineered Coal Fuel Technologies • Renewable Portfolio Standards • U.S. Coal Mine Safety u
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Tomorrow’s Leadership Council Nurturing Future Coal Industry Leaders
he ACC’s Tomorrow’s Leadership Council (TLC) is designed to advance and vest executive talent in the coal industry. The Council provides a meaningful opportunity for up-and-coming executives to enhance their industry knowledge and networks through projects and activities that advance industry-wide objectives as well as professional development goals. The program, which launched in 2009, has “graduated” nearly 30 executives. Registrants for the “class of 2011” hail from the following companies: • ADA Environmental Solutions • AEP Cook Coal Terminal • AEP River Operations • Alpha Coal Sales • Alpha Natural Resources • Arch Coal • Arizona Public Service • B&W Resources • The C Reiss Coal Company • Martin Engineering • Peabody Energy • Patriot Coal • SGS North America • Taggart Global • Union Pacific Railroad • We Energies • Westar Energy • White Energy Coal american coal council
Each TLC group produces an annual project, focused on an aspect of the coal industry. The 2009 Project looked at “Coal Fundamentals: An Overview of Coal Supply, Consumption & Transportation.” This web-based program was designed as a comprehensive introduction to the coal industry, suitable for educating new hires, public policy makers, students, the media and others with an interest in how coal is produced, consumed and transported. The Coal Fundamentals resource for new hires is available on the Members Only section of the ACC website. The 2010 Project was titled “Coal Unplugged.” It was based on the notion that coal is used to produce much more than electricity. The project provides documentation on how we use carbon-based products on a daily basis, in ways additional to power generation. TLC members researched how coal-based products are used in transportation, consumer electronics, medical products, food products and energy. The Coal Unplugged project is available on the Members Only section of the ACC website. The 2011 project will look at How to use Social Media as an effective business tool. How is the TLC Structured? The TLC is organized as an open enrollment program - participants may join at
any time but are encouraged to enroll at the beginning of each year. A one-year commitment is recommended to best benefit from the program offerings and opportunities. What is Unique About the TLC? The TLC is specific to the coal industry - the community of participants and their activities focus exclusively on coal. The program is intended to complement other corporate leadership development programs that are designed to advance more general business skills. Who Should Participate in the TLC? Entry level staff and mid-level executives from the coal supply, consumption and transportation industries, as well as those working in companies that support these business sectors. There are no age-specific limitations – our participants have ranged in age from 20-something to 40-something. This program is for American Coal Council members in good standing only. For more information on the Tomorrow’s Leadership Council, please visit the ACC website, “Committees” page (www. americancoalcouncil.org). You may also contact Jason Hayes, Communications Director at 202-756-4540, or by email at firstname.lastname@example.org. u 17
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Planning for the Utility MACt By Mike Durham, ADA Environmental Solutions
n March 16, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed Mercury and Air Toxics Standards (“Air Toxics Rule”) for coalfueled electric power generating plants. The rule was based upon the Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments. The MACT process involves establishing emissions limitations on 187 listed hazardous air pollutants (HAP) based upon the average emissions of best performing 12 percent of plants. The rule is scheduled to be finalized by November 2011. Power plants will then have 36 months to specify and install control equipment to meet a compliance deadline of November 2014. Planning for the upcoming MACT in combination with other regulations such as the Clean Air Transport Rule (CATR) will require significant effort to minimize risks and costs. ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA) is assisting plant owners to analyze existing emissions and develop potential compliance scenarios. The most significant aspect of these evaluations is determining which plants may require the addition of large capital equipment such as scrubbers and baghouses and which plants can achieve compliance with low-capital cost technology such as activated carbon injection (ACI) for mercury and dry sorbent injection (DSI) for SO2, acid gases, and condensable particulate matter. This is determined by an analysis of the capabilities of the existing equipment at each plant and the new emissions standards. Now that the proposed rule is released, operators can narrow the potential compliance options and refine their decision deadlines. The incremental cost per kW of retrofitting emission control equipment is inversely proportional to the size of the plant. An additional consideration for small units, especially older, less efficient plants, is the capital breakeven point between retrofitting and replacing the power with other options such as new gas combined cycle plants. Therefore, for many older plants and/or smaller power plants, an approach that avoids large capital expenditures is often preferred and could lead to a reduced number of forced retirements. american coal council
With tight compliance deadlines, decisions for all levels of capital projects must be made early to provide sufficient time for procurement, construction, and startup of the new equipment. Due to competition for resources during periods prior to regulatory implementation, plants should start the evaluation of options as soon as possible. Some plants began initial planning efforts before the proposed rule was announced to make sure there was sufficient time for thoughtful planning and implementation. For this multi-pollutant regulation, retrofits must be designed to meet compliance
levels for several pollutants, leading to more than one configuration change; such as the addition of both a scrubber and a fabric filter. Retrofitting a unit with a scrubber will require higher capital investments and a longer timeline than other retrofits such as a fabric filter for particulate control, dry sorbent injection for acid gas, and condensable particulate control, or an activated carbon injection system for mercury control. EPA proposed emission limits on three subcategories of pollutants and a workbased standard on a fourth: • Mercury – limits should prevent 19
w e s t m o r e l a n d c o a l c o m pa n y A Tr u s t e d Na m e i n C o a l S i n c e 1 8 5 4
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91 percent of mercury in coal from being released to the air • Acid gases, using HCl as a surrogate for units without scrubbers • Non-mercury metals such as arsenic and chromium • Organic air toxics (including dioxins) will be addressed with a work practice standard. The primary performance data used to establish control limits were from the recent EGU MACT information collection request (ICR). A review of the ICR data provides information on the air pollution control configurations that represent the top performers. It is not surprising that units with fabric filters, either installed as the primary particulate control or as a polish downstream of an electrostatic precipitator, represent the majority – over 60 percent – of the top performers for particulate matter. We expect many plants to consider retrofitting with a fabric filter, which also has the benefits of decreasing the costs of mercury control when using activated carbon injection, due to lower sorbent requirements. EPA has proposed a compliance level for total particulate matter, which includes both condensable and filterable fractions. Sulfuric acid contributes to the condensable fraction. For many units firing higher sulfur coals, especially those with SCRs, the level of sulfuric acid in the flue gas will require additional control such as DSI. Most of the top performers for HCl are configured with scrubbers. However, the proposed limit is such that some units firing lower chlorine coals – for example PRB – will achieve compliance without additional controls and many can achieve compliance with trim technologies. Fabric filters in conjunction with dry alkaline sorbents will also achieve some HCl trim, which could obviate the need for a scrubber to meet HCl limits on units firing low chlorine coals. Several plants in the eastern US are reviewing options to meet the current or projected SO2 regulations associated with CATR. These include both scrubber upgrades and new installations, which will provide co-beneficial HCl control and may improve mercury removal at some plants. Because scrubbers have been demonstrated to be effective at removing HCl, EPA has proposed that SO2 can be used as a surrogate for acid gases on units with scrubbers. Wet scrubbers are not as effective at removing sulfuric acid, however, so they may require DSI in addition to a wet scrubber to meet the particulate limit on some units. In order to meet expected demand resulting from the Air Toxics Rule, ADA has expanded its capabilities for testing and measurement services to evaluate various control options such as ACI for mercury, coal additives for mercury control, and dry sorbents for acid gas control. We are also using experience gained during the initial mercury control market, when 150 ACI systems were installed to meet mercury limits in 19 states and Canada. To prepare for the larger market we are expanding capacity to fabricate a more standard ACI system design as the market is expected to grow to 400-600 systems over a three year period. We are also offering DSI systems for acid gas control including HCl and sulfuric acid. We also predict a need for expanded production of activated carbon (AC). To meet the shortage created by the State mercury market, ADA Carbon Solutions completed construction and is now operating its new coal-based AC production plant in northwest Louisiana that has the capability of making 150 million
With tight compliance deadlines, decisions for all levels of capital projects must be made early to provide sufficient time for procurement, construction, and startup of the new equipment.
american coal council
pounds of AC per year. To satisfy the demand for up to a billion pounds per year of AC that will be required for a Federal MACT rule, plans are in place to build additional AC production plants. It is important to begin planning early to meet the rapidly approaching compliance schedule. ADA offers low CAPEX solutions, including ACI systems for mercury control, DSI systems for acid gas and condensable particulate control, as well as insights into how different control options may interact in a regulatory future, where impacts to the flue gas, fly ash, landfills, and water discharges must all be considered. u Mike Durham is President and COO of ADA Environmental Solutions, Inc. (www.adaes.com).
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new ePA Air toxics Regulations Will they create jobs? By Jason Hayes, American Coal Council
t the 2011 Spring Coal Forum in Clearwater, FL, we heard the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) perspective on new environmental regulations that are set to impact the coal industry in 2011 and beyond. Then, on March 16, EPA officials released their new “air toxics” rules to mixed reviews from industry and financial experts. While many are concerned that the new rules will strike another blow against a struggling power sector, costing jobs, and requiring massive outlays of capital for upgrades and/ or the closures of many existing plants, all for minimal environmental gains, others are claiming the rules will provide a stimulating effect and on balance will actually create new jobs.
(PERI) at the University of Massachusetts sides with the notion that the incoming EPA regulations will be a boon to the power industry and the national economy.i The study authors claim that the incoming air toxics rules will create hundreds of thousands of jobs as industry budgets approximately $200 billion for upgrades to emissions reduction equipment on the 1,300+ boilers operating around the country. The study authors claim that this new industry activity will require 1.46 million person years – 640,000 years of direct and 820,000 years of indirect jobs – of labor over the next five years, enough to create approximately 290,000 full-time jobs.
PERI & CERES A recent study by CERES and the Political Economy Research Institute american coal council
The authors assert that industry “investments,” which are driven by the EPA’s new air quality rules, come at a “critical moment for a struggling economy.” They also claim previous investments in emissions reduction equipment have improved the environment with little to no impact on electricity costs. Investments in emissions reduction have certainly improved air quality over the past forty yearsii, The reality, however, is that electricity rates in many states were kept stable through a mix of industry-wide efficiency measures, stable fuel pricing (from the coal sector), a growing reliance on coal as a low cost baseload fuel across the
http://www.peri.umass.edu/fileadmin/pdf/other_publication_types/green_economics/ CERES_PERI_Feb11.pdf http://www.epa.gov/ttnchie1/trends/ 23
countryiii, and continued depreciation of existing generation stock. Arguing that the imposition of strict and expensive regulation helps keep electricity prices low and create new jobs, however, is nonsensical. That argument ignores the basic fact that utilities are producing goods and services and that by making the production of those goods and services more difficult and costly, the EPA is, by definition, making the output more expensive and less efficient. One cannot reasonably claim that a more expensive, less efficient operation
can produce more jobs, at the same prices, as an efficient, low-cost operation. Moving from that point, the argument about whether or not society wishes to have higher or lower costs, and more or fewer energy generation options in order to make the local environment some degree cleaner can be taken up. If the study authors had argued that, although expensive and costly in terms of overall employment, strict new environmental regulation is a worthwhile investment for environmental reasons, they would have had a defensible policy
argument, which one could engage on a sensible risk/benefit, moral, or philosophical basis. However, that is not what they have done. It would appear that the authors overlooked some basic economic realities when preparing their study. In a previous American Coal article, I had quoted a short passage from Frederic Bastiat’s 1850 paper, “That Which is Seen, and That Which is Not Seen.” This paper was useful in its ability to move past the confusion suffered by those who claim that simply forcing any expenditure by business or an individual will necessarily improve the overall well-being of the country. Discussing the fallacy of the broken window, Bastiat describes how looking at only what is spent (what is seen), ignores that which is not seen. Given the nature of the confusion of this basic economic policy principal it is worthwhile to reprint this section of Bastiat’s (now public domain) work. iv Have you ever witnessed the anger of the good shopkeeper, James B., when his careless son happened to break a square of glass? If you have been present at such a scene, you will most assuredly bear witness to the fact, that every one of the spectators, were there even thirty of them, by common consent apparently, offered the unfortunate owner this invariable consolation – “It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. Everybody must live, and what would become of the glaziers if panes of glass were never broken?” Now, this form of condolence contains an entire theory, which it will be well to show up in this simple case, seeing that it is precisely the same as that which, unhappily, regulates the greater part of our economical institutions. Suppose it cost six francs to repair the damage, and you say that the accident brings six francs to the glazier’s trade - that it encourages that trade to the amount of six francs - I grant it; I have not a word to say against it; you reason justly. The glazier comes, performs his task, receives his six francs, rubs his hands, and, in his heart, blesses the careless child. All this is that which is seen.
http://behindtheplug.americaspower. org/2010/12/by-the-numbers-emissions-from-coal-based-electricity-down83-7-percent.html http://bastiat.org/ american coal council
But if, on the other hand, you come to the conclusion, as is too often the case, that it is a good thing to break windows, that it causes money to circulate, and that the encouragement of industry in general will be the result of it, you will oblige me to call out, “Stop there! Your theory is confined to that which is seen; it takes no account of that which is not seen.” It is not seen that as our shopkeeper has spent six francs upon one thing, he cannot spend them upon another. It is not seen that if he had not had a window to replace, he would, perhaps, have replaced his old shoes, or added another book to his library. In short, he would have employed his six francs in some way, which this accident has prevented. Let us take a view of industry in general, as affected by this circumstance. The window being broken, the glazier’s trade is encouraged to the amount of six francs; this is that which is seen. If the window had not been broken, the shoemaker’s trade (or some other) would have been encouraged to the amount of six francs; this is that which is not seen. And if that which is not seen is taken into consideration, because it is a negative fact, as well as that which is seen, because it is a positive fact, it will be understood that neither industry in general, nor the sum total of national labour, is affected, whether windows are broken or not. Now let us consider James B. himself. In the former supposition, that of the window being broken, he spends six francs, and has neither more nor less than he had before, the enjoyment of a window. In the second, where we suppose the window not to have been broken, he would have spent six francs on shoes, and would have had at the same time the enjoyment of a pair of shoes and of a window. Now, as James B. forms a part of society, we must come to the conclusion, that, taking it altogether, and making an estimate of its enjoyments and its labours, it has lost the value of the broken window. When we arrive at this unexpected conclusion: “Society loses the value of things which are uselessly destroyed;” and we must assent to a maxim which will make the hair of protectionists stand on end – To break, to spoil, to waste, is not to encourage national labour; or, more briefly, “destruction is not profit.” What will you say, Monsieur Industriel – what will you say, disciples of good M. F. Chamans, who has calculated with so much precision how much trade would gain by the american coal council
“What would become of the glaziers, if nobody ever broke windows?”
burning of Paris, from the number of houses it would be necessary to rebuild? I am sorry to disturb these ingenious calculations, as far as their spirit has been introduced into our legislation; but I beg him to begin them again, by taking into the account that which is not seen, and placing it alongside of that which is seen. The reader must take care to remember that there are not two persons only, but three concerned in the little scene which I have submitted to his attention. One of them, James B., represents the consumer, reduced, by an act of
destruction, to one enjoyment instead of two. Another under the title of the glazier, shows us the producer, whose trade is encouraged by the accident. The third is the shoemaker (or some other tradesman), whose labour suffers proportionably by the same cause. It is this third person who is always kept in the shade, and who, personating that which is not seen, is a necessary element of the problem. It is he who shows us how absurd it is to think we see a profit in an act of destruction. It is he who will soon teach us that it is not less absurd to see a profit in a restriction, which is, after
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The study authors claim that the incoming air toxics rules will create hundreds of thousands of jobs as industry budgets approximately $200 billion for upgrades to emissions reduction equipment on the 1,300+ boilers operating around the country all, nothing else than a partial destruction. Therefore, if you will only go to the root of all the arguments which are adduced in its favour, all you will find will be the paraphrase of this vulgar saying – What would become of the glaziers, if nobody ever broke windows? When considered in terms of that which is not seen, the argument that EPA regulations will necessarily lead to increased productivity, lowered (or at least maintained) electricity costs, and millions of new jobs, is clearly flawed. This flaw is easily demonstrated by taking the author’s assumption to the next step. If clean air, low electricity prices, and strong economic growth are necessarily linked – as they claim in the PERI report – then government and industry should move boldly forward together and mandate a zeroemissions energy policy. If the PERI/CERES authors are correct, then, by implementing this zero emissions
policy, we could put many hundreds of thousands more to work building new zero emissions power plants, or upgrading existing plants. At the same time, we could enjoy a pristine environment. Furthermore, if the author’s claims of a $4 to $8 economic benefit for every $1 spent on compliance is accurate, our abundant jobs and pristine air would be bolstered with what would necessarily be boundless economic growth. Just as Bastiat’s facetious notion of burning Paris to provide untold wealth from a rebuilding effort was clearly nonsensical, so to is the notion of continued piling on ceaseless, morphing masses of new and ever stricter regulation as a means of encouraging job creation and economic growth. The PERI/CERES study authors have clearly ignored the question whether those who are benefitting would not have benefitted at least as much if they had been able to work on new developments and new construction of (ultra)
supercritical plants, IGCC plants, and other upgrades to existing plants. They have also clearly leapt from the fact that North Americans enjoy very clean air and an unparalleled quality of life to the conclusion that the rules enforcing that clean air must have also caused the economic well-being. The reality, however, is that the economic well-being we enjoy because of an abundant supply of aff ordable, abundant energy allows us the luxury of ensuring our environment remains clean. The reality is that any jobs associated with the imposition of new regulation on the energy industry must be weighed against the numerous generation developments that were lost or stopped under the multi-year threat of, and final implementation of, these coming EPA regulations. Those stopped jobs would have been as a result of new investments and new developments, or upgrades that were based in actual (as opposed to legislated) needs. u Jason Hayes is Communications Director for the American Coal Council (www.americancoalcouncil.org).
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Energy Coal Policy in the 112th Congress:
Objectives, Tools, and Compromises By Patrick D. Traylor, Hogan Lovells US, LLP
f the 111th Congress aimed to push the use of energy coal in the United States quickly down a steep slope, the 112th Congress may provide an opportunity to pick out an alternate descent to the sustainable use of an abundant domestic fuel. The path is strewn with environmental boulders and thickets – anthropogenic climate change, emission of air toxics, disposition of coal combustion residues, and fine particulate and ozone air quality impacts. On the other hand, geopolitical concerns make domestic energy security and an expanded reliance on coal a high priority, while at the same time a weakened global economy counsels against any dramatic shift in energy policy that adversely impacts job creation or productivity. This article briefly outlines, in two parts, how a divided Congress and Administration might work with – and against – each other in the next two years to navigate these oftentimes conflicting goals. First, the objectives of both Republican and Democratic parties and the legislative tools that a divided Congress will use to work on energy-related issues will be considered. Second, with these tools in mind, this article will consider how the Congress may work to facilitate a transition to a sustainable use of energy coal. Legislative objectives and tools in a divided Congress The ascendant Republican presence in the House and Senate will focus on economic growth, deficit reduction, and the growing regulatory state to trim the size and mandates of the federal government. The Administration and smaller Democratic majority in the Senate will seek to preserve their core values – anthropogenic climate change is real, clean technologies will make America stronger, american coal council
The next Congress has the power to create a comprehensive, clear, and realistic energy policy.
polluters pay, and science matters in the regulatory process – and protect budgets while avoiding regulatory confrontation.
These objectives will not always be at odds and finding common ground – for example, in the production and use of 27
more domestic natural gas – will not be impossible. But bipartisanship will come with confrontation, particularly in the use of legislative tools to advance each party’s objectives. Oversight & Investigations. House Republicans in particular will use their oversight and investigation authority to examine the regulatory initiatives of the past two years at the White House, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Department of the Interior, and the Department of Energy. Already the House Energy & Commerce Committee has publicly invited the regulated community to identify the regulations that have the most profound impact on competitiveness and job creation. Democrats in both the House and Senate will seek to blunt the effectiveness of this oversight by returning – through witnesses, reports, and statements – to the message of their core values. Appropriations. Republicans will use their greatly increased power over the appropriations process to make progress on their “cut-and-grow” strategy. Already, the appropriations process has been used in the context of continuing budget resolutions to press for cuts from President
Where the decisions come down – Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C.
Obama’s 2011 and 2012 budgets. And the threat of appropriations-related regulatory cutbacks – particularly to EPA regulatory programs that the GOP find objectionable – is quite real. Congressional Review Act. The threat of Congressional Review Act elimination of regulatory programs – in addition to outright legislative repeal of those programs – is a very important tool to congressional Republicans. For the almost half
of Senate Democrats up for reelection in 2012, House-driven CRA campaigns must be taken very seriously, especially with respect to unpopular regulatory programs or those that actually do or are perceived as job killers. The Senate filibuster will remain a critically important tool to Democrats. To a lesser degree, the House Democratic minority and Senate Democratic majority can also support presidential vetoes by denying Republicans the two-thirds vote needed to override a veto. These “supermajority” rules can be used to force compromise on or outright block House Republican initiatives, and will be an important lever for Democrats in preserving their core values against strong Republican cut-and-grow objectives. Taken together, these powerful legislative tools will cause the Obama Administration to avoid regulatory confrontations where possible, while holding its ground on core value-related programs. Already EPA has slowed its regulatory development of coal combustion residue rules, has decided not to alter several National Ambient Air Quality Standards, is proceeding very carefully in the development of a new utility air toxic rule, and is focused on a more sensible multi-pollutant sectoral based approach to air quality regulations. At the same time – even though Carol Browner has left the White House – EPA has given no ground on its GHG initiatives, with Administrator Jackson defending the agency’s regulatory approach against all comers. The Department of the Interior is – as always – in the middle of conflicting statutory and political directives, some pressing for development of domestic american coal council
energy sources, and some providing a powerful brake to that development. With frequently competing objectives, and powerful legislative and regulatory tools in the hands of both parties, the question is whether there is a pathway forward that can promote the sustainable use of an abundant domestic supply of energy coal. Support for sustainable use of abundant domestic energy coal Energy coal will be an indispensible component of domestic electricity production for many more decades to come. Nuclear, natural gas, and renewables will all be a part of generation portfolio diversity, but none of these in the short or medium term will entirely displace coal-fueled electric generation. At the same time, the combustion of coal for electric generation has environmental impacts that should be avoided or minimized. Legislative or regulatory policies that fail to recognize the truth of both these statements are doomed to failure. And a “no-compromises” approach from either side will simply maintain an increasingly unstable status quo in which older, inefficient coal-fueled generation is kept online instead of being replaced, and highly arbitrary “regulation by litigation” becomes the governing public policy. Congress and the Obama Administration have the opportunity to adopt an “all of the above” approach to generation portfolio diversity, which increases support for nuclear generation, supports the deployment of natural gas-fired electric generation, retains taxbased and regulatory support for renewable energy, and begins a sensible transition from older, inefficient coal-fired generation to the next and future generations of coal-based energy production. This approach must be comprehensive, clear, and realistic. It must be comprehensive in that addressing climate change related impacts without also addressing traditional air quality impacts will hobble the ability of the energy sector to finance this transition. It must be clear in that merely punting the details to the regulatory process will inevitably entangle this transition in bureaucratic delay, uncertainty, and overregulation. And it must be realistic in that setting unreachable goals and deadlines will eventually lead to “regulation by litigation,” as demonstrated by the Clean Air Act’s air toxics program. While there are many potential approaches to this coal-based energy transition, one in which coal is not viewed as a fuel but rather as a source of carbon may hold great promise. Technologies that convert coal into other usable forms of energy – syngas, substitute natural gas, coal-to-liquids, methanol, and diesel to name a few – are growing in importance as their costs continue to fall. And though shale-produced natural gas will likely be inexpensive for some time, these coal-based energy sources can play an effective role now as a hedge against future natural gas price increases, and eventually hold their own in the market. Federal and state public policy approaches that support the deployment of these domestic supply-based technologies – principally through funding new energy technologies – while inexorably decommissioning older, inefficient coal-combustion units, can be an effective component of a comprehensive, clear, and realistic energy policy for this next Congress. u Patrick D. Traylor is a partner in the environmental practice at Hogan Lovells US LLP, where he focuses on air quality, climate change, and natural resources law in the energy sector. american coal council
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By Congressman Ed Whitfield, 1st District of Kentucky
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n his State of the Union Address, President Obama called for an ‘all of the above’ energy strategy while also calling for the government to make new investments in clean energy technology. The President claims that such investments will strengthen national security, protect the environment and create jobs. However, in the same breath, the President made only a passing mention of coal, and that of “clean coal.” In doing so, I am concerned that in calling for new investments and subsidies into new energy technologies, the President missed a vital opportunity to discuss coal and its essential role in meeting America’s growing energy needs. This is an issue that will be taken up and addressed in this session of Congress due to the fact that regulations proposed by President Obama’s Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will have far reaching consequences for coal. From my own perspective, in Kentucky, coal plays a vital role in our state’s economy. The industry has an economic impact of $3.25 billion and employs approximately 17,000 people, along with tens of thousands of additional workers in related fields. Some estimates suggest that
the United States possesses enough coal reserves for the next 250 years. Nationally, coal mining contributes more than 550,000 jobs to the economy. Of these, more than 154,000 are directly related to coal and more than 400,000 are indirect. This means that for every one coal mining job created, three other jobs are created elsewhere. Coal powers our economy, literally. In Kentucky, 92 percent of our electricity comes from coal, and nationally the figure is almost 50 pecent. Let’s be realistic: that baseload power generation is not going to be replaced by “green” energy in the foreseeable future, if ever. Coal clearly offers a number of benefits and further investments in the industry will only yield greater benefits for our energy needs, job creation and growth in our economy. By solely focusing our investments and subsidies in new energy technologies, such as wind or solar, we will be neglecting opportunities to fully utilize the very resources that are basic components of the President’s “all of the above” strategy. In the coming Congress, as Chairman of the Energy and Power Subcommittee in the House of Representatives, I intend 31
to take a hard look at what appears to be an attack on coal by some in Washington. Actions taken by federal agencies have demonstrated that this is an Administration that is not interested in fully harnessing the potential of coal to answer Americaâ€™s energy needs. Instead, the Administration has demonstrated it prefers to regulate the industry and make it harder for coal to thrive while simultaneously advancing a green energy agenda. Perhaps the most glaring demonstra-
to allow affected industries time to adjust their facilities rather than facing crippling expenses that may end up being passed on to consumers. Finally, EPA wants to regulate coal ash as a hazardous waste, when there are many beneficial uses for this product as it can be safely and productively recycled for other uses such as in concrete or other building materials. I intend to work with John Shimkus (R-IL), Chairman of the House Environment and Economy
Coal powers our economy, literally. tion of this Administrationâ€™s eagerness to limit the use of coal through burdensome red tape comes from the long list of heavy handed regulations being proposed by the EPA that would restrict the use of coal as a fuel for generating electricity. First, there are Greenhouse Gas regulations, which would require new controls for carbon emissions at power plants. This clearly appears to be an attempt by the EPA to accomplish through regulation a similar cap and tax proposal that has been rejected by a bipartisan majority in Congress. Another rule being put forth by EPA would impose unworkable timetables for utilities utilizing coal to comply with requirements to further reduce emissions of sulfur and nitrogen. In this session of Congress, I will be looking for possible solutions to address the content and implementation date of this rule in order
Subcommittee, who maintains jurisdiction over coal ash, to make sure that EPA does not designate coal ash as a hazardous material. All of these new rules are adding up to what many fear will be a train wreck of regulations restricting the use of coal, increased electricity prices and continued job loss. In this session of Congress, I plan to advance legislation that strikes the right balance between growing jobs and responsibly harnessing our resources while also protecting our environment. We can and must strike this balance. I have supported and will continue to support legislation that stops EPA from circumventing Congress in developing new regulations that have negative consequences on job growth. One option being discussed that I support is the Regulations from the Executive In Need of Scrutiny or, REINS Act, introduced by
Congressman Geoff Davis of my home state of Kentucky. The REINS act would require Congress to approve any regulation having more than a $100 million impact on the economy. Regulations that have such broad reaching consequences on the economy must be left to elected members of Congress who represent the people who will be most affected by these regulations. It cannot, and must not be ceded to the courts and unelected staff at EPA. This Administration has moved forward on an energy agenda that is heavy on investment in emerging energy sources but light on balancing new investment with resources that are available and proven to meet our needs. Many of these new sources still require substantial government investment for research and development before being capable of being put to use. As this new session of Congress commences, I, along with many of my colleagues, will begin moving toward bringing commonsense approaches to our domestic energy policy that are responsible and balanced while utilizing all of our domestic resources. Coal must be part of any energy agenda and I will advocate strongly for this fuel which creates jobs and powers our communities.â€‚ u Congressman Whitfield is Chairman of the Energy and Power Subcommittee and represents the First Congressional District of Kentucky in the U.S. House of Representatives. (whitfield.house.gov)
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Bringing Coal online Before Reaching Out on the Internet, Ask Yourself these Three Questions
By Bianca Prade, American Coalition for Clean Coal Electricity
ooking back on 2010, I realize that it was the year that things really began to come together for corporate communicators in the digital space. Facebook and Twitter, the current titans of social media, opened their doors even more to the needs of organizations and companies. They gave businesses unprecedented access to the 46 percent of Americans who use social networks, and the over 600 million american coal council
people on Facebook and 190 million on Twitter worldwide. A 2011 study from the Pew Internet & American Life project found that Internet users are much more likely to be active in community organizations, trade associations, and political groups than non-users. Businesses large and small are taking to the Internet to begin and affect conversations, realizing that people active on the Internet are also their best advocates oďŹ„ine.
The American Coalition for Clean Coal Electricity (ACCCE) began 2010 with a belt full of well-tempered digital tools, from a growing series of Web videos, to well-followed social media presences, and an eye-catching website acting as the face of our digital efforts. All of this was crucial to our fully-integrated communications strategy for the year and we worked hard to get where we were. Yet as the year progressed we took a hard look at what we had 35
For companies of any size, expanding your presence online doesn’t have to be difficult and it doesn’t have to require a large amount of resources. Whether your company or organization is looking to take its first real steps to communicate online, or is hoping to expand your influence digitally, proceed deliberately. Take a minute (or an hour, or more) to answer these questions:
Careful guiding of visitors to your sites means they tend to stay much longer and visit more pages.
done thus far and found that we could be doing even better. So in 2010 we doubled down. Our Factuality Tour – a series of educational webisodes featuring cutting-edge coal technology – made three stops, filming nine videos. We continued to pioneer in emerging digital areas like geosocial, using Foursquare to coordinate and communicate the localized messages of six clean coal field outreach teams as they traveled the country. We kept ahead of the conversation online, ensuring our followers and readers knew us as the leading authority on advancements in clean coal technology by sharing a steady stream of gripping content. And we realigned. Active on so many platforms, we began noticing that each was developing an individual voice. To make sure this did not lead to any one platform straying off message, we reorganized our 2010 digital tactics around the mandate of 36
communicating a cohesive message everywhere we were – and would go – online. No matter the audience, the style or rapport we had developed on a platform in the past, we focused first on having our digital efforts work in concert. So too should the coal industry as a whole. One of the most enriching opportunities from last year was when we gathered senior communications staff from some of ACCCE’s member companies for a retreat at New Media Strategies, one of our digital consultants in Arlington, Va. ACCCE’s membership is quite diverse, and everyone who joined the retreat came with opportunities, risks and challenges unique to their company. The NMS team and I led a boot camp on how everyone in the coal industry can best approach the digital landscape confidently and in such a way that your company or organization isn’t leading with its chin.
Where do I want to be? For almost every organization, from an international corporation to a littleleague team, the essential foundation of an online communications strategy is a website. Your company’s website will be the first place many people meet you online, so it is worth the investment to make sure it is easily navigable and has all the pertinent resources a visitor may want. Beyond that it gets trickier. There are of course many reasons to engage audiences on social media platforms. People already congregate on sites like Twitter and Facebook in astounding numbers. Many of those people are discussing your issue or industry, or even your particular company. Search each of these sites and others to find the opportunities to join the conversation. What is most important to consider when deciding which platforms to use is the amount of resources and time your organization is willing to dedicate to digital. Your team needs to be able to regularly nurture the communities you form. Spreading yourself too thin across the Internet when you have limited time to dedicate will guarantee a weak campaign. After you have decided how many different platforms you have time to cultivate properly, you can choose which will give you the best results for your efforts. At ACCCE we are fortunate to have a robust digital team, and a directive to innovate on all platforms as we find opportunities to affect discussion. This gave us the ability to create a multiplatform online outreach campaign as an integral part of our mobile clean coal field program. We were one of the first associations to use Foursquare in such a public affairs outreach campaign. We rode the wave of the platform’s incredible 3400 percent growth during the year, while using the platform to localize our message to each stop on the tour. american coal council
Who do I want to talk to? You can try to talk to everybody on the Internet, but there are a lot of people there and they all want something different. You can try to begin speaking to no one in particular, hoping that the right audience will find you, but these people will come slowly and will be a disparate bunch. It’s better that at the outset of your online communications campaign to decide exactly who you want to reach, and go to where they are talking. Experts in your field such as beat journalists, local legislators and academics can together be a group your campaign chooses to target. They will want up-to-date news and sharp analysis of your company’s actions or industry from your team if you hope to draw them to rely on you as a source of valued information. Your company’s customers, whether they are other businesses or the general public, can also benefit from joining you online. A campaign focused on this audience will need to be agile. When your company makes itself available online, customers will expect quick responses to their problems and questions. A third audience to consider is your company’s employees. Employees can be your greatest asset online, and can become eager to defend your company from misinformation if they have a vibrant place to congregate online. Demographics can be sliced in many more ways than I’ve just outlined. What’s important is to not choose your audience indiscriminately; base it on what you hope your campaign to accomplish. When we redesigned our AmericasPower. org and CleanCoalUSA.org websites in 2010, the first thing we did was to look at how our target audiences were using the site. What we found led us to organize both sites with clear paths for each of our three target demographics. We then could reach out through ad placement, social media posts and search keywords to funnel each of these groups to content suited directly to their needs. By guiding visitors to our sites this way, they tend to stay much longer and visit more pages. How do I want to say it? Once your team has decided which platforms and which audiences you want to approach online, you will need a welldefined guidance on voice. Consider how american coal council
professional or personable in tone your company’s posts will be, and make sure it is clear to the entire team. Leaving room for misrepresentation or misunderstanding is an unnecessary danger. But to be engaging you must convey a relatable, conversational voice to your audience. Which audience you target and the voice in which you communicate do not have to be the same for each platform. What they should do is build on one another and make up for each others’ weaknesses. Twitter, for instance, is great for timeliness
but less for depth. Facebook creates strong communities that can get away from an administrator if left under-moderated. Blogs are great for analysis and multimedia, but are harder to get people to visit consistently. When we reassessed our online efforts we found that on Facebook we had a growing community of people tied personally to the coal-industry who were eager to hear about and discuss the economic and local benefits coal provides. Readers of our Behind the Plug blog, on the other hand,
Social Media Toolbelt Want to see how people are talking about your company or issue in social media? Check these places first. Facebook The current king of social networking, on Facebook users can create personal profiles and connect to friends, brands and issues to share links and chat with like-minded people. ACCCE is here at www.facebook.com/AmericasPower
Twitter Twitter users share and read short updates (140 characters max) of interesting news, links or just what is happening in their day. ACCCE is here at www.twitter.com/AmericasPower
Foursquare The premier geo-social service (it matters where you are when you use it), Foursquare allows users to share where they are by checking in to locations with their smartphone. By leaving tips and comments, you can share important facts about the place. ACCCE is here at www.foursquare.com/user/2350129
YouTube The place to go to watch videos online, but also a great way to feature your company’s content. YouTube videos are easily shareable, making them very portable online and greatly increasing views. ACCCE is here at www.youtube.com/AmericasPower
were interested more in legislative and regulatory updates. To draw our vocal Facebook community to read Behind the Plug, we added new voices in the form of new post authors. We then promoted these authors’ posts – which focused heavily on the economic and local benefits of coal – on Facebook. Our Facebook audience was energized with content from another ACCCE platform, and our blog grew its audience while still speaking to its base. Risks exist outside your efforts as well. Your company may become the target of activists. A weakness of message, a low volume of content or neglecting to moderate commenters makes it easier for adversaries to dominate discussion of your issue or organization. Alternatively, an influx of supporters who are very active on a page or website can lead to off-topic debates whose heatedness can drive people away and drown out relevant discussion. Developing a strong engagement strategy and online communications plan before reaching out on the Internet puts you in a far better position to guide conversation and control your company’s
Worldwide connections: there are more than 600 million people on facebook and 190 million on Twitter.
reputation. Your chances of being outmaneuvered by others online is also diminished. The opportunities to affect and drive discussion of your company, product or issue are almost limitless online. To see how we do it, visit ACCCE at www.americaspower.org. There in the right-hand corner you can visit and follow us wherever we go online.
The coal industry has a great story to tell, and the Internet is a fertile place to share it. If all of us strive to promote our industry deliberately and cohesively, our collective voice online can outshine the rest. u Bianca Prade is Vice President of Digital Media at the American Coalition for Clean Coal Electricity (www.americaspower.org)
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the FACes of American Coal Building a grassroots movement behind coal By Bryan Brown, fACES of Coal
he Federation for American Coal, Energy & Security – or FACES of Coal Campaign – was established to educate Appalachian residents about the benefits the coal mining industry provides to them, their families, their communities, their state and the nation as a whole. Through this education process, the campaign hoped to build support for the Appalachian coal mining industry that could be converted into action to protect against unfair policy by the current administration and Congress when necessary. It’s no secret that coal is currently unpopular in Washington, DC. Since President Obama has taken office, the Appalachian mining industry, in particular, has seen permit approvals – and the jobs and tax dollars that support local communities – come to a virtual halt. More than 200 permits sit dormant, neither approved nor rejected, but simply waiting in a regulatory limbo. In addition, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has instituted american coal council
new and unattainable water quality standards that only apply to the mining industry and only in six Appalachian states. These standards call for stream waters adjacent to mining sites to be cleaner than the tap water found in most cities. In January 2011, the EPA revoked one of the most studied mining permits in the history of coal mining; one that had been previously approved. This is the first time in the history of the EPA that any such action has been taken. Actions such as these will be the direct cause of job loss and economic instability for many Appalachian communities. More recently, the Associated Press obtained a copy of an internal U.S. Office of Surface Mining Reclamation & Enforcement (OSM) document that recognizes the OSM’s proposed new Buffer Zone regulations would eliminate thousands of mining jobs across the U.S. and, most directly, in Appalachia. FACES was created to build a multistate grassroots and public relations effort that would educate the public and policy leaders on the benefits provided by mining. In
addition, and more importantly, the campaign strives to unify coal’s supporters and activate that support on the issues when needed. The FACES campaign was launched in Charleston, West Virginia, on Aug. 19, 2009, and was quickly followed by similar efforts in Kentucky and Virginia. The coal industry has its traditional allies in Appalachia. Those are the residents, community leaders and policy officials that have a familiarity bred by proximity to the industry. While the FACES campaign sought to unify that support, the primary objective of the effort is to educate those individuals and groups that exist in Appalachia but are not familiar with the benefits the industry offers. This would include those that live outside of traditional mining areas or those who don’t have any direct relationship with the industry. As just one example, the tourism industry is a major economic driver in West Above: The coal industry has its traditional allies in Appalachia. 41
Virginia. People don’t normally associate hoteliers and tourism attractions with coal, but the two industries have a symbiotic relationship in the state. The Hatfield & McCoy Trail System – an off-road trail system that brings tens of thousands of out-of-state visitors to West Virginia annually – is built on former mine property. A new extreme zip line course and several golf courses across the state have been constructed on restored mine property. These developments represent jobs for state residents during the active mining phase and jobs for West Virginians into the future with these tourism attractions. The FACES campaign seeks to educate those who run local businesses, as well as their customer base, with the goal of growing support for the benefits mining provides to all of us throughout Appalachia. Additionally, the campaign is reaching out into areas like Central Kentucky and Eastern Virginia that don’t have much if any mining to educate local citizens. It is extremely important for our elected officials to hear from people in these places as well. The campaign has gone group-bygroup across the target states to explain how the mining industry benefits them. Once support has been garnered from a group, the campaign seeks permission to speak with individual members of the group – again, working business-to-business and person-to-person to dispel myths and build support.
These efforts have resulted in more than 75,000 people joining the FACES of Coal Campaign. Additionally, the organization’s Facebook page has more than 50,000 fans and serves as a daily host for conversations concerning the vital role the coal industry plays in communities throughout the region.
of third party advocates, made coal the central issue in this past election cycle in Appalachian states, and helped shine a bright light on the unjust actions of the federal government. In addition, the campaign has helped unify the Appalachian coal industry into one cohesive voice. The challenges facing the Appalachian
FACES was created to build a multistate grassroots and public relations effort that would educate the public and policy leaders on the benefits provided by mining. On September 15, 2010, FACES, in conjunction with a myriad of Appalachian coal advocacy organizations, union representatives, local citizens, and working miners, held what may have been one of the first large-scale Rallies For American Coal Jobs on Capitol Hill. The event, which drew more than 2,000 people and received national news coverage, saw dozens of U.S. Senators and Congressional Representatives advocate for the benefits of mining and the need for federal bureaucrats to end their War on Coal. Speakers emphatically requested the EPA and those in the Administration help the people of Appalachia get back to work providing energy for America. Now entering its eighteenth month, the FACES campaign has helped educate the public on the value of the mining industry, recruited a large and diversified base
coal industry and Appalachian miner seem endless. Environmental and extremist groups based outside the region are constantly launching new attacks that threaten everything from permits to financing for jobs and mining sites. The claims these groups make are often erroneous and frivolous, yet they are taken very seriously by government and elected officials in Washington, who are all too eager to give coal mining more and more oversight. FACES is dedicated to making sure the jobs, the economies and the people of our local communities are afforded the opportunity to survive, thrive and enjoy the way of life they have earned and will hopefully continue to earn. u Bryan Brown is the West Virginia Coordinator for the FACES of Coal Campaign (www.facesofcoal.org).
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3/2/11 7:39 AM
American Coal is Under Attack By John Davies, Davies Public Affairs
he latest salvo came when the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) revoked a previously granted 404 permit for the Spruce 1 Mine in Logan County, West Virginia. The EPA’s unprecedented permit revocation sent a clear and chilling signal that it was moving ever closer to using its regulatory power to begin to outlaw coal mining. The EPA’s action is not an isolated event. It’s part of a multi-front battle being waged against coal within Federal agencies, local governments, in the courts, and through the media. The strategy is to kill American coal from death by a thousand cuts. Opponents plan to make coal uneconomic by dramatically
driving up costs of mining and electricity generation by any means available. Over the last 40 years new technology and innovation has led to substantial reductions in emissions. Likewise, recent stringent new environmental regulations are being met and surpassed by power generators across the country. Yet opponents of coal are more aggressive then ever and are increasing their attacks on coal. Clearly, opponents are not concerned with improving coal – they want it gone. Last year, Montgomery County, Maryland enacted a first in the nation single source local carbon tax against the county’s sole electric producer. Maryland has some of the toughest emissions
standards in the country and the power plant in question had just completed a billion dollar plus pollution control project at its plants. The bill’s proponents argued that was not enough and that the best-case scenario would be to shut the plant down. Their reasoning: because it was too expensive to run. In 2009, a Sierra Club lawyer announced the environmental community would eventually shut down all of the existing fleet of coal-fueled plants, replacing them with energy efficiency measures or renewable power. His plan was of course to fight every new plant, but also according to this lawyer, the plan by which they will achieve their goal is an indirect attack, an attack on the cost of energy from coal-fueled plants.
Coal produces about half of the country’s energy, but a vast majority of Americans don’t know that fact. american coal council
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The total effect has been plans for dozens of new coal-fueled plants have been scrapped in the last two years; probably a mercy killing because chances of getting them successfully through the regulatory approval process were slim to none. None of this should be a surprise as there has been an all out assault on coal for decades. Now that the anti-coal activists are entrenched in a number of federal agencies, they are acting quickly. The Sierra Club’s anti-coal campaign is really a political campaign and has effectively portrayed coal as the environmental public enemy number one.
Clearly, opponents are not concerned with improving coal – they want it gone. Ok that was the bad news. Here’s the good news. Our research and experience shows there is an approach that the public understands and will move them to assist us. Lining up coal miners and employees at public hearings, is helpful, and can show the real face of the industry. But much more powerful is activating people with absolutely no vested interest in coal. Individuals, who were moved by a compelling message to take action, can help us better tell the story with passion and credibility. I often hear coal executives lamenting that the industry has no friends and they worry about coal’s certain and imminent demise. Even their biggest utility customers with coal-fueled plants don’t want to be seen helping coal interests. Utilities are too busy promoting their green energy agenda and conservation efforts and trying to meet their renewal portfolio standards (RPS). The coal industry’s best efforts to reshape public opinion – by using catchy terms such as “clean coal” – isn’t working because it is fundamentally flawed. It never works to try and put an adjective in front of a word with negative connotation. This is the reason they call it Pro-Choice not Pro-Abortion. Even those who favor abortions don’t want to call it that. In the real estate world, those opposed to growth aren’t going to be won over by the term “Smart Growth.” Smart Planning
is a phrase that is much more effective in building public acceptance. We need to shape public perception that we do need coal. Renewables are coming but they will not be ready in time. Renewables are attracting opponents like never before, which is significantly slowing their progress as well. The Notin-my-Backyard (NIMBYs) activists that express the desire for renewal and sustainable energy are nevertheless now fighting to keeping renewables at bay and are successfully shutting down the competition.
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Communities from coast to coast are opposing numerous wind farms and solar farms. Anyone touting new nuclear plants should check out the $28 billion price tag. Ratepayers and public utility commissions are not going to stand for humongous rate increases to cover nuclear plant construction costs. And spent nuclear rods and their safe storage continues to remain huge hurdle for the nuclear industry, made worse now that the proposed Yucca Mountain spent nuclear fuel storage facility in Nevada has been killed by hometown senator, Henry Reid. Coal is affordable and available now. And we can use the electricity generated to power clean running machines and vehicles. Swapping the gas pump for the outlet with the new generation of electric cars will slash the U.S. output of CO2. And an American electric car revolution, charged on coal, will provide energy independence from foreign and unstable sources. The public gets it when they hear it-coal is necessary for now to generate reliable and affordable energy for America and to provide desperately needed jobs and tax revenue and lead us to energy independence. Coal’s opponents understand this as well – this is what keeps them up nights – because if Americans demand reliable and affordable electricity, the only answer today
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is coal and that is the reality for the foreseeable future. To do this we have to swallow our pride. We can’t convince the U.S., that coal is shiny and clean. There is a national prevailing attitude that renewable energy and a clean environment are fundamentally a good idea and worth pursuing. But public opinion research in Montana is very telling and clearly illustrates attitudes toward coal in many rural and urban areas across the U.S. Even in the coal mining state of Montana, the public reaction to coal is that it is dirty. However, coal is seen as a short-term bridge toward developing renewal energy sources. This is a critical communication point, one that coal miners and coal-fired energy producers can leverage to protect their business interests well into the future. Don’t fight public perception. It’s a losing proposition. Coal is homegrown, and gives us the chance to be independent of the countries that hate us by relying on our own natural resources. A good example of how to shift public opinion is the story of an existing coal-fueled plant that had existed peacefully for 60 years
but found itself in a recently gentrified city in the Beltway. Residents, the Sierra Club, and local elected officials targeted the plant when the power generator applied to install new equipment to improve air quality. Opponents knew that, failing to secure a new air-operating permit, the plant would be forced to reduce operations and would become economically unviable. A local reporter was quoted as saying “there is not one single person in this town that supports that plant.” Anti-coal and NIMBY forces had a very powerful tool; they controlled the agenda of debate. It’s hard to win an argument in a community about public safety and air pollution when your side of the argument is not articulated properly or never gets heard. When my firm was asked to assist, we created a new communication strategy with messages that would resonate with targeted audiences. By shifting the argument from a public health and safety issue to the need for reliable energy to avoid rolling blackouts (like those experienced in California not so long ago), a significant amount of public pressure was created and a base of 3,500 supporters was activated to secure a new air permit in a timely manner.
The argument wasn’t about coal; it was about reliable energy and public reaction changed quickly and dramatically. This is an important lesson for the coal industry. Coal produces about half of the country’s energy, but a vast majority of Americans don’t know that fact. More importantly, they don’t care. When they flip on a light switch in their home, they expect the light to illuminate and if it doesn’t, their wrath is directed at their utility service. They have no idea whether the electrons are coming from coal, wind, solar, geo-thermal, or hydroelectric. All they want is the power to stay on and be reliable and affordable. Coal is the bridge to a sustainable future. Pursuing renewable energy is a worthy goal, but until we get there, coal remains the lifeblood of America’s energy source. We cannot shut it down overnight. This is the story that needs to be told and re-told. This is not a game of semantics. The public is willing to listen to our side if we position our case properly. u John Davies is CEO of Davies Public Affairs (www.daviespublicaffairs.com)
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2/18/11 11:51 AM
Mississippi infrastructure neglected as budgets tighten By Ken Wells, Big River Coalition
he saying goes, “What happens in Las Vegas, stays in Las Vegas.” In Louisiana, however, what happens in New Orleans goes out to the entire world. Tourists who come to the city tend to gravitate to the color of the French Quarter and the lights of Bourbon Street. Those who wander a few blocks away and climb the levee see an entirely different spectacle, the full might of America’s international economy floating past on the Mississippi. Tankers, laden with petroleum, push their way north to the largest refinery in the country. Empty bulk ships steam upriver toward grain american coal council
terminals. Towboats push football-field lengths of barges loaded with coal. On the far bank, fleetboats do a delicate ballet as they move individual barges in and out of the fleets, while shipyard workers put a tugboat into drydock. Taken as a whole, the deep-draft Mississippi is the busiest waterway system in the country and second only to the Yangtze in the world. Today, that critical system is at risk. Faced with inadequate funds and an unwillingness to shift money from other parts of its budget, the Army Corps of Engineers is pursuing a policy of rationing dredging on the river and allowing the
deep-draft channel to silt in. In the shortterm it is creating turmoil for the 29 states that use the river for international trade. In the long-term it raises serious questions about America’s ability to make the kind of decisions that will increase rather than hurt our international competitiveness. A little background on the Mississippi is needed. The river draws on 14,000 miles of inland waterways, converging at the deep-draft ports in Louisiana, making it an ideal superhighway for bulk cargo from the heartland of America. While container and cruise ship traffic has increased dramatically on the river, it still serves as the 51
The Mississippi draws on 14,000 miles of inland waterways, making it an ideal superhighway for bulk cargo from the heartland of America.
nation’s most efficient route for bulk commodities like coal, grain and soybeans. In fact, about a quarter of the bulk ships that call on American ports call on the Mississippi. The value of exports moving through the New Orleans Customs office is between $85-105 billion dollars annually in recent years. The importance of the river to trade has never been in doubt, since the days
of dugout canoes, but funding the maintenance of the river has been difficult. Historically, the White House tends to low-ball funding for dredging the lower river to put responsibility for spending on Congress. Congress tends to low-ball funding in appropriations bills knowing it can “plus up” the needed money on the next supplemental appropriations bill. Expecting this back-and-forth style of
accounting, the Army Corps of Engineers has traditionally dredged the river to keep the 45-foot channel clear, shifting funds into the project until Congress restored the money in the next supplemental budget. In the last budgeting cycle, the Corps took a different tack. Since Congress has yet to pass a funding bill, the Corps was left with the President’s budget, which gave $63 million for maintaining the deep-draft Mississippi. That funding level represents approximately 60 percent of the $104 million that the maintenance costs have averaged over the last few years. Shortly before the fiscal year started in October, the Corps announced that it would ration dredging so that it could stay within its budget. The idea that the Corps, and not the Mississippi, could decide when dredging was necessary reminded many of Mark Twain’s comments that, “the Mississippi River will always have its own way; no engineering skill can persuade it to do otherwise.” Making things even more difficult, the river levels fell, hitting a 10-year low in the late fall and making the river narrower and more shallow. Ship pilots, who determine when a ship can safely move, put restrictions into place on some of the river bends above New Orleans in December. In late January through early March, pilots at the mouth of the river restricted ships to 44 feet of draft, down from the 45-foot channel and established a complex set of restrictions on the last 90 miles leading up to Baton Rouge. Depending on the area of the river, ships were restricted to 40 foot to 44 foot draft. At the northern end of the
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deep-draft channel, ships with a draft of more than 38 feet could only move during daylight hours. People not involved with shipping may need a frame of reference for this. Some rough estimates say that every foot of draft that a ship has to reduce equals a reduction in cargo worth between $250,000 and $800,000, depending on the cargo. Add to that that the fact that the unlucky ship, which finishes loading at the dock just as night falls may have to pay $80,000 to $100,000 in warfage fees. While not affected by the draft restrictions, barge operators have to worry about expensive delays and safety concerns, especially as shoaling makes the river dramatically narrower. The short-term impact of the Corps’ policy is to damage the profitability of transporting bulk cargo on the river system. The longer the river is neglected the more likely that river traffic starts to dry up. Some low-margin cargoes simply cannot compete internationally when transportation costs increase. Reputations for reliability are harmed and the work to repair them can take years. But it is the big picture – what this says about our
american coal council
The longer the river is neglected the more likely that river traffic starts to dry up. government’s commitment to compete on the world stage – that needs our focus. The talk in Washington is of budget cuts and shrinking the size of government, but the issue should not be how much we can cut, but whether we are spending limited resources wisely. Are we investing in activities that make us stronger as a country? A growing chorus is calling for investment in infrastructure that allows the private sector to grow. As New York Times columnist David Brooks has put it, the question is not how much to spend or how deep to cut, it is how to allocate our spending: How big will the resulting government be? That is a secondary issue. If a policy enhances achievement, we should be for that thing. If it displaces investment, we should be skeptical of it. Quality, not quantity, matters most. The neglect of the Mississippi River is not going on in a vacuum. For two years in a row, President Obama has called for a doubling of American exports. A government/industry task force has been working
for some time to come up with proposals to reach that ambitious goal. But while one area of government works on ways to increase our exports, other policies are, by default, making it much more difficult to actually ship goods overseas. It is hard to imagine that a developed nation can have a meaningful debate about increasing exports while turning its back on one of its main gateways to the world. Washington may be the place to discuss lofty goals, but our success is measured in the extra barge or two of coal that glides past the French Quarter or the extra 1,500 tons that can be loaded onto a ship headed overseas. If we talk trade while ignoring the basic building blocks of transportation, it is a little like trying to run a race without tying our shoelaces. u Ken Wells is the coordinator of the Big River Coalition, an organization of businesses and associations working to ensure the Mississippi River is adequately maintained and funded.
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Canadian Coal Happenings By Paul newall, newall Consulting, Inc.
anadian policy developments for coal-fueled generation continue to reflect regional economic realities. Key factors include: the availability of coal; the amount of coal generation in the supply mix; the economic benefits from fossil fuel exports; and international perceptions of Canada’s greenhouse gas [GHG] emission performance. Estimates of Canada’s coal assets range from 8 to 10 billion tonnes of proven resources or about two-thirds of our fossil fuel reserves. Most of this coal sits in British Columbia, Alberta and Saskatchewan. Coal is also mined in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Almost of all Canada’s thermal coal – 50 plus million tonnes a year – is consumed domestically for electricity generation. More than half of Alberta’s and Nova Scotia’s and almost half of Saskatchewan’s installed generating capacity is coal. Historically, coal american coal council
generation represented about 20 percent of Ontario’s mix. Overall, Canada contributes about two percent to global GHG emissions. However, on a per capita basis, Canadians compare poorly because of our vast geography; relatively small, widely distributed population; colder climate and economic structure. Canada’s exports of oil, coal and natural gas represent more than 80 percent of Canada’s emissions. Canada is the largest source of U.S. natural gas and among the top sources of oil – much of it from Alberta and Saskatchewan. Largely due to the oil sands, Alberta’s GHG emissions now exceed those of Ontario. Although Canada helped negotiate, and was a signatory to the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, our GHG emissions increased about 30 percent in the following decade. The largest increases were in the transportation sector, electricity generation and fossil fuel production. This affected
provincial and federal policy related to coal-fueled generation, specifically, and to climate change policy in general. The formation of the Canadian Clean Power Coalition in 2000 was a seminal moment for coal-fueled generation policy. This group of Canadian and U.S-based utilities (mostly in the west) and government agencies and research organizations [e.g. EPRI], had a major influence on the development of Canada’s Clean Coal Technology Roadmap. Started in 2003, the Roadmap defined a long-term vision for the Canadian industry to become a leader in clean coal technology. Ontario was absent in this process as the newly elected provincial government had promised to eliminate coal generation during the October 2003 election. In March 2007, the Alberta and federal governments established the Task Force on Carbon Capture and Storage to provide advice on how government and industry 55
could work together to facilitate and support the development of carbon capture and storage (CCS) in Canada. The Task Force issued its recommendations in a report entitled “Canada’s Fossil Energy Future – the Way Forward on Carbon Capture and Storage” in January 2008. The first large scale funding was provided by Alberta in July of 2008. Two billion dollars [Cdn] was committed for large-scale carbon capture and storage [CCS] projects as part of Alberta’s Climate Change strategy. In December 2010, Alberta became the first province in Canada to legislate a framework for CCS projects. The legislation requires CCS operators to pay into a post-stewardship fund and the Alberta government has assumed permanent liability for the CO2. In May of 2009, the Canadian government announced a $1 billion [Cdn] Clean Energy Fund, of which $650 million was allocated for large-scale CCS. This latter announcement followed the first meeting of the Clean Energy Dialogue between Canada and the United States in February 2009 and the CCS funding provided by the American Investment and Recovery Act. Some key utility initiatives have benefited from these provincial and federal funds and private partnerships. SaskPower’s post combustion capture project at the Boundary Dam Coal Power Station in Estevan, Saskatchewan has received $240 million from the federal government. SaskPower will invest $1 billion to rebuild a 35-year-old 150 megawatt (MW) unit with carbon capture technology. The rebuilt unit will produce 115 MW and capture a million tonnes per year of CO2. Another $400 million will be provided by oil companies. TransAlata and Capital Power have teamed up to develop a 450 MW coal station, Keephills #3, adjacent to the existing power plant in Alberta. The new plant will use supercritical boiler technology, building on their previous success with the Genesee Power Project, the first of its kind in Canada. Work began on the project in 2007, with commissioning anticipated during the first quarter of this year. Chilled ammonia post-combustion capture technology on a slipstream from the unit will capture about a million tonnes of CO2/year. Over $700 million is being provided by the Alberta CCS fund and from Canada’s Clean Energy Fund. The capture system is expected to be in service in 2015. In addition to these initiatives, Alberta’s CCS fund is supporting the development of CO2 collection pipeline systems and an in-situ coal gasification project. Meanwhile, Ontario is moving forward with its off-coal policy. Since 2003, eight coal units representing 3,000 MW have been shut down: four units at Lakeview in 2005; and two units (each) at Nanticoke and Lambton in October 2010. Two additional Nanticoke units will shut down before the end of 2011. The Atikokan Generating Station (GS) will be converted to biomass by 2013 and the Thunder Bay GS will be converted to natural gas in the same timeframe. Recently, the government acknowledged the benefits of continuing to use the remaining units at Nanticoke and Lambton by fuelling them with biomass and/or natural gas. The Power Workers’ Union, Ontario’s largest electricity union, has diligently worked to prevent the closures and has advocated biomass and natural gas fuelling since 2005. A consumer backlash has been growing to rising electricity prices resulting from the government’s green energy investments. The province’s dependence on natural gas generation is also compromising Ontario’s GHG targets. As well, data from Ontario’s System Operator shows that intermittent wind generation is increasingly displacing the province’s lower cost and low carbon hydroelectric and nuclear generation. Not good news for a government facing an election later this year.
Estimates of Canada’s coal assets range from 8 to 10 billion tonnes of proven resources or about two-thirds of our fossil fuel reserves. On June 23, 2010, Canada’s Environment Minister announced the regulation of GHG emissions from coal power plants. By 2015, all new coal-fuelled generation units, and all coal units reaching the end of their economic lives will have to meet more stringent performance standards. A total of 33 of Canada’s 51 coal units will be approaching the end of their economic life by 2025. Environment Canada expects GHG emissions will drop by about 15 megatonnes (a large chunk of this will be achieved through the closure of Ontario’s coal stations in 2014). Draft regulations are expected to be released early this year and come into force by 2015. Shortly after the Prime Minster appointed a new environment minister in early January 2011, a government appointed advisory panel called for made-in-Canada climate change policies. The National Roundtable on the Environment and Economy’s report focused on Canada’s relationship with the United States and what it means for environmental policy choices. Although the report described Canada’s plan to harmonize its climate change policies with the U.S. as “sensible and realistic,” it also recommended a national cap and trade program. Such a system would provide more flexibility compared to strict regulation and reduce the overall cost to the country. Federal and provincial initiatives such as those aimed at reducing emissions from existing coal generation are not considered to be enough. These measures represent about a quarter of the reductions necessary to meet Canada’s target of a 17 percent drop in GHG from 2005 levels by 2020. The policy maze facing North America’s coal industry gives a whole new meaning to Charles Dickens’ famous quote … “It was the best of times; it was the worst of times; it was the age of wisdom; it was the age of foolishness.” u Paul Newall owns and operates Newall Consulting, Inc., providing consulting services to the Canadian electricity industry.” He can be reached at 519-941-2629.
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Studies conducted by EPRI and CURC indicate that for each one percent increase in combustion efficiency there is a 2.5 percent reduction in CO2 emissions from power plants.
Engineered Coal Fuel Technologies: One Tool to Address Environmental Regulations Editor’s Note: This article is the full version of an article originally published in the February 2011 issue of POWER Magazine (www.powermag.com). This article is reprinted with permission of POWER. Jason Hayes, M.E.Des., American Coal Council
rizona Public Service’s (APS) plan to close three older coalfueled units at the Four Corners Power Plant in New Mexico, and buy out Southern California Edison’s 48 percent share of the two remaining units is a creative means of surviving committed EPA action against coal-fueled generation. Hamstrung by EPA’s endless stream of regulatory revelations, utilities are searching for reliable and affordable means american coal council
of producing power while escaping the imposition of billions in regulatory-related upgrade costs. In this case, APS was facing a $1 billion price tag to meet EPA demands
for (among other things) an 80 percent reduction in nitrogen oxide emissions. Required upgrades would have tacked an additional 3 to 4 percent on the bills of each APS customer. With their new proposal APS is now looking at a $295 million outlay to buy the stake in units 4 and 5 and a further $290 million to be spent on emissions controls. APS’ proposal was made possible because Southern California Edison is being forced 59
ith a company history stretching back over 150 years, Inspectorate continues to develop its global services for the inspection and analysis of coal and coke. Inspectorate’s independent weighing, sampling and analytical services make it possible to reduce and eliminate risks associated with the movement of these commodities.
Coal & Pet Coke Services Inspectorate’s inspectors and surveyors are experienced in the full range of sampling situations. Whether your product is being handled through a small port or a large-scale modern terminal, our expert staff ensure that correct sampling methods are used to produce representative samples for laboratory testing. With modern, professional laboratories at key locations world-wide, Inspectorate is perfectly positioned to help you protect your interests. To meet the increasing demands for its ISO-accredited Coal & Coke Services, Inspectorate continues to expand its capabilities and existing global network of laboratories. With offices already in strategic commercial hubs in countries like The Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Russia, Ukraine, Greece, South Africa, Indonesia, India, China, Colombia and Brazil, Inspectorate has now added the United States to its growing portfolio. Our full-service coal and coke laboratory, operating in Houston, Texas, is equipped with state of the art analytical instruments and staffed with industry-experienced personnel. Our goal is to provide you with a superior service experience that will have you coming back for more! Services include: • Modern Laboratory with Full Analytical Capability • Experienced Field Inspectors in the Gulf, East Coast and Western US • Surveying Services • Detailed Stockpile Survey Inventory and Report • Barge Surveys • Vessel Draft Surveys • Hydrographic Surveys • Site Planning • Topographical and GIS Mapping • Remote Sensing • Design and Operations of Sampling Systems • Operation of Contract Laboratories
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out of coal-fueled generation by stringent state regulations. So, what will be a loss for the people of California, in terms of utility rates and power supply, could work in favor of APS customers as they save approximately half a billion, reduce emissions, and end up with more generation capacity than when they started. This type of switch may be effective for one utility and its customers. However, APS’ situation is unique, and as permitting processes and regulations continue to place a bull’s eye on the development of new coal generation, other utilities will likely lack the option to buy out a competitor’s stake in adjacent plants. So, utilities and rate payers will be saddled with the costs of navigating the latest regulatory maze, or forced to close what regulations and unworkable NSR rules are making “marginal plants.” Recognizing the need to address this situation, the members of one American Coal Council (ACC) committee are offering utilities another option. The Coal 2.0 Alliance is focused on advancing the development and utilization of engineered coal fuel and coal preparation technologies by promoting awareness of their environmental and efficiency performance benefits. Engineered coal fuel technologies produce fuels that result in increased plant efficiency, as well as lower sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxide (NOX), mercury (Hg) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions at plants that use them. There are a number of processes in commercial operation and under development that treat coal prior to combustion making it a cleaner, more efficient fuel. Those processes involve coal preparation (cleaning), upgrading (dewatering with heat and/or microwaves), and treatment with additives to alter combustion characteristics. The environmental benefits of these technologies can be further enhanced if other combustion (oxy-coal combustion) or post-combustion technologies (fabric filters, electrostatic precipitation, scrubbers, etc.) are also used. Depending on the specific technology employed and the feed coal being used, energy content of lower rank feedstock coals can be increased from 30 percent to 200 percent – for example, upgrading an 8,400 Btu/lb PRB coal to 11,400 Btu/ lb. Higher energy content equates to more efficient combustion and studies conducted by EPRI (Electric Power Research american coal council
Engineered fuels provide the opportunity to improve on coal – our most abundant/secure and affordable fossil energy resource.
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Institute) and CURC (Coal Utilization Research Council) indicate that for each one-percent increase in combustion efficiency there is a 2.5 percent reduction in CO2 emissions from power plants. At the same time, emissions of mercury can be reduced from 15 to 90 percent; nitrogen oxides (NOX) can be reduced from 10 to 50 percent, and sulfur dioxide (SO2) can be reduced 10 to 80 percent. Direct emissions reductions are not the only benefits associated with using engineered coal fuel technologies. They can also aid in fuel sourcing decisions, as increasing international demand tightens some coal markets. They can enhance transportation efficiencies as reduced moisture content can equate to a 30 percent decrease in load volumes and associated transportation costs. Perhaps most importantly, engineered coal fuel technologies can be applied universally in proposed new coal generation and the existing fleet, without additional capital expenditures. Utilities can rely on engineered coal fuel technologies to provide a single, consistent fuel resource that has reduced risk of spontaneous combustion, reduced mill demands, and improved combustion
Perhaps most importantly, engineered coal fuel technologies can be applied universally in proposed new coal generation and the existing ﬂeet, without additional capital expenditures. characteristics – leading to reduced outages from slagging, reduced need for sootblowing, lower LOI, reduced water use, reduced ash loads, etc. New offerings from Coal 2.0 Alliance members will also aid in meeting state level renewable portfolio standards and provide the positive aspects of biomass co-firing, including reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Engineered coal fuels now offer coal and biomass briquettes/pellets; coal “look alike” products that improve the energy density and reduce the grindability and handling challenges typically associated with biomass. As more utilities consider the economics of large investments in emissions reduction equipment vs. the prospects of shuttering
marginal plants and laying off employees, engineered coal fuel technologies represent an excellent low capital cost opportunity to significantly improve boiler performance and reduce emissions. This is especially true in cases where utilities are using fuels below boiler design specifications. Engineered fuels provide the opportunity to improve on coal – our most abundant/ secure and affordable fossil energy resource. By applying these technologies along with combustion and post-combustion stage technologies our coal use will help to power us well into the future. u Jason Hayes is Communications Director for the American Coal Council (www.americancoalcouncil.org).
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Index to Advertisers AEP river Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Ernst & Young . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Peabody Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Air-Cure Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
fuel Tech, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Platts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Allen-Sherman-Hoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
HardSteel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
rACO International, L.P. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
ASgCO Manufacturing, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Helm financial Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
The raring Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Arch Coal, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
ICAP united . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
resource Technologies Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
Benetech, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inside front Cover
Ingram Barge Company . . . . . . .Inside Back Cover
roberts & Schaefer Company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
BnSf railway Company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Inspectorate America Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Savage Services Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Buchanan Ingersoll & rooney PC . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Interlake Steamship Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
SCH Terminal Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Charah, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Jennmar Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Storm Technologies, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Cloud Peak Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
KCBX Terminals Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
Taggart global, LLC . . . . . . . . Outside Back Cover
Coal Marketing Company (uSA) Inc. . . . . . . . . . 52
Kiewit Mining group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Tank Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Coal Prep . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Marshall Miller and Associates, Inc.. . . . . . . . . . . 4
TECO Coal Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Coalfield Services, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Martin Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
TEMA Systems, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Coal-Gen Conference & Exhibition . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Material Control Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
The David J. Joseph Company . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
COnSOL Energy Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
McLanahan Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Tunnel radio of America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
CSX Transportation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Murray Energy Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
union Pacific railroad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Dominion generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
nexgen Coal Services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Westmoreland Coal Company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Energy Publishing, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
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