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AMAT E UR ST ROPHOT OGRAPHY

THI SI SSUE’ S DSO NGC 1976.M42 THE ORI ON NEBULA

ALSO I N THI SI SSUE ASTRO APPS: i OPTRON SKY TRACKER REVI EW

Al i s tofhel pf ul andus ef ul Appst ogety ouar oundt he ni ghts k y -

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READERS I MAGES AND SO MUCH MORE. . . . .

Tak i ngal ookats omeoft he f r eeAs t r os of t war eav ai l abl e f orFREEonl i ne www. amat eur ast r ophot ogr aphy. com

Mooni magebyM. Sat hy aKumar


M422013.Or i onnebul at akenwi t h80mm WO t el escopeandcanon1100dDSLR.I magebyTr aceySnel us.

MoonI magebySt eveWal sh

St arTr ai l s.Gar et hHar di ng.Takenwi t haNi konD5100


NGC4565( al soknownast heNeedl e Gal axyorCal dwel l38)i sanedgeonspi r al gal axyabout30t o50mi l l i onl i ght year s awayi nt heconst el l at i onComa Ber eni ces. The10t hmagni t udegal axysi t s per pendi cul art oourownMi l kyWaygal axy andi sal mostdi r ect l yabovet heNor t h Gal act i cPol e( i nt hesamewayPol ar i si s l ocat edabovet heEar t h' sNor t hPol e) .

Needl eGal axybyJayBi r d TheOr i onNebul a( al soknownas Messi er42,M42,orNGC1976)i sa di f f usenebul asi t uat edsout h[ b]of Or i on' sBel ti nt heconst el l at i onofOr i on. I ti soneoft hebr i ght estnebul ae,andi s vi si bl et ot henakedeyei nt heni ghtsky. M42i sl ocat edatadi st anceof1, 344Âą 20l i ghtyear sandi st hecl osest r egi onofmassi vest arf or mat i ont o Ear t h.TheM42nebul ai sest i mat edt o be24l i ghtyear sacr oss.I thasamass ofabout2000t i mest hemassoft he Sun.Ol dert ext sf r equent l yr ef ert ot he Or i onNebul aast heGr eatNebul ai n Or i onort heGr eatOr i onNebul a. TheOr i onNebul ai soneoft hemost scr ut i ni zedandphot ogr aphedobj ect si n t heni ghtsky,andi samongt hemost i nt ensel yst udi edcel est i alf eat ur es. Thenebul ahasr eveal edmuchabout t hepr ocessofhowst ar sandpl anet ar y syst emsar ef or medf r om col l apsi ng cl oudsofgasanddust .

I ti sknownast heNeedl eGal axyf ori t s nar r owpr of i l e.Fi r stspot t edi n1785by Si rWi l l i am Her schel( 1738–1822) ,t hi si s oneoft hemostf amousexampl esofan edgeonspi r algal axy." Vi si bl et hr ough asmal lt el escope,someskyent husi ast s consi derNGC4565t obeapr omi nent cel est i almast er pi ece.

M42,NCG 1976orTheGr eatOr i onNebul ar .I magebyGar et hHar di ng

TheVei lNebul ai sacl oudof heat edandi oni zedgasanddust i nt heconst el l at i onCygnus.I t const i t ut est hevi si bl epor t i onsof t heCygnusLoop( r adi osour ce W78,orShar pl ess103) ,al ar ge butr el at i vel yf ai ntsuper nova r emnant .Thesour cesuper nova expl odedsome5, 000t o8, 000 year sago,andt her emnant shave si nceexpandedt ocoveranar ea r oughl y3degr eesi ndi amet er ( about6t i mest hedi amet er ,or36 t i mest hear ea,oft hef ul lmoon) .

East er nVei lNebul a.I magebyJayBi r d

Thedi st ancet ot henebul ai snot pr eci sel yknown,butFarUl t r avi ol et Spect r oscopi cExpl or er( FUSE) dat asuppor t sadi st anceofabout 1, 470l i ght year s.


M31 Thi si magewast ak enov er3di f f er enti magi ng s es s i onsus i ngaWi l l i am opt i c s80mm r ef r ac t or mount edont oanEQ5.Thes c opewasgui ded us i ngPHDgui di ngs of t war eanda50mm or i on gui des c opewi t hqhy 5c am t ogui de.Thes ubs wer ec apt ur edus i ngac anon1100d UnmoddedDSLR.Thec apt ur es of t war eus ed wasbac k y ar dEOS.It hi nki nt ot al t hi si sa

t ot al i nt egr at i onc l os et o7hour sof510mi nut e s ubsatI SO800.Onc ec apt ur edIus edDSS deeps k ys t ac k ert oputt hedat at oget herand f i nal l yt weak edi nphot os hop.M31hav i nga hi ghdy nami cr angepr ov est obequi t eanef f or t t oi mageandpos tpr oc es sandhasbeenat hor n i nmys i def ors omet i me.I ti ss upr i s i nghowhar d s omeoft het ar get st ur noutgi v ent hatt heyar e eas yt ar get sv i s ual l y . Sunwi t hs uns pot son4t hSept2013 ( i mg2021) Camer a:Canon650D I magec apt ur et y pe: St i l l f r ame,Pr i meFoc al ( nobar l ow) OTA:8"CST Fi l t er s : BaaderSol arPhot ogr aphi cf i l m ( ND3. 8) I SO:100 Shut t erSpeed:1/ 2500 Pos tPr oc es s i ngs of t war e:None Mai npr oc es s i ngenhanc ement s :None Pr es hootpr ep: Foc usus i ng5XLi v eVi ewon650D Loc at i on: Thr oughMyLi v i ngRoom wi ndow, Pec k ham,London I magebyTej Dy al


Pac manNebul a.I magebyJ ayBi r d

Hear tNebul a( I C1805) 7, Nov , 2013Mei Zhou,CHI NA Camer a:As t r o60D( c ool edat 14C) Tel es c ope/ Lens:Tak ahas hi FSQ85ED w0. 73xr educ er( 327mm f / 3. 8) Fi l t er:none I SO :1600

Tr ac k i ngMount :Tak ahas hi EM11 Aut ogui de:SBI G SG4 Tot al Ex pos ur eTi me:2mi nsx53 wDar kFr ames ,Bi asFr ames pr oc es swDSS, PI ,PS5 I magebyVi nc entKHCheng


CHOOSING YOUR FIRST ASTRONOMICAL TELESCOPE Thear t i cl ebel owi saqui ckgui def orchoosi ngaf i r st t el escope,andi sexcl usi vel ybasedonmyexper i enceasan amat eurast r onomer .Ast heuserdel vesdeeperi nt ot he subj ect ,he/ shewi l lt endt owar dsoneort heot heropt i cal desi gn,ori not herwor ds" f avor i ng"onet ypeort heot her . Al so,t her ei snot el escopet hati soft hecat egor y" OneSi ze f i t sal l " .Thet el escopei sal waysgoodf oronepur poseor goodf oranot her .

I magesandEdi t or i albyM. Sat hyaKumar ht t p: / / shar maast r onomy. weebl y. com/ Iam del i ber at el yl i mi t i ngt hecont entoft hepageandgi vi nga " t ast er "oft hesubj ect .Thi si sowi ngt ot hef actt hatmany exper i encedandadvancedamat eurast r onomer shavewr i t t en ent i r ebooksont hesubj ect .

Wenowcomet ot het ypeoft el escopet hatut i l i zesacombi nat i on ofmi r r or st or ef l ectandbendl i ghtso t hati tr eachest heeyepi ecel ens. Somesour ceshavesomespecul at i on ast owhoi nvent edt hi sdesi gn,sowe shal lst i ckt ot hef actt hatSi rI ssac Newt onmadepr act i caluseofi t .I n t her ef r at ordesi gn,t hel ens conver gesl i ghtt oapoi nt .Nowi fwehaveami r r or ,whi chhas t hesamecur vat ur east hel ens,t het hatmi r r orwi l lr ef l ectl i ght hesamedi st ance,conver gi ngi tt oapoi nt .Thesemi r r or sar e TheRef r act ort el escopei sper hapst hef i r stopt i calt el escope t f r ontcoat edsot hati ti st hecur vedpor t i ont hatr ef l ect st hel i ght . desi gnt obei nvent ed.Ishal lconveni ent l yski pt hehi st or y. Thef i gur eont hel ef texpl ai nst heopt i caldesi gn. Thedesi gn,expl ai nedi nasi mpl emannerconsi st sofan Obj ect i vel enswhi chf ocusest hel i ghtr ayst oapoi ntcal l ed Theopt i caldesi gnt her ef or econsi st sofaPr i mar ymi r r oror FocalLengt h,andanEyepi ecewhi chi spl acedcl oset ot he Obj ect i ve,whi chi sconcaveshaped( bowlshaped)t hatr ef l ect s FocalLengt hoft heobj ect i vet oobt ai namagni f i edi mage. l i ghtt oapoi nti nf r ontofi t .Aneyepi ececannotbekeptatt hi s Howt heset upwor ksr equi r esar at herext ensi vecl asson gi ng/ f ocalpoi ntbecausei fdonesot heheadoft heuser Geomet r i calOpt i cs.Thef i gur eont hel ef tshowst hi st ypeof conver wi l lbl ockal lt hel i ghtf al l i ngont heobj ect i ve.Ther ef or e,one t el escope. Onemi ghtwonderast owhyIhaveshownt he needst odi ver tt hi sl i ghtt ot hesi deoft het el escopet ousean l ensesi nt wodi f f er entcol our s.Moder nt el escopeshave eyepi ece.Thesecondar ymi r r orshowni nt hef i gur edoest hi s obj ect i veandeyepi ecel ensesmadeupofat l eastt wo wor k.Onemayar guet hatt hesecondar ymi r r ormi ghtbl ock di f f er entt ypesofgl asssot hatal lt hecol or soft her ai nbow i ght .Yesi tdoesbl ockl i ght ,butnotasmuchasahuman ( whi chmakesupwhi t el i ght )f ocust oapoi nt .I nr eal i t yt her e somel headwoul d,andgi vent hef actt hatmi r r or sar eeasi ert o ar et hr eet ypesofRef r act ort el escopes. manuf act ur et hanl enses,abi ggermi r r orcaneasi l ycompensat e f ort hesmal ll ossofl i ght .I nt ypi calmassmanuf act ur edr ef l ect i ng a)Achr omat i cDoubl etRef r act or :Cont ai nsadoubl el ens t el escopes,t heper cent ageofbl ocki ngmayvar yf r om 10% t o madeofcr ownandf l i ntgl ass,t ypi cal l ysepar at edbyanai r 35% basedonhowl ongt hef ocall engt hoft hepr i mar ymi r r ori s gap.Thesear egoodf orgener alobser vat i ons andwhatpur posei st het el escopei nt endedf or .Pl easer ef ert o andvi sualuse.I fast r onomi calphot ogr aphy t heendoft hi sar t i cl ef oragoodbookont el escopes. i sat t empt edwi t ht hi st el escope,onemay obt ai nt hephot os,butt heywi l lshowt he Forsomecomf or toft her eaderandbegi nner ,someoft hel ar gest opt i caler r or s. opt i calt el escopesi nt hewor l dar er ef l ect or s,i ncl udi ng b)Apochr omat i cDoubl etRef r act or :Cont ai nsa t heHubbl eSpaceTel escopewhi chi scur r ent l yt he doubl el ensmadeofhi ghqual i t y,l owdi sper si ongl ass l ar gestopt i calt el escopei nspace. andi sopt i cal l ybet t ert hant hepr evi ousdesi gn.Thi s Dependi ngont hepur pose,t el escopescanbe t el escopewi l lf ocusal lcol our si nt hevi sualspect r um desi gnedi nmanyways.Oneot hercommon ( whi t el i ght )t oapoi nt .I tcanbeusedf orast r o desi gni st hecompoundt el escope. Thi s phot ogr aphy.I tal soper mi t st heuseofhi gher t el escopei spar tr ef l ect or ,par tr ef r act or . magni f i cat i ononmoonandpl anet sduet ol ess Thati s,i thasbot hl ens( speci al l l ydesi gned opt i caler r or s. t obendl i ghti ncal cul at edways)aswel las c)Apochr omat i cTr i pl etRef r act or : mi r or st or ef l ectt hel i ght . Ther ear et hr eepr omi nentcompound Cont ai nsaTr i pl etl ensorThr eel ens t el escopes.t heSchmi dtCaasegr ai n, TheMaksut ovCassegr ai n obj ect i vemadeofver yhi ghqual i t y,l ow andt heRi t cheyChr et i en( RC) .Mostpr of essi onalobser vat or i es di sper si ongl assandbyf ari st hebest useRCt el escopes.TheRCt el escopedoesnothaveacor r ect or f oranypur pose.However ,si ncet he l ens.Thesecondar ymi r r ori t sel fi sspeci al l yt onegat esome manuf act ur eoft hi st el escope opt i caldef ect s.Al lt het el escopehaveadvant agesand r equi r est hegr i ndi ngandpol i shi ngof di sadvant agesandt heuserwi l lhavet owei ghhi s/ heropt i ons t hr eel ensesofhi ghpr eci si on,t hepr i ce bef or et aki ngt hepl unge. I tdoesnotmat t erwhi ch i sver yexpensi veascompar edt ot ype t el escopeyoubuy,youwi l lenj oynumer oushour sunder bort ypeadescr i bedabove. t hest ar sbecauset hesei nst r ument swi l lshowyout he Uni ver sel i keyouhaveneverseenbef or e. TheOpt i caldesi gnofat el escope maybedef i nedast he conf i gur at i oni nwhi cht heopt i cal component soft het el escopear e ar r anged.Opt i calcomponent sar e gener al l ymadeofgl ass,some i nexpensi vet el escopesal sousepol ycar bonat epl ast i c.


PRODUCTREVI EW -i Opt r onSkyTr acker

Thankst oJoeGi l kerof ht t p: / / dar kar t sast r ophot ogr apy. bl ogspot . ca/f orhi si mages &r evi ew. WHAT I SI T? Thei Opt r onSkyTr ackeri sanequat or i alt r acki ng mountf ort aki ngl ongexposur east r ophot ogr aphy wi t honl yacamer aandt r i pod. Whenpr oper l yal i gnedt ot hecel est i alpol e,t he uni twi l laut omat i cal l yt r ackt hemot i onofcel est i al obj ect s,al l owi ngyout opr eci sel yt akeexposur es ofupt osever almi nut eswi t hatr easonabl e magni f i cat i onl evel s.

Thesmal l ,l i ght wei ght( 2. 5l bs)packaget r avel s ver yeasi l y,maki ngi ti dealf orbr i ngi ngont r i psor j ustgoi ngoutt oar emot el ocat i onwher el uggi ng ar oundabi gt el escopemaybei nconveni entor Ni konD7000wi t h55300mm l ensonani Opt r onSkyTr acker i mpossi bl e. wal loft hecar r ycase.I tmakest hef i toft heSkyTr acker WHAT YOU GET i nt hecaseevent i ght ercausi ngahugebul gei nt hesi de. TheSkyTr ackercomeswi t hal mostever yt hi ngyou Thi scoul dal somaket hescopepr onet odamageshoul d needt ogetst ar t ed.I nt hebox,you' l lf i nd:• SkyTr acker t hebagt akeahi toraf al l . uni t • Pol aral i gnmentscope( i fyougott hemodel3302onl y) THESETUP • Nyl oncar r yi ngcase. Set upoft heSkyTr ackeri sver yst r ai ght f or war d.Li ke • I nst r uct i onManual wi t hanyEQ mount ,havi ngal evelmountandgood pol aral i gnmentar ekey.Get t i ngt het r i podwel ll evel ed WHAT YOU' LLNEED i sessent i al .Oncei t ' sl evel ,poi ntt heuni tt owar dst he I tdoesn’ tcomewi t hever yt hi ng.Youwi l lneedaf ew nor t h( t hebui l t i ncompasscanassi sti fyou’ r eset t i ng mor eaccessor i es.However ,i fyou’ r eal r eadyi nt o upi ndayl i ghtatanunf ami l i arsi t e)andgetPol ar i si n phot ogr aphy, t heal i gnmentscopeusi ngt heazi mut handl at i t ude t her e’ sagoodchanceyoual r eadyhavesomeoral lof adj ust ment s.Imanagedt ogett hemountper f ect l y t hi sonhand. al i gnedi namat t erofunder5mi nut esmyf i r stt i meout . • 4xAAbat t er i es( canl astupt o24hour sofcont i nuous use) • Acamer acapabl eofl ongexposur ephot ogr aphyand anyr equi r edl enses • Ast ur dyt r i podwi t ha3/ 8"mount .( Ascr ewt hr ead adapt erwi l lbeneededi fyouhavea1/ 4"mount ) . • Ast andar dcamer abal lheadt oat t achyourcamer at o t heSkyTr acker . • opt i onali Opt r onappf ori OS( $1i TunesAppSt or e)or 3r dpar t yappf orAndr oi d( $1Googl ePl ay)t of i ndt he pr operposi t i onoft heal i gnmentst ar s. THE ACCESSORI ES Thei l l umi nat edpol arscopei sact ual l yaver yni cepi ece. I thasdualf ocuscont r ol s-1f ort hedi almar ki ngsi nt he r et i cl e, andonef ort heobj ect i vel ens.Thi ssecondf ocusset t i ng i ssecur edi npl acewi t hal ocki ngr i ngwhi l et her et i cl e si def ocusr emai nsadj ust abl e. Thepol arscor ei si l l umi nat edf r om ar edLEDwi t hi nt he SkyTr ackeruni tr at hert hanbei ngsel f power ed.Thedi al i seasi l yvi si bl eandnott oobr i ght .I thasFOVofabout2º . Thebr i ght nessl eveli sj ustni cesot hatyoucanseet he di almar ki ngswi t houtwashi ngoutt hest ar s. SkyTr ackeral socomeswi t hanyl oncar r yi ngcase.The SkyTr ackerf i t si nver ysnugl ymaki ngi tabi tofa st r uggl et ogeti ti nandout .Onepoorchoi cei nwas put t i ngt hepoucht ost or et hepol arscopeont hei nsi de

Bot hazi mut handl at i t udeadj ust ment sar el ocki ng. Azi mut hadj ust menti sdonebyt ur ni ngt heuni tsi det o si deoni t sbase.Lat i t udei ssetwi t hanadj ust abl e t humbscr ew.I tmakesal i gni ngt oPol ar i s( orSi gma Oct ant i si nt hesout her nhemi spher e)ver yqui ckand easy.Geti tal i gned,l ockal lt hel ocki ngscr ewst i ght , andyou' r egoodt ogo. Cent er i ngPol ar i swi l lgi veyouanal i gnmentt hat ’ sgood enoughf orshor texposur esorshor tf ocall engt hs.I fyou wantt ogol onger ,you’ l lneedt oal i gni twi t hPol ar i s cor r ect l yof f setf r om cent er .Toai di nt hi s,youcanget t hei Opt r onappf ori OSf r om t hei TunesAppSt or ef or $1.I fyouhaveanAndr oi ddevi ce,at hi r dpar t yappi s avai l abl ef r om t heGoogl ePl aySt or e,al sof or$1.Usi ng t hi sandyourdevi ce’ sGPS,t heappwi l lshowyouwher e ont hedi alt hatPol ar i sorSi gmaOct ant i sshoul dbe l ocat edf oraccur at epol aral i gnment .Whi l eyoucan cal cul at et heseposi t i onsmanual l y,t heappgi vesyou ani nst antvi sualr epr esent at i onandi swor t hwhi l eget t i ng, event houghyouhavet obuyi tsepar at el y. Onei ssueIencount er edi nset upi st hatt i ght eni ngt he l ocki ngscr ewsf orl at i t udeandazi mut hadj ust ment s usual l yr esul t si nt heal i gnmentshi f t i ngf r om wher eyou havei tset .Thi swi l lbeenoughofashi f tt ocauset r ai l i ng. Pr oper l yal i gni ngt heuni tr equi r esal i t t l ecompensat i ngf or whenmaki ngt headj ust ment sandl ocki ngt heaxest o


ensur eyouhaveper f ectal i gnmentoncet hel ocksar e t i ght ened.Havi ngagood,st ur dyt r i podi sr ecommendedf or maxi mum st abi l i t y,buti tper f or msf ai r l ywel lonmor er unof t hemi l ll i ght wei ghtt r i pods.If oundt hatyou’ l lwantt opol ar al i gnSkyTr ackerwi t ht hecamer aal r eadymount edt obecause t hewei ghtdi f f er encewi l lhaveanef f ectont hepol aral i gnment . I ’ m notsur ei ft hi si sbecauseoft heSkyTr ackerbui l dor becauseofmyt r i podatt hi spoi nt . USE Onceal i gned,you' r egoodt ogo.Pi ckat ar get ,poi ntt he camer ai ti tusi ngt hebal lhead,l ocki tdown,andt ur non t heSkyTr acker .Youcant hent r i ggeryourshot susi ng what everr emot econt r oldevi ceyounor mal l yuse.That ’ sr eal l y al lt her ei st oi t .SkyTr ackeral sohasa½ speedf unct i on.Thi s al l owsyout ousei tf orl andscapeast r ophot ogr aphy.Usi ngt hi s f unct i on,youcangetl ongerexposur et i mesont heskywi t h mi ni malst art r ai l i ngwhi l eonl ysl i ght l ybl ur r i ngt hel andscape. Ihaven’ tt r i edt hi syet ,butpl ant oonceIcangetoutt oa sui t abl el ocat i on.

i Opt r onSkyTr acker

• Excel l entt r acki ngaccur acy Sof ar ,I ' veonl yusedt heSkyTr ackerwi t h30second • Gr eatbat t er yl i f eexpect ancy exposur esusi ngmy55300mm at300mm.My2pr i mar yt ar get s • Reasonabl epr i ce f ort heeveni ngwer eM45–t hePl ei adesCl ust erandM42 THEBAD Or i onNebul a. • l ocki ngscr ewsf orl at i t udeandazi mut hwi l lcause Tr acki ngwasf l awl essf ort heseexposur es.At300mm,my al i gnmentt oshi f twhent hey' r et i ght enedt ol ockt hem t ar get sst ayedcent er edi nt hecamer a' sf i el dwi t hmi ni mal down dr i f tovert hel engt hoft het i meIspentoneacht ar get( about • Poor l ydesi gnedcar r ycasei fyouhavet heuni twi t h 1houreach) .Thi smadef orsomegr eatshot swi t hr oundst ar s t hepol arscope andnosi gnsoft r ai l i ngwhat soever .Si nceI ’ m st i l lwai t i ngt o • At$400USf ort heuni t ,you' df i gur et heycoul dact ual l y r ecei vemyr emot eshut t ercont r olt hatcandobul bmode,I gi veyout heappt ohel pal i gni tf orf r eer at hert han wasn’ tabl et ot r yexposur esl ongert han30secondsonmy char gi ngf ori t ,event houghi t ’ sonl y$1.Tome,i t ’ san f i r stt i meout .I ’ l lbet est i ngf orl ongerexposur et i mesataf ut ur e essent i alpar tofusi ngt heSkyTr ackert oi t sf ul lpot ent i al . dat eandwi l lupdat et hi sr evi ewaccor di ngl y. BOTTOM LI NE Youcanseet he2r esul t i ngi magesbel ow.St ar sar eshar pwi t h Don’ tf eell i kel uggi ngoutt hatbi g,heavyscopeand nosi gnsoft r ai l s. t aki ng30+mi nut est oseti tupt odosomepi ggyback phot ogr aphy?Wel lyoucanbeupandr unni ngwi t h THEGOOD pr et t ymucht hesamer esul t swi t hSkyTr ackeri nabout • Toughmet alconst r uct i on 5mi nut es. • Por t abi l i t y I fyouneedt obeabl et ohaveasmal l ,l i ght wei ghtset up • Suppor t supt o7. 7l bs( 3. 5kg)soyoucanf i tcamer aswi t h t hatyoucant akewi t hyouanywher eorj ustbeabl et o somehef t yl enses. setupqui ckl yt ot akeaf ewshot sever ynowandt hen, • Easeofset upanduse t heSkyTr ackeri sagr eatchoi ce.I t ’ seasyt ouse,i t s t r acki ngi sexcel l ent ,andi tmakesset upandt ear down pai nl ess.You’ l lbehar dpr essedt of i ndat r ackert hi s accur at ei napackaget hi scompl et ef orsuchan af f or dabl epr i ce.


I n1965Davi dHi ndsLt dst ar t edatt hepeakoft hespace Racet osuppl yt hehi ghestqual i t y,handcr af t edopt i cst o UKamat eurTel escopeMaker s( ATM' S) .ButDavi d Hi ndsLt dhasevol vedovert heyear s.Davi dHi ndsLt d suppl i edopt i cst oUKandEur opeant el escopemanuf act ur er s;educat i onalr esear chandgover nmentest abl i shment s.Baader ,Pl anet ar i um,Ful l er scope,Dar kSt ar , BeaconHi l lTel escopes,ast r oSyst ems,Ast r oMekani k, BAE,DERA( nowQi net i Q) ,Hadl andt oment i onbuta f ew.

suppl yt heI r i shSpeci al i st Ast r onomysect or ,andt hr oughoutScandi navi at hr oughar r angement swi t hSubdi st r i but or sand deal er s.Asi mpr essi veast hi si s, Davi dHi ndsLt dal sosuppl yaver y l ar genumberofeducat i onal ,r esear ch andgover nmentest abl i shment sand or gani sat i onsaswel lasAst r onomi calSoci et i est hr oughoutt heUK.

Davi dHi ndsLt dar ebestknownf ormaki ng6"-14"upt o 1/ 10t hwaveaccur acy,t heyal somanuf act ur edCassegr ai n,Maksut ovCassegr ai nandr ef r act oropt i calsyst ems. Theseopt i csevent odayar ef arsuper i ort oanyof t oday' smasspr oducedUKmanuf act ur edopt i cs.Davi d Hi ndsopt i csar est i l lver yhi ghl ysoughtaf t erbyt oday' s ATM' sandf et chpr emi um pr i ceswheneveryouar el ucky enought oseet hem comeupf orsal e.

Evenwi t ht heamazi ngsuccessof t hecompany,Davi dHi ndsLt di s ver ymuchst i l laf ami l y ownedandr unbusi nessof whi cht hey( ast hey shoul dbe)ver ypr oudof . Thecompanyi scer t ai nl yl ar ge enought oi nspi r econf i dence,but yetst i l lsmal lenought oof f era per sonalser vi ce.Thebel i efof t hecompanyi st hatcust omer ser vi cei sandal wayswi l lbe keyt ot hei rsuccess,t he companyendeavourt o dot hei rut mostt oof f er t hei rcust omer san enj oyabl eexper i encei nanydeal i ngst hat you,t hecust omerhavewi t ht hecompany.

Dur i ngt he1970' s-80' samat eurt el escopemaki ng st eadi l ydecl i ned.Cel est r on' sr angeoft el escopesand amat eurast r onomypr oduct scompl i ment edDavi dHi nds Lt dr angeofmanuf act ur edopt i cs.Cel est r on' sgr ound br eaki ngSCT' Sl edbyt heC8wer ever yqui ckl y becomi nghugel ypopul arandmuchmor eaf f or dabl et o t heever ydayaver ageamat eurast r onomerandDavi d Hi ndsLt dt henbecameCel est r on' si mpor t eranddeal er . Today,Cel ect r oni sst i lal eadi ngdesi gnerandmanuf act ur eroft hehi ghestqual i t yopt i calpr oduct s,notf or get t i ng t hei rr angeofcomput er i sedandnoncomput er i sedt el escopesandr el at edaccessor i es,bi nocul ar s,spot t i ng scopesandmi cr oscopes.Now,Cel est r onhasbecome notonl yt heUK' sl eadi ngt el escopemaker s,buti nf act , oneoft hewor l dsl eadi ngt el escopedesi gner sand maker soft el escopesanddeser vet hebr andnamer ecogni t i onamongser i ousamat eurast r onomer sf orsuper i or opt i cs,out st andi ngdesi gnandi nnovat i vet echnol ogy. Cel est r on' si nnovat i vepr oduct scont i nuet or ecei vecount l essi ndust r yandconsumermedi aaccol ades,onl y addi ngt ot heal r eadyi mpr essi vel i stt hati ncl udesawar dsf orpr oducti nnovat i onf r om Reader ' sDi gest ,Popul arSci ence, PCmagazi ne,Popul arMechani cs,t heConsumerEl ect r oni csAssoci at i ont onamebuta f ew. Today,Davi dHi ndsLt di san aut hor i sedi mpor t eranddi st r i but orf orCel est r oni nt heUK, I r el anandScandi navi a.Theyst i l l suppl yanevergr owi ngofspeci al i st ast r onomyr et ai l er st hecompl et er angeof Cel est r ont el escopes,accessor i es,SkyScout ,bi nocul ar s andspot t i ngscopes.Thecompanyal sosuppl yCel est r on advancedt el escopes,accessor i esandt heSkyScout t hr oughoutt heUKt hr oughavar i et yofr et ai lout l et s, cat al oguesandi nt er netshops.Over seas,Davi dHi nds

Thecompanyst r ongl ybel i evest hatasat i sf i edcust omerwi l lbear et ur ni ngcust omerwi t ht headdedbonust hatt hecust omer wi l li nt ur nt el lt hei rf r i endsandcol l eagues aboutt hem. Thi shasal waysbeent hecaseasmysel fbei ngacust omerand It hi nkIal wayswi l lbe. Davi dHi ndsLt dawar dedTheCosmosAwar d byCel est r on. Davi dHi ndsLt dwaspr esent edwi t h TheCosmosAwar dbyJi m Edmi st on ofCel est r on.TheCosmosAwar di st he hi ghestI nt er nat i onalDi st r i but orAwar d t hati spr esent edbyCel est r on.I ti s awar dedt ot heI nt er nat i onalDi st r i but or t hathast hebestover al lper f or mancei n al ar gemar ketf ort hatspeci f i cyear .Davi d Hi ndsLt ddoubl edt hei rbusi nesswi t hCel est r on dur i ngt hei rf i scalyear2006/ 07andt ookadvant age ofal lt heoppor t uni t i espr esent ed.


M42Or i onNebul a.I magebyTobi asKr amer


M 42. NGC 1976. ORION NEBULA TheOr i onNebul a( al s ok nownasMes s i er42,M42, orNGC1976)i sadi f f us enebul as i t uat eds out hof Or i on' sBel ti nt hec ons t el l at i onofOr i on.I ti soneof t hebr i ght es tnebul ae,andi sv i s i bl et ot henak ed ey ei nt heni ghts k y .M42i sl oc at edatadi s t anc eof 1, 344±20l i ghty ear sandi st hec l os es tr egi on ofmas s i v es t arf or mat i ont oEar t h.TheM42nebul a i ses t i mat edt obe24l i ghty ear sac r os s .I thasa mas sofabout2000t i mest hemas soft heSun. Ol dert ex t sf r equent l yr ef ert ot heOr i onNebul aas t heGr eatNebul ai nOr i onort heGr eatOr i on Nebul a.

out erbl ui s hgl owhasapeaks ur f ac ebr i ght nes s of21. 3Mag/ ar c s ec 2.

TheOr i onNebul ac ont ai nsav er yy oungopen c l us t er ,k nownast heTr apez i um duet ot he as t er i s m ofi t spr i mar yf ours t ar s .Twooft hes ec an ber es ol v edi nt ot hei rc omponentbi nar ys y s t ems onni ght swi t hgoods eei ng,gi v i ngat ot al ofs i x s t ar s .Thes t ar soft heTr apez i um,al ongwi t hmany ot hers t ar s ,ar es t i l l i nt hei rear l yy ear s .The Tr apez i um maybeac omponentoft hemuc hl ar ger Or i onNebul aCl us t er ,anas s oc i at i onofabout 2, 000s t ar swi t hi nadi amet erof20l i ghty ear s .Two mi l l i ony ear sagot hi sc l us t ermayhav ebeent he homeoft her unaways t ar sAEAur i gae,53Ar i et i s , andMuCol umbae,whi c har ec ur r ent l ymov i ng awayf r om t henebul aatv el oc i t i esgr eat ert han 100k m/ s

TheOr i onNebul ai soneoft hemos ts c r ut i ni z ed andphot ogr aphedobj ec t si nt heni ghts k y ,andi s amongt hemos ti nt ens el ys t udi edc el es t i al f eat ur es . Thenebul ahasr ev eal edmuc haboutt hepr oc es s ofhows t ar sandpl anet ar ys y s t emsar ef or medf r om c ol l aps i ngc l oudsofgasanddus t .As t r onomer s hav edi r ec t l y obs er v edpr ot opl anet ar ydi s k s , br owndwar f s , i nt ens eand t ur bul ent mot i onsoft he gas ,andt hephot oi oni z i ngef f ec t s ofmas s i v e near bys t ar si n t henebul a. Ther ear eal s o s uper s oni c " bul l et s "ofgas pi er c i ngt hehy dr ogenc l oudsof t heOr i onNebul a. M 42.I magebyÁl v ar oI báñezPér ez

Obs er v er shav e l ongnot edadi s t i nc t i v egr eeni s ht i nt t ot henebul a,i n addi t i ont or egi ons ofr edandar easof bl uev i ol et .Ther ed huei swel l under s t oodt obec aus ed byHαr ec ombi nat i onl i ner adi at i onat awav el engt hof 656. 3nm.Thebl ue v i ol etc ol or at i oni s t her ef l ec t edr adi at i onf r om t hemas s i v e Oc l as ss t ar satt he c or eoft henebul a.

Eac hbul l eti st ent i mest hedi amet erofPl ut o' sor bi t andt i ppedwi t hi r onat omsgl owi ngbr i ghtbl ue. Theywer epr obabl yf or medonet hous andy ear s agof r om anunk nownv i ol entev ent .

I nt er s t el l arc l oudsl i k et heOr i onNebul aar ef ound t hr oughoutgal ax i ess uc hast heMi l k yWay .They begi nasgr av i t at i onal l yboundbl obsofc ol d,neut r al hy dr ogen,i nt er mi x edwi t ht r ac esofot herel ement s .

Thenebul ai sv i s i bl ewi t ht henak edey eev enf r om ar easaf f ec t edbys omel i ghtpol l ut i on.I ti ss eenas t hemi ddl e" s t ar "i nt hes wor dofOr i on,whi c har e t het hr ees t ar sl oc at eds out hofOr i on' sBel t .The s t arappear sf uz z yt os har pey edobs er v er s ,and t henebul os i t yi sobv i oust hr oughbi noc ul ar sora s mal l t el es c ope.Thepeaks ur f ac ebr i ght nes soft he c ent r al r egi oni sabout17Mag/ ar c s ec 2andt he

Thec l oudc anc ont ai nhundr edsoft hous andsof s ol armas s esandex t endf orhundr edsofl i ghty ear s . Thet i nyf or c eofgr av i t yt hatc oul dc ompel t hec l oud t oc ol l aps ei sc ount er bal anc edbyt hev er yf ai ntpr es s ur eoft hegasi nt hec l oud.


Takeaf ewoft hem ( bet ween10and20i susual l yenough) . DeepSkySt ackerwi l lcombi net hem aut omat i cal l yt ocr eat e anduseacl eanmast erdar kormast erdar kf l at .

INTRODUCTION Thepur pos eoft hi ss hor tmanual i st oex pl ai nt he f eat ur esandpr i nc i pl esofDeepSk y St ac k er . Theus eri nt er f ac eofDeepSk y St ac k eri squi t es i mpl e andi nt ui t i v eandal l t hemai nf eat ur esandc ommands ar er eadi l yav ai l abl e.

Bi asFr ames( akaOf f setFr ames) TheBi as/ Of f setFr amesar eusedt or emovet heCCDor CMOSchi pr eadoutsi gnalf r om t hel i ghtf r ames. EachCCDorCMOSchi pi sgener at i ngar eadoutsi gnal whi chi sasi gnalcr eat edbyt heel ect r oni cj ustbyr eadi ngt he cont entoft hechi p. I t ' sver yeasyt ocr eat ebi as/ of f setf r ames:j ustt aket he shor t estpossi bl eexposur e( i tmaybe1/ 4000sor1/ 8000s dependi ngonyourcamer a)i nt hedar kbycover i ngt hel ens. Thebi asf r amesmustbecr eat ewi t ht heI SO speedoft he l i ghtf r ames.Thet emper at ur ei snoti mpor t ant .

Takeaf ewoft hem ( bet ween10and20i susual l yenough) . Theus eri nt er f ac ei sdi v i dedi nt ot woar eas : DeepSkySt ackerwi l lcombi net hem aut omat i cal l yt ocr eat e Tot hel ef tas etoft absgi v esac c es st oal l t he anduseacl eanmast erbi as/ of f setf r ame c ommandsandf eat ur es . Tot her i ghtas c r eendependi ngoft hec ur r entt abt hat Fl atFr ames i sus edt oc onf i gur eandv i ew. TheFl atFr amesar eusedt ocor r ectt hevi gnet t i ngand

Toc hanget hec ur r entt aby ouc anc l i c kany wher ei n t het ab.

unevenf i el di l l umi nat i oncr eat edbydustorsmudgesi nyour opt i calt r ai n. Tocr eat egoodf l atf r amesi ti sver yi mpor t antt onotr emove yourcamer af r om yourt el escopebef or et aki ngt hem ( i ncl udi ngnotchangi ngt hef ocus) . Youcanuseal otofdi f f er entmet hods( i ncl udi ngusi nga f l at box)butIf oundt hatt hesi mpl estwayi st oputawhi t eT shi r ti nf r ontofyourt el escopeand smoot houtt hef ol ds. Thenshootsomet hi ngl umi nous( af l ash,abr i ghtwhi t el i ght , t heskyatdawn. . . )andl ett hecamer adeci deoft heexposur e t i me( Avmode) , Thef l atf r amesshoul dbecr eat edwi t ht heI SO speedoft he l i ghtf r ames.Thet emper at ur ei snoti mpor t ant . Takeaf ewoft hem ( bet ween10and20i susual l yenough) . DeepSkySt ackerwi l lcombi net hem aut omat i cal l yt ocr eat e anduseacl eanmast erf l atf r ame.

Li ghtFr ames TheLi ghtFr amesar et hei magest hatcont ai nst her eal i nf or mat i on: i magesofgal axi es,nebul a. . . Thi si swhatyouwantt ost ack.

QUICK START Youar ej ustoutofabusyni ghtandyouj usthave downl oadedal lyourpi ct ur es( l i ght s,dar ks,of f set sandf l at s) t oyourPC.

Dar kFr amesandDar kFl atFr ames TheDar kFr amesar eusedt or emovet hedar ksi gnalf r om t he l i ghtf r ames( ort hef l atf r amesf ort heDar kFl atf r ames) . Wi t hDSLRsandCCDCamer a,t heCMOSorCCDi s gener at i ngadar ksi gnaldependi ngoft heexposur et i me, t emper at ur eandI SO speed( DSLRonl y) . Tor emovet hedar ksi gnalf r om t hel i ghtf r amesyouuseadar k f r amet hatcont ai nsonl yt hedar ksi gnal .

Thef i r stst epi st oaddal lt hepi ct ur es( accor di ngl yt ot hei r t ype)t ot hel i st . Todot hi syouuset hecommandsoft hel ef tar ea: -addpi ct ur ef i l es -adddar kf i l es -addf l atf i l es -addof f set / bi asf i l es -adddar kf l atf i l es

Thebestwayt ocr eat et hedar kf r amesi st oshootpi ct ur esi n t hedar k( hencet hename)bycover i ngt hel ens. Thedar kf r amesmustbecr eat edwi t ht heexposur et i me, t emper at ur eandI SO speedoft hel i ghtf r ames( r esp.f l at f r ames) . Si ncet het emper at ur ei si mpor t antt r yt oshootdar kf r amesat t heendordur i ngyouri magi ngsessi on. er i ngt hel ens.

Thenyouj ustl auncht her egi st er i ngpr ocess,youcheckt he " St ackaf t err egi st er i ng"boxaf t erent er i ngt heper cent ageof pi ct ur est hatyouwi sht okeepf ort hest acki ngpr ocessaf t er t her egi st er i ngpr ocess.


I fyouar eusi ngr awf i l es( whi chi shi ghl yr ecommended) ,you j ustcheckt heRawDDPset t i ngsandyoust ar tt her egi st er i ng pr ocess. Youcannowgot osl eepknowi ngt hataf t eragoodni ghtyouwi l l vi ewt hef i r str esul t si nt hepr ocessi ngt ab. Not et hateveni fyourPCcr ashesaf t ert hest acki ngpr ocess,t he r esul ti saut omat i cal l ysavedi naspeci alf i l e:Aut oSave. t i f .

Not e:i ti snotnecessar yt ocomput et heof f set smanual l ypr i or t ot hest acki ngpr ocesssi ncet heof f set sandr ot at i onangl es ar eaut omat i cal l ycomput edj ustbef or et hest acki ngpr ocess anyway.

TheRegi st er i ngandSt acki ngTabcont ai nsal lt hecommands andf eat ur esper t ai ni ngt ot her egi st er i ngandst acki ngpr ocesses.

Bef or et hest acki ngpr ocessascr eenr ecapi t ul at est he di f f er entst eps.

Fr om t hi st ab,youcanaddf r ameofeacht ype( l i ght ,dar k,f l at andof f set / bi as)t ot hel i st ,saveandr est or eFi l eLi st s,pr evi ew i magesandst ar tt her egi st er i ngorst acki ngpr ocess

I ti si mpor t antt oknowt hatt hel i ghtf r ameswi l lbeaut omat i cal l yassoci at edwi t ht hei rdar kf r amesusi ngI SO speedand exposur et i me. Fl atf r amesandOf f set / Bi asf r ameswi l lbeaut omat i cal l yassoci at edr egar di ngonl yt heI SO speed.

Registering and Stacking Tab

I ti spossi bl et oaddf i l est ot hel i stbysi mpl ydr aggi ng& dr oppi ngt hem f r om t hef i l eexpl or er . Thef i l est ypewi l lt henbeaskedbef or et hef i l esar eaddedt o t hel i st . Ther i ghtar eacont ai nst hePi ct ur esLi standt hePi ct ur e Pr evi ew.

The" Checkaboveat hr eshol d. . . "maybeusedt ocheckal lt he pi ct ur esf orwhi cht hescor ei sgr eat ert hanorequalt ot he gi vent hr eshol dval ue.

I neachcaset hebestmat chi ngf r ameswi l lbepr oposedand awar ni ngwi l lbei ssuedi fI SO speedand/ orexposur et i me ar enotmat chi ng. I ti spossi bl et ot empor ar i l y" f or ce"t heI SO speedand exposur et i mebyusi ngt hecont extmenuoft hef i l es.

Ont hebot t om oft hepi ct ur el i stal i neoft absgi vesaccesst o eachf i l egr oup.I fyoucl i ckononegr oupt abt hef i l esoft he gr oupar eshowni nt hel i st . Toknowmor eaboutt hef i l egr oupsyoucanconsul tt he t echni caldet ai l sher e. Tot het opandt her i ghtasl i dermaybeuset ochanget he gammaoft hepr evi ewedi magewhi chmaybeusef ult ovi ew f ai ntobj ect s. Ofcour senomodi f i cat i oni smadet ot her eali mageasi ti sonl y apr evi ewi ngt r i ck.

Fr om t hi sdi al ogyoucanal sochanget hest acki ngmet hods f oreacht ypeofpi ct ur ebycl i cki ngdi r ect l yont hel i nkoron t he" St acki ngPar amet er s"but t on. Anewdi al ogi st henopened,f r om whi chyoucanmodi f yt he f ol deri nt owhi char ecr eat edt het empor ar yf i l esneededby t hest acki ngpr ocessandal lt heset t i ngscont r ol l i ngt hest acki ngpr ocess. Thef i r stt abi susedt osett hest acki ngmodeamongwhi ch t hepossi bi l i t yt ouseaCust om Rect angl e.

I ti spossi bl et oaut omat i cal l yl auncht hest acki ngpr ocess af t ert her egi st er i ngpr ocessbygi vi ngt heper cent ageofl i ght f r amest hatwi l lbekept .Thebestpi ct ur es,basedont he scor ecomput edbyt her egi st er i ngpr ocess,wi l lt henbe st acked. The" Comput eof f set s"f eat ur emaybeusedt ocomput et he of f set sandr ot at i onangl esbet weent hepi ct ur eswi t houtst ar t i ng t hest acki ngpr ocess.Oncecomput edt hedX,dYandangl e col umnsoft hepi ct ur esl i star epopul at edwi t ht hecomput ed of f set sandr ot at i onangl es.

Youshoul dnot et hati nal lmodest heof f set sar ecomput ed f r om t her ef er encef r ame,soi t ' snotat r uemosai cmodebut apseudomosai c. Thi si sal sowher eyoucanchooset heDr i zzl eopt i onwhen st acki ng. Thedr i zzl eopt i oncr eat esi mage4or9t i mesbi gger . Foral r eadyl ar geDSLRi magesi tcancr eat ever yl ar ge i magesandDeepSkySt ackermayneedal otofmemor yand di skspacet opr ocesst hem. Theot herl i ght ,dar k,f l atandbi ast absar eusedt omodi f yt he st acki ngmet hodf oreacht ypeoff r ame,andt oact i vat et he backgr oundcal i br at i on


opt i onf ort hel i ghtf r amesort heaut omat i cdet ect i onandr emovalofhotpi xel sandbadcol umnsdet ect i onandr emovalf or t hedar kf r ames.

TheAl i gnmentt abmaybeusedt ochanget heal i gnment met hodusedt oal i gnl i ghtf r ames. YoucanchooseBi l i near ,Bi squar edorBi cubi ct r ansf or mat i on oryoucanDeepSkySt ackersel ectt hebestt r ansf or mat i on basedont henumberofavai l abl est ar s.

Thi st abi st ocont r olt hewayt hecal i br at edi magesar ecl eanedbef or est acki ng. Thegoali st odet ectandcl eanr emai ni nghotorcol dpi xel s af t ercal i br at i on. Checki ngt heseopt i onsmayser i ousl yal t ert her esul t i ng i magesouset hem wi t hcaut i on. Twopar amet er sar eneededt odef i net hebehavi oroft he cosmet i ccl eani ng.

Thef i r stpar amet eri st hesi zeoft hef i l t erusedt odet ectand f i xt hehot / col dpi xel s.Thel ar gert hef i l t er ,t hel ongert hepr ocessi ngt i meandt hesmoot hert her esul t i ngi mage. Thesecondpar amet eri st het hr eshol dunderwhi chnocor r ect i oni sdone( t hepi xelval uer emai nt hesame) . Al owert hr eshol dmeanst hatmor ecor r ect i onar edone.

Thi st abi susedt ocont r olt hecr eat i onofi nt er medi at ef i l es. Twoopt i onsmaybeusedt ocr eat ef i l escont ai ni ngi nt er medi at ei mages: Thef i r stopt i onmaybeuset ocr eat eaf i l econt ai ni ngt hecal i br at edi magef oreachl i ghtf r ame. Thesecondopt i onmaybeusedt ocr eat eaf i l econt ai ni ngt he cal i br at edandr egi st er edi magef oreachl i ghtf r ame.

Thel astopt i onmaybecheckedt ocr eat eani mageshowi ng t hecl eanedpi xel sf oreachl i ghtf r ame. I nt hi si mage,cl eanedhotpi xel sar ewhi t e,cl eanedcol d pi xel sar edar kgr ayandal lt heot herpi xel sar el i ghtgr ay. Thecr eat edf i l eshavet henameandl ocat i onoft hemat chi ng l i ghtf r amewi t ha. cosmet i c. t i for. cosmet i c. f t sext ensi onas def i nedi nt hepr evi oust ab.

Thecr eat edf i l eshavet henameandl ocat i onoft hemat chi ng l i ghtf r amewi t ha. cal . t i for. cal . f t sext ensi onf ort hecal i br at ed i magesand. r eg. t i for. r eg. f t sext ensi onf ort her egi st er edand cal i br at edi mages. Thef i l esar eal waysuncompr essedTI FForFI TSf i l es,monochr omeorcol or ,8,16or32bi tdependi ngoft hel i ghtf r amebi t dept h. Whenyoucheckoneoft heseopt i onsbesur et ohave enoughf r eehar ddi skspacet ohostal lt hecr eat edf i l es.

TheComett abi savai l abl eonl ywhenatl eastt wol i ght f r ames( i ncl udi ngt her ef er encel i ghtf r ame)haveacomet r egi st er ed. I nt hi scaset heComett abi susedt osel ectt hecomet st acki ngmodebet weent he3avai l abl emodes. Seet heCometSt acki ngt opi ci nt heTechni calDet ai l sf or i nf or mat i ononhowt ouseCometSt acki ng.


Thepr ocessi ngt abcont ai nsapr evi ewoft heRGBhi st ogr am andt hr eesubt abswhi char eusedt oadj ustt hef ol l owi ngset = t i ngs: : -RGBl evel s -Lumi nancecur ve -Sat ur at i on RGBl evel sandl umi nancecur veadj ust ment sar edi r ect l yvi si bl eont heRGBhi st ogr am.

Af t ert hest acki ngpr ocess,t her esul t i ngi magei ssavedi nt he Aut oSave. t i ff i l ewhi chi scr eat edi nt hef ol deroft her ef er ence l i ghtf r ame. . I fanAut osave. t i ff i l eal r eadyexi st si nt hef ol der ,an Aut osave001. t i f( 002,003,. . . )i scr eat ed.

Batch Stacking

TheBat chSt acki ngdi al ogi susedt ocr eat er esul t i ngi mages f r om mor et hanonest ack. Forexampl ei tmaybeusedt ocr eat et her esul t i ngi mages f r om t her ed,gr een,bl ueandl umi nancei mageswi t houtt he needt ol oadeachl i stt henst ar tmanual l yt hest acki ng pr ocessf oreachone. Ofcour sei tal somaybeusedt ost ackanyexi st i ngl i st . Youj ustneedt oaddt hef i l el i st spr evi ousl ycr eat edbyt he SaveFi l eLi stcommandt ot hel i st . EachFi l eLi stt hati scheckedwi l lbepr ocessed. Att heendoft hest acki ngpr ocess,t heout putf i l enamer epl acest hel i stnamef oreachpr ocessedf i l el i st . Not es: I ti snotpossi bl et odef i neacust om r ect angl ef orbat ch st acki ng.

Adj ust i ngt heRGBLevel s

TheRGBl evel sadj ust ment sar econt r ol l edby: Theki ndaadj ust mentt hatyoucanmodi f ybycl i cki ngont he adj ust mentname.Theavai l abl eadj ust ment sar el i near ,squar e r oot ,cubi cr oot ,l ogar i t hm,l og( l og) ,l og( squar er oot )andasi nh. . Themodi f i abl el i mi t sf oreachchannel( l ef tcur sorf ort he mi ni mum,r i ghtcur sorf ort hemaxi mum) .

Themodi f i abl eof f setf oreachchannel( mi ddl ecur sor ) . TheRGBl evel sadj ust mentmaybedonei ndependent l yf or eachchannelorf oral lt hechannel satt hesamet i mewhent he " Li nkedset t i ngs"opt i oni schecked. . RGBl evel sadj ust ementt ab Thesi mpl estwayt ounder st andhowt hedi f f er entpar amet er s ar ewor ki ngi st ochanget hem andl ookatt her esul tont he hi st ogr am. . Adj ust i ngt heLumi nanceCur ve

Processing Tab

Thepr ocessi ngt abcont ai nst hecommandsandf eat ur esper t ai ni ngt opostpr ocessi ng. Iwoul dl i ket or emi ndher et hatDeepSkySt ackeronl yal l ows si mpl epr ocessi ngt r eat ment soft her esul t i ngpi ct ur ei nor der t oqui ckl yvi ewt her esul toft hest acki ngpr ocess. Theheavypostpr ocessi ngshoul dt akepl acei nanot hermor e speci al i zedsof t war e.

Thel umi nancecur vei scont r ol l edby6par amet er s. -2f ort hedar knessar ea. -2f ort hemi dt onear ea -2f ort hehi ghl i ghtar ea.


Thesepar amet er sar econt r ol l i ngaBezi ercur veusedt ot r ansf or mt hel umi nance. Si mpl yputt hepar amet er sar et heangl eandpoweroft he cur vef oreachpoi nt . Theadvant ageofusi ngonl y6par amet er si st hatononehand i ti spossi bl et oqui ckl yvi ewt her esul tandont heot herhand t hati ti spossi bl et omemor i zet hepar amet er st oappl yt hem onanot herpi ct ur e. Lumi nancecur veadj ust mentt ab Thesi mpl estwayt ounder st andhowt hedi f f er entpar amet er s ar ewor ki ngi st ochanget hem andl ookatt her esul t i ngt he l umi nanceadj ust mentcur ve( bl ackcur ve)ont hehi st ogr am. Adj ust i ngt heSat ur at i on Thesat ur at i onl eveladj ust menti sj ustaper cent ageof i ncr easi ngordecr easi ngt hesat ur at i onl evel . RGBHi st ogr am

TheRGBhi st ogr am i susedt ovi sual i zef oreachchannel ( R,G andB)t her ed,gr eenandbl uepi xel sdi st r i but i oni nt he pi ct ur e. Thebl ackcur vei st hel umi nanceadj ust mentcur ve. Mor eover ,t ohel pt heequal i zat i onoft hechannel st heGaussi ancur vef oreachchanneli sdr awnont opoft hehi st ogr am. Savi ng/ Loadi ngadj ust mentpar amet er s Undo/ Redoadj ust mentpar amet er s Ont hebot t om ofeacht abasetofbut t onsi savai l abl e: -t oappl yt hel astmodi f i cat i onst ot hepi ct ur e -t oundot hel astappl i edmodi f i cat i ons -t or edot hel astundonemodi f i cat i ons -t or esetal lt heval ues -t oaccessadi al ogusedt osave/ l oadanamedsetofpar amet er s. Loadi ngapi ct ur e DeepSkySt ackercanl oadDSI magei mages( cr eat edonl y af t ert hest acki ngpr ocess) ,TI FFi mages( 8,16and32bi t , gr ayl evel sorRGB)orFI TSi mages( 8,16,32and64bi t , gr ayl evel sorRGB) . Att heendoft hest acki ngpr ocesst heAut oSave. t i fpi ct ur ei s aut omat i cal l yl oaded. Savi ngt her esul t i ngpi ct ur e DeepSkySt ackercansavet her esul t i ngi mageas16or32 bi tTI FForFI TS f i l esusi ngt womet hods: : -byappl yi ngt headj ust ment s -bynotappl yi ngt headj ust ment s( butst or i ngt hem i nt he caseoft heTI FFf i l ei nor dert ocont i nuet hepostpr ocessi ng t henextt i met hei magei sl oadedbyDeepSkySt acker ) .

Create a Star Mask

Usi ngaSt arMaski sof t enver yusef uldur i ngpost pr ocessi ng t ousedi f f er entpr ocessi ngt echni quesf ort hest ar sandf ort he r estoft hei mage. TheCr eat eaSt arMaskf eat ur emaybeusedt ocr eat ea var i et yofst armaskst hatcanbeusedl at eri nanysof t war e youar eusi ngt opostpr ocess( Phot oshop,Pi xI nsi ght ,. . . ) .

DeepSkySt ackeri sonl ycr eat i ngst armaskf i l es.I ti snotusi ng t hem i nanyway. Youcanvi ewt hi sf eat ur easat ooli nt endedt opr ovi dequi ckl y andsi mpl yast armaskf i l ebasedonr ealst ardet ect i on. Whati sast armask? Ast armaski sasynt het i cgr ayscal ei mageonwhi cheach br i ghtenoughst ari sr epl acedbyar oundwhi t ear eawhi chi s f adi ngt obl ackf ol l owi ngacur ve.

STARMASK St arMaskCr eat i on Tocr eat eaSt arMaskyoumustl oadani magei nt hepr ocessi ngt ab. Thenj ustcl i ckont heCr eat eSt arMask. . .menuont her i ght andt hedi al ogont her i ghtwi l lopen. Fr om t her eyoucanchanget heshapeoft hest ar si nt he mask,t hest ardet ect i ont hr eshol dandaf ewot herpar amet er s. Onceyouar edone,j ustcl i ckont heOKbut t onandyouwi l l beaskedt osel ectaf i l e( ei t heraTI FForaFI TSf i l e)i nwhi ch t hest armaskwi l lbesaved. Thesavedf i l ei sal waysagr ayscal e16bi ti mage.I ti snot aut omat i cal l yl oadedbyDeepSkySt acker . Thest armaski sal wayscr eat edf r om t hei mageasyousee i ti nDeepSkySt ackerwhi chmeanswi t ht hecur r entadj ust ment sappl i ed.


The Picture List Thepi ct ur el i st ,commont oRegi st er i ngandSt acki ngpr ocesses cont ai nsal lt hepi ct ur esusedbyt her egi st er i ngandst acki ng pr ocesses. -Li ghtf r ames -Dar kf r ames -Fl atf r ames -bi as/ of f set sf r ames Onl yt hecheckedpi ct ur esar eusedbyt her egi st er i ngand st acki ngpr ocesses. Thel i stcont ai nst hef ol l owi ngcol umns: Checkbox: checkedi ft hepi ct ur eshoul dbeused Pat h: Pat ht ot hepi ct ur ef i l e Fi l e:Nameoft hepi ct ur ef i l e Type: Pi ct ur et ype: Li ght Dar k Fl at Dar kFl at Bi as Scor e:Pi ct ur escor ecomput edbyt her egi st er i ngpr ocessor N/ Af ordar k,f l atandbi as/ of f set sf r ames. Whenyouhavesel ect edaf r ameast her ef er encef r ameusi ng t hecont extmenu,t hescor ei spr ecededby( * ) . dX: Xof f set( i npi xel s)comput edf ort hest acki ngpr ocess dY: Yof f set( i npi xel s)comput edf ort hest acki ngpr ocess Angl e:Rot at i onangl e( i n째 )comput edf ort hest acki ngpr ocess Dat e/ Ti me: Dat eandTi meoft hef i l e Si ze: Si zeoft hepi ct ur ei npi xel( Wi dt hxHei ght ) CFA: Yesi ft hepi ct ur ei sr esul t i ngf r om aCol orFi l t erAr r ay ( CFA)whi chi st hecaseofal lt heRAW pi ct ur esusi ngaBayer mat r i x. Dept h:Type( gr ayl evel sorRGB)andnumberofbi t sper channeloft hepi ct ur e. I nf os: Ext r ai nf or mat i onaboutt hepi ct ur e( RAW wi t hDSLR i nf or mat i on,TI FForOt her ) I SO Speed: I SO Speedoft hepi ct ur e Exposur e:Exposur et i meoft hepi ct ur e FWHM FWHM:Ful lWi dt hHal fMaxi mum val ue.( i npi xel ) Thi si st heaver agef oral lt hedet ect edst ar s St ar s:Numberofdet ect edst ar s. Whenacometposi t i oni sseta+( C)i sappendedt ot henumber ofst ar s SkyBackgr ound:Skybackgr oundval uef orr egi st er edi mage i n%

I fyousel ectar ef er encef r amet hati snotchecked,t he of f set swi l lbecomput edf r om t hi sr ef er encef r ameeven i ft her ef er encef r amewi l lnotbest acked. Thepr oper t i esdi al ogmaybeused t ochanget hepi ct ur et ype,andt empor ar i l y( onl yf ort hecur r entsessi on)t heI SO speedandexposur e t i meofoneormor epi ct ur es. Whenchangi ngt heI SO speedand exposur et i me,nochangei smade t ot her ealf i l es.Theval uesar e onl yst or edi nmemor yf ort hedur at i onoft hecur r entsessi on.

Picture Preview Thepi ct ur epr evi ewi susedt oqui ckl yvi ewapi ct ur ef r om t hepi ct ur el i st( Regi st er i ngandSt acki ngTabs)ort ovi ew t hepi ct ur ebei ngpr ocessed( Pr ocessi ngTab) . Youcanzoom i nandzoom outbypoi nt i ngt hemouseand usi ngt hewheel .Thi si st heonl ywayt opanandt ozoom. St arandCometedi t i ng Whenal i ghtf r amei ssel ect edi nt her egi st er i ngandst acki ngt abi ti spossi bl e: -t oedi tt hest arposi t i ons -t oedi tt hecometposi t i on -t ocr eat eandedi t( move/ r esi ze)acust om r ect angl e Youcansel ectoneoft heabovemodei nt het ool bari nt he bot t om r i ghtcor neroft hei mage. Thel asti t em oft het ool bari susedt osavet hechanges.

Youcanpr evi ewapi ct ur ef r om t hel i stbysel ect i ngi t . I ft hesel ect edpi ct ur ei saRAW f i l e,t heRAW DDPset t i ngswi l l beusedt odecodet heRAW f i l ebef or epr evi ewi ngi t . Youcansel ectmul t i pl ef i l esi nt hel i st . Acont extmenui savai l abl e( mouser i ghtbut t on)t omanual l y sel ectt her ef er encef r ameoft hest ack,changet hef i l et ype, checkoruncheckt hef i l es,r emovet hef i l esf r om t hepi ct ur el i st orvi ew,edi tt hepr oper t i esoft hef i l escopyt hel i stcont entt ot he cl i pboar dordef i ni t i vel yer asef i l esf r om t hedi sk.

Cometedi t i ngnot e: Thecometcent ermaynotbeaut omat i cal l ydet ect edby DeepSkySt acker . Tof or cet hecomett oagi ven posi t i onhol ddownt he Shi f tkeywhi l eposi t i oni ngt hecometcent er .


Whenusedf r om t hepr ocessi ngt ab,t hepi ct ur epr evi ewmay beusedt osel ectapar toft hei magebydr awi ngar ect angl e di r ect l yont hepi ct ur e. Thi sr ect angl ei susedononehandt oappl yt headj ust ment s onl yt ot hi sr ect angl eandont heot herhand,opt i onal l y,t osave onl yapar toft hei mage. I fnor ect angl ei sdef i nedt headj ust ment sar eappl i edt ot hef ul l i mage. I nal lt hecases,whent hei magei ssavedt odi skt headj ust ment sar eappl i edt ot hef ul li mage.

FI TSFi l es Theonl yset t i ngi nt hi st abusedf oral lFI TSf i l esi st heBr i ght nessval ue. I tmaybeusedt oscal eup12bi ti magest o16bi t si mages( use aval ueof16t odoso) . Al lt heot herset t i ngsar eonl yusedwi t h16bi tB&W FI TSf i l es cr eat edbyaDSLRoracol orCCDcamer a. Thef i r stst epi st osel ectt heDSLRort heCCDcamer ausedt o t aket hei magesf r om t hel i st .Thi si snecessar yt ouset he cor r ectBayerFi l t erPat t er nt hatwi l lbeusedt odecodet he i maget r ansf or mi ngt hem f r om B&W t ocol ori mages. Thepar amet er sar e: -bal anceoft heRGBchannel s -i nt er pol at i onmode Aboutt hechannel sbal ancei ti si mpor t antt oent ert heval ues usedbyyourDSLRorCCDcamer a.

RAW Files

Theval uesf ort heRedandBl uescal esar er el at i vet ot he Gr een. Thel umi nanceadj ust mentappl i est oal lt hr eechannel s.

Thepar amet er sar e: -bal anceoft heRGBchannel s -whi t ebal ance -i nt er pol at i onmode Thesepar amet er sar est r i ct l yt hosemadeavai l abl ebyDCRaw byDaveCof f i n.Formor ei nf or mat i onabouthowt ouset hem youcanconsul thi swebsi t e. Aboutt hechannel sbal ancei ti sver yi mpor t antt oent ert he goodval uesusedbyyourDSLR. Theval uesf ort heRedandBl uescal esar er el at i vet ot he Gr een. Thel umi nanceadj ust mentappl i est oal lt hr eechannel s. Aboutt hei nt er pol at i onmodeandt hespeci f i cbehavi oroft he Bayermat r i xopt i mi zat i on,mor ei nf or mat i oni savai l abl ei nt he t echni caldet ai l s.

Iwoul dl i ket ot hankLucf r om DeepSkySt ackerf oral l owi ng met or epr oducet he‘ DeepSkySt ackerUserGui de’wi t ht he pagesoft heAmaut eurAst r ophot ogr aphyMagazi ne. Her ei st hewebaddr esst odownl oadt hi samazi ngpi eceof sof t war ef orf el l owamat eurast r ophot ogr apher s. ht t p: / / deepskyst acker . f r ee. f r / engl i sh/ i ndex. ht ml Ihopeyouf oundt hi sgui dei nt er est i ngandt hati tmi ghthel p newcomer st oast r ophot ogr aphyaswel l .


CometLovej oy( C/ 2013R1)I mageby Vi ncentKHCheng

C/ 2013R1( Lov ej oy )i sal ongper i odc omet di s c ov er edon7Sept ember2013byTer r yLov ej oy us i nga0. 2met er( 7. 9i n)Sc hmi dt –Cas s egr ai n t el es c ope.C/ 2013R1c r os s edt hec el es t i al equat or on14Oc t ober2013,bec omi ngabet t ernor t her n hemi s pher eobj ec t . By1Nov ember2013t hec ometwasv i s i bl et ot he nak edey eneart heBeehi v eCl us t er( M44) ,about hal f waybet weenJ upi t erandRegul us . [ 4]I tbec ame mor ei mpr es s i v et hanc ometI SON. [ 5]I nbi noc ul ar s , t hec omethast heappear anc eofagr een, unr es ol v edgl obul arc l us t er . C/ 2013R1madei t sc l os es tappr oac ht oEar t hon 19Nov ember2013atadi s t anc eof0. 3967AU ( 59, 350, 000k m;36, 880, 000mi ) ,andr eac hedan appar entmagni t udeofabout4. 5.

CometLovej oy( C/ 2013R1) 2, Dec, 2013 Mei Zhou,CHI NA Camer a:Ast r o60D( cool edat 20C) Tel escope/ Lens:TakahashiFSQ85ED( 450mm f / 5. 3) Fi l t er:none I SO :1600 Tr acki ngMount:Takahashi EM11 Aut ogui de:SBI G SG4 Tot alExposur eTi me:3mi ns x10wDar kFr ames,Bi asFr amespr ocesswDSS, PI ,PS5

On14Dec ember2013i twi l l pas st hes t arZet a Her c ul i s .Thec ometwi l l c omet oper i hel i on( c l os es t appr oac ht ot heSun)on22Dec ember2013ata di s t anc eof0. 81AUf r om t heSun. Atper i hel i ont hec ometwi l l hav eanel ongat i onof51 degr eesf r om t heSun.

On27Nov ember2013t hec ometwasi nt he c ons t el l at i onofCanesVenat i c i ,neart hebot t om of t hehandl eoft heBi gDi pper .Fr om 28Nov ember unt i l 4Dec ember2013,t hec ometwasi nt he c ons t el l at i onBoöt es .On1Dec ember2013i t Iwoul dl i ket ot hankKevi nHei derf ort heEdi t or i al pas s edt hes t arBet aBoöt i s .Fr om 4Dec ember unt i l 12Dec ember2013,t hec ometwasi nt he c ons t el l at i onCor onaBor eal i s . Fr om 12Dec emberunt i l 14J anuar y2014,t he c ometwi l l bei nt hec ons t el l at i onHer c ul es .On14 Dec ember2013i twi l l pas st hes t arZet aHer c ul i s .


The Adventure Begins

by TheCornishGiant

Af t erayearofl onghour satwor kdoi ngt woj obsandyear s ofbei ngamazedbywhatIsawabovemeatni ght ,t hi syear Ij oi nedt hebr ot her hoodofAmat eurAst r onomer s.Wi t hmoneyi nmyaccountIwentonasear chf orat el escope.Wi t h l i t t l eknowl edgeofwhatIwant edt oachi eveorwhatIr eal l y neededIscour edt hei nt er nett oseehowbi gat el escopeI coul dbuywi t hmymoney( Inowknowt hi swasn’ tt hebest appr oachbutsomet hi ngsyouhavet ol ear nt hehar dway) . Af t ersever alweeksofl ooki ngatwebsi t essuchasEbay, Pr el ovedandGumt r eet onamebutaf ewIf oundmysel fon asi t ecal l edAst r oBuySel l . Conf r ont edwi t hwhatcanonl ybedescr i bedasamul t i t ude ofconf usi ngAst r ol i ngof i l l edadver t sIsear chedt i l lIf ound anadver tt hatIunder st oodandhadpi ct ur es( al waysusef ul ) . Ther ewasaguycl oset ohomesel l i ngaSkywat cher 200pdswi t haEQ5GoTomountandl ot sofext r asi nmy pr i cer ange( l et ’ sbehonest ,wi t hmoneyi nmyaccountand whatl ookedl i keal ar get el escopeonof f erhowcoul dIr ef use?) .Iar r angedt omeett heguyandvi ewt heequi pmentt o checkt hati twasal lwor ki ngandi ngoodor der .Af t ert hi r t y mi nut esofl ooki ngatt hescope,mountandext r asand l i st eni ngt owhatt heguyhadt osayt hedealwascompl et ed. TobehonestIhadt akenwhatt heguyhadt ol dmeatf ace val uebecausemyknowl edgeofwhathewassayi ngwas mi ni malt osayt hel east ,pl usInowownedal ar geshi nny t el escope. Ar medwi t hmynewl ar get el escopeandmountt hatcoul d r ackst uf fi nt hesky( accor di ngt ot heguyIboughti tf r om)I t wasr eadyt ovi ewt heheavens,t ot al l yi gnor i ngt hatf actI hadnot r uei deaofhowt osetupt hi smechani calmi r acl eI nowhadi nmypossessi onbutt hatdi dn’ tmat t er ,i twas mi ne! Af t erdr i vi nghome( ver ycar ef ul l y)Ispentt henextt hr ee hour swor ki ngouthowt oputmynewt oyt oget herandget i twor ki ng.Li keal lmenIt ot al l yi gnor edt hemanual sand i nst r uct i onst hatcamewi t hmynewpossessi on.Wi t hbi t sof t el escopeandmountst r ewnacr osst hef r ontr oom Ihad setmysel ft hechal l enge. Ihadofcour sef or got t enacoupl eoft hi ngsi ndoi ngal lt hi s i nonemor ni ng,andt heywer e1)t oi nf or mt hewi f et hatI wasgoi ngt opur chaseat el escopeand2)t hatIhadat hr ee mont hol ddaught erwhot houghtanyt hi ngwasedi bl eand ever yt hi ngbel ongedt oher .Yep,youcani magi net heexpl ai ni ngt hathadt ogoont hataf t er noon.It hi nknowaf t er 10mont hsshehasf i nal l yf or gi venme,maybe. Thr eehour saf t ert hechal l engeIhadsetmysel fandwi t ha wi f ewhowasnotbestpl ease,Igotmynewpur chase wor ki ng.Gr ant edi twasonl yi nmyf r ontr oom,buti twas wor ki ng.Asenseofachi evementr ant hr oughmybodyasI st oodandst ar edatt hegi antbl ackt el escopeandt hewhi t e mechani calmounti tst oodon.Thet houghthadcr ossedmy mi ndast owhet herIhaddonet her i ghtt hi ngi nbuyi ngsomet hi ngasl ar geast hi sandper hapsIhadj umpedi natt he deependal lt ooqui ckl y,butever yt i meIl ookedati tt hose f eel i ngssoonabat ed.

Weekspassedwi t hnosi gnofcl earski essol i keal lmenIchose t ocompl et el yi gnor eal lt het i meIhadt of ami l i ar i semysel fwi t h t hei nsandout sofmynewt oybuti nst eadsear cht hei nt er nett o seewhatel seIcoul dbuy.I ndoi ngt hi sIbecamedi st r act edand f oundmysel fcomi ngacr ossmanyhel pf ulwebpagessuchas Ast r onomyshedwhohavef or umswher eyoucanpostquest i ons andyougetr epl i esf r om ot her swhohavehadt hesamepr obl ems buthavenowover comet hem.

Thesesi t esar egr eatandver yusef ulbutatt hesamet i mecan scar et hel i vi ngdayl i ght soutofyou.Manyquest i onswer epost ed andal lwer eanswer ed( t hankst oal lt hathavehel ped) ,butt he t i mehadcomet ot aket heobj ectt hathadbeenst oodsopr oudl y i nt hecor nerofmyf r ontr oom f orsol ongouti nt ot hef i el dasaccor di ngt ot heweat her mancl earski eswer eheadi ngmywayf or t heni ght .

Icar ef ul l ypackeddownmyscopeandal li t sext r as,bei ngver y car ef ulnott of or getanyt hi ngorl eavi nganyt hi ngbehi nd.War m cl ot hesonandar medwi t haf l askofmyhomemadechi l l isoupI headedoutt ot henear estpl acet omewher eIcoul dgetdar k ski es. Tomyamazement( andever yonewhol i vesi nGr eatBr i t ai n) t heweat her manhadgoti tcor r ect ,notasi ngl ecl oudi nt hesky andonl yhal faMoont ocont endwi t h. Igotoutofmyver ycar ef ul l y packedvanandl ookedup.Suddenl yt her eseemedt obesomany mor est ar si nt heskyt hanIr emember edbef or eIhadmyt el escope.

Af t eranhourofset t i ngupandaf ewunwr i t abl ewor dsbei ngut t er edmyt el escopeandmountwer esetandIf i nal l ygotmyf i r st vi ewsoft heheavenst hr oughat el escope.Wi t ha28mm eyepi ece i nt hef ocuser ,t hevi ewswer eamazi ng.Mor est ar st hanhadever seen,t heyj ustseemedt ogoonandon.

Anhourofvi ewi ngwhatf el tl i kesol i t t l eoft hi svast nessofspace t hatInowhadaccesst oandt r yi ngt ogetmymountt ogot o wher eIwant ed( get t i ngusedt ohowl ef tont hecont r olpadsomet i mesmadet hescopet ogoupbecauseoft heangl ei twasatand vi cever sa)Ideci dedt ot r ymyl uckandhaveal ookatt hehal f Moont hatwashangi ngsi l ent l yi nt heskyl i ket heTor choft he Gods.

WOW.Wowi st heonl ywor dIcanuset odescr i bei t .Ihadl i keal l ofushadseenpi ct ur esoft heMoonwi t hi t scr at er sandmount ai n r i dgesont el evi si onandi nbooksbutt oseet hem f oryour sel ft hr oughyourownscopei ssomet hi ngt hatcanneverr eal l ybe descr i bedi nwor ds.The28mm eyepi ecet hatIhadbeenusi ngf or t hel asthourwasnowsuddenl yr epl acedwi t ha10mm eyepi ece t hathadcomewi t ht het el escope.Thatwasi t ,assoonasIl ookedt hr ought hateyepi eceIknewt hatf r om nowonever ycl ear ni ghtIwasgoi ngt obeoutl ooki ngupt ot heheavens.Icoul dsee cr at er st hatot herpeopl eIknewhadneverseenandmaynot evenbel i evemeaboutwhenIt ol dt hem.Ther ewer emount ai ns andl i nesandwhi t epat chesanddar kpat chesandcanyons.Thi s obj ectt hatIhadl ookedatsomanyt i meswhenwor ki ngmyni ght j obandt houghthowamazi ngi twast hatusasahumanr acehad l andedamanon,Icoul dnowseesocl ear l y,l i keIcoul dal most r eachi nf r ontoft el escopeandt ouchi t .


Wi t ht heBr i t i shweat herbei ngwhati ti s,i twasonl yashor t t i meaf t ert hatt hecl oudsandmi stcamei nandt hemagi cal si ght st hatIhadbeenl ooki ngatt hr oughmyt el escopevani shedf r om vi ew.I twasonl yt hent hatInot i cedIhadbeen outvi ewi ngt hesewonder sf ormor et hanf ourhour s.Peopl e al wayssayt i mef l i eswhenyou’ r ehavi ngf unandf oronceI agr ee. It ookmyt i meandpackedawaymynewbestf r i endandhi s mountandcheckedt hef l oort omakesur eIhadl ef tnot hi ng behi nd,goti nt omyvanandl ookeduponef i nalt i meonl yt o seet heMoonpeakf r om behi ndi tcl oudybl anketandgi ve meawi nkofsmugsat i sf act i oni nt heknowi ngi thadchangedyetanot herper son’ sl i f ef or ever( t hat ’ showIl i ket o t hi nkofi tanyway) . I t ’ sbeen10mont hssi nceIboughtmyt el escopeandal ot haschanged.Myl i t t l egi r li snowwal ki ng,t hewi f ei st al ki ng t omeagai n,Inol ongerwor kmyni ghtj obasi ti nt er f er ed t oomuchwi t ht hechanceofget t i ngoutwi t hmyt el escopes andvi ewi ngt heheavens,andast hosewi t hakeeneye woul dhaver eal i sedInowwr i t et el escopei ni t spl eur al( I nowownt hr ee).Needl esst osayIam amanwi t hanew addi ct i on,notasmuchmoneyi nmybankaccountasIused t ohave,butsomet hi ng’ sar ewor t hspendi ngyourhar dear nedmoneyon. Toal lt hoset hi nki ngaboutst eppi ngi nt ot her eal msof Ast r onomyIhaveonl yonepi eceofadvi ceandt hati syou wi l lneverr egr eti t .I t ’ sl i keapr esentt hatj ustkeepsgi vi ng. Fr om ourhumbl eMoont ot hePl anet si nourSol arSyst em t hatvi si tourski es,St arCl ust er s,Gal axi es,Nebul aand event heoddComet( i ft heSundoesn’ tki l li tf i r st )t her ei s somucht osee,phot ogr aphandt akenot eof ,youwi l l wonderwhyyoudi dn’ tst ar tsooner . Thankst oTheCor ni shGi ant -

DRIFT ALIGNMENT USING A DSLR BY RANDALL EVANS Oneoft hebi ggesthur dl esIhadt of acewasl ear ni nghow t oDr i f tAl i gn.Dr i f tal i gnmenti st hecor r ect i onoft hemount s pol araxi si nazi mut handal t i t ude.Evenaf t eryoupol aral i gn yourmountusi ngapol arscope,dr i f tal i gnmentmustbe donei fyoupl anondoi ngl ongexposur es.Aver yeasyway t odot hi si st ouseyouri magi ngcamer asuchasaDSLR. Adedi cat edCCDcamer acanbeusedf ort hi saswel l .

ADJUSTING AZIMUTH Sl ewyourt el escopet ot hesout hat0degr eesDEC.WhatI doi susemyGoToonmymountt osl ewi nt hatdi r ect i ont o f i ndast ar .Nor mal l yIwi l ldoaqui ck1t o5secondexposur e t oseewher ei nt hef r amet hest arwi l lbe.Andi t ’ sagr eat wayt ocheckandseehowwel lyourGoToi sdoi ng.Once t hati sdoneIwi l lsetupf oraexposur eof105t o200 seconds.Adj ustyoursl ewr at eonyourmountt oi t sl owest speedr at e.

Nowf ort hi st owor kyouar egoi ngt oneedt ouseyourhand cont r olandkeept r ackoft het i met hatyourexposur ei sdoi ng. St ar tyourexposur eandaf t er5secondspr essandhol dt heup keyonyourhandcont r ol .Thi swi l lcauset hemountt omoveat i t sl owestspeed.Onceyouar ehal fwayt hr ought heexposur e i mmedi at el ypr esst hedownkeyandhol di tunt i lt heexposur e hasf i ni shed.Thi swi l lcauseaangl eofdevi at i onoravshapei f yourmounti sof fi t spol araxi si nazi mut honyourf i ni shedexposur e.Adj ustyourazi mut hbol t sandr epeatt hepr ocess.Once youdot hi saf ewt i mesyoushoul dseei fyouradj ust ment si n azi mut hi sdecr easi ngt hevshapeorenl ar gi ngi t .I fi t senl ar gi ng youar eadj ust i ngi nt hewr ongdi r ect i on.Cont i nuet hi sunt i lyou haveasol i dl i ne.

ADJUSTING ELEVATION Oncet hi si sdoneyouneedt oadj ustf orel evat i on. Sl ewyourscopet ot heeastorwestat0degr eesDECandr epeatt hepr ocessment i onedabove.Onceyoudot heal t i t udeyou cangobackandr edot heazi mut honceagai nf oraevenbet t er al i gnment .

Not e: I fyourar eusi ngaGoTosyst em suchasCel est r onsNexRemot e, af t eryourdoyouradj ust ment si nazi mut hyoumustunsyncon t hest arusedandr esynconi tagai nt ocor r ectt hest armapgener at edbyyourGoToal i gnmentr out i ne.Dot hi sal sof oryour el evat i on.I fyoudonot, yourGoTowi l lnotbecor r ectsi ncet he mountwasphysi cal l ymoved. Thankst oRandal lEvans

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solar proms, filaments, sunspots and solar flares images by Chris Carabela Sunspot sar et empor ar yphenomenaont hephot ospher e oft heSunt hatappearvi si bl yasdar kspot scompar edt o sur r oundi ngr egi ons.Theyar ecausedbyi nt ensemagnet i cact i vi t y,whi chi nhi bi t sconvect i onbyanef f ectcompar abl et ot heeddycur r entbr ake,f or mi ngar easofr educed sur f acet emper at ur e.Theyusual l yappearaspai r s,wi t h eachsunspothavi ngt heopposi t emagnet i cpol et ot he ot her . Al t hought heyar eatt emper at ur esofr oughl y3, 000–4, 500 K( 2, 700–4, 200° C) ,t hecont r astwi t ht hesur r oundi ng mat er i alatabout5, 780K( 5, 500° C)l eavest hem cl ear l y vi si bl easdar kspot s,ast hel umi nousi nt ensi t yofa heat edbl ackbody( cl osel yappr oxi mat edby t hephot ospher e)i saf unct i onoft emper at ur et ot hef our t hpower .I ft he sunspotwer ei sol at edf r om t he sur r oundi ngphot ospher ei t woul dbebr i ght ert hant he Moon.Sunspot sexpand andcont r actast heymove acr osst hesur f aceoft he Sunandcanbeassmal l as16ki l omet er s( 10mi ) andasl ar geas160, 000 ki l omet er s( 100, 000mi ) i ndi amet er ,maki ngt he l ar geronesvi si bl ef r om Ear t hwi t houtt heai dofa t el escope.Theymayal so t r avelatr el at i vespeeds( " pr opermot i ons" )ofaf ewhundr edmet er spersecondwhent hey f i r stemer geont ot hesol arphot ospher e. Mani f est i ngi nt ensemagnet i cact i vi t y,sunspot s hostsecondar yphenomenasuchascor onall oops ( pr omi nences)andr econnect i onevent s.Mostsol arf l ar es andcor onalmassej ect i onsor i gi nat ei nmagnet i cal l y act i ver egi onsar oundvi si bl esunspotgr oupi ngs.Si mi l ar phenomenai ndi r ect l yobser vedonst ar sar ecommonl y cal l edst ar spot sandbot hl i ghtanddar kspot shavebeen measur ed.

Prehistoric evidence

Theear l i estsur vi vi ngr ecor dofsunspotobser vat i ondat es f r om 364BC,basedoncomment sbyChi neseast r onomer GanDei nast arcat al ogue.By28BC,Chi neseast r onomer swer er egul ar l yr ecor di ngsunspotobser vat i onsi n of f i ci ali mper i alr ecor ds. Thef i r stcl earment i onofasunspoti nWest er nl i t er at ur e, ar ound300BC,wasbyt heanci entGr eekschol ar

Theophr ast us,st udentofPl at oandAr i st ot l eandsuccessort o t hel at t er .Amor er ecentsunspotobser vat i onwasmadeon 17Mar ch807ADbyt heBenedi ct i nemonkAdel mus,whoobser vedal ar gesunspott hatwasvi si bl ef orei ghtdays;however , Adel musi ncor r ect l yconcl udedhewasobser vi ngat r ansi tof Mer cur y.Al ar gesunspotwasal soseenatt het i meofChar l emagne' sdeat hi n813AD.Sunspotact i vi t yi n1129was descr i bedbyJohnofWor cest er ,andAver r oespr ovi dedadescr i pt i onofsunspot sl at eri nt he12t hcent ur y;however ,t hese obser vat i onswer eal somi si nt er pr et edaspl anet ar yt r ansi t s,unt i l Gal i l eogavet hecor r ectexpl anat i oni n1612.

17th & 18th centuries

Sunspot swer ef i r stobser vedt el escopi cal l yi n l at e1610byt heEngl i shast r onomerThomas Har r i otandFr i si anast r onomer sJohannes andDavi dFabr i ci us,whopubl i sheda descr i pt i oni nJune1611.Att hel at t er t i me,Gal i l eohadbeenshowi ngsunspot st oast r onomer si nRome,andChr i st ophSchei nerhadpr obabl ybeenobser vi ngt hespot sf ort woort hr ee mont hsusi ngani mpr ovedhel i oscope ofhi sowndesi gn.Theensui ngpr i or i t y di sput ebet weenGal i l eoandSchei ner , nei t herofwhom knewoft heFabr i ci us' wor k,wast husaspoi nt l essasi twas bi t t er .

Sunspot shadsomei mpor t ancei nt hedebat eovert henat ur eoft heSol arSyst em.They showedt hatt heSunr ot at ed,andt hei rcomi ngs andgoi ngsshowedt hatt heSunchanged,cont r ar y t oAr i st ot l e( whot aughtt hatal lcel est i albodi eswer e per f ect ,unchangi ngspher es) . Rudol fWol fst udi edt hehi st or i calr ecor di nanat t emptt oest abl i sh adat abaseonpastcycl i cvar i at i ons.Hi sdat abaseext endedonl y t o1700,al t hought het echnol ogyandt echni quesf orcar ef ulsol ar obser vat i onswer ef i r stavai l abl ei n1610.Gust avSpör erl at er suggest eda70yearper i odbef or e1716i nwhi chsunspot swer e r ar el yobser vedast her easonf orWol f ' si nabi l i t yt oext endt he cycl esi nt ot he17t hcent ur y.

Sunspot swer er ar el yr ecor deddur i ngt hesecondpar tof17t h cent ur y.Lat eranal ysi sr eveal edt hepr obl em nott obeal ackof obser vat i onaldat abuti ncl udedr ef er encest onegat i veobser vat i ons.Bui l di nguponSpör er ' sear l i erwor k,Edwar dMaunder suggest edt hatt heSunhadchangedf r om aper i odi nwhi ch sunspot sal lbutdi sappear edf r om t hesol arsur f acet oar enewal ofsunspotcycl esst ar t i ngi nabout1700.Addi ngt ot hi s under st andi ngoft heabsenceofsol arcycl eswer eobser vat i ons ofaur or ae,whi chwer eabsentatt hesamet i me.Event hel ackof


asol arcor onadur i ngsol arecl i pseswasnot edpr i ort o 1715.Theper i odofl owsunspotact i vi t yf r om 1645t o1717 i sknownast he" MaunderMi ni mum" .

Physics

Al t hought hedet ai l sofsunspotgener at i onar est i l lamat t er ofr esear ch,i tappear st hatsunspot sar et hevi si bl ecount er par t sofmagnet i cf l uxt ubesi nt heSun' sconvect i vezone t hatget" woundup"bydi f f er ent i alr ot at i on.I ft hest r esson t het ubesr eachesacer t ai nl i mi t ,t heycur lupl i kear ubber bandandpunct ur et heSun' ssur f ace.Convect i oni si nhi bi t edatt hepunct ur epoi nt s;t heener gyf l uxf r om t heSun' s i nt er i ordecr eases;andwi t hi tsur f acet emper at ur e. TheWi l sonef f ectt el l sust hatsunspot sar eact ual l ydepr essi onsont heSun' ssur f ace.Obser vat i onsusi ngt he Zeemanef f ectshowt hatpr ot ot ypi calsunspot scomei n pai r swi t hopposi t emagnet i cpol ar i t y. Fr om cycl et ocycl e,t hepol ar i t i esofl eadi ngandt r ai l i ng ( wi t hr espectt ot hesol arr ot at i on)sunspot schangef r om nor t h/ sout ht osout h/ nor t handback.Sunspot susual l y appeari ngr oups. Thesunspoti t sel fcanbedi vi dedi nt ot wopar t s: Thecent r alumbr a,whi chi st hedar kestpar t ,wher et he magnet i cf i el di sappr oxi mat el yver t i cal( nor malt ot he Sun' ssur f ace) . Thesur r oundi ngpenumbr a,whi chi sl i ght er ,wher et hemagnet i cf i el di smor ei ncl i ned. Magnet i cpr essur eshoul dt end t or emovef i el dconcent r at i ons,causi ngt hesunspot st o di sper se,butsunspotl i f et i mesar emeasur edi ndaysor evenweeks.I n2001,obser vat i onsf r om t heSol arand Hel i ospher i cObser vat or y( SOHO)usi ngsoundwaves t r avel i ngbel owt heSun' sphot ospher e( l ocalhel i osei smol ogy)wer eusedt odevel opat hr eedi mensi onali mageof t hei nt er nalst r uct ur ebel owsunspot s;t heseobser vat i ons showt hatt her ei sapower f uldowndr af tunder neat heach sunspot ,f or mi ngar ot at i ngvor t ext hatconcent r at est he magnet i cf i el d.Sunspot scant husbet houghtofassel f per pet uat i ngst or ms,anal ogousi nsomewayst ot er r est r i al hur r i canes. Sunspotact i vi t ycycl esaboutever yel evenyear s.Thepoi nt ofhi ghestsunspotact i vi t ydur i ngt hi scycl ei sknownas Sol arMaxi mum,andt hepoi ntofl owestact i vi t yi sSol ar Mi ni mum.Ear l yi nt hecycl e, sunspot sappeari nt hehi gher l at i t udesandt henmovet owar dst heequat orast hecycl eappr oachesmaxi mum: t hi si scal l edSpรถr er ' sl aw. Wol fnumbersunspot i ndexdi spl aysvar i ous per i ods,t hemostpr omi nentofwhi chi s atabout11year si n t hemean.Thi sper i odi sal soobser ved i nmostot herexpr essi onsofsol aract i vi t yandi sdeepl y l i nkedt oavar i at i on i nt hesol armagnet i cf i el dt hatchanges pol ar i t ywi t ht hi sper i od,t oo.

Themoder nunder st andi ngofsunspot s st ar t swi t hGeor geEl l er yHal e,whof i r stl i nkedmagnet i cf i el ds andsunspot si n1908. Hal esuggest edt hat t hesunspotcycl eper i odi s22year s,cover i ng t wopol arr ever sal sof t hesol armagnet i cdi pol e f i el d.Hor aceW.Babcock l at erpr oposedaqual i t at i ve modelf ort hedynami csof t hesol arout erl ayer s.TheBabcockModelexpl ai nst hatmagnet i c f i el dscauset hebehavi ordescr i bedbySpรถr er ' sl aw,aswel las ot heref f ect s,whi char et wi st edbyt heSun' sr ot at i on.

Observation

Sunspot sar eobser vedwi t hl andbasedandEar t hor bi t i ngsol ar t el escopes.Theset el escopesusef i l t r at i onandpr oj ect i ont echni quesf ordi r ectobser vat i on,i naddi t i ont ovar i oust ypesoff i l t er ed camer as.Speci al i zedt ool ssuchasspect r oscopesandspect r ohel i oscopesar eusedt oexami nesunspot sandsunspotar eas. Ar t i f i ci alecl i psesal l owvi ewi ngoft heci r cumf er enceoft heSunas sunspot sr ot at et hr ought hehor i zon.

Si ncel ooki ngdi r ect l yatt heSunwi t ht henakedeyeper manent l y damagesvi si on,amat eurobser vat i onofsunspot si sgener al l y conduct edi ndi r ect l yusi ngpr oj ect edi mages,ordi r ect l yt hr ough pr ot ect i vef i l t er s.Smal lsect i onsofver ydar kf i l t ergl ass,suchas a#14wel der ' sgl assar eef f ect i ve.At el escopeeyepi ececanpr oj ect t hei mage,wi t houtf i l t r at i on,ont oawhi t escr eenwher ei tcanbe vi ewedi ndi r ect l y,andevent r aced,t of ol l owsunspotevol ut i on.

Speci alpur posehydr ogenal phanar r owbandpassf i l t er saswel las al umi num coat edgl assat t enuat i onf i l t er s( whi chhavet heappear anceofmi r r or sduet ot hei rext r emel yhi ghopt i caldensi t y)ont he f r ontofat el escopepr ovi desaf eobser vat i ont hr ought heeyepi ece. Edi t or i alf r om wi ki pedi aht t p: / / en. wi ki pedi a. or g/ wi ki / Sunspot


Amateur Astrophotography Issue 01  

An amateur astrophotography publication dedicated to astro imaging alone. Within the pages of the publication there is reader's images alone...

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