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THE DESIGNER’S GUIDE TO:

TYPOGRAPHY


Designed by Amber Peebles For Typography 02—Eppelheimer At the University of Kansas, Spring 2013 Text for the book from source: Mac is Not A Typewriter by Robin Williams This book is not to be sold to the public and is intended to be used by the designer as a learning tool and typographic reference.


Table of Contents 01. Rules of Type 02. Type Rules Defined 03. Special Characters 04. Using Grids 05. Quotes & Apostrophes 06. Types of Dashes 07. Small Caps 08. Oldstyle Figures 09. X-Height 10. Column Width 11. Using Leading 12. Using Kerning 13. Aligning Text 14. Using Hyphenation 15. Using Justification 16. Combining Typefaces 17. Paragraph Breaks 18. Text Headers 19. Captions & Notes 20. Font Specimens

001-003 004-011 012-017 018-029 030-035 036-041 042-053 054-061 062-077 078-083 084-089 090-095 096-101 102-109 110-117 118-127 128-141 142-151 152-161 162-191


/1

RULES OF TYPE


Rules of Type

Rules 1-27

The following is a compendium of the rules established in this book. You might want to check through them each time you complete a publication.


one

/03

Typographic Rules 1. Insert only a single space after all punctuation. 2. Use proper ‘em’ dashes, ‘en’ dashes, and hyphens. 3. Use proper quote and apostrophe marks. 4. Use true small caps. 5. Add letter spacing to capitalized text and small caps. 6. Use old style figures when appropriate. 7. Use caps properly. 8. Use the ellipsis character and not three periods. 9. Use copyright, register, and trademark marks properly. 10. Avoid underlined text. 11. Increase line spacing to improve readability in body text. 12. Use 9-12 points for body copy. 13. Don’t alter the original typeface. 14. Use serifs and sans serifs in appropriate places. 15. Decrease line length and increase margins. 16. Avoid letterspacing lowercase body copy. 17. Word spacing should be fairly close. 18. Use ideal column widths. 19. Justification can be appropriate in certain places. 20. Choose the alignment that fits. 21. Use kerning in headlines. 22. Avoid beginning three consecutive lines with the same word. 23. Always spell check. 24. Avoid widows and orphans. 25. Don’t rely on software to judge where hyphens should be placed. 26. In continuous text, mark paragraphs after the first with an indent. 27. Items in a series do not use a comma before the word “and.”


/5

TYPE RULES DEFINED


Type Rules Defined

1.2.3.4.5.6. ‌

Typographic Rules 1-27 Defined.


two

/07

1. 2.

Insert a single space after all punctuation. Inserting two spaces after a period was common when using a typewriter. Monospace typefaces were designed to occupy the same amount of space no matter the width of the character. Therefore, two spaces were needed to identify the end of a sentence and the beginning of another sentence. With the introduction of the Mac and digital type, characters are designed proportionately, which allows for the correct practice of using one space after all punctuation. Use ‘em’ dashes, ‘en’ dashes,and hyphens. An em is a unit of measure equal to the

point size that you are using. An em dash is a type of punctuation used to offset clauses

in a sentence or to indicate an abrupt change in thought. An en dash is equal to half the

length of an em dash. En dashes are used to

3. 4.

denote duration (time.)

Use proper quote and apostrophe marks.

Use true quotation marks and apostrophes

instead of using inch marks and feet marks.

Place all punctuations inside the quotations. Use true small caps.

When setting text that contains acronyms,

select a typeface with small caps as a family.

Selecting small caps from the style menus is a poor choice because the compute reduces the overall size of the type by 80%. This

changes the stroke weight and the feel of the font. Expert sets in the Adobe Type Library have small caps options.


Type Rules Defined

5. 6.

Kern capitalized text and small caps. Letterspacing is the amount of space between characters in a word. Some software programs caller letterspacing tracking. Use positive number values (to about 2 or 3) to open up letterspacing to capitalized text and small caps, except when periods are used between characters.

9.

Use old style figures when appropriate.

Old style figures, also known as non-lining figures do not line up on the baseline as

regular or lining numerals do. They can be

found in various fonts. If the body text has a significant amount of numbers, research a font family where they are included. If

non-lining numerals are not available, use a slightly smaller point size for the lining

numbers. Think of lining numbers as upper case numbers and non-lining numbers as lower case numbers.

7. 8.

Use caps properly.

With options given to you by almost any

type family (bold, point size, etc) you will

10.

Copyright, register,and trademark marks The copyright, register, and trademark characters need to be reduced to work with body text. At times, depending on the typeface, you may need to reduce the mark between 50% and 70%. The goal is to match the x-height. The copyright mark should be approximately 70% of the surrounding text. Unlike the ™ symbol, the © should not be superscripted and should remain on the baseline. ™ is usually superscripted for the chosen font. ™ and ® are normally set higher then other marks. If you choose to superscript ®, reduce it to about 60%. Avoid underlined text.

This was useful back in the days of the

typewriter to draw attention to the text.

With digital type and their families, you should not need to use underlined text.

11.

Line spacing and readability in body

Line spacing (aka leading) refers to the

space between lines of text. It is important for readability and appearance. Leading is

seldom need to use all caps to draw atten-

measured from baseline to baseline. As a

ible when set in all caps; esp. true for script

the point size. For sans serif, you may

may be the once exception to this rule.

lines, solid leading (leading = point size,

tion to your text. Not all typefaces are leg-

rule of thumb, allow leading that is 120% of

and decorative typefaces. Short headlines

need 130% or more. When setting head-

Ellipsis character

Use the ellipsis character and NOT three

periods. You can access the ellipsis by typing Option + : (colon). Allow a small amount of space before and after. However if it is not crowding the text, leave no space at all.

12/12) or negative leading (leading =< point size, 12/10) may be appropriate.

12.

Body copy size

Body text is set anywhere from 9-12

points. When you print text, it is usually larger than what it looked like on

the screen. So, print out your text before

finalizing your layout. Type studies will help you determine the proper size before you proceed with your layout.


/09

13. 14.

Altering fonts Don’t alter the original typeface by stretching or condensing the letters improperly. Certain type families provide you with a lot of flexibility, so you should not need to destroy/alter text. Legibility of fonts

Sans serif typefaces work well for headlines and to set text that is aligned to vertical/

horizontal lines. Certain sans serif typefaces which are not very geometrical work well

for body copy (Frutiger, Meta, Scala, etc.)

15.

17. 18.

Any measure between 45 and 75 characters is comfortable for single column widths.

The ideal measure for body text length is 66 characters (counting both letters, punctua-

19.

working with caps. small caps, numbers and display text where looser type spacing may increase legibility.

be as narrow as 2 inches. Turning on the

Justification of text

Justification can be appropriate in certain places. However, it can create certain

problems such as rivers and word spacing. copy size, turning on auto hyphenatation

and manually hyphenating the text are all

Avoid letterspacing lowercase body copy. hampers legibility. Use letterspacing when

ideal. For two-column width, columns can

Adjusting size of margins, decreasing body

a measure between 40-50 characters is ideal.

16.

For single-column pages, 4.25 inches is

spacing and you’ll avoid 3 hyphens in a row.

tion, and spaces.) For multiple columns,

Don’t letterspace body copy as it really

Ideal column width

hyphenation feature can improve word

Decrease line length and increase margins.

Line length is a measure of text on one line.

Word spacing should be fairly close. For text meant for extended reading, the amount of space between words in a paragraph should be fairly close–about the width of a lowercase “i.” If the word spacing is too close, it appears as one giant word and legibility is decreased. Keep the spaces between words fairly thin, and consistent.

examples of possible solutions.

20.

Choose the alignment that fits.

Make sure the alignment chosen for all

areas of text are legible and consistent with the design and guidelines. Left-aligned

text is easier to read and set. Justified text

is harder to set w/o inevitable word spacing problems. Right-aligned and centered are generally not used for body copy.


Type Rules Defined

21. 22.

Kerning in headlines Adjust the space between two particular letters to allow for more consistent negative sapce. Larger type calls for more kerning.

25.

Same words for three consecutive lines Since software programs deal with line

breaks automatically based upon a number

of variables, it is possible to have paragraphs with consecutive lines beginning with the same word. When this happens simply

adjust the text to avoid/fix the problem.

23.

Always spell check.

Once you are finished with your design, spell check the text using both of the

following: A. Use spell=check option that comes with the software you are using

for the project. B. Print the document and read it. The monitor and design of the

document will make text look perfect when

it may not be. Even if text is given to you by a client, check it. Never ever assume that it is correct. Keep a dictionary close as well.

24.

Avoid widows and orphans.

Widows are either single words alone on a line or single sentences alone on a new

page. Orphans are single lines of copy alone at the end of a page.

26.

Rules of hyphenation Don’t rely on the software to judge where hyphens should be placed. At the end of lines, leave at least two characters behind and take at least three forward. For example, “ele-gantly” is acceptable, but “elegantly” is not because it takes too little of the word to the next line. Avoid leaving the stub end of a hyphenated word or any word shorter then four letters as the last line of a paragraph. Avoid more then 3 consecutive hyphenated lines. Avoid hyphenating or breaking proper names and titles. Creating a non-breaking space before and after the name will ensure no break. Indents

In continuous text, mark all paragraphs

after the first with an indent of at least one “em” (3 spaces). Do NOT use three spaces

but rather use the tabs or indents option in

27.

Items in a series Items in a series do not use a comma before the word “and.” (i.e., ‘peaches, apples and oranges.’) The comma is never needed.


/11

“ No other design discipline requires so much learning and training as typography.” ­ — Dmitry Kirsanov


/13

SPECIAL CHARACTERS


Special Characters

©Á à ® Copyright

Acute Accent

Tilde Accent

Circumflex Accent

Registered

The uppercase A is commonly used to show different latin accent marks. Option is always used as one of the shortkeys.


three

/15

The following is a list of the most often-used special characters and accent marks. These

are the key combinations for just about every accent you might need when using text.

Opening Double Quote

Option [

Opening Single Quote

Option ]

Closing Double Quote Closing Single Quote Apostrophe En Dash

Em Dash Ellipsis Bullet

Ligature off an I

Ligature off an L Copyright

Trademark Registered

Degree Symbol Cent Symbol

Euro Symbol

Fraction Bar

Acute Accent

” ’ ’

… •

fi fl

©

™ ® °

¢ € ⁄

´

Grave Accent

`

Tilde Accent

˜

Diaeresis

Circumflex Accent

¨ ˆ

Option Shift [ Option Shift ] Option Shift ]

Option Hyphen

Option Shift Hyphen Option ;

Option 8

Option Shift 5 Option Shift 6 Option g

Option 2 Option r

Option Shift 8 Option $

Option Shift 2 Option Shift 1 Option e

Option ~

Option u

Option n Option i


Special Characters

Copyright, Register And Trademark Marks The copyright, register, and trademark characters need to be reduced to work

with body text. At times, depending on the typeface, you may need to reduce the mark

between 50% and 70%. The goal is to match the x-height. The copyright mark should

be approximately 70% of the surrounding text. Unlike the ™ symbol, the © should

Ellipsis Character Use the ellipsis character and not three

periods. You can access the ellipsis by typing Option + : (colon). Allow a small amount of space before and after. However if it is not crowding the text, leave no space at all.

Accent Marks

NOT be superscripted and should remain

Remember, to set an accent mark over a

for the chosen font. ™ and ® are normally

then press the letter you want under it.

on the baseline. ™ is usually superscripted set higher then other marks. If you choose to superscript ®, reduce it by about 60%.

letter, press the Option key and the letter,


/17

“ There is no single approach within typography that applies to everything.” — Shelley Gruendler


/19

USING GRIDS


Using Grids

5x5

4x5

3x4

Typographic Grid: two-dimensional structure made up of a series of intersecting vertical and horizontal axes used to structure content


four

/21

The Grid When Designing a layout and working with text

This all sounds rather formulaic, and easy. But

and/or images the use of a grid is essential, as it

designers whose grids produce dynamic or very

is the basis on which information is organized

subtle results take these rules as a starting point

and clarified, ensuring legibility. The grid provides

only, developing flexible structures in which their

a framework were text, image and space can be

sensibility can flourish.

combined into a cohesive manner. Grids often need to be designed to give more A grid subdivides a page vertically and horizon-

flexibility than the single column of text per page

tally into margins, columns, inter-column spaces,

( Jan Tschichold's grid). This is due to to a change

lines of type, and spaces between blocks of type

in our reading patterns. Grid structures have to

and images. These subdivisions form the basis of

accommodate a greater variety of material such as

a modular and systematic approach to the layout,

photographs, illustrations, headings, captions, ref-

particularly for multipage documents, making

erences, charts; they need to be more complicated

the design process quicker, and ensuring visual

than a grid using only text and may utilize more

consistency between related pages.

modules. The design of the grid had to be relevant to the purpose, and is there as an organizing tool.

At its most basic, the sizes of a gridâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s component parts are determined by ease of reading and handling. From the sizes of type to the overall page or sheet size, decision-making is derived from physiology and the psychology of perception as much as by aesthetics. Type sizes are generally determined by hierarchyâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;captions smaller than body text and so onâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;column widths by optimum word counts of eight to ten words to the line, and overall layout by the need to group related items.


Using Grids

Tschichold Grid Jan Tschichold popularized a historical reconstruction of a method in the twentith century that is still used in book design to divide a page in pleasing proportions. The geometric solution works for any page width:height ratio, and enables the book designer to position the text body in a specific area of the page.


/23

The Golden Section This typographic tool, also known as golden ratio, compares the proportion of the two divisions of a straight line or the two dimensions of a plane figure such that the smaller is to the larger as the larger is to the sum of the two. Jan Tschichold also used this method frequently.


Using Grids

Modular Grid These grids lend themselves to the design of tabular information such as charts, forms, navigation, schedules, and of course tables of data. They can help standardize the space in tables and help integrate tables with any surrounding text or images. Each module in the grid can define a small chunk of information.


/25

Typograhic Column Grid These grids are good when discontinuous information needs to be presented. You might have various asides, pull quotes, etc in your design, which can occupy different columns in the grid. One column might be reserved for text, another for images, and yet another for image captions. This leads to a large amount of flexibility when organizing.


Using Grids

Symmetrical Grid The type of grid shown is characterized by or exhibiting symmetry; well-proportioned, as a body or whole; regular in form or arrangement of corresponding parts. The grid has a structure that exhibits a regular repeated pattern of the component parts, which organizes information in a congruent form and context.


/27

Asymmetrical Grid This type of grid is known for asymmetrically organizing the design elements in a mathematically-constructed way to create visual unity in a composition, but in a more expressive light. This is opposite of the symmetrical grid style.


Using Grids

Baseline Grids Modular grids are created by positioning

A typographic grid is a two-dimensional

horizontal guidelines in relation to a baseline

structure made up of a series of intersecting verti-

grid that governs the whole document.

cal and horizontal axes used to structure content. The grid serves as an armature on which a de-

Baseline grids serve to anchor all (or nearly all)

signer can organize text and images in a rational,

layout elements to a common rhythm. Create a

easy to absorb manner.

baseline grid by choosing the typesize and leading of your text, such as 10-pt Scala Pro with 12 pts

The less common printing term â&#x20AC;&#x153;reference grid,â&#x20AC;? is

leading (10/12). Avoid auto leading so that you

an unrelated system with roots in the early days of

can work with whole numbers that multiply and

printing when not so many grids were invented.

divide cleanly. Use this line space increment to set the baseline grid in your document preferences.

By the mid 1970s instruction of the typographic grid as a part of graphic design curricula had

Adjust the top or bottom page margin to absorb

become standard in Europe, North America and

any space left over by the baseline grid. Determine

much of Latin America. The graphic style of the

the number of horizontal page units in relation

grid was adopted as a look for corporate commu-

to the numer of lines in your baseline grid. Count

nication. In the early 1980s, a reaction against the

how many lines fit in a full column of text and

entrenchment of the grid, particularly its

then choose a number that divides evenly into the

dogmatic use, and association with corporate cul-

line count to create horizontal page divisions. A

ture, resulted in some designers rejecting its use

column with forty-two lines of text divides neatly

in favor of more organic structure.

into seven horizontal modules with six lines each. If your line count is not neatly divisible, adjust the top and/or bottom page margins to absorb the leftover lines. Always try to use even numbers.


/29

Baseline Grid These specific grids serve to anchor all (or nearly all) layout elements to a common rhythm. To create a succesful and visually pleasing baseline grid designers start by choosing the typesize and leading of the textual content that will be used in their composition.


/31

QUOTES & APOSTROPHES


‘ “’

“‘

Opening single quote Inch mark

Opening double quote

Foot mark

Quotes & Apostrophes

Apostrophe

Apostrophe: Opening double quote: Closing double quote: Opening single quote: Closing single quote:

’ “ ” ‘ ’

Type: Option Shift ] Type: Option [ Type: Option Shift ] Type: Option [ Type: Option Shift ]


five

/33

Quotes

Apostrophes

Use true quotation marks and apostrophes

As an aside, people often are confused about

instead of using inch marks and feet marks. Place

where the apostrophe belongs. There are a couple

all punctuations inside the quotation marks.

of rules that work very well.

Use real quotation marks—never those

For possessives: Turn the phrase around.

grotesque generic marks that actually symbolize ditto/inch or foot marks: use “and”—not “and”.

The apostrophe will be placed after whatever

Most software applications will convert the

word you end up with. For example, in the phrase

typewriter quotes to t he real quotes for you

the boys’ camp, to know where to place the

automatically as you type. Check the preferences

apostrophe say to yourself, “The camp belongs to

for your application—you’ll find a check box to

the boys.” The phrase the boy’s camp says

tell your application to automatically set some-

“The camp belongs to the boy.”

thing like “typographer’s quotes,” “smart quotes,” or “curly quotes.” Then as you type using the

“The big exception to this is “its.” “Its” used as a

standard ditto key (“), the software will set the

possessive never has an apostrophe! The word it

correct quotation marks for you.

only has an apostrophe as a contraction — “it’s” always means “it is” or “it has.” Always.

It is necessary to know how to set smart quotes/ real quotes yourself because sometimes the soft-

It may be easier to remember if you recall that

ware doesn’t do it or does it wrong.

yours, hers, and his don’t use apostrophes—and neither should its. Ever.


Quotes & Apostrophes

Contractions The apostrophe replaces the missing letter. For example: your’re always means you are; the apostrophe is replacing the a from are. That’s an easy way to distinguish it from your as in your house and to make sure you don’t say: Your going to the store.

As previously noted, it’s means “it is”; the apos-

trophe is indicating where the i is left out. Don’t means “do not”; the apostrophe is indicating where the o is left out.

For omission of letters: In a phrase such as Rock

’n’ Roll, there should be an apostrophe before and after the n, because the a and the d are both left out. And don’t turn the first apostrophe around —just because it appears in front of the letter

does not mean you need to use the opposite single

quote. An apostrophe is still the appropriate mark.

In a phrase such as House o’ Fashion, the apostrophe takes the place of the f. There is not earthly reason for an apostrophe to be set before the o.

In a phrase such as Gone Fishin’ the same pattern is followed—the g is missing.

In a date when part of the year is left out, an

apostrophe needs to indicate the missing year. I n the 80s would mean the temperature; In the

’80s would mean the decade. (Notice there is no apostrophe before the s! Why would there be? It is not possessive, nor is it a contraction— it is simply plural.


/35

Bridge Clearance: 16’7” The young man stood 6’2”. The length of the wall is 153’9”.


/37

TYPES OF DASHES


-— –

Types of Dashes

hyphen

en dash

em dash

En Dash: Option + Hyphen Em Dash: Shift + Option + Hyphen


six

/39

Dashes Use proper ‘em’ dashes, ‘en’ dashes, and hyphens.

A hyphen is one third of the em rule and is used

Never use two hyphens instead of a dash.

to link words. It serves as a compound modifier where two words become one, such as x-height.

Everyone knows what a hyphens is —that tiny

A hyphen is also used to break works at syllables

little dash that belongs in some words, like

in text blocks, such as these.

mother-in-law, or in phone numbers. It’s also used to break a word at the end of a line.

An en dash is half of the em rule (the width of a capital N) and is used between words that indicate

You might have been taught to use or given

a duration, such as time or months or years. Use it

text that uses a double hyphen -- to indicate a

where you might otherwise use the word “to.”

dash. This is a typewriter convention because typewriters didn’t have the real dash used in

In a page layout application, the en dash can be

professional typesetting. On a Mac, no one needs

used with a thin space on either side of it. If you

to use the double hyphen—we have a profes-

want you can kern it so it is not a full space.

sional em dash, the long one, such as you see in this sentence. We also have an en dash, which is

The em dash is twice as long as the en dash—it’s

a little shorter than the em dash.

about the size of a capital letter M in whatever size and typeface you’re using at the moment. This

An em is a unit of measure equal to the point

dash is often used in place of a colon or paren-

size that you are using. An em dash is a type of

theses, or it might indicate an abrupt change in

punctuation used to offset clauses in a sentence

thought, or it’s used in a spot where a period is too

or to indicate an abrupt change in thought. An

strong and a comma is too weak. It is also used for

en dash is equal to half the length of an em dash.

attribution of text. —Mac is not a Typewriter

En dashes are used to denote duration (time.) Our equivalent on the typewriter was the double hyphen, but now we have a real em dash.


Types of Dashes

‐ – — n nm Using two hyphens (or worse, one) where there should be an em dash makes your look very unprofessional.


/41

“ Negative space is magical. Create it. Don’t just fill it up.” —Timothy Samara


/43

SMALL CAPS


Small Caps

AaA A Uppercase

Lowercase

Small Caps (Fake)

Small Caps (True)

Use small caps for acronyms. Use small caps for abbreviations. Use true small caps fonts.


seven

/45

Small Caps

Uses

Small caps are uppercase (capital) letters that

Use small caps for acronyms. Set acronyms

are about the size of normal lowercase letters

such as NASA or NASDAQ in small caps when

in any given typeface.

they appear in body text or headlines.

Small caps are less intrusive when all uppercase

Use small caps for common abbreviations.

appears within normal text or can be used for

Set common abbreviations such as AM or PM

special emphasis. Computer programs can

in small caps so they donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t overpower the

generate small caps for a any typeface, but those

accompanying text. Use small caps for A.M. and

are not the same as true small caps. True small

P.M.; space once after the number, and use

caps have line weights that are proportionally

periods. (if the font does not have small caps

correct for the typeface, which me and that they

reduce the font size slightly)

can be used within a body of copy without looking noticeably wrong. But still use true small caps.

Use true small caps fonts. Avoid simply resizing capital letters or using the small caps feature in

When setting text that contains acronyms,

some programs. Instead use typefaces that have

select a typeface with small caps as a family.

been specifically created as small caps.

Selecting small caps from the style menus is a poor choice because the compute reduces the overall size of the type by 80%. This changes the stroke weight and the feel of the font.


Small Caps

A bc d

A bc d Mrs Eaves True Small Caps

Memphis Fake Small Caps

Regular

Medium

72pt

72pt

NBA FBI CIA

NBA FBI CIA


/47

Ab cd A bc d Caslon 3 True Small Caps

Akzidenz Grotesk Fake Small Caps

Roman

Regular

72pt

72pt

NBA FBI CIA

NBA FBI CIA


Small Caps

A bc d

Abcd

Garamond True Small Caps

Clarendon Fake Small Caps

Regular

Regular

72pt

72pt

NBA FBI CIA

NBA FBI CIA


/49

Abcd

Abcd Goudy True Small Caps

Bell Gothic Fake Small Caps

Regular

Bold

72pt

72pt

NBA FBI CIA

NBA FBI CIA


Small Caps

A bc d

A bc d New Baskerville True Small Caps

Cheltenham Fake Small Caps

Regular

Book

72pt

72pt

NBA FBI CIA

NBA FBI CIA


/51

Abcd A b c d Bodoni True Small Caps

Belizio Fake Small Caps

Roman

Medium

72pt

72pt

NBA FBI CIA

NBA FBI CIA


Small Caps

Abcd

Ab c d Scala Sans True Small Caps

Futura Fake Small Caps

Regular

Book

72pt

72pt

NBA FBI CIA

NBA FBI CIA


/53

A bc d

A bc d Cholla True Small Caps

Rockwell Fake Small Caps

Wide

Regular

72pt

72pt

NBA FBI CIA

NBA FBI CIA


/55

OLDSTYLE FIGURES


Oldstyle Figures

4389762 4389762 Oldstyle Figures

Regular Figures

Regular (lining) figures (numerals) rest on the baseline. Oldstyle (Non-lining) figures (numerals) have descenders that fall below the baseline. Only some fonts have oldstyle.


eight

/57

Numerals/Figures

Placement

Oldstyle figures, also known as non-lining

Unlike lining figures, Oldstyle figures blend

figures do not line up on the baseline as

in without disturbing the color of the body copy.

regular or lining numerals do. They also work well in headlines since they’re They can be found in various fonts. Oldstyle

not as intrusive as lining figures. In fact, many

figures are a style of numeral which approximate

people prefer them overall for most uses except

lowercase letterforms by having an x-height

charts and tables. It’s well worth the extra effort

and varying ascenders and descenders. They are

to track down and obtain typefaces with oldstyle

considerably different from the more common

figures; the fonts that contain them might well

“lining” (or “aligning”) figures which are all-cap

become some of your favorites.

height and typically monospaced in text faces so that they line up vertically on charts.

If the body text has a significant amount of numbers, research a font family where they are

Oldstyle figures have more of a traditional, classic

included. If non-lining numerals are not

look and are very useful and quite beautiful when

available, use a slightly smaller point size for

set within text. They are only available for certain

the lining numbers. Think of lining numbers as

typefaces, sometimes as the regular numerals in

upper case numbers and non-lining numbers as

a font, but more often within a supplementary or

lower case numbers. Non-lining are preferred.

expert font. The figures are proportionately spaced, eliminating the white spaces that result from monospaced lining figures, especially around the numeral one. Double check spacing.


Oldstyle Figures

Ne w B a s k e r vi l le

B a u er B od on i

Oldstyle Figures

Oldstyle Figures 12 134 17 1023 323 12.5
 134.0 17.8 1023.4 323.0

12 134 17 1023 323 12.5
 134.0 17.8 1023.4 323.0

12 134 17 1023 323 12.5 
134.0 17.8 1023.4 323.0

12 134 17 1023 323 12.5
 134.0 17.8 1023.4 323.0


/59

Bookman

Lin o t yp e D idot

Oldstyle Figures

Oldstyle Figures

12 134 17 1023 323 12.5
 134.0 17.8 1023.4 323.0

12 134 17 1023 323 12.5
 134.0 17.8 1023.4 323.0

12 134 17 1023 323 12.5
 134.0 17.8 1023.4 323.0

12 134 17 1023 323 12.5
 134.0 17.8 1023.4 323.0


Oldstyle Figures

Ch ol l a W i d e

C aslon 540

Oldstyle Figures

Oldstyle Figures 12 134 17 1023 323 12.5
 134.0 17.8 1023.4 323.0

12 134 17 1023 323 12.5
 134.0 17.8 1023.4 323.0

12 134 17 1023 323 12.5 134.0 17.8 1023.4 323.0

12 134 17 1023 323 12.5
 134.0 17.8 1023.4 323.0


/61

Pa l a t i n o

Sab o n

Oldstyle Figures

Oldstyle Figures 12 134 17 1023 323 12.5
 134.0 17.8 1023.4 323.0

12 134 17 1023 323 12.5
 134.0 17.8 1023.4 323.0

12 134 17 1023 323 12.5
 134.0 17.8 1023.4 323.0

12 134 17 1023 323 12.5 134.0 17.8 1023.4 323.0


/63

X-HEIGHT


X-Height

Xx

Adobe Caslon Regular

X-height: distance a font exceeds or receeds between the baseline and mean line.


nine

/65

Type Legibility

Typographic Color

Readability and legibility are two key

In typography, color can also describe the

elements of printed text that typographer

balance between black and white on the page of

strive to maximize.

text. A typeface’s color is determined by stroke width, x-height, character width and serif styles.

Readability extended amount of text – such as an article, book, or annual report – is easy

As a designer, if you are only asked to make

to read. Legibility refers to whether an refers

the text readable on the page the following

to whether a short burst of text – such as a

questions should be asked:

headline catalog listing, or stop sign – is instantly recognizable.

Who is to read it? Someone that wants to read it? Someone

There are several factors that determine whether

that has to read it?

a text is readable. When deciding what typeface should be used for a job, consideration should be

How will it be read?

given to the typeface and its x-height. It is impor-

Quickly. In passing. Focused. Near. Far.

tant to understand how a block of text can express a message through its texture/color, therefore suiting a particular design solution. Fonts set in the same size, same leading and column width will produce varying degrees of “color”.


X-Height

A typefaceâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s color is determined by stroke width, x-height, character width and serif styles.


/67

X x h g X x hg MELIOR Hermann Zapf

INTERSTATE Tobias Frere-Jones

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions.

9/11 x-height: average character width: average color: light

9/11 x-height: large character width: narrow color: dark


X-Height

X xhg

Xxhg

mrs eaves Zuzana Licko

UNIVERS Adrian Frutiger

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed and power.

9/11 x-height: small character width: average color: light

x-height: average character width: narrow color: dark


/69

Xx h g

Xxhg

GARAMOND Claude Garamond

trade gothic Jackson Burke

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values.

9/11 x-height: small character width: narrow color: light

x-height: large character width: wide color: dark


X-Height

X x hg

Xxhg

BODONI Giambattista Bodoni

AKZIDENZ GROTESK GĂźnter Gerhard Lange

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction.

9/11 x-height: small character width: narrow color: light

x-height: average character width: narrow color: light


/71

Xx h g

Xxhg

PALATINO Hermann Zapf

META Erik Spiekermann

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction.

9/11 x-height: average character width: wide, narrow, average color: light

x-height: average character width: narrow color: dark


X-Height

Xxh g

Xxhg

BEMBO Francesco Griffo

BELL GOTHIC Chauncey H. Griffith

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions.

9/11 x-height: small character width: narrow color: light

x-height: average character width: narrow color: light


/73

X x h g X xhg BELIZIO David Berlow

FRUTIGER Adrian Frutiger

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums.

9/11 x-height: large character width: wide color: dark

x-height: large character width: narrow color: dark


X-Height

Xxhg

X x hg

ADOBE CASLON William Caslon

FUTURA Paul Renner

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation.

9/11 x-height: average character width: average color: light

x-height: average character width: average color: dark


/75

X x h g X xh g WALBAUM Justus Walbaum

SCALA SANS Martin Majoor

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institution.

9/11 x-height: large character width: wide color: dark

x-height: average character width: narrow color: light


X-Height

X x hg

Xxhg

SABON Jan Tschichold

FRANKLIN GOTHIC Morris Fuller Benton

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institution.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction.

9/11 x-height: average character width: wide color: dark

x-height: large character width: narrow color: light


/77

“ Type needs a human eye for the fine tuning. Don’t rely on the software to do a designer’s job.” —Robin Williams


/79

COLUMN WIDTH


Column Width

This is

body text.

This is body text.

This is body text.

This is body text.

Text doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t have to follow column width.

Column Width: Measurement expressing the width of a single column within the layout grid


ten

/81

Determine Line Length A general guideline for determining if your line length is long enough to satisfactorily justify the text: The line length in picas should be about twice the point size of the type; that is, if the type you are using is 12 point, the line length should be at least 24 picas (24 picas is 4 inches-simply divide the number of picas by 6, as there are 6 picas per inch). Thus 9-point type should be on an 18-pica line (3 inches) before you try to justify it, and 18-point type should be on a 36-pica line (6 inches). The rulers in most programs can be changed to picas, if you like.


Column Width

Wide Column

Narrow Column

A general guideline for determining if your line length is long

A general guideline for

enough to satisfactorily justify the text: the line length in picas

determining if your line length

should be about twice the point size of the type; that is, if the

is long enough to satisfactorily

type you are using is 12 point, the line length should be at least

justify the text: the line length

24 picas (24 picas is 4 inches-simply divide the number of picas

in picas should be about twice

by 6, as there are 6 picas per inch). Thus 9-point type should

the point size of the type; that

be on an 18-pica line (3 inches) before you try to justify it, and

is, if the type you are using

18-point type should be on a 36-pica line (6 inches). The rulers

is 12 point, the line length

in most programs can be changed to picas, if you like.

should be at least 24 picas (24 picas is 4 inches-simply divide the number of picas by 6, as there are 6 picas per inch). Thus 9-point type should be on an 18-pica line (3 inches) before you try to justify it, and 18-point type should be on a 36-pica line (6 inches). The rulers in most programs can be changed to picas, if you like.


/83

“ It is the designer’s task to match form with content; to create an authoritative document.” — Nick Shinn


/85

USING LEADING


Using Leading

Less distance between lines.

40/25

More distance between lines.

40/60

Leading: the distance between the baselines of successive lines of type


eleven

/87

History

Points

Spacing within a paragraph should be consistent.

Now, the type was measured in points, just like the type on the Mac (72 points per inch).

We often set an initial cap or a word in a larger point size than the rest of the text. This affects

The leading was also measured in points. If the

the linespacing, or leading (the space between

type was 10 points high and the little piece of lead

the lines of type); if even one letter or word is

inserted between the lines was 2 points high, then

larger, the linespacing adjusts to fit the larger

the 2 points was added onto the point size of the

character(s), creating uneven spacing.

type and the leading was called 12 point.

The history of the term leading may give you a

It’s usually possible to correct the spacing,

better grasp of what leading itself accomplishes

depending on the program you’re creating it in.

and how you can best adjust it.

If your application allows you to adjust the leading, then select the entire paragraph and reset the

Until the early ’70s (yes the 1970s), all printed

leading to what it originally was for the smaller

type was set in hot metal. Each letter – each

type. Sometimes you can adjust the leading, but

and every little letter – was cast onto a tiny piece

it won’t let you go smaller than the auto-leading

of lead backwards so when printed the letter

for the larger size, the one that’s disruptive; in that

would be facing the right direction. All of these

case you’ll need to adjust the line spacing for the

letters were lined up in a row, with other tiny

entire paragraph to match the larger size.

pieces of blank metal stuck between the words to separate them correctly.


Using Leading

Normal

Not Enough

Too Much

Linespacing within a paragraph should

Linespacing within a paragraph should be consistent. We often set an initial cap or a word in a larger point size than the rest of the text. This affects the linespacing, or leading (the space between the lines of type); if even one letter or word is larger, the linespacing adjusts to fit the larger character(s), creating uneven spacing.

Linespacing within a paragraph should be

be consistent. We often set an initial cap or a word in a larger point size than the rest of the text. This affects the linespacing, or leading (the space between the lines of type); if even one letter or word is larger, the linespacing adjusts to fit the larger character(s), creating uneven spacing.

consistent. We often set an initial cap or a word in a larger point size than the rest of the text. This affects the linespacing, or leading (the space between the lines of type); if even one letter or word is larger, the linespacing adjusts to fit the larger character(s), creating uneven spacing.

Leading: 14pt

Leading: 9pt

Leading: 22pt


/89

“ Type is a beautiful group of letters, not a group of beautiful letters.” —Matthew Carter


/91

USING KERNING


Using Kerning

Less space between letters. -50

More space between letters. +40

Kerning: the adjusting of spacing within the letter forms of a proportional font


twelve

/93

Kerning Type

Within Applications

One of the most important things a

Kerning is not possible in all applications;

professional typesetter does for a client is kern the

typically you’ll find it in page layout programs

type, no matter what the subject matter.

or in applications where text manipulation is a primary feature. You won’t usually find it possible

Kerning is the process of removing small units

to control the kerning in a word processor.

of space between letters in order to create visually consistent letterspacing; the larger the letters, the

In those applications where it is possible,

more critical it is to adjust their spacing. Awkward

each character and space is broken down into

letterspacing not only looks naïve and unprofes-

little sections, called units; 48 units per character

sional, it can disrupt the communication.

is a common breakdown. Using the kerning function, it is possible to take out one of those

The secret of kerning is that it is totally

units at a time between letters, allowing for very

dependent on your eye, not on the machine.

precise positioning. Check the manual for the

Remember, the point is to keep the spacing con-

particular method for kerning in your application.

sistent – there should visually appear to be the same amount of space between all letters. It’s not critical how much – it’s critical that whatever it is be consistent. You can usually focus better on that white space of you look at the text with your eyes squinted. Try it.


Using Kerning

Normal

Negative

Extreme

One of the most important things a

One of the most important things a professional

One of the most important things

professional typesetter does for a client

typesetter does for a client is kern the type.Kerning is the

a professional typesetter does for

is kern the type. Kerning is the process

process of removing small units of space between letters in

a client is kern the type. Kerning

of removing small units of space between

order to create visually consistent letterspacing;the larger

is the process of removing small

letters in order to create visually consistent

the letters,the more critical it is to adjust their spacing.

units of space between letters in

letterspacing; the larger the letters, the

Awkward letterspacing not only looks na誰ve and unpro-

order to create visually consis-

more critical it is to adjust their spacing.

fessional,it can disrupt the communication of the words.

tent letterspacing; the larger the

Awkward letterspacing not only looks na誰ve

letters, the more critical it is to

and unprofessional, it can disrupt the

a d j u s t t h e i r s p a c i n g . Aw k w a rd

communication of the words.

letterspacing not only looks na誰ve and unprofessional, it can disrupt t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n o f t h e w o rd s .

Kerning: 10

Kerning: -100

Kerning: 110


/95

“ I do not think of type as something that should only be readable. It should be beautiful.” — Ed Benguiat


/97

ALIGNING TEXT


Aligning Text

Left Aligned (Ragged Right)

Centered

Justified (Last Line Left Aligned)

No matter what alignment you are using, remember to pay close attention to hyphenation and character spacing.


thirteen

/99

Alignments

Right and Wrong

In unjustified text, the text block is set with

If they are both wrong, then whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s right?

normal letter and word spacing. Alignment is only a small piece of the puzzle. Because of the even word spacing the text will

What works for one design might be totally inap-

have an even texture â&#x20AC;&#x201C; no large spaces between

propriate for another layout. As with all layouts, it

words. The lines will naturally vary in length. a

depends on the purpose of the piece, the audience

ragged text block can integrate with the layout

and its expectations, the fonts, the margins and

and add visual interest to the page. The difficulty is

white space, and other elements on the page. The

making the ragged edge have a pleasing silhouette.

most appropriate choice is the alignment that

When the first line in the text is longer than the

works for that particular design.

second, it becomes separate from the layout and creates a box-like shape. This destroys one of the

As with all layouts, alignment depends on the

advantages of unjustified text. The ragged edge

purpose of the piece, the audience and its

needs to have a life, but a narrow column can

expectations, the fonts, the margins and white

be less active. Another advantage to ragged text

space, and other elements on the page. The most

is less hyphenation is needed. Therefore, names,

appropriate choice is the alignment that works

dates or words which are normally read together

for that particular design.

can stay together and not be seperated. No matter what alignment you use, remember If someone insists that fully justified text is better

to pay close attention to hyphenation and word/

than left-aligned text, tell them they are wrong.

character spacing as well to insure that your text

If someone else tells you that left-aligned text is

is as readable as possible.

better than justified text, tell them they are wrong. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a personal preference.

There will undoubtedly be well-meaning friends, business associates, clients, and others who will question your choices. Be prepared to explain why you chose the alignment you did and be prepared.


Aligning Text

Left-Aligned, Ragged Right

Justified, Last Line Ragged

1. Often considered more informal, but also

1. Often considered more formal, but also less

2. The ragged right edge adds an element

2. Usually allows for more characters per line,

friendlier than justified text. of attractive white space.

3. May require extra attention to hyphenation to keep right margin from being too ragged.

4. Generally type set left-aligned is easier to

work with (requires less time, attention, and tweaking from designers to make it look good).

Centered, All Lines 1. There is nothing inherently wrong with choosing to use centered text.

2. As with ragged right or fully-justified text

alignment, what works for one design might be totally inappropriate for another layout.

3. There are simply fewer situations where centered text is appropriate.

4. When in doubt, don’t center it.

friendly than left-aligned text.

packing more into the same amount of space (than the same text set left-aligned).

3. May require extra attention to word and character spacing and hyphenation to avoid unsightly rivers of white space running through the text.

4. May be more familiar to readers in some types of publications, such as books and newspapers.

5. Some people are naturally drawn to the “neatness” of text that lines up on the left and right.


/101

“ Right and wrong don’t exist in design. There is only effective and non-effective communication.” — Peter Bilak


/103

USING HYPENATION


-

Using Hypenation

Hypen

At the end of lines, leave at least two characters behind and take at least three forward.


fourteen

/105

Hyphenating Don’t rely on the software to judge where hyphens should be placed. At the end of lines, leave at least two characters behind and take at least three forward. For example, “ele-gantly” is acceptable, but “elegantly” is not because it takes too little of the word to the next line. Avoid leaving the stub end of a hyphenated word or any word shorter then four letters as the last line of a paragraph. 

Avoid more then 3 consecutive hyphenated lines. Avoid hyphenating or breaking proper names and titles. Creating a non-breaking space before and after the name will ensure that the name will not break. Avoid beginning three consecutive lines with the same word repeated. Since software programs deal with line breaks automatically based upon a number of variables, it is possible to have paragraphs with consecutive lines beginning with the same word. When this happens simply adjust the text to avoid/fix the problem.


Using Hypenation

Hyphenation Rules 1. Avoid widows in all paragraphs (one word on the last line of a paragraph)

2. Avoid hyphenating or line breaks for proper names and proper nouns.

3. Leave a least two characters on the line and three following the hyphen.

4. Avoid beginning three consecutive lines in a paragraph with the same word.

5. Avoid ending lines with the words: the, of, at, a, by, etc.

6. Never hyphenate a words in a headline and avoid hyphenation in any callouts.


/107

The serif typeface sat elegantly on the baseline grid of the book spread.


/109

USING JUSTIFICATION


Using Justification

.

Rivers

.

Widow

Orphan

Always avoid rivers, widows and orphans when using justification in body copy.


fifteen

/111

When to Justify

Guidelines

Justify text only if the line is long enough to

When your work comes out of the printer, turn

prevent awkward and inconsistent word spacing.

it upside down and squint at it. The rivers will be very easy to spot. Get rid of them. Try squinting at

The only time you can safely justify text is if your

the example on the bottom of the previous page.

type is small enough and your line is long enough, as in books where the text goes all the way across

A general guideline for determining if your line

the page. If your line is shorter, as in newsletter,

length is long enough to satisfactorily justify the

or if you don’t have many words on the line, than

text: the line length in picas should be about

as the type aligns to the margins the words space

twice the point size of the type; that is, if the type

themselves to accommodate it. It usually looks

you are using is 12 point, the line length should

awkward. You’ve seen newspaper columns where

be at least 24 picas (24 picas is 4 inches-simply

all text is justified, often with a word stretching

divide the number of picas by 6, as there are 6

all the way across the column, or a little word on

picas per inch). Thus 9-point type should be on

either side of the column with a big gap in the

an 18-pica line (3 inches) before you try to justify

middle. Gross. But that’s what can happen with

it, and 18-point type should be on a 36-pica line

justified type. When you do it, the effect might

(6 inches). The rulers in most programs can be

not be as radical as the newspaper column, but if

changed to picas, if you like.

your lines are relatively short, you will inevitably end up with uncomfortable gaps in some lines, while other lines will be all squished.


Using Justification

Rivers

Widows

In typography, rivers, or rivers of white, are

When a paragraph ends and leaves fewer

visually unattractive gaps appearing to run

than seven characters (not words, characters) on

down a paragraph of text. They can occur with

the last line, that line is called a widow. Worse

any spacing, though they are most noticeable

than leaving one word at the end of a line is

with wide word spaces caused by either full text

leaving part of a word, the other part being

justification or monospaced fonts.

paraphrased on the line above.

Widows and Orphans

Orphan

Never leave widows and orphans bereft on the

When the last line of a paragraph, be it ever so

page. Avoid both of these situations. If you

long, wonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t fit at the bottom of a column and

have editing privileges, rewrite the copy, or at

must end itself at the top of the next column,

least add or delete a word or two. Sometimes

that is an orphan. Always correct this.

you can remove spacing from the letters, words, or lines, depending on which program youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re working in. Sometimes widening a margin just a hair will do it. But it must be done. Widows and orphans on a page are wrong.


/113

Universe 59

Interstate

Scala Sans

One of the most important things a professional typesetter does

One of the most important things a pro-

One of the most important things a pro-

for a client is kern the type. Kerning is the process of removing

fessional typesetter does for a client is

fessional typesetter does for a client is

small units of space between letters in order to create visually

kern the type. Kerning is the process of

kern the type. Kerning is the process of

consistent letterspacing; the larger the letters, the more critical it

removing small units of space between

removing small units of space between let-

is to adjust their spacing. Awkward letterspacing not only looks

letters in order to create visually con-

ters in order to create visually consistent

na誰ve and unprofessional, it can disrupt the communication of

sistent letterspacing; the larger the

letterspacing; the larger the letters, the

the words.

letters, the more critical it is to adjust

more critical it is to adjust their spacing.

their spacing.

Awkward letterspacing

Awkward letterspacing not only looks na-

not only looks na誰ve and unprofession-

誰ve and unprofessional, it can disrupt the

al, it can disrupt the communication of

communication of the words.

the words.

Min: 80%

Min: 83%

Min: 90%

Desired: 100%

Desired: 103%

Desired: 110%

Maximum: 133%

Maximum: 136%

Maximum: 143%

Problems: Widow, Letter spacing too small

Problems: Rivers, Widows

Problem: None, Most comfortable setting


Using Justification

Meta

Frutiger 57

One of the most important things a profes-

One of the most important things a profes-

sional typesetter does for a client is kern

sional typesetter does for a client is kern

the type. Kerning is the process of remov-

the type. Kerning is the process of removing

ing small units of space between letters

small units of space between letters in order

in order to create visually consistent let-

to create visually consistent letterspacing;

terspacing; the larger the letters, the more

the larger the letters, the more critical it is

critical it is to adjust their spacing. Awk-

to adjust their spacing. Awkward letterspac-

ward letterspacing not only looks na誰ve

ing not only looks na誰ve and unprofessional,

and unprofessional, it can disrupt the com-

it can disrupt the communication of the

munication of the words.

words.

Min: 60%

Min: 150%

Desired: 60%

Desired: 150%

Maximum: 60%

Maximum: 200%

Problem: Not enoug space between words

Problems: Widow, Rivers


/115

Goudy

Bembo

Belizio

One of the most important things a pro-

One of the most important things a profession-

One of the most important things

fessional typesetter does for a client is

al typesetter does for a client is kern the type.

a professional typesetter does for

kern the type. Kerning is the process of

Kerning is the process of removing small units

a client is kern the type. Kerning

removing small units of space between let-

of space between letters in order to create visu-

is the process of removing small

ters in order to create visually consistent

ally consistent letterspacing; the larger the let-

units of space between letters in

letterspacing; the larger the letters, the

ters,the more critical it is to adjust their spacing.

order to create visually consis-

more critical it is to adjust their spacing.

Awkward letterspacing not only looks na誰ve

tent letterspacing; the larger the

Awkward letterspacing not only looks na-

and unprofessional, it can disrupt the commu-

letters, the more critical it is to

誰ve and unprofessional, it can disrupt the

nication of the words.

adjust their spacing. Awkward letterspacing not only looks na誰ve

communication of the words.

and unprofessional, it can disrupt the communication of the words. Min: 100%

Min: %

Min: 70%

Desired: 120%

Desired: 100%

Desired: 90%

Maximum: 130%

Maximum: 133%

Maximum: 110%

Problem: Rivers

Problem: Not enough space between words

Problem: Rivers, Large word spacing


Using Justification

Sabon

Didot

One of the most important things a pro-

One of the most important things a pro-

fessional typesetter does for a client is

fessional typesetter does for a client is

kern the type. Kerning is the process of re-

kern the type. Kerning is the process of

moving small units of space between let-

removing small units of space between

ters in order to create visually consistent

letters in order to create visually con-

letterspacing; the larger the letters, the

sistent letterspacing; the larger the let-

more critical it is to adjust their spacing.

ters, the more critical it is to adjust their

Awkward letterspacing not only looks

spacing.

na誰ve and unprofessional, it can disrupt

only looks na誰ve and unprofessional, it

the communication of the words.

can disrupt the communication of the

Awkward letterspacing not

words.

Min: %

Min: 75%

Desired: 100%

Desired: 85%

Maximum: 133%

Maximum: 100%

Problem: Too many words per line

Problem: Rivers, Widow


/117

“ Design is the method of putting form and content together.” — Paul Rand


/119

COMBINING TYPEFACES


Combining Typefaces

Aa Aa Adobe Caslon

Univers 59

It is best to combine serif fonts with san serif fonts. Either one can be used in various ways.


sixteen

/121

Serif with Sans Serif When combining serif and sans serif text fonts, one should try and match the characteristics of form and type color: proportion, x-heights. There is not binding recipe for type combinations. It is a matter of typographic sensitivity and experience. Expert typographers, as well as careless amateurs permit themselves combinations that would horrify colleagues with more traditional sympathies. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s true. Although there is not recipe there is a place to start: keep an eye on the characteristic shapes of the letterform. A well designed page contains no more than two different typefaces or four different type variations such as type size and bold or italic style. Using 2 different serif fonts or 2 different sans serifs fonts in the same composition is never a good idea.


Combining Typefaces

WORDS IN LIBERTY

WORDS IN LIBERTY

A Prologue to Futurism

A Prologue to Futurism

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums.

aa BB ee GG gg

aa BB ee GG gg

DIN 24PT/12PT : GROTESQUE SANS SERIF

META 24PT/12PT : HUMANIST SANS SERIF

MRS EAVES 9PT: TRANSITIONAL SERIF

BEMBO 9PT: OLD STYLE SERIF

These two fonts work well together based on the typeface stroke weight and character width.

These two fonts work well together based on the typeface stroke weight and character width.


/123

WORDS IN LIBERTY

WORDS IN LIBERTY

A Prologue to Futurism

A Prologue to Futurism

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such culture.

aa BB ee GG gg

aa BB ee GG gg

FRANKLIN GOTHIC 24PT/12PT : GROTESQUE SANS SERIF PALATINO 9PT: OLD STYLE SERIF These two fonts work well together based on the typeface stroke weight and character width.

FUTURA 24PT/12PT : GEOMETRIC SANS SERIF MELIOR 9PT: TRANSITIONAL SERIF These two fonts work well together based on the typeface stroke weight and character width.


Combining Typefaces

WORDS IN LIBERTY

WORDS IN LIBERTY

A Prologue to Futurism

A Prologue to Futurism

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such culture.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation.

aa BB ee GG gg

aa BB ee GG gg

ROTIS SANS 24PT/12PT : HUMANIST SANS SERIF

INTERSTATE 24PT/12PT : GEOMETRIC SANS SERIF

MELIOR 9PT: TRANSITIONAL SERIF

WALBAUM 9PT: MODERN SERIF

These two fonts work well together based on the typeface stroke weight and character width.

These two fonts work well together based on the typeface stroke weight and character width.


/125

WORDS IN LIBERTY

WORDS IN LIBERTY

A Prologue to Futurism

A Prologue to Futurism

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such culture.

aa BB ee GG gg

aa BB ee GG gg

NEWS GOTHIC 24PT/12PT : GROTESQUE SANS SERIF

FUTURA 24PT/12PT : GEOMETRIC SANS SERIF

FILOSOFIA 9PT: MODERN SERIF

ROCKWELL 9PT: SLAB SERIF

These two fonts work well together based on the typeface stroke weight and character width.

These two fonts work well together based on the typeface stroke weight and character width.


Combining Typefaces

WORDS IN LIBERTY WORDS IN LIBERTY A Prologue to Futurism

A Prologue to Futurism

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums.

aa BB ee GG gg

aa BB ee GG gg

GILL SANS 24PT/12PT : HUMANIST SANS SERIF

FRUTIGER 24PT/12PT : GEOMETRIC SANS SERIF

MEMPHIS 9PT: SLAB SERIF

NEW BASKERVILLE 9PT: NEW TRANSITIONAL SERIF

These two fonts work well together based on the typeface stroke weight and character width.

These two fonts work well together based on the typeface stroke weight and character width.


/127

“ A man who works with his hands, his brain and his heart is an graphic designer.” —Louis Nizer


/129

PARAGRAPH BREAKS


Paragraph Breaks

Correct (Indent after 1st paragraph)

Incorrect (2 returns used)

Incorrect (1st paragraph indented)

1. Do not indent the first paragraph. 2. Following paragraphs are separated by leading. 3. The amount of indent is equal to the leading. 4. Never hit two returns between paragraphs.


seventeen

/131

Breaking Paragraphs Paragraph breaks set a rhythm for the reader. The breaks have a relationship with the column of text as well as the page margins. A break may be introduced as an indentation, as a space or both. The overall page feel will be influenced by your choice so be consistent.

Rules Regarding Paragraph Breaks: 1. The first line at the beginning of an

article should be flushed left (do not indent the first paragraph ever).

2. Block paragraphs are flushed left and are separated by extra leading, not a full return.

3. The amount of an indent is equal to the leading (sometimes needs a bit more).

4. Never hit two returns between paragraphs.


Paragraph Breaks

Futurism Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term­—still resonant today­— ` by which poetry was was parole in liberta, to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… a strict but of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners ´ Outrageous and aggressive, like Mallarme. the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them.


/133

Futurism Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avantgarde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term­—still reso` by which nant today­— was parole in liberta, poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… a strict but of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedomof-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion ´ Outrageous by forerunners like Mallarme. and aggressive, the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them.


Paragraph Breaks

Futurism

Manifestos

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term­—still resonant today­— ` by which poetry was was parole in liberta, to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… a strict but of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners ´ Outrageous and aggressive, like Mallarme. the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them.

Movements But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.


/135

Futurism 1

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

2

But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

3

While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term­—still resonant today­— ` by which poetry was was parole in liberta, to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… a strict but of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners ´ Outrageous and aggressive, like Mallarme. the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them.


Paragraph Breaks

Futurism FUTURISM was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. BUT it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

WHILE Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term­—still resonant today­— ` was was parole in liberta, by which poetry to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… a strict but of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners ´ aggressive, like Mallarme. Outrageous and the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them.


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Futurism Futurism was first announced on

February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

But it is the movements which survive,

oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for

Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term­—still resonant today­— was parole in liberta,` by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… a strict but of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners ´ Outrageous and aggressive, like Mallarme. the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them.


Paragraph Breaks

Futurism

Futurism was first announced on February While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

But it is the movements which survive,

oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term­—still resonant today­— ` by which poetry was was parole in liberta, to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… a strict but of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners ´ Outrageous and aggressive, like Mallarme. the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them.


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Futurism Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term­—still resonant today­— ` by which poetry was was parole in liberta, to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… a strict but of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners ´ Outrageous and aggressive, like Mallarme. the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them.


Paragraph Breaks

Futurism Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term­—still resonant today­— was parole in liberta,` by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… a strict but of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners ´ Outrageous and aggressive, like Mallarme. the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them.


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Futurism Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term­—still resonant today­— was parole in liberta,` by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… a strict but of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners ´ Outrageous and aggressive, like Mallarme. the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them.


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TEXT HEADERS


Text Headers

Headline Use kerning on headlines

Subhead This is body text.

Headline: a caption or title at the top of an article Subhead: a caption or title for a portion of an article


eighteen

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Header Rules 1. Use caps properly.

With options given to you by almost any type family (bold, point size, etc) you will seldom need to use all caps to draw attention to your text. Not all typefaces are legible when set in all caps; esp. true for script and decorative typefaces. Short headlines may be the once exception to this rule.

2. Add letter spacing to capitalized text.

Letterspacing is the amount of space between characters in a word. Some software programs caller letterspacing tracking. Use positive number values (to about 2 or 3) to open up letterspacing to capitalized text, except when periods are used between characters.

3. Avoid underlined text.

This was useful back in the days of the typewriter to draw attention to the text. With digital type and their families, you should not need to use underlined text.

4. Legibility of fonts.

Sans serif typefaces work well for headlines and to set text that is aligned to vertical/horizontal lines. Certain sans serif typefaces which are not very geometrical work well for body copy (i.e. Frutiger, Meta, Scala Sans, etc.)

5. Kerning in headlines.

Adjust the space between two particular letters to allow for more consistent negative space.


Text Headers

Wor ds I n Lib e rty A Prologue to Futurism Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

Radical Mix Of Art And Life But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term­—still resonant today­— was parole in liberta,` by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… a strict but of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners ´ Outrageous and aggressive, like Mallarme. the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them.


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A PROLOGUE TO FUTURISM

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

RADICAL MIX OF ART AND LIFE

WORDS IN LIBERTY

But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides. , the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term­—still resonant today­— was parole in liberta,` by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… a strict but of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners ´ Outrageous and aggressive, like Mallarme. the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them.


Text Headers

WORDS IN LIBERTY A Prologue to Futurism

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

Radical Mix Of Art And Life

But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term­—still resonant today­— was parole in liberta,` by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… a strict but of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners ´ Outrageous and aggressive, like Mallarme. the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them.


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Words in Liberty 1. A PROLOGUE TO FUTURISM Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

2. RADICAL MIX OF ART AND LIFE But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides. , the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry

While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term­—still resonant today­— was parole in liberta,` by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… a strict but of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners ´ Outrageous and aggressive, like Mallarme. the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them.


Text Headers

Words in Liberty • A PROLOGUE TO FUTURISM Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

• RADICAL MIX OF ART AND LIFE But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term­—still resonant today­— was parole in liberta,` by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… a strict but of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners ´ Outrageous and aggressive, like Mallarme. the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them.


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WORDS IN LIBERTY A Prologue to Futurism Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

Radical Mix Of Art And Life But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides. The first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term­—still resonant today­— was parole in liberta,` by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… a strict but of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners ´ Outrageous and aggressive, like Mallarme. the Futurists' performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them.


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CAPTION & NOTES


Captions & Notes

. .

1 *

Footnotes

Numerals or asterisks can be used for footnotes.


nineteen

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Footnotes and Endnotes

Design of Notes

Footnotes and endnotes are necessary

These general guidelines will help you design

components of scholarly and technical writing.

footnotes and endnotes that are readable, legible and economical in space. (Note that academic

Theyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re also frequently used by writers of

presses and journals can be sticklers for format:

fiction, from Herman Melville (Moby-Dick)

before proceeding, check with your client or

to contemporary novelists. Whether their intent

publisher to see if they have a specific stylesheet

is academic or artistic, footnotes present special

that must be followed.)

typographic challenges. Numbers or Symbols: Footnotes are most Specifically, a footnote is a text element at the

often indicated by placing a superscript numeral

bottom of a page of a book or manuscript that

immediately after the text to be referenced. The

provides additional information about a point

same superscript numeral then precedes the

made in the main text. The footnote might pro-

footnoted text at the bottom of the page.

vide deeper background, offer an alternate

Numbering footnotes is essential when there are

interpretation or provide a citation for the source

many of them, but if footnotes are few they can be

of a quote, idea or statistic. Endnotes serve the

marked with a dagger, asterisk, or other

same purpose but are grouped together at the end

symbol instead. Endnotes should always use

of a chapter, article or book, rather than at the

numerals to facilitate easy referencing.

bottom of each page (using numerals). Size: Footnotes and endnotes are set smaller than body text. The difference in size is usually about two points, but this can vary depending on the size, style and legibility of the main text. Even though theyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re smaller, footnotes and endnotes should still remain at a readable size.


Captions & Notes

Wor ds I n Lib e rty A Prologue to Futurism Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. 1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

Radical Mix Of Art And Life But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term­—still resonant today­— was parole in liberta` 2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… a strict but of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners ´ Outrageous and aggressive, like Mallarme. the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst 3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

1. Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988 2. parole in liberta = words set free (liberty) 3. selbst = himself


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A PROLOGUE TO FUTURISM

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. 1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

RADICAL MIX OF ART AND LIFE

WORDS IN LIBERTY

But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides. , the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

1. Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988

While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term­—still resonant today­— was parole in liberta` 2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… a strict but of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners ´ Outrageous and aggressive, like Mallarme. the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst 3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

2. parole in liberta = words set free (liberty)

3. selbst = himself


Captions & Notes

WORDS IN LIBERTY A Prologue to Futurism

Radical Mix Of Art And Life

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society 1. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. 1. Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988

But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term­—still resonant today­— was parole in liberta`2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… a strict but of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners ´ Outrageous and aggressive, like Mallarme. the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst 3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.” 2. parole in liberta = words set free (liberty) 3. selbst = himself


/159

Words in Liberty 1. A PROLOGUE TO FUTURISM

(* Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988)

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society *. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

2. RADICAL MIX OF ART AND LIFE

(* parole in liberta = words set free (liberty)) (* selbst = himself )

But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides. , the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exag-

While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term­—still resonant today­— was parole in liberta` *, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… a strict but of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners ´ Outrageous and aggressive, like Mallarme. the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst * (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”


Captions & Notes

Words in Liberty • A PROLOGUE TO FUTURISM Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society 1. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

• RADICAL MIX OF ART AND LIFE But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term­—still resonant today­— was parole in liberta`2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… a strict but of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners ´ Outrageous and aggressive, like Mallarme. the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst 3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

1. Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988 2. parole in liberta = words set free (liberty) 3. selbst = himself


/161

WORDS IN LIBERTY A Prologue to Futurism Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. *Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

Radical Mix Of Art And Life But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides. The first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

* Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988 * parole in liberta = words set free (liberty) * selbst = himself

While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term­—still resonant today­— was parole in liberta` *, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… a strict but of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners ´ Outrageous and aggressive, like Mallarme. the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst * (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”


/163

FONT SPECIMENS


Font Specimens

Abc 123

Adobe Caslon Regular

Adobe Caslon Italic

There are too many fonts that exist, for anyone to memorize them all without seeing both letters and numerals in different styles.


twenty

/165

Classification

Variations

Garamond did not think of himself as an

As early typefaces were based on the written

Old Style designer any more than Baskerville

letterforms the scribes, it was important that the

could realize that some day he would be

type designer tries to capture as much as the

considered a Transitional designer.

written form as possible.

What happened is this. Over centuries type

The letter O is a good example to study the

became more and more refined; that is, the

distribution of weight which creates a vertical

contrast between thick and thin strokes became

stress through the thinnest part of the

greater and the serif became finer. The refine-

letterform. It was this characteristic that the

ment was possible because of the development of

early typefaces tried to imitate. This is quite clear

smoother papers, better inks, and more advanced

in Garamond. As type evolved and the designer

printing methods. The ultimate refinement was

was no longer influenced by handwriting, the

attained in the late 1700â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s when Bodoni reduced

stress became more vertical as in Baskerville and

the thin strokes and serifs to fine hairline strokes.

later totally vertical with Bodoni. In Univers you

After Bodoni, type design became eclectic. In

will find no noticeable stress.

search of new forms of typographic expression, designers began to borrow features from one

Faces also vary in degree of contrast between

period and add them to another. We see a lot of

thick and thin strokes of the letters. In Garamond

this today. Many of the fonts designed in the 20th

you can see a prominent characteristic of little

Century are difficult to classify.

contrast between thick and thin strokes of a letter. In Transitional faces there is a tendency toward refinement and greater contrast between strokes.


Font Specimens

SERIFS HUMANIST

MODERN

xoaengdp

xoaengdp

META PLUS BOLD 20PT

WALBAUM ROMAN 20PT

Characteristics

Characteristics

1. Little contrast between thick and thin of strokes

1. Extreme contrast between thick and thin strokes

2. Stroke weight has inflections similar to handwriting

2. Hairline (strokes) serifs

3. Strong diagonal stress such as on letter o

3. Horizontal stress

4. Sloping bar on letter e

4. Horizontal bar on e


/167

OLDSTYLE

NEW TRANSITIONAL

xoaengdp

xoaengdp

BEMBO BOLD 20PT

NEW BASKERVILLE BOLD 20PT

Characteristics

Characteristics

1. Scooped serifs, sturdy without being heavy

1. Typefaces hard to hold up under poor printing

2. Horizontal bar on e

2. Shorter ascenders, descenders

3. Diagonal stress is less prominent

3. Tall x-height

4. Shorter x-height

4. Contrast between thick and thin strokes


Font Specimens

TRANSITIONAL

SLAB SERIF

xoaengdp

xoaengdp

MRS EAVES BOLD 20PT

ROCKWELL REGULAR 20PT

Characteristics

Characteristics

1. Contrast between thick and thin strokes pronounced

1. Mono weight

2. Tall x-height

2. Square end serifs

3. Bracketed serifs

3. Strong horizontal stress such as on letters

4. Very slight diagonal stress

4. Horizontal bar on e


/169

XOAENGDP Each type classification has its own unique characteristics, such as stroke weight, descenders, and ascenders for its own font list.


Font Specimens

SAN SERIFS GROTESQUE

GEOMETRIC

xoaengdp

xoaengdp

AKZIDENZ GROTESK BOLD 20PT

FUTURA MEDIUM 20PT

Characteristics

Characteristics

1. Slight contrast in the stroke weight

1. Close to mono weight

2. Slight squareness to the curves

2. A little wider set of type

3. Usually a tall x-height : short ascenders and descenders

3. Constructed from simple shapes like circles

4. Usually a two story lowercase a

4. Usually a one story a


/171

HUMANIST

OLDSTYLE

xoaengdp

xoaengdp

FRUTIGER 77 BLACK 20PT

ROTIS SANS SEMI 20PT

Characteristics

Characteristics

1. Based on proportions of Roman capitals

1. Little contrast between thick and thin of strokes

2. Some contrast in stroke weight

2. Stroke weight has inflections similar to handwriting

3. Lowercase a is usually two stroy

3. Strong diagonal stress such as on letter o

4. Lowercase g is usually two story

4. Sloping bar on letter e


Font Specimens

Classification: San Serif

AKZIDENZ GROTESK

MaxogGdQRst REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&* BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* SUPER

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&* ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&*


/173

Classification: Slab Serif

BELIZIO

MaxogGdQRst REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 567890(){}?!@&* BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 123 4567890(){}?!@ BLACK

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 123 4567890(){}?! ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&*


Font Specimens

Classification: Transitional

CASLON

MaxogGdQRst

REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ &* BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & SEMI BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *


/175

Classification: Modern

DIDOT

MaxogGdQRst ROMAN A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&* BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&* OLD STYLE

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&* ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ &*


Font Specimens

Classification: Transitional

ERAS

MaxogGdQRst MEDIUM A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&* BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&* LIGHT

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

DEMI

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&*


/177

Classification: Humanist Sans

FRUTIGER

MaxogGdQRst REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&* CONDENSED

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * BLACK

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&* LIGHT

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&*


Font Specimens

Classification: Humanist Sans

GILL SANS

MaxogGdQRst REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* ULTRA

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { CONDENSED

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&*


/179

Classification: Grotesque

HELVETICA NEUE

MaxogGdQRst REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&* BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&* LIGHT

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&*

ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&*


Font Specimens

Classification: Grotesque

INTERSTATE

MaxogGdQRst REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ){}?!@&* CONDENSED

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7890(){}?!@&*

BLACK

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&*


/181

Classification: Script

KUNSTLER SCRIPT

MaxogGdQRst REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&* LIGHT

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&*

BLACK A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7890(){}?!@&* ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&*


Font Specimens

Classification: Slab Serif

MEMPHIS

MaxogGdQRst MEDIUM A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&* LIGHT

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&* EXTRA

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&* ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&*


/183

Classification: GROTESQUE

NEWS GOTHIC

MaxogGdQRst REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ){}?!@&* OBLIQUE

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

BOLD OBLIQUE

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ){}?!@&*


Font Specimens

Classification: Humanist

OFFICINA

MaxogGdQRst SANS BOOK A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 123 4567890(){}?!@&* SANS BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&* SERIF BOOK

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

SERIF BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? !@&*


/185

Classification: Transitional

PERPETUA

MaxogGdQRst

REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&* BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ &

BOLD ITALIC A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt UuVv Ww Xx Yy Zz 123 4567890(){}?!@&*

ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt UuVvWw XxYy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 890(){}?!@&*


Font Specimens

Classification: Humanist

ROTIS

MaxogGdQRst SERIF REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&* SERIF SEMI

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&* SANS SERIF REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ &

SANS SERIF SEMI

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *


/187

Classification: Old Style

SABON

MaxogGdQRst REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* OLDSTYLE BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* SMALL CAPS

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&* OLDSTYLE ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&*


Font Specimens

Classification: Humanist Sans

TRADE GOTHIC

MaxogGdQRst EXTENDED A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 23 4567890(){}?!@ EXTENDED BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 23 4567890(){}?!@ REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *


/189

Classification: New Transitional

VOLTA

MaxogGdQRst REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&* BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 MEDIUM

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 123 4567890(){}?!@& MEDIUM ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 67890(){}?!@&*


Font Specimens

Classification: Modern

WALBAUM

MaxogGdQRst REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 890(){}?!@&* BOOK BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 890(){}?!@&* OLDSTYLE ITALIC

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&* SMALL CAPS

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&*


/191

“ There will never be a true end to any design. Innovation is a constant thing.” —Paul Rand



The Designer's Guide to Typography