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!$ESIGNER°S#ALLTO!RMS 7E°VESCREWEDUP.OWIT°STIMETOREDESIGNOURFUTURE BY-IKE,IN 4HE0RESENT0EOPLE WEHAVEAPROBLEM

4HE0AST%CO FRIENDLYDIDN°TCUTIT We’ve been settling for second best for too long—too often do “ecological,â€? “green,â€? or “sustainableâ€? products fall short in function and design. Despite good intentions, such token products as ineffective natural cleaners; dim compact-fluorescent light bulbs; and coarse hemp garments reinforce stereotypes of inferior quality and inconvenience. Mediocre products cause more harm than good; their disappointing functionality and lackluster design alienate the general public and fail to resonate with the broader audience needed to effect real, mainstream change. How could these dysfunctional solutions and underwhelming experiences ever inspire a cultural shift? They’re a liability to our future. 4HE&UTURE!NEWDESIGNMOVEMENT Design often grapples with the most important questions of the day. Thus going forward, we need a new design directive, a new philosophy, and a new culture. We need to inspire a shift in which society not only values economic efficiency, functional simplicity, and refinement in form—but also deeper, intangible emotions. Imagine a culture whose aesthetic sensibility combines social justice and environmental elegance in such a way that they’re not even noticeable. Imagine a consumer who not only loves a car, laptop, or MP3 player but also delights in the knowledge that it is ethically produced and decomposes as easily as it was created without sacrificing functionality for those traits. Imagine a landscape free of the ills of industry that still benefits from all of humanity’s greatest advancements. This is our future—but it’s slipping away. Design is a method of action: We need to learn from our mistakes and create solutions. We need to futureproof our products, our processes, and our built environment to ensure a healthy and livable future. #HANGEISALREADYHAPPENING We are entering into a Prius-equipped, local, organic, Inconvenient Truth era. A hunger for new solutions is growing. Consumers are calling for a secure, healthy, and livable future. You are this movement. Answer this call.

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Ambidextrous Spring Forward 2007

&UTUREPROO¸NGMEANS „!CCEPTTHECHALLENGE0ROVETHAT ECOLOGICALLYINTELLIGENTSOLUTIONSWORK „"UT¸RST BREAKTHESTEREOTYPE%CO FRIENDLYPRODUCTSSHOULDN°TREQUIRE SACRI¸CE4HEYNEEDNOTBEEXPENSIVE EARTH TONED OROFINFERIORQUALITY „!PPROACHDESIGNFORTHEFUTUREWITH OPTIMISMANDPLAYFULNESS.OTHING BREEDSCONTEMPTLIKEPREACHING¸REAND BRIMSTONE „!PPEALTOHIPPIESANDHIPSTERSALIKE 4URNTHECULTURECLASHAROUNDANDMAKE HEALTHYDESIGNFORALL „'OAGAINSTCONVENTIONALWISDOM „7HILEDESIGNING COLLABORATEWITH EVERYONE$ESIGNERSCAN°TDOITALONE „#REATEMULTIPLEOPTIONSTHATARE OBVIOUS INTUITIVE ANDGUILT FREE „%MPOWERTHEUSERTODECIDEWHAT WORKSBEST „4HINKONASYSTEMSLEVELBUTSTILL CONSIDERTHEDETAILS „0AYITFORWARD5SEYOURDESIGNAND POSITIVEUSEREXPERIENCESTOINSPIRE OTHERSTOCHANGEANDINNOVATE „$ESIGNMEDIAGENICSOLUTIONSTHAT ATTRACTPRESSATTENTION4HISISNOTIMETO BESHY#ARRYYOURIDEASFARANDWIDE

Photo by Lora Oehlberg

The jury is in: Our air, soil, and water are polluted. We’ve exploited every natural resource imaginable, including human labor. We are royally screwed. Thus, a call to action for a new design movement. This is not a political statement; it’s not about left or right. Rather, it’s an ethical and moral obligation. We face a challenge to reshape industry, business, and culture to ensure for ourselves a healthy and livable future. In short, we’ve made some serious mistakes. We need to redesign our future.


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M ATER I AL

$ISAPPEARING!CT BY"LAINE"ROWNELL

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fundamental counter-trend in materialism has emerged from a resent surge of interest in new materials for architecture and designâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;materials are slowlyâ&#x20AC;Śdisappearing. Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m not referring to some science fiction fantasy a la â&#x20AC;&#x153;Invasion of the Material Snatchersâ&#x20AC;?, but rather the technological trends leading to increased strength-toweight ratios and light-transmittance. This tendency toward dematerialization is rooted in the natural trajectory of technology itselfâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;to maximize efficiency, miniaturize, and do more with lessâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;coupled with an intriguing socio-environmental phenomenon of increased transparency in the physical environment. This â&#x20AC;&#x153;de-solidificationâ&#x20AC;? reflects both the public desire for increased access and accountability from the outside of commercial and institutional structures and the desire for increased access to light and views from the inside of structures. Looking toward the future, the frontiers of material development are defined by high-performance, exotic materials and composites that shatter previous paradigms about solidity and opacity.

.ANOGEL

,IGHT TRANSMITTING#ONCRETE

The relationship between the historically solid, insulating wall and the light-transmitting, thermallyconductive window has forever changed with the development of Aerogel and its application in the product Nanogel. Now walls can be windows and vice-versa, and the ageold battle between light vs. thermal protection is rendered moot. Aerogel, a translucent insulating material, is the lightest human-made substance known. Its application in the product Nanogel, developed by Cabot Corporation, is a pelletized, nanoporous material that delivers unsurpassed thermal insulation and light transmission. Comprised of quartz particles mixed with 99 percent air, feather-light Nanogel weighs 90 grams per liter. Compared with other insulation materials, Nanogel provides a superior combination of thermal and sound insulation as well as light transmission and diffusion characteristicsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;just half an inch of the material provides 73 percent light transmission with a solar heat gain coefficient of U = 0.25.

Old notions about solidity are further shattered in new forms of concrete that transmit light. Although these products are similar to those used for decades in conventional building construction, their paradigm-shifting nature is apparent when colleagues ask me, â&#x20AC;&#x153;But is it still concrete?â&#x20AC;? Pixel Panels are the result of Bill Priceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s quest to make concrete a light-transmissive medium. Comprised of a uniform array of acrylic rods set within a concrete binder, Pixel Panels provide translucency at a given viewing distance. Adjusting the ratio of concrete-to-polymer provides limitless variations, achieving as much as 25 percent light-transmittance. Ă ron Losonczi has developed another lighttransmitting concrete, Litricon, that utilizes thousands of fine fiber optic strands to carry light, resulting in a high resolution of detail. 4RANSPARENT!LUMINUM â&#x20AC;&#x153;Star Trekâ&#x20AC;? fans will remember the transparent aluminum material used to contain a large aquarium in the movie

.ANOGELPELLETSTRANSMITLIGHTANDACTASINSULATORS.ANOGEL ¸LLEDINSULATEDGLAZINGUNITSATTHE-ILWAULKEE:OO 46

Ambidextrous Spring Forward 2007


Photos courtesy of Cabot Corporation, Bill Lemke, Frauenhofer IKTS Dresden, and Bill Price, Inc.

Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home, but they may not have realized a similar material would be developed in the Fraunhofer Institute. Transparent alumina ceramics permit unprecedented light-transmittance in a strong and durable medium. The next generation transparent corundum ceramics can be manufactured with complex (even hollow) shapes, and exhibit significant bending strength and microhardness. The in-line transmission of transparent ceramics is close to 60 percent in visible light and approaches the theoretical limit in the infrared range. An even higher visible light transmission of roughly 80 percent at 1 mm thickness is enabled by a new submicrometer spinel. Faceted colored gemstones of about 1.5 carat have been manufactured with a polycrystalline microstructure of transparent ceramics, and filters have been manufactured for optical applications with the same material. Future applications include superstrong, heat-resistant windows and transparent armor. Like Nanogel, transparent ceramics revolutionize

the window as it is conventionally understood with the added dimension of fire- and blast-resistance, ideal for high-hazard applications. /PTICAL#AMOUšAGE While these high-performance, lighttransmitting materials compel us to question the nature of solidity, a new technology developed by the University of Tokyo seeks to make matter disappear altogether. Scientists at the Tachi Laboratory have developed Optical Camouflage, which utilizes a collection of devices working in concert to render a subject invisible. Although more cumbersome and complicated than Harry Potterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s invisibility cloak, this system has essentially the same goal. Clothingâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;in this case, a hooded jacketâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;is made with a retro-reflective material comprised of thousands of small beads that reflect light precisely according to the angle of incidence. A digital video camera placed behind the person wearing the cloak captures the scene that the individual would otherwise obstruct and sends the data to a computer for processing. A

program calculates the appropriate distance and viewing angle, and then transmits the scene via projector using a combiner, or a half-silvered mirror with an optical hole. The result is a witness perceives a realistic merger of the projected scene with the background, rendering the cloakwearer invisible. Potential applications of this technology include a process called mutual telexistence. Real-time video of remotely located individuals is projected onto surrogate robotic participants via various methods of removing tool-based optical obstructions. Example uses include vehicles that allow pilots and drivers to see more of their exterior environment than is visible through windows and tools that allow doctors to witness an operation through their hands. When we consider all of these new disruptive materials and technologies, we see the extraordinary extent to which solidity is being questioned. In the words of Marshall Berman, â&#x20AC;&#x153;All that is solid melts into air.â&#x20AC;?

0IXEL0ANELSAREATRANSLUCENTCONCRETE#OLOREDTRANSPARENTCORUNDUMCERAMICS4RANSPARENTCERAMICSAREUSEDINALAMPSHIELD Spring Forward 2007 Ambidextrous

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TH IN KI NG

#OOKING,ESSONSFOR$ESIGNERS BY2YAN&REITAS

Photos by Mike Pihulic

W

ith careers as an interaction designer and a professional cook (sometimes simultaneously), I’ve noticed striking similarities between the design studio and the kitchen. Like their peers in design, chefs are under constant creative and competitive pressure to execute and innovate. Both professionals service an increasingly savvy customer base in a

landscape where only the tastemakers and trendsetters survive. Three years have passed since my last night in a professional kitchen. While I’ve kept my knives sharp, since then I’ve been flexing other creative muscles: I joined Adaptive Path, a design firm that has flourished as the big brands increasingly embrace user-centered design. My time in the

Sizzling Summer 2007 Ambidextrous

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kitchen shaped how I respond now to challenges in an industry that is dependent on creative services.

1

/RDERAND$ISCIPLINEARE NOT.ATURAL%NEMIESOF #REATIVE0ROCESSES

There is often a misconception that structure gets in the way of generating new ideas. The kitchen taught me that the creative process thrives under constraint and that a little discipline helps more ideas make it to the table. The most creative of chefs are renowned as much for their food as for the way they run their kitchens. Lisa Lu, the pastry sous chef at Quince in San Francisco, told me that “great restaurants devote themselves to two ideals: consistency and quality.” To safeguard these ideals, chefs oversee staffs under the “brigade system,” so called because of the strict chain of

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Ambidextrous Sizzling Summer 2007

command, uniform, and well-defined role in which each player engages in executing collective creative excellence. Uniforms and shouted orders are likely a hard sell to designers, but I’ve found three other lessons translate well from the kitchen to the design studio.

concept phase generate momentum that carries us swiftly through the design process.

2

Anyone who has worked in a restaurant can tell you about the horror of the staff meal. Overloaded with “real” work, many cooks view the meal for servers and dishwashers as an unrewarded chore. The opposite was true while I was in cooking school, where students were frequently asked to cook for one another. Our chef instructors hammered home the idea that the cooks and staff around us had the potential to be our most appreciative audience. Every staff meal was an opportunity to prove our resourcefulness, commitment, and pride to the people whose reactions we could see and whose feedback we valued.

+EEP9OUR%YEONTHE#LOCK

Chefs know that the pressure of a ticking clock can inspire cooks to accomplish what seemed impossible at the start of a dinner rush. At Adaptive Path, I advocate “timeboxing”: the setting of artificial time constraints for tasks like brainstorming and issue resolution. The objective is to cut down on exhaustive consideration of endless possibilities. With pressure to stay focused and disciplined, we can reduce the amount of time it takes to reach consensus. More importantly, we have found that decisive choices in the

3

2ECOGNIZE)NTERNAL /PPORTUNITIESFOR #REATIVE&REEDOM


In the design world, internal initiatives often offer more opportunity for employees to engage in creative risk. With the growth of our studio at Adaptive Path, we need new and different infrastructure, tools and concepts. While it is tempting, even prudent, to let these tasks take a backseat to client work, we’ve learned that an internal project offers creative freedom. These occasions are unbound by external requirements and every member of our team is encouraged to take advantage of the opportunity.

4

4RUSTNOTJUST THE 'UYWITHTHE+NIFE

A chef’s success is dependent upon trusting others to execute his or her unique vision. (I should note that since the people who work in a kitchen are dealing with fire and knives in very tight quarters, their judgment is even

more crucial.) Jason Pringle, executive sous chef at Aqua in San Francisco, shared how he learned to trust the cooks he’s trained: “They’ll keep asking questions over time, because they want to know exactly how to do everything. I like to put it back on them. You’d be surprised how powerful asking, ‘What do you think it needs?’ can be.” Jason’s method points to a larger truth: Told what to do, his cooks won’t develop the critical faculties that they’ll need in order to be chefs. Jason pushes them, challenging them to be better and to trust themselves and each other. Ultimately, he trusts his cooks because he has seen them confront and resolve ambiguity. “By the time they tackle challenging dishes,” he told me, “I can trust them to experiment the next time. So long as they don’t destroy a quarterpound of white truffles.”

In the design studio, we open up our work in weekly all-staff reviews. Designers explain their decisions, walk through their individual processes, and even expose biasing presumptions. Opening up our workflow to each other has proved invaluable, not only because it reveals the methods of our peers and lets us learn from their experiences, but because it creates confidence in the soundness of our coworkers’ decisions. Ultimately, I’m convinced that these lessons that I learned first in the kitchen—the importance of order, time limitations, creative freedom, and trust—can improve the quality, consistency, and overall chances of achieving success of any creative endeavor, whether in food or in design.

Sizzling Summer 2007 Ambidextrous

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TH IN K I NG

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Ambidextrous Spring Forward 2007

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Spring Forward 2007 Ambidextrous

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T H I NK I NG

4HE3ECRET,IFEOF3ECRETS BY0AUL$OURISH

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T°SEASYENOUGHTORECOGNIZEASECRETWHEN YOUCOMEACROSSONE7HITELIES SEXUAL INDISCRETIONS WHATHAPPENSIN6EGAS¬WE KNOWTHESORTSOFTHINGSTHATMIGHTBE SECRET ANDWEKNOWFROMWHOMTHEYSHOULD BESECRET!SISSOOFTENTHECASE THOUGH THESEEMINGNATURALNESSWITHWHICHWE UNDERSTANDTHESETHINGSMASKSTHECOMPLEXITY OFTHESOCIALPHENOMENAUNDERNEATH

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Ambidextrous Wistful Winter 2008


Illustrations by Helena Ju

locations of their favorite mushrooming they are there. The way we act signals In particular, the very idea of secretsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; spots. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s secret knowledge. the boundaries that we acknowledge. hidden knowledge, fraught with Whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s important about these Watch someone walking down a busy dangersâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;obscures the secret about particular secrets is that everyone street, trying to find a place to sit in an secrets. They are made to be shared. understands the veil of secrecy that airport, or searching for an empty spot Whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s interesting is how. When we on a crowded beach, and youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ll see the look at just how and why (and amongst surrounds them. People know that because this information is secret, they boundaries at work in the ways people whom) secrets are shared, we find that should never ask. People will go out move, look, and position themselves. thereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s more going on than most social of their way to make sure that others Thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s just whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s going on for Fineâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s software, for instance, captures. mushroom hunters. Their You didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t always know what orientation towards informationâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; a secret was and you werenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t 4HEVERYIDEAOFSECRETSÂŹHIDDEN their collective, shared orientation always so finely attuned towards KNOWLEDGE FRAUGHTWITHDANGERSÂŹ towards itâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;marks out boundaries knowledge that shouldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be shared. You had to learn that. At OBSCURESTHESECRETABOUTSECRETS between interesting mushrooms (like morels and chanterelles) school, for example, you learn 4HEYAREMADETOBESHARED and uninteresting ones (like what sorts of knowledge might LBMs, short for â&#x20AC;&#x153;little brown be shared with teachers (or mushroomsâ&#x20AC;?), between mushroom should be kept from them), what kinds donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t think they are asking where the mushrooms are picked. If they seemed enthusiasts and non-enthusiasts, of knowledge cements friendships (or to be asking (â&#x20AC;&#x153;So, did you go anywhere between close friends and passing destroys them), and how information interesting this weekend?â&#x20AC;?) then they has strategic and tactical uses. Secrets acquaintances. live within a complex of social relations would strive to make it clear that the Secrets, too, follow the trajectories secret was to be maintained (â&#x20AC;&#x153;â&#x20AC;Śunless and meanings. of these sorts of social engagements. you were mushrooming, of course!â&#x20AC;?) In Gary Fineâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s lovely sociological Laurel Richardson, in Secrecy and Only a rube would ask a dumb study of amateur mushroom hunters, Status: The Social Construction of Morel Tales: The Culture of Mushrooming, question like, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Where did you pick Forbidden Relationships, looked at the these mushrooms?â&#x20AC;? we find a telling example of this social role of secrets in illicit relationships, When we talk about secrets, we context. Amongst the mushroom noting two distinct uses associated are talking about boundaries between collectors with whom Fine interacted, with different phases. Early in the people and between social groups. morels are highly prized. The morel relationship, secrets are shared as But we are also talking about other season is short and the mushrooms are a means of cementing intimacy; sorts of boundariesâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;those that denote hard to find. To make matters worse, partners will share secrets with each norms, conventions, expectations, overpicking is a serious problem; pick other, marking their closeness and and limits to inquiry and openness. too many mushrooms this year, and heightening the sense bonding. Later, One of the things thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s important next yearâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s crop will be smaller. People a new secret dominates, the secret of about boundaries is that we know tend to be very circumspect about the the relationship itself, something that is

Wistful Winter 2008 Ambidextrous

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shared by the participants but hidden from partners, colleagues, and friends. Again, the very fact of this secret, shared only between the partners, intensifies the sense of mutuality. Studies like these reveal the complexity of the social practices around secrets and stand in marked contrast to the ways in which we think about information flows in online systems. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Information wants to be free,â&#x20AC;? we have been assured repeatedly in the breathless reports of Wired and similar publications. However, when information is free it loses its value and the things that its value does for us. Information design and information system design focus so regularly on accessâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;on the easy availability of information and cues to its presence, on lowering barriers between people and groups, and on making information easy to come by and easy to shareâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;that we sometimes lose sight of the importance of the practices that are being enacted thereby. If the movement of information is not an end but a means, then we might focus as much on the occasions on which it is not shared as on those on which it is because they become part of the same social complex.

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Ambidextrous Wistful Winter 2008

It is not simply that â&#x20AC;&#x153;sharedâ&#x20AC;? spaces are insufficiently discriminating, although that is certainly true, as most users of photo sharing and social networking sites have cause to reflect every now and again. Nor is it simply that we need a richer language for expressing degrees of sharing (please, no more distinctions between â&#x20AC;&#x153;friendsâ&#x20AC;? and â&#x20AC;&#x153;family,â&#x20AC;? and especially those that presume I want to tell my family more

than I tell my friends!) No, the lesson of social studies like those described here is that secret sharing (or not) is a means by which aspects of social life are performedâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;done, not described. If we set out with the understanding that secrets are a means and not an end, perhaps we can find new depths and uses in the proliferation of sites which seem to trade in secrets and protosecrets.

­)NFORMATIONWANTSTOBEFREE ŽWEHAVE BEENASSUREDREPEATEDLYINTHEBREATHLESS REPORTSOF7IRED(OWEVER WHEN INFORMATIONISFREEITLOSES ITSVALUEANDTHETHINGS THATITSVALUE DOESFORUS


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hen people hear of AMBIDEXTROUS and what we cover, the first three questions they ask are usually along these lines: â&#x20AC;&#x153;What do you mean by design?â&#x20AC;? â&#x20AC;&#x153;Why a design magazine?â&#x20AC;? â&#x20AC;&#x153;How is this different from other design magazines?â&#x20AC;? When Lawrence Neeley, Charlotte Burgess Auburn, and I started AMBIDEXTROUS, the goal was to bring the larger design communityâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;people working on different aspects of design practiceâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;under one big umbrella. Many people are careful when they say â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;design,â&#x20AC;&#x2122; clarifying their own personal definition of the word. This strategy has the benefit of being exact, but also has the unfortunate effect of contributing to the growing pile of definitions of design, each one seemingly isolated from the next. We think that a magazine is a good way to represent different views in a unifying way. AMBIDEXTROUS is meant to be a place where people in the design community share what it is they do, think, and care about in a common forum; the hope is that we might grow wiser and stronger for having shared ideas. Interestingly, the aspect of design that we seek to deemphasize is the product: This isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t at all a catalog of the latest neat things from the designers of the moment. In fact, our kraft-paper cover is representative of our interest in what happens before products are shiny and polished. (And natch, the unfinished aesthetic also hints at our lack of formal publications training. But we hope that loyal readers have noticed that the magazine is slowly improving its degree of polish over time.) As we worked on the first issues of AMBIDEXTROUS, we had a wonderful time chatting with people from throughout the design community about how they see themselves fitting into the bigger picture. Weâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve picked up a much richer idea of what it means to be a designer, and feel more than ever that there are many common bonds among designers working on wildly different things. The following sketches represent our current views on design: views that are always changing, and under development.

16

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