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'ƌĞĞŶƵůƚƵƌĞZĞǀŽůƵƟŽŶ͗ A Study of ŚŽǁĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞĐŽƵůĚĐŽŶƚƌŝďƵƚĞƚŽĂŶƵƌďĂŶƐŽĐŝĂůƐŚŝŌ toward nature-based values, lifestyle and spirituality. Amanda Cavallo | Syracuse University | Thesis Prep Fall 2012 | Primary Advisor, A. French Secondary Advisor, S. Henderson


Fig. Cover Image: Rendering by map-lab. “ResilienCity” Vision for a Green city and a Green life


Table of Contents GLOSSARY................................................................................... 4 ABSTRACT................................................................................... 5 AN OVERVIEW OF NATURE SPIRITUALITY................................... 6 AN OVERVIEW OF SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE AND ITS CULTURAL POTENTIAL.......................................................... 8 SETTING THE SCOPE..................................................................10 THE CONTEXT.............................................................................12 THE PROPOSED PROJECT......................................................... 38 SYSTEMS................................................................................. 52 MORE ON PHENOMENOLOGY................................................. 54 BIBLIOGRAPHY......................................................................... 56


GLOSSARY ZĞĨĞƌŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĐůĂƌŝĮĞĚƚĞƌŵƐŵĂƌŬĞĚǁŝƚŚĂŶ͞Ύ͟

ϭϬϬLJĞĂƌĂŶĚϱϬϬLJĞĂƌŇŽŽĚ͗ ŇŽŽĚƐŽůĂƌŐĞƚŚĂƚĞdžƉĞƌƚƐďĞůŝĞǀĞŝƚŚĂƐ ĂϭƉĞƌĐĞŶƚ͕ŽƌŽŶĞŽƵƚŽĨϭϬϬ͕ĐŚĂŶĐĞŽĨŽĐĐƵƌƌŝŶŐŝŶĂŶLJŐŝǀĞŶLJĞĂƌ͗ƚŚĞ ƚĞƌŵƌĞĨĞƌƐƚŽƚŚĞŇŽŽĚ͛ƐƐŝnjĞ͕ŶŽƚŚŽǁŽŌĞŶŝƚŽĐĐƵƌƐ͘^ĞǀĞƌĂůϭϬϬͲLJĞĂƌ ŇŽŽĚƐĐĂŶŽĐĐƵƌǁŝƚŚŝŶƚŚĞƐĂŵĞLJĞĂƌŽƌǁŝƚŚŝŶĂĨĞǁƐŚŽƌƚLJĞĂƌƐ͘džƉĞƌƚƐ ĚĞƐŝŐŶĂƚĞƚŚĞƐŝnjĞŽĨĂϭϬϬͲLJĞĂƌŇŽŽĚĨŽƌƐƉĞĐŝĮĐĂƌĞĂƐ͖ƚŚĞĂĐƚƵĂůƐŝnjĞǁŝůů ǀĂƌLJĨƌŽŵŽŶĞƉůĂĐĞƚŽĂŶŽƚŚĞƌ͘dŚĞϱϬϬͲLJĞĂƌŇŽŽĚŝƐƚŚĞŇŽŽĚƚŚĂƚŚĂƐĂ ͘ϮйĐŚĂŶĐĞŽĨŽĐĐƵƌƌŝŶŐĞĂĐŚLJĞĂƌ͘dŚĞƐĞŵĞĂƐƵƌĞƐĂƌĞƵƐĞĚĂƐĂƐƚĂŶĚĂƌĚ ďĞŶĐŚŵĂƌŬĨŽƌŇŽŽĚƉůĂŝŶŵĂŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚĂŶĚƚŽĚĞƚĞƌŵŝŶĞƚŚĞŶĞĞĚĨŽƌ ŇŽŽĚŝŶƐƵƌĂŶĐĞ͘

ĐŽͲƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďůĞĚĞƐŝŐŶ͗ĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞĂŶĚƵƌďĂŶŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞƚŚĂƚ ƐƵƐƚĂŝŶƐŝƚƐĞůĨƚŚƌŽƵŐŚĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂůŝƐŵĂŶĚĐŽŶƐĐŝŽƵƐůLJǁŽƌŬŝŶŐǁŝƚŚ ĞĐŽůŽŐŝĞƐ͘dŚŝƐŝŶĐůƵĚĞƐŵĞƚŚŽĚƐƐƵĐŚĂƐƉĂƐƐŝǀĞƐLJƐƚĞŵƐ͕ĐƌĂĚůĞƚŽ ĐƌĂĚůĞĚĞƐŝŐŶ͕ĂŶĚĞĐŽůŽŐŝĐĂůƐLJƐƚĞŵƐ͘

ŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂůŝƐŵ͗ĂƉŚŝůŽƐŽƉŚLJ͕ŝĚĞŽůŽŐLJ͕ĂŶĚƐŽĐŝĂůŵŽǀĞŵĞŶƚƌĞͲ ŐĂƌĚŝŶŐĐŽŶĐĞƌŶƐĨŽƌĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂůĐŽŶƐĞƌǀĂƟŽŶĂŶĚŝŵƉƌŽǀĞŵĞŶƚŽĨ ƚŚĞŚĞĂůƚŚŽĨƚŚĞĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͕ĂĚǀŽĐĂƟŶŐƚŚĞƉƌĞƐĞƌǀĂƟŽŶ͕ƌĞƐƚŽƌĂƟŽŶ ĂŶĚͬŽƌŝŵƉƌŽǀĞŵĞŶƚŽĨƚŚĞŶĂƚƵƌĂůĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͕ĂŶĚŵĂLJďĞƌĞĨĞƌƌĞĚ ƚŽĂƐĂŵŽǀĞŵĞŶƚƚŽĐŽŶƚƌŽůƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ͘

'ƌĞĞŶƵůƚƵƌĞ͗ĂŶĞƌĂŽĨƐŽĐŝĂůĞŵƉŚĂƐŝƐŽŶƚŚĞƉůĂŶĞƚ͛ƐĞŶǀŝƌŽŶͲ

ŝŽƉŚŝůŝĂ͗ƚŚĞďĞůŝĞĨƚŚĂƚƚŚĞƌĞŝƐĂŶŝŶƐƟŶĐƟǀĞďŽŶĚďĞƚǁĞĞŶŚƵŵĂŶ

ŵĞŶƚ͕ĞŶĐŽŵƉĂƐƐĞĚďLJƉĞƌƐŽŶĂůƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉƐǁŝƚŚŶĂƚƵƌĞĂŶĚEĂƚƵƌĞ ^ƉŝƌŝƚƵĂůŝƚLJ͕ĂŶĚƵƌďĂŶͬĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐƉƌĂĐƟĐĞƐƚŚĂƚƐƵƉƉŽƌƚĞĐŽůŽŐŝĐĂůĂŶĚ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂůŚĞĂůƚŚ͘

ďĞŝŶŐƐĂŶĚŽƚŚĞƌůŝǀŝŶŐƐLJƐƚĞŵƐĂŶĚƚŚĂƚƚŚŝƐŝƐƌĞƐƉŽŶƐŝďůĞĨŽƌƚŚĞůŽǀĞŽĨ͕ ĨĂƐĐŝŶĂƟŽŶǁŝƚŚ͕ĂŶĚ͞ƚŚĞƵƌŐĞƚŽĂĸůŝĂƚĞǁŝƚŚŽƚŚĞƌĨŽƌŵƐŽĨůŝĨĞ͘͟

EĂƚƵƌĞ^ƉŝƌŝƚƵĂůŝƚLJ͗ ĂƉĞƌĐĞƉƟŽŶĂŶĚƚŚĞƉƌĂĐƟĐĞƐƚŚĂƚĂƌĞĐŚĂƌĂĐͲ

ŝŽƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůŝƐŵ͗ĂƉŽůŝƟĐĂů͕ĐƵůƚƵƌĂů͕ĂŶĚĞĐŽůŽŐŝĐĂůǀŝĞǁƐďĂƐĞĚŽŶŶĂƚƵͲ ƌĂůůLJĚĞĮŶĞĚĂƌĞĂƐĐĂůůĞĚďŝŽƌĞŐŝŽŶƐ͗ĚĞĮŶĞĚƚŚƌŽƵŐŚƉŚLJƐŝĐĂůĂŶĚĞŶǀŝͲ ƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂůĨĞĂƚƵƌĞƐ͕ŝŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐǁĂƚĞƌƐŚĞĚďŽƵŶĚĂƌŝĞƐĂŶĚƐŽŝůĂŶĚƚĞƌƌĂŝŶ ĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝƐƟĐƐ͘/ƚƐƚƌĞƐƐĞƐƚŚĂƚƚŚĞĚĞƚĞƌŵŝŶĂƟŽŶŽĨĂďŝŽƌĞŐŝŽŶŝƐĂůƐŽĂ ĐƵůƚƵƌĂůƉŚĞŶŽŵĞŶŽŶ͕ĂŶĚĞŵƉŚĂƐŝnjĞƐůŽĐĂůƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶƐ͕ŬŶŽǁůĞĚŐĞ͕ĂŶĚ ƐŽůƵƟŽŶƐ͘

ƚĞƌŝnjĞĚďLJĂƌĞǀĞƌĞŶĐĞĨŽƌŶĂƚƵƌĞĂŶĚƚŚĂƚĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌŝƚƐĚĞƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶĂ ĚĞƐĞĐƌĂƟŶŐĂĐƚ͘/ƚŝƐĚĞƐĐƌŝďĞĚďLJĨĞĞůŝŶŐƐŽĨƚƌƵƐƚ͕ďĞůŽŶŐŝŶŐĂŶĚĐŽŶͲ ŶĞĐƟŽŶƚŽƚŚĞĞĂƌƚŚ͕ĂŶĚĐŽŵďŝŶĞƐƚŚĞůŽǀĞŽĨŶĂƚƵƌĞĂŶĚĂƐƉŝƌŝƚƵĂů ĚŝŵĞŶƐŝŽŶƚŚĂƚŝƐƌŽŽƚĞĚĚĞĞƉŝŶŽƵƌE͘^ŝŵŝůĂƌƉŚƌĂƐĞƐ͗ŶĂƚƵƌĂů ƌĞůŝŐŝŽŶ͕ŶĂƚƵƌĞǁŽƌƐŚŝƉ͕ĞĐŽƐƉŝƌŝƚƵĂůŝƚLJ͕ŶĂƚƵƌĞŵLJƐƟĐŝƐŵ͕ĂŶĚĞĂƌƚŚ ƌĞůŝŐŝŽŶ͘

WŚĞŶŽŵĞŶŽůŽŐLJ͗ĂƉŚŝůŽƐŽƉŚŝĐĂůĚĞƐŝŐŶĂƉƉƌŽĂĐŚƚŚĂƚŝƐďĂƐĞĚŽŶ ĐŽƉƐLJĐŚŽůŽŐLJ͗ĂƉŚŝůŽƐŽƉŚLJ͕ŝĚĞŽůŽŐLJ͕ĂŶĚƐŽĐŝĂůŵŽǀĞŵĞŶƚƌĞŐĂƌĚͲ ŝŶŐĐŽŶĐĞƌŶƐĨŽƌĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂůĐŽŶƐĞƌǀĂƟŽŶĂŶĚŝŵƉƌŽǀĞŵĞŶƚŽĨƚŚĞ ŚĞĂůƚŚŽĨƚŚĞĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͕ĂĚǀŽĐĂƟŶŐƚŚĞƉƌĞƐĞƌǀĂƟŽŶ͕ƌĞƐƚŽƌĂƟŽŶĂŶĚͬ ŽƌŝŵƉƌŽǀĞŵĞŶƚŽĨƚŚĞŶĂƚƵƌĂůĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͕ĂŶĚŵĂLJďĞƌĞĨĞƌƌĞĚƚŽĂƐĂ ŵŽǀĞŵĞŶƚƚŽĐŽŶƚƌŽůƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ͘

ƚŚĞĞdžƉĞƌŝĞŶĐĞŽĨďƵŝůĚŝŶŐŵĂƚĞƌŝĂůƐĂŶĚƚŚĞŝƌƐĞŶƐŽƌLJƉƌŽƉĞƌƟĞƐ͘dŚĞ ĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚŝƐĚĞĮŶĞĚĂƐ͞ƚŚĞƉůĂĐĞ͕͟ĂŶĚƚŚĞƚŚŝŶŐƐǁŚŝĐŚŽĐĐƵƌƚŚĞƌĞ ͞ƚĂŬĞƉůĂĐĞ͘͟/ƚŝƐŶŽƚďĂƐĞĚŽŶůŽĐĂůŝƚLJ͕ďƵƚĐŽŶƐŝƐƚƐŽĨĐŽŶĐƌĞƚĞƚŚŝŶŐƐ ǁŚŝĐŚŚĂǀĞŵĂƚĞƌŝĂůƐƵďƐƚĂŶĐĞ͕ƐŚĂƉĞ͕ƚĞdžƚƵƌĞ͕ĂŶĚĐŽůŽƌ͕ĂŶĚƚŽŐĞƚŚĞƌ ĐŽĂůĞƐĐĞƚŽĨŽƌŵƚŚĞĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͛ƐĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌ͕ŽƌĂƚŵŽƐƉŚĞƌĞ͘/ƚŝƐƚŚŝƐ ĂƚŵŽƐƉŚĞƌĞǁŚŝĐŚĂůůŽǁƐĐĞƌƚĂŝŶƐƉĂĐĞƐ͕ǁŝƚŚƐŝŵŝůĂƌŽƌĞǀĞŶŝĚĞŶƟͲ ĐĂůĨƵŶĐƟŽŶƐ͕ƚŽĞŵďŽĚLJǀĞƌLJĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚƉƌŽƉĞƌƟĞƐ͕ŝŶĂĐĐŽƌĚǁŝƚŚƚŚĞ ƵŶŝƋƵĞĐƵůƚƵƌĂůĂŶĚĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂůĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐŽĨƚŚĞƉůĂĐĞǁŚŝĐŚƚŚĞLJ ĞdžŝƐƚ͘


^ŽŌͲĞĚŐĞŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞǀƐ͘ŚĂƌĚͲĞĚŐĞŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͗,ĂƌĚͲ ĞĚŐĞƐLJƐƚĞŵƐĂƌĞŵŽƐƚůLJŚĂƌĚͲĞŶŐŝŶĞĞƌŝŶŐĨŽƌĐĞ͕ƐƵĐŚĂƐďƵŝůĚŝŶŐ ƵƉǁĂůůƐĂŶĚŽƚŚĞƌŵĂƐƐŝǀĞƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞƐ͕ĂŶĚŽŌĞŶĂƌĞĐŽƐƚůLJŵĞĂͲ ƐƵƌĞƐƚŚĂƚǁŝůůŽŶůLJĂĐƚƵĂůůLJƐĞƌǀĞĂƉƵƌƉŽƐĞŝŶĂŇŽŽĚ͘/ŶƐƚĞĂĚŽĨ ĮŐŚƟŶŐƚŚĞƉŚĞŶŽŵĞŶŽŶŽĨƌŝƐŝŶŐƐĞĂůĞǀĞůƐ͕^ŽŌͲĞĚŐĞŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐͲ ƚƵƌĞŽīĞƌƐĂǁĂLJƚŚĞĐŝƚLJĐŽƵůĚůŝǀĞǁŝƚŚŝƚ͘/ƚŝƐĂƉŽƌŽƵƐĐŽŶƟŶƵƵŵ ŽĨůĂŶĚĂŶĚǁĂƚĞƌ͕ƵƐŝŶŐƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďůĞĞĐŽƐLJƐƚĞŵƐůŝŬĞǁĞƚůĂŶĚƐ͕ ŵĂƌƐŚĞƐ͕ƐǁĂůĞƐ͕ŐƌĞĞŶƌŽŽĨƐ͕ŐƌĞĞŶĞĚŐĞƐ͕ƚŚĂƚĂƌĞŇĞdžŝďůĞĂŶĚůĞƚ ǁĂƚĞƌŝŶǁŝƚŚŽƵƚĞīĞĐƟŶŐƚŚĞĐŝƚLJ͘

ABSTRACT: dŚŝƐƚŚĞƐŝƐĐŽŶƚĞŶĚƐƚŚĂƚƵŶĚĞƌƚŚĞƉƌŽũĞĐƚĞĚĨƵƚƵƌĞŝŶǁŚŝĐŚŐůŽďĂů ǁĂƌŵŝŶŐŝŶĚƵĐĞƐĐůŝŵĂƚĞĐŚĂŶŐĞĂŶĚƐĞĂůĞǀĞůƌŝƐĞ͕ƚŚĞŝŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶƐŝŶ eco-sustainable architecture and urban infrastructure that come as a ƌĞƐƉŽŶƐĞǁŝůůĞŶǀŝƐŝŽŶĂŐůŽďĂůůLJƌĞĐŽŐŶŝnjĞĚ'ƌĞĞŶƵůƚƵƌĞΎ͕ĂŶĚƉůĂLJĂ ƌŽůĞŝŶƉĞƌƐŽŶĂůǀĂůƵĞƐ͕ůŝĨĞƐƚLJůĞƐĂŶĚƐƉŝƌŝƚƵĂůŝƚLJƚŚĂƚĐĞŶƚĞƌĂƌŽƵŶĚĂ ĚĞĞƉĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶǁŝƚŚŶĂƚƵƌĞ͖'ƌĞĞŶƵůƚƵƌĞǁŝůůƚŚĞŶďĞĚĞĮŶĞĚĂƐƚŚĞ ĐŽŵďŝŶĂƟŽŶŽĨĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂůŝƐŵĂŶĚEĂƚƵƌĞ^ƉŝƌŝƚƵĂůŝƚLJΎ͘dŚĞƉƌŽposal is for an architectural program that represents a Public Temple ĨŽƌƚŚĞƐŽĐŝĂůĂŶĚƐƉŝƌŝƚƵĂůƉƌĂĐƟĐĞƐŽĨ'ƌĞĞŶƵůƚƵƌĞ͘tŽƌŬŝŶŐǁŝƚŚŝŶ ƚŚĞƐŝƚĞŽĨƚŚĞ^ŽƵƚŚŽƐƚŽŶtĂƚĞƌĨƌŽŶƚ͕ƚŚŝƐƚŚĞƐŝƐǁŝůůƉƵƌƉŽƌƚŚŽǁ ĂĨƵƚƵƌĞĞĐŽͲƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďůĞƵƌďĂŶŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞƚŚĂƚŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƚĞƐǁŝƚŚƚŚĞ ǁĂƚĞƌĐŽƵůĚƐĞƌǀĞĂƐĂƐŝƚĞĨŽƌ͕ĂŶĚďĞŶĞĮƚĨƌŽŵƚŚĞƉƌŽƉŽƐĞĚƉƌŽŐƌĂŵ͘

5


AN OVERVIEW OF NATURE SPIRITUALITY

ŚĂƐďĞĞŶƚŚĞďĂƐŝƐŽĨĂďĞůŝĞĨƚŚĂƚĐŽĞdžŝƐƚƐǁŝƚŚƚŚĞŐƌĞĂƚƌĞůŝŐŝŽŶƐ͙ dŚĞƌĞŝƐ͕ĂŌĞƌĂůů͕ŽŶůLJŽŶĞƚŚŝŶŐƚŚĂƚĂůůŚƵŵĂŶƐƐŚĂƌĞ͕ŶĂŵĞůLJ͕ĚĞƉĞŶdence on the earth.”6  ůƚŚŽƵŐŚŝĚĞĂƐŽĨǁŽƌƐŚŝƉŝŶŐŶĂƚƵƌĞŝƐŶŽƚĂďƌĂŶĚŶĞǁĐŽŶ͞'ŽĚŚŝŵƐĞůĨĐƵůŵŝŶĂƚĞƐŝŶƚŚĞƉƌĞƐĞŶƚŵŽŵĞŶƚ͕ĂŶĚǁŝůůŶĞǀĞƌďĞŵŽƌĞ ĐĞƉƚͶŝƚƌĞǀĞƌƚƐďĂĐŬƚŽƉƌĂĐƟĐĞƐĂŶĚďĞůŝĞĨƐŽĨƵĚĚŚŝƐƚƐ͕ŵĂŶLJEĂƟǀĞ ĚŝǀŝŶĞŝŶƚŚĞůĂƉƐĞŽĨĂůůƚŚĞĂŐĞƐ͘ŶĚǁĞĂƌĞĞŶĂďůĞĚƚŽĂƉƉƌĞŚĞŶĚĂƚĂůů ŵĞƌŝĐĂŶĂŶĚŽƚŚĞƌŝŶĚŝŐĞŶŽƵƐĐƵůƚƵƌĞƐ͕ĂŶĚ^ŚĂŵĂŶŝƐŵ͕ƚŽŶĂŵĞĂ ǁŚĂƚŝƐƐƵďůŝŵĞĂŶĚŶŽďůĞŽŶůLJďLJƚŚĞƉĞƌƉĞƚƵĂůŝŶƐƟůůŝŶŐĂŶĚĚƌĞŶĐŚŝŶŐŽĨ ĨĞǁͶƚŚŝƐĞŵĞƌŐŝŶŐĐƵůƚƵƌĞĚŝīĞƌƐŽŶƚŚĞďĂƐŝƐƚŚĂƚŝƚĚŽĞƐŶŽƚǁŽƌƐŚŝƉ ƚŚĞƌĞĂůŝƚLJǁŚŝĐŚƐƵƌƌŽƵŶĚƐƵƐ͙dŚĞŝŶĚĞƐĐƌŝďĂďůĞŝŶŶŽĐĞŶĐĞŽĨĂŶĚďĞŶĞĮͲ ĮŐƵƌĂůĚĞŝƟĞƐ͕ďƵƚƌĂƚŚĞƌĐŽŝŶĐŝĚĞƐǁŝƚŚĐŽŶƚĞŵƉŽƌĂƌLJ ĐĞŶĐĞŽĨEĂƚƵƌĞ͕ͲͲŽĨƐƵŶĂŶĚǁŝŶĚĂŶĚƌĂŝŶ͕ŽĨƐƵŵŵĞƌĂŶĚǁŝŶƚĞƌ͕ͲͲƐƵĐŚ ƐĐŝĞŶƟĮĐĂĚǀĂŶĐĞŵĞŶƚĂŶĚƉŚĞŶŽŵĞŶŽůŽŐŝĐĂůƐĞŶƐĂƟŽŶƐďƌŽƵŐŚƚ ŚĞĂůƚŚ͕ƐƵĐŚĐŚĞĞƌ͕ƚŚĞLJĂīŽƌĚĨŽƌĞǀĞƌ͙͟1 - Henry David Thoreau ĨŽƌƚŚďLJƚŚĞ͞ƐĞŶƐŝďůĞ͟ĂƉƉƌĞĐŝĂƟŽŶŽĨŶĂƚƵƌĞ͘7 Spirituality is through ƚŚĞ͞ƌĞĂů͕͟ĂƌĞǀĞƌĞŶĐĞǁŝƚŚŶĂƚƵƌĞ͕ǁŚŝĐŚŝƐ͞ĂŶŽƌŐĂŶŝĐŚƵŵĂŶĞdžƉĞƌŝŶĞǁĐƵůƚƵƌĞŝƐĞŵĞƌŐŝŶŐ͕ƉƌŽůŝĨĞƌĂƟŶŐůŝŬĞĂƐŚŽĐŬǁĂǀĞĞdžƚĞŶĚĞŶĐĞƚŚĂƚƌĞƋƵŝƌĞƐŶŽƐƵƉĞƌŶĂƚƵƌĂůĞdžƉůĂŶĂƟŽŶƐ͟8 ŝŶŐƚŽǁĂƌĚŚƵŵĂŶƐŽĐŝĞƚLJĂůůĂƌŽƵŶĚƚŚĞǁŽƌůĚ͕ŝŶŇƵĞŶĐŝŶŐŽƵƌǀĂůƵĞƐ͕  dŚĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŽĨŐƌĞĞŶƌĞůŝŐŝŽŶƐĂŶĚƐƉŝƌŝƚƵĂůŝƚLJĮƌƐƚŝŵůŝĨĞƐƚLJůĞƐ͕ĂŶĚƐŽĐŝĂůƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͘dŚŝƐƉŚĞŶŽŵĞŶŽŶƐƚĞŵƐ͕ĂƚƚŚĞĚĞĞƉĞƐƚ ŵĞƌŐĞĚĨŽůůŽǁŝŶŐƚŚĞĂƌǁŝŶŝƐƚƌĞǀŽůƵƟŽŶǁŚĞŶŝŶƚĞůůŝŐĞŶƚƐŝĂŵŽǀĞĚ ůĞǀĞů͕ĨƌŽŵƚŚĞŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂů͛ƐƉĞƌƐŽŶĂůƌĞĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶǁŝƚŚƚŚĞŶĂƚƵƌĂůĞŶǀŝƚŽǀĂůƵĞƌĞĂƐŽŶĂďŽǀĞƌĞůŝŐŝŽŶ͘/ŶƚŚĞĞĂƌůLJϭϵϬϬƐ͕ĂƌĞŶĂŝƐƐĂŶĐĞŝŶŇƵƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͕ĂƉƌŽĨŽƵŶĚĞdžƉĞƌŝĞŶĐĞŽĨďŝŽƉŚŝůŝĂΎƚŚĂƚŝƐƌŽŽƚĞĚŝŶŽƵƌE͕ ĞŶĐĞĚďLJƵƌŽƉĞĂŶŝĚĞĂůƐĂƉƉĞĂƌĞĚŝŶŵĞƌŝĐĂ͕ǁŚŝĐŚĐĞŶƚĞƌĞĚŽŶƚŚĞ ƚŚĂƚƚŚŝƐƚŚĞƐŝƐǁŝůůƚĞƌŵĂƐEĂƚƵƌĞ^ƉŝƌŝƚƵĂůŝƚLJΎ͘dŚĞĞǀŽůƵƟŽŶĂŶĚƉŽƐƌŽŵĂŶƟĐŝƐŵŽĨ͞ǁŝůĚŶĂƚƵƌĞŝŶĂůůŽĨŝƚƐƐƵďůŝŵĞƉŽǁĞƌ͘͟9 This included ƐŝďůĞĨƵƚƵƌĞƐŽĨEĂƚƵƌĞ^ƉŝƌŝƚƵĂůŝƚLJΎŝƐĂƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐŝŶŐƐƚƵĚLJ͕ƉĞƌŚĂƉƐŵŽƐƚ ƚŚĞŝŶŇƵĞŶƟĂůǁƌŝƟŶŐŽĨ,ĞŶƌLJĂǀŝĚdŚŽƌĞĂƵĂŶĚŚŝƐĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂůĞdžƚĞŶƐŝǀĞůLJŝŶǀĞƐƟŐĂƚĞĚďLJƌŽŶdĂLJůŽƌŝŶŚŝƐŬĂƌŬ'ƌĞĞŶZĞůŝŐŝŽŶ͗ ŝƐƚΎĂŶĚďŝŽƌĞŐŝŽŶĂůŝƐƚΎǁĂLJŽĨƚŚŝŶŬŝŶŐ͘dŚĞŶƚŚĞĂŐĞŽĨŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĂůŝnjĂEĂƚƵƌĞ^ƉŝƌŝƚƵĂůŝƚLJĂŶĚƚŚĞWůĂŶĞƚĂƌLJ&ƵƚƵƌĞ͕ǁŚĞƌĞŚĞĂĚĚƌĞƐƐĞƐƚŚĞǁŝĚĞ ƟŽŶĂŶĚƚŚĞƐƵƌĨĂĐĞŽĨŵŽĚĞƌŶĐŽŶƐƵŵĞƌŝƐƚĐƵůƚƵƌĞƚŽŽŬĐĞŶƚĞƌƐƚĂŐĞ͕ ǀĂƌŝĞƟĞƐŽĨŶĂƚƵƌĞďĂƐĞĚƐƉŝƌŝƚƵĂůŝƟĞƐĂŶĚƚŚĞƉŽƐƐŝďŝůŝƚLJƚŚĂƚƚŚĞLJŵĂLJ ǀĞŝůŝŶŐƚŚĞƌĞǀĞƌĞŶĐĞŽĨŶĂƚƵƌĞƵŶƟůŝƚďĞŐĂŶƚŽŇŽƵƌŝƐŚĂŐĂŝŶĂŵŽŶŐĂ be part of an advancing religion.2,ŽǁĞǀĞƌ͕ƚŚŝƐƚŚĞƐŝƐǁŝůůĐŽŶĐĞŶƚƌĂƚĞŽŶ ƐĞůĞĐƚŐƌŽƵƉĨŽůůŽǁŝŶŐƚŚĞĮƌƐƚĂƌƚŚĂLJĐĞůĞďƌĂƟŽŶŝŶϭϵϳϬ͘ƵƚƚŽĚĂLJ ƚŚĞďƌŽĂĚĞƌĂŶĚĨƵŶĚĂŵĞŶƚĂůĂƐƉĞĐƚƐŽĨEĂƚƵƌĞ^ƉŝƌŝƚƵĂůŝƚLJΎĂƐĂǁŚŽůĞ͕ ǁĞĂƌĞǁŝƚŶĞƐƐŝŶŐĂŶĞŶƟƌĞůLJŶĞǁůĞǀĞůŽĨŶĂƚƵƌĞĂƉƉƌĞĐŝĂƟŽŶ͖ĂƚĂ ƚŚĞƐƉŝƌŝƚƵĂůĂƐƉĞĐƚƐĂƐŽƉƉŽƐĞĚƚŽƌĞůŝŐŝŽƵƐ͕ĂƐƚŚĞLJĂƌĞƚŚĞŵŽƐƚƉŽǁĞƌŵŽƌĞƉĞƌǀĂƐŝǀĞ͕ƉƌŽĨŽƵŶĚ͕ĂŶĚŝŵƉĞƌĂƟǀĞŐƌĂĚĞ͘EĂƚƵƌĞ^ƉŝƌŝƚƵĂůŝƚLJΎ ĨƵůĂŶĚŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƐƟĐͶƚŚŝƐŝƐĨŽƵŶĚĞĚŽŶƚŚĞďĞůŝĞĨƚŚĂƚŶĂƚƵƌĞŝƐĂƐĂĐƌĞĚ ŝƐƉĂƌƚŽĨĂƉĂƌĂĚŝŐŵƐŚŝŌƚŚĂƚŝƐĐŚĂŶŐŝŶŐƚŚĞƐŽĐŝĂůƌĞĂůŵĂƐǁĞŬŶŽǁ ĨŽƌĐĞƚŚƌŽƵŐŚǁŚŝĐŚǁĞĂƌĞĂůůĐŽŶŶĞĐƚĞĚƉŚLJƐŝĐĂůůLJĂŶĚƐƉŝƌŝƚƵĂůůLJ͘tŝƚŚ ŝƚĂƚĂƐĞĞŵŝŶŐůLJƌĂƉŝĚƉĂĐĞ͘>ŝŬĞŵŽƐƚĐĂƐĞƐŽĨŵĂƐƐŝǀĞƐŽĐŝĂůĐŚĂŶŐĞ͕ ƌĞůŝŐŝŽŶĐĞƌƚĂŝŶƌĞƐƚƌŝĐƟŽŶƐĂŶĚĐŽŶŇŝĐƚƐŵĂLJĂƌŝƐĞ3͕ǁŚŝůĞƐƉŝƌŝƚƵĂůŝƚLJŝƐ ŝƚŚĂƐďĞĞŶƐƉĂƌŬĞĚďLJĂƉĞƌĐĞŝǀĞĚĐƌŝƐŝƐ͕10ǁŚŝĐŚŝƐĞĂƐŝůLJŝĚĞŶƟĮĞĚĂƐ ŵŽƌĞŽĨĂƐĞŶƐŽƌLJĞdžƉĞƌŝĞŶĐĞƚŚĂƚŝƐƐƵďũĞĐƟǀĞƚŽƚŚĞŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂů͖ƉĞŽƉůĞ ƚŚĞƚŚƌĞĂƚƉŽƐĞĚďLJĐůŝŵĂƚĞĐŚĂŶŐĞĂŶĚŐůŽďĂůǁĂƌŵŝŶŐ͘ ͞ŝŶĐƌĞĂƐŝŶŐůLJƐƉĞĂŬŽĨƐƉŝƌŝƚƵĂůŝƚLJƌĂƚŚĞƌƚŚĂŶƌĞůŝŐŝŽŶǁŚĞŶƚƌLJŝŶŐƚŽ  ĞŐŝŶŶŝŶŐŝŶƚŚĞϭϵϲϬƐ͕ƵƉŽŶĚŝƐĐŽǀĞƌŝŶŐƚŚĞƚƌĂŶƐƉŝƌŝŶŐŽĨ ĞdžƉƌĞƐƐǁŚĂƚŵŽǀĞƐƚŚĞŵŵŽƐƚĚĞĞƉůLJ͘͟4zĞƚƚŚŝƐďĞůŝĞĨĐĂŶĂůƐŽŝŶŇƵĞŶĐĞ ŐůŽďĂůǁĂƌŵŝŶŐĂŶĚŽƵƌƉŽƐƐŝďůĞĐŽŶƚƌŝďƵƟŽŶƚŽŝƚ͕ĂƉĂŶŝĐŚĂƐďĞĞŶ ĨĞĞůŝŶŐƐŽĨƵŶŝĮĐĂƟŽŶ͗ĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŶŐƚŚĞĞĂƌƚŚ͕ƚŚĞƐĞůĨ͕ŚƵŵĂŶŝƚLJ͕ĂŶĚĂůůůŝǀ- ĨŽƐƚĞƌŝŶŐ͘dŚŝƐŚĂƐĐĂƵƐĞĚƵƐƚŽƌĞŇĞĐƚŽŶŽƵƌĚĞƉĞŶĚĞŶĐĞŽŶ͕ƌĞůĂŝŶŐƚŚŝŶŐƐ͘tŚĂƚŝƐŵŽƐƚƌĞǀŽůƵƟŽŶĂƌLJĂďŽƵƚƚŚŝƐƉŚĞŶŽŵĞŶŽŶŝƐŝƚƐĂďŝůƟŽŶƐŚŝƉǁŝƚŚĂŶĚĂƉƉƌĞĐŝĂƟŽŶŽĨŶĂƚƵƌĞ͘dŚĞƉƌŽŵŝƐĞŽĨĐŚĂŶŐĞŚĂƐ ŝƚLJƚŽĞŶƐƵĞĂƐĂ͞ŐůŽďĂůŝnjŝŶŐƐŽĐŝĂůĨŽƌĐĞ͕͟5 ƚƌĂŶƐĐĞŶĚŝŶŐůŽĐĂůŝƚLJ͕ĐƵůƚƵƌĞ͕ ďƌŽƵŐŚƚĨŽƌƚŚƚŚĞƌĞĂůŝnjĂƟŽŶƚŚĂƚŽƵƌƐƵƌǀŝǀĂůĚĞƉĞŶĚƐŽŶůŽǀŝŶŐĂŶĚ ƌĞůŝŐŝŽŶ͕ĐůĂƐƐĂŶĚƟŵĞ͕ĂŶĚƌĞĐŽŐŶŝnjŝŶŐĂŐůŽďĂůůLJƵŶŝƚĞĚĐƵůƚƵƌĞ͘͞dŚĞ ƌĞƐƉĞĐƟŶŐŽƵƌƉůĂŶĞƚ͕ƌĂƚŚĞƌƚŚĂƚĂďƵƐŝŶŐŝƚ͘^ŽŵĞďĞůŝĞǀĞƚŚĂƚƚŚĞ ŝĚĞĂŽĨŵŽƚŚĞƌĞĂƌƚŚ͙ŚĂƐďĞĞŶǁŝĚĞůLJŚĞůĚƚŚƌŽƵŐŚŽƵƚŚŝƐƚŽƌLJĂŶĚ ƚŚŽƵŐŚƚůĞƐƐĂĐƟŽŶƐŽĨŚƵŵĂŶŝƚLJͶƉŽůůƵƟŽŶ͕ǁĂƐƚĞĨƵůŶĞƐƐ͕ĚĞƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶ


ƟŽŶͶĂƌĞƌĞƐƉŽŶƐŝďůĞĨŽƌŚĂƌŵŝŶŐƚŚĞĞĂƌƚŚĂŶĚƚŚƵƐĐĂƵƐŝŶŐŐůŽďĂů ǁĂƌŵŝŶŐ͕ĂŶĚǁĞŵƵƐƚƚŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞďĞŚĞůĚƌĞƐƉŽŶƐŝďůĞĨŽƌƐĂǀŝŶŐ͕Žƌ ͞ŚĞĂůŝŶŐ͕͟ƚŚĞƉůĂŶĞƚ͘11WĞƌŚĂƉƐĂĐŽŵďŝŶĂƟŽŶŽĨŐƵŝůƚĂŶĚŶĞǁĨŽƵŶĚ ĂƉƉƌĞĐŝĂƟŽŶƚŽǁĂƌĚDŽƚŚĞƌEĂƚƵƌĞ͕ŚƵŵĂŶŝƚLJŝƐĞdžƉĞƌŝĞŶĐŝŶŐĂůĂƌŐĞͲ ƐĐĂůĞƐƉŝƌŝƚƵĂůĂǁĂŬĞŶŝŶŐ͘

1 Henry D. Thoreau. tĂůĚĞŶ͘;EĞǁzŽƌŬ͗dŚŽŵĂƐz͘ƌŽǁĞůůΘŽŵƉĂŶLJ͕ϭϵϭϬͿ 126-182. 2 Bron Taylor. ĂƌŬ'ƌĞĞŶZĞůŝŐŝŽŶ͗EĂƚƵƌĞ^ƉŝƌŝƚƵĂůŝƚLJĂŶĚƚŚĞWůĂŶĞƚĂƌLJ &ƵƚƵƌĞ͘;ĞƌŬĞůĞLJĂŶĚ>ŽƐŶŐĞůĞƐ͕ĂůŝĨŽƌŶŝĂ͗hŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJŽĨĂůŝĨŽƌŶŝĂWƌĞƐƐ͕ ϮϬϭϬͿ͘ ϯ/ďŝĚ͕͘ϮϮϭ͘ ϰ/ďŝĚ͕͘ϯ͘ ϱ/ďŝĚ͕͘Ϯϭϲ͘ ϲ/ďŝĚ͕͘ϮϬϲ͘ ϳ/ďŝĚ͕͘ϮϮϮ͘ ϴZĞǀ͘ƌ͘<ĞŶĚLJů'ŝďďŽŶƐ͕ŵŝŶŝƐƚĞƌŽĨƚŚĞ&ŝƌƐƚhŶŝƚĂƌŝĂŶ^ŽĐŝĞƚLJŽĨDŝŶŶĞapolis. “Primal reverence.” ŶĞƐƐĂLJŝƐĂĚĂƉƚĞĚĨƌŽŵŚĞƌĂĚĚƌĞƐƐƚŽƚŚĞ&ŝƌƐƚ hŶŝƚĂƌŝĂŶ^ŽĐŝĞƚLJŽĨDŝŶŶĞĂƉŽůŝƐ͘Ɖƌŝůϯ͕ϮϬϭϭ͘ ϵdŝůĂƌ:͘DĂnjnjĞŽ͕͞ZŽŵĂŶƟĐŝƐŵͶŵĞƌŝĐĂŶ͕͟ŝŶŶĐLJĐůŽƉĞĚŝĂŽĨZĞůŝŐŝŽŶĂŶĚ EĂƚƵƌĞ͕ĞĚ͘dĂLJůŽƌ͕ϭϰϮϰͲϮϲ͖>ĞŽDĂƌdž͕dŚĞDĂĐŚŝŶĞŝŶƚŚĞ'ĂƌĚĞŶ͗dĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJ ĂŶĚƚŚĞWĂƐƚŽƌĂů/ĚĞĂůŝŶŵĞƌŝĐĂ;EĞǁzŽƌŬ͗KdžĨŽƌĚhŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJWƌĞƐƐ͕ϭϵϲϰͿ͘ 10 Bruce Mau. DĂƐƐŝǀĞŚĂŶŐĞ͘;>ŽŶĚŽŶ͗WŚĂŝĚŽŶWƌĞƐƐ͕ϮϬϬϰͿϳ͘ 11 Bron Taylor. ĂƌŬ'ƌĞĞŶZĞůŝŐŝŽŶ͗EĂƚƵƌĞ^ƉŝƌŝƚƵĂůŝƚLJĂŶĚƚŚĞWůĂŶĞƚĂƌLJ &ƵƚƵƌĞ͘;ĞƌŬĞůĞLJĂŶĚ>ŽƐŶŐĞůĞƐ͕ĂůŝĨŽƌŶŝĂ͗hŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJŽĨĂůŝĨŽƌŶŝĂWƌĞƐƐ͕ ϮϬϭϬͿϮϭϲ͘ &ŝŐ͘ϭWŚŽƚŽŐƌĂƉŚďLJ<ĞŶĚĂƌDŝƐĂŶŝ͕ƵŐƵƐƚϭϱ͕ϮϬϭϭ ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬƉŚŽƚŽƐŚĚ͘ǁŽƌĚƉƌĞƐƐ͘ĐŽŵͬƚĂŐͬŵĞĚŝƚĂƟŽŶͬ

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AN OVERVIEW OF SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE AND ITS CULTURAL POTENTIAL

ĞĂĐŚŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂů͛ƐůŝĨĞƐƚLJůĞ͕ƉĞƌƐŽŶĂůƉƌĂĐƟĐĞƐ͕ĂŶĚĂĐƟǀŝƟĞƐ͕ĂŶĚďĞĐĂƵƐĞEĂƚƵƌĞ^ƉŝƌŝƚƵĂůŝƚLJΎĐĞůĞďƌĂƚĞƐƚŚĞ͞ƐĂĐƌĞĚŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶĐĞŽĨĞǀĞƌLJĚĂLJůŝĨĞ͟ĂŶĚĐĂŶďĞƵŶĚĞƌƐƚŽŽĚĂƐĂ͞ƋƵĞƐƚƚŽĚĞĞƉĞŶ͕ƌĞŶĞǁ͕Žƌ ƚĂƉŝŶƚŽƚŚĞŵŽƐƚƉƌŽĨŽƵŶĚŝŶƐŝŐŚƚƐŽĨƚƌĂĚŝƟŽŶƐ͕ƌĞůŝŐŝŽŶƐ͕ĂƐǁĞůů  /ŶŚŝƐŬ͕ƌŽŶdĂLJůŽƌĂŶĂůLJnjĞƐƚŚĞŝŶŇƵĞŶĐĞŽĨEĂƚƵƌĞ^ƉŝƌŝƚƵĂů- ĂƐ΀ĐŽŶƐĞĐƌĂƚĞ΁ŽƚŚĞƌǁŝƐĞƐĞĐƵůĂƌĞŶĚĞĂǀŽƌƐƐƵĐŚĂƐƉƐLJĐŚŽƚŚĞƌĂƉLJ͕ ŝƚLJƚŚƌŽƵŐŚƚŚĞůĞŶƐĞƐŽĨǀĂƌŝŽƵƐŵĞĚŝƵŵƐŝŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐǁƌŝƟŶŐƐ͕Ăƌƚ͕ŵƵƐŝĐ͕ ƉŽůŝƟĐĂůĂŶĚĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂůĂĐƟǀŝƐŵ͕ĂŶĚŽŶĞ͛ƐůŝĨĞƐƚLJůĞĂŶĚǀŽĐĂƟŽŶĂů ĐƌĂŌƐ͕ƉŚŽƚŽŐƌĂƉŚLJ͕ŵŽǀŝĞƐĂŶĚĚŽĐƵŵĞŶƚĂƌŝĞƐ͕ĂŶĚŚŽǁŝƚŝƐďƌŝŶŐŝŶŐƚŽ- ĐŚŽŝĐĞƐ͕͟15ƚŚĞŐƌĞĞŶŵŽǀĞŵĞŶƚĐŽƵůĚďĞǀŝĞǁĞĚĂƐĂĐĂƚĂůLJƐƚĨŽƌ ŐĞƚŚĞƌƉƌŽŐƌĞƐƐŝǀĞƐŽĐŝĂůĐŽůůĞĐƟǀĞƐĨŽƌŵĞĚďLJ͞ŝŶƚĞƌůŽĐŬŝŶŐŶĞƚǁŽƌŬƐŽĨ EĂƚƵƌĞ^ƉŝƌŝƚƵĂůŝƚLJ͕ĂŶĚĂůƐŽďĞƉŽǁĞƌĞĚďLJŝƚ;ĂƐƉĞƌƐŽŶĂůǀĂůƵĞƐŽŌĞŶ ĂĐƟǀŝƐƚƐ͕ŝŶƚĞůůĞĐƚƵĂůƐ͕ƐĐŝĞŶƟƐƚƐ͕ƉŽůŝƟĐŝĂŶƐ͕ĂŶĚĐƵůƚƵƌĂůĐƌĞĂƟǀĞƐǁŚŽĂƌĞ ĚĞƚĞƌŵŝŶĞƉĞƌƐŽŶĂůůŝĨĞƐƚLJůĞƐͿ͕ŵĂŬŝŶŐĂĐLJĐůĞŝŶǁŚŝĐŚĞĂĐŚŝŶĨŽƌŵƐ ĞŶŐĂŐĞĚŝŶĂŶĚƉƌŽŵŽƟŶŐĚĂƌŬŐƌĞĞŶƐƉŝƌŝƚƵĂůŝƚLJĂŶĚĞƚŚŝĐƐ͘͟12 Despite the other. ŚŝƐĐŽŵŵĞŶĚĂďůLJĐŽŵƉƌĞŚĞŶƐŝǀĞƐƚƵĚLJ͕ŚĞĚŽĞƐĂĚŵŝƚŚĞŵĂLJŚĂǀĞ͞ůĞŌ  ƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĂůĚĞƐŝŐŶ͕ŝŶĐŽŶũƵŶĐƟŽŶǁŝƚŚƵƌďĂŶŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͕ ƵŶĞdžƉůŽƌĞĚŵĂŶLJŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚĞdžĂŵƉůĞƐ͕͟13ŽŶĞŽĨǁŚŝĐŚ͕ƚŚĂƚƚŚŝƐƚŚĞƐŝƐŝƐ ĐĂŶŽƉĞƌĂƚĞǁŝƚŚŝŶƚŚŝƐĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶďLJƌĞĂůŝnjŝŶŐĂǀŝƐŝŽŶĨŽƌƚŚĞĨƵƚƵƌĞ ĂŝŵĞĚƚŽĞdžƉůŽƌĞ͕ŝƐƚŚĞƌŽůĞƚŚĂƚĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĂůĚĞƐŝŐŶĐŽƵůĚƉůĂLJŝŶƌĞůĂďƵŝůƚǁŽƌůĚ͕ǁŚŝĐŚŶŽƚŽŶůLJƐƵƉƉŽƌƚƐĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂůŝƐƚǀĂůƵĞƐƚŚƌŽƵŐŚ ƟŽŶƚŽƚŚŝƐŶĞǁƐƉŝƌŝƚƵĂůĐƵůƚƵƌĞ͘ ƉŚLJƐŝĐĂůƉƌĂĐƟĐĞƐͶǁŝƚŚŐƌĞĞŶͬƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďůĞďƵŝůĚŝŶŐĂŶĚŵĂŝŶƚĞŶĂŶĐĞ  ZĞŐĂƌĚŝŶŐƚŚĞŚƵŵĂŶƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉǁŝƚŚŶĂƚƵƌĞ͕ŝƚŝƐŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚƚŽ ŵĞƚŚŽĚƐ͕ŵĂƚĞƌŝĂůƐ͕ĂŶĚŵĞĐŚĂŶŝĐĂůƐLJƐƚĞŵƐͶďƵƚĐŽŶŶĞĐƚƐǁŝƚŚƚŚĞ ĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌƚŚĞƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉďĞƚǁĞĞŶƚŚĞďƵŝůƚǁŽƌůĚĂŶĚƚŚĞŶĂƚƵƌĂůǁŽƌůĚ͘ ŽĐĐƵƉĂŶƚŽŶĂĚĞĞƉƐƉŝƌŝƚƵĂůůĞǀĞůƚŚƌŽƵŐŚƐĞŶƐŽƌLJĞdžƉĞƌŝĞŶĐĞͶĂ ŌĞƌĂůů͕ŚƵŵĂŶĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƚĞĚŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞŝƐƚŚĞǁĂLJƚŚƌŽƵŐŚǁŚŝĐŚǁĞ ĚĞƐŝŐŶƚĞĐŚŶŝƋƵĞͬƉĞƌƐƉĞĐƟǀĞ͕ƌĞĐŽŐŶŝnjĞĚĂƐƉŚĞŶŽŵĞŶŽůŽŐLJ͘16 By ŝŶŚĂďŝƚƚŚĞĞĂƌƚŚĂŶĚĐŽŶĚƵĐƚŽƵƌĚĂŝůLJůŝĨĞƐƚLJůĞƐ͕ǁŚŝĐŚŝƐƚŚĞŵŽƐƚĚŝƌĞĐƚ ŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŶŐǁŝƚŚŶĂƚƵƌĂůĞůĞŵĞŶƚƐĂŶĚƵƐŝŶŐƚŚĞŵƚŽƉƌŽĚƵĐĞǀŝƐƵĂůĂŶĚ ĂŶĚƉŚLJƐŝĐĂůŵĂŶŝĨĞƐƚĂƟŽŶŽĨŽƵƌǀĂůƵĞƐ͘^ŽǁŚĞŶŐůŽďĂůǁĂƌŵŝŶŐďĞĐĂŵĞ ƚĂĐƟůĞĞīĞĐƚƐ͕ĚĞƐŝŐŶĐĂŶĐƌĞĂƚĞĂŶĂƚŵŽƐƉŚĞƌŝĐ͕ƉŚĞŶŽŵĞŶŽůŽŐŝĐĂů ĂǁŝĚĞůLJĂĐĐĞƉƚĞĚŝŶĞǀŝƚĂďŝůŝƚLJ͕ŝƚǁĂƐƚŚĞŶƵŵĞƌŽƵƐƚŚƌĞĂƚƐƚŚĂƚŝƚǁŝůů ĞdžƉĞƌŝĞŶĐĞǁŚŝĐŚŬŝŶĚůĞƐŽƵƌ͞ĞŵŽƟŽŶĂůƐĞŶƐŝďŝůŝƚLJ͕͟17 and thus dipose against our standing infrastructures and lifestyles that has necesƌĞĐƚůLJĂĐĐĞƐƐĞƐEĂƚƵƌĞ^ƉŝƌŝƚƵĂůŝƚLJ͘/ŶĂĚĚŝƟŽŶ͕ĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞĐĂŶƉƌŽǀŝĚĞ ƐŝƚĂƚĞĚĐŚĂŶŐĞ͘tŚĞƚŚĞƌŽƌŶŽƚǁĞŚĂǀĞĐŽŶƚƌŝďƵƚĞĚƚŽŐůŽďĂůǁĂƌŵŝŶŐ͕ ƉƌŽŐƌĂŵƐƚŽŚŽƵƐĞǀĂƌŝŽƵƐŶĂƚƵƌĞŽƌŝĞŶƚĞĚĂĐƟǀŝƟĞƐƚŚĂƚƚĂƉŝŶƚŽŽƵƌ ĂŶĚǁŚĞƚŚĞƌŽƌŶŽƚǁĞĨĞĞůŐƵŝůƚLJĂďŽƵƚŝƚ͕ǁĞŚĂǀĞŶŽĐŚŽŝĐĞďƵƚƚŽĨĂĐĞ ƐƉŝƌŝƚƵĂůŝƚLJĂŶĚƉƐLJĐŚĞ͕ĂŶĚƐƟŵƵůĂƚĞŽƵƌƐĞŶƐĞƐͶŝ͘Ğ͘LJŽŐĂĂŶĚŵĞĚŝƚŚĞĐŽŶƐĞƋƵĞŶĐĞƐ͘/ƚŝƐƵŶĚĞƌƐƚŽŽĚƚŚĂƚŝŶŽƌĚĞƌƚŽƐƵƌǀŝǀĞ͕ǁĞŵƵƐƚ ƚĂƟŽŶ;:ŽƐŚŝͿ͘18/ŶƚŚŝƐǁĂLJ͕ĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞĐĂŶďĞĂƉĂƌƚŽĨƚŚĞƐŽĐŝĂů ĂĚĂƉƚ͕ĐŚĂŶŐŝŶŐŽƵƌŵĞƚŚŽĚŽůŽŐLJĂŶĚƉĞƌƐƉĞĐƟǀĞŽŶƚŚĞǁĂLJǁĞŝŶŚĂďŝƚ ƉĂƌĂĚŝŐŵƐŚŝŌĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐĂŐůŽďĂů'ƌĞĞŶƵůƚƵƌĞΎ͘͞/ƚŝƐĂŶĞĐŽůŽŐŝĐĂů our planet.14 infrastructure in the public realm that is conceived as a catalyst for fuIn the biggest social and economic leap since the industrial revoƚƵƌĞĐŚĂŶŐĞ͕͟ŶŽƚƚŽĐƌĞĂƚĞƚŚĞĚŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJͲŬŝůůŝŶŐĐŽŶƐƚƌĂŝŶƚƐŽĨĂƵƚŽƉŝĂ͕19 ůƵƟŽŶ͕ǁĞĂƌĞŶŽǁƐĞĞŝŶŐĂŐůŽďĂůƐŚŝŌŝŶƚŚĞǁĂLJǁĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉŽƵƌǁŽƌůĚ͖ ďƵƚƚĂŬĞĂƐ͞ŐĞŶĞƌĂƟǀĞƉŽƚĞŶƟĂůƐĨŽƌĚĞƐŝŐŶ͘͟20 ĂƐŚŝŌƚŚĂƚŚĂƐĐŽŵĞƚŽďĞŬŶŽǁŶĂƐƚŚĞ͞ŐƌĞĞŶ͟ŵŽǀĞŵĞŶƚ͕ĂƌĞǀŽůƵƟŽŶ ĂĚǀŽĐĂƟŶŐƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďŝůŝƚLJƚŚƌŽƵŐŚĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂůŝƐŵ;ƐĞĞĞĐŽͲƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďŝůŝƚLJΎͿ͘dŚŝƐŚĂƐŵĞĂŶƚĂŶĞǁĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂůĂƉƉƌŽĂĐŚƚŽǁĂƌĚŵĞĂŶƐĂŶĚ ŵĞƚŚŽĚƐŽĨƉƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ͕ŵĂƚĞƌŝĂůƐƵƐĞĚŝŶƉƌŽĚƵĐƚƐ͕ĞŶĞƌŐLJƐŽƵƌĐŝŶŐĂŶĚ ƵƐĞ͕ĂŶĚƐLJƐƚĞŵĂƟĐŵĞƚŚŽĚƐŝŶƵƌďĂŶĂŶĚĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĂůŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͕ŝŶ ŽƌĚĞƌƚŽĂĚĂƉƚŚƵŵĂŶƐŽĐŝĞƚLJƚŽƐƵƐƚĂŝŶƐƵƌǀŝǀĂů͕ĂŶĚLJŝĞůĚƐŽĐŝĂů͕ĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐ͕ĂŶĚĞĐŽůŽŐŝĐĂůďĞŶĞĮƚƐ͘ůůŽĨƚŚĞƐĞĂƐƉĞĐƚƐĐŽŶƚƌŝďƵƚĞƚŽ


ϭϮ/ďŝĚ͕͘ϮϬϵ͘ 13 Ibid. ϭϰtŝůůŝĂŵDĐŽŶŽƵŐŚΘDŝĐŚĂĞůƌĂƵŶŐĂƌƚ͘ƌĂĚůĞƚŽƌĂĚůĞ͗ƌĞƚŚŝŶŬŝŶŐƚŚĞ ǁĂLJǁĞŵĂŬĞƚŚŝŶŐƐ͘;EĞǁzŽƌŬ͗EŽƌƚŚWŽŝŶƚWƌĞƐƐ͕ϮϬϬϮͿϲϴ͘ 15 Bron Taylor. ĂƌŬ'ƌĞĞŶZĞůŝŐŝŽŶ͗EĂƚƵƌĞ^ƉŝƌŝƚƵĂůŝƚLJĂŶĚƚŚĞWůĂŶĞƚĂƌLJ &ƵƚƵƌĞ͘;ĞƌŬĞůĞLJĂŶĚ>ŽƐŶŐĞůĞƐ͕ĂůŝĨŽƌŶŝĂ͗hŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJŽĨĂůŝĨŽƌŶŝĂWƌĞƐƐ͕ ϮϬϭϬͿϰ͘ ϭϲ^ƚĞǀĞŶ,Žůů͕:ƵŚĂŶŝWĂůůĂƐŵĂĂ͕ůďĞƌƚŽWĠƌĞnj'ſŵĞnj͘YƵĞƐƟŽŶƐŽĨƉĞƌĐĞƉͲ ƟŽŶ͗ƉŚĞŶŽŵĞŶŽůŽŐLJŽĨĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞ͘;^ĂŶ&ƌĂŶĐŝƐĐŽ͗tŝůůŝĂŵ<^ƚŽƵƚWƵď͕ ϮϬϬϲͿ͘ 17 Peter Zumthor. AƚŵŽƐƉŚĞƌĞƐ͗ƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĂůŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚƐ͕^ƵƌƌŽƵŶĚŝŶŐ KďũĞĐƚƐ͘;ĞƌůŝŶ͗ŝƌŬŚćƵƐĞƌ'ŵď,͕ϮϬϬϲͿϭϯ͘ 18 K.S. Joshi. ^ƉĞĂŬŝŶŐKĨzŽŐĂĂŶĚEĂƚƵƌĞͲƵƌĞdŚĞƌĂƉLJ͘;EĞǁĞůŚŝ͗EĞǁ ĂǁŶWƌĞƐƐ'ƌŽƵƉ͕ϭϵϵϭͿϱϴ͘ ϭϵDĂƩŚŝĂƐ,ŽůůǁŝĐŚĂŶĚDĂƌĐ<ƵƐŚŶĞƌ͕&ĂďŝŽůĂ>ſƉĞnjͲƵƌĄŶĂŶĚEŝŬŬŝ DŽŽƌĞ͕ŶƚŚŽŶLJsŝĚůĞƌĂŶĚDĂƌŬtŝŐůĞLJ͘͞ĐŽZĞĚƵdž͗ĞƐŝŐŶZĞŵĞĚŝĞƐĨŽƌĂŶ Ailing Planet.” ƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĂůŝŐĞƐƚ͘ĚŝƚĞĚďLJ>LJĚŝĂ<ĂůůŝƉŽůŝƟ͘;tŝůĞLJ͖ϭĞĚŝƟŽŶ͕ ϮϬϭϭͿϰϴ͘ ϮϬ/ďŝĚ͕͘ϭϵ͘

Fig. 1.2 Design and Images produced by William McDonough + Partners ͞,ŽƵƐĞ>ŝŬĞdƌĞĞ͘͟ Fig. 2 ^ĐŽƩĂƚŽ͕D͘;ϮϬϬϵͿ͘'ƌĞĞŶĐŽŶŽŵŝĐƐ͘>ŽŶĚŽŶ͗ĂƌƚŚƐĐĂŶ͕ƉƉ͘ϯϲʹϯϳ͘/^EϵϳϴͲ 1-84407-571-3. Fig. 3 ĚĂŵƐ͕t͘D͘;ϮϬϬϲͿ͘͞dŚĞ&ƵƚƵƌĞŽĨ^ƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďŝůŝƚLJ͗ZĞͲƚŚŝŶŬŝŶŐŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂŶĚ ĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŝŶƚŚĞdǁĞŶƚLJͲĮƌƐƚĞŶƚƵƌLJ͘͟ZĞƉŽƌƚŽĨƚŚĞ/hEZĞŶŽǁŶĞĚdŚŝŶŬĞƌƐDĞĞƟŶŐ͕Ϯϵʹϯϭ:ĂŶƵĂƌLJϮϬϬϲ͘

ϭ͕Ϯ͕;>ĞŌͿĚĞƐŝŐŶĨŽƌƚŚĞ ĞĐŽͲƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďůĞΎŚŽƵƐĞŽĨ ƚŚĞĨƵƚƵƌĞ͕ƵƐŝŶŐĂ >ŝǀŝŶŐDĂĐŚŝŶĞΎĂŶĚ ƌĂĚĚůĞͲƚŽͲƌĂĚĚůĞΎǁĂƐƚĞ and resource management. Ϯ͕;ZŝŐŚƚ͕ƚŽƉͿƚŚĞƚŚƌĞĞ pillars of sustainability ϯ͕;ZŝŐŚƚ͕ďŽƩŽŵͿƵůĞƌĚŝĂgram of sustainable develŽƉŵĞŶƚ͗ĂƚƚŚĞĐŽŶŇƵĞŶĐĞ ŽĨƚŚƌĞĞĐŽŶƐƟƚƵĞŶƚƉĂƌƚƐ

9


SETTING THE SCOPE 4

/ŶŽƌĚĞƌƚŽďƌŝŶŐĐůĂƌŝƚLJƚŽƚŚŝƐďƌŽĂĚŽďƐĞƌǀĂƟŽŶĂŶĚŝůůƵƐƚƌĂƚĞ ǁŚĂƚŝƚĐŽƵůĚŵĞĂŶ͕ƚŚŝƐƐƚƵĚLJǁŝůůŶŽǁŶĂƌƌŽǁŝŶƚŽĂŵŽƌĞĞĂƐŝůLJĚŝŐĞƐƚĞĚƐĐŽƉĞ͘/ƚǁŝůůĞdžĂŵŝŶĞƚŚĞĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĂůŝŵƉůŝĐĂƟŽŶƐǁŝƚŚŝŶƚŚĞ ŐŝǀĞŶĐŽŶƚĞdžƚŝŶƚŚƌĞĞƐĐĂůĞƐ͗dŚĞůĂƌŐĞƐĐĂůĞǁŝůůďĞĂƐLJƐƚĞŵŽĨƵƌďĂŶ ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͕ƚŚĞŵĞĚŝƵŵƐĐĂůĞǁŝůůďĞĂƐŝŶŐůĞďƵŝůĚŝŶŐͬƉƌŽŐƌĂŵĂŶĚƚŚĞ ǁĂLJŝƚƟĞƐŝŶƚŽƚŚĞƐƵƌƌŽƵŶĚŝŶŐŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͕ĂŶĚƚŚĞƐŵĂůůƐĐĂůĞǁŝůůďĞ ƚŚĞƉĞƌƐŽŶĂůĞdžƉĞƌŝĞŶĐĞLJŝĞůĚĞĚďLJĂŐŝǀĞŶŵŽŵĞŶƚǁŝƚŚŝŶƚŚĞďƵŝůĚŝŶŐ͘ dŚŝƐǁĂLJ͕ǁĞĐĂŶŽďƐĞƌǀĞŚŽǁƚŚĞƐLJƐƚĞŵĂƟĐŶĞƚǁŽƌŬŽĨƚŚĞŚƵŵĂŶͲďƵŝůƚ ǁŽƌůĚƉůĂLJƐĂƌŽůĞŝŶƐŽĐŝĂůĐƵůƚƵƌĞĂŶĚƉĞƌƐŽŶĂůǀĂůƵĞƐ͕ůŝĨĞƐƚLJůĞƐĂŶĚƐƉŝƌŝtuality.

Fig.4 ΞƌĐŚŝŐƌĂŵ͕WůƵŐͲŝŶͲĐŝƚLJ Fig. 5 ΞƌĐŚŝŐƌĂŵ͕WůƵŐͲŝŶͲĐŝƚLJ͕“nodes” Fig. 6 ΞƌĐŚŝŐƌĂŵ͕/ŶƐƚĂŶƚͲĐŝƚLJ

&ŽƌĞdžĂŵƉůĞ͕ŝŶƚŚĞϭϵϲϬ͛ƐWĞƚĞƌŽŽŬĂŶĚƚŚĞĚĞsign team Archigram produced visionary images of ĂƉŽƐƐŝďůĞǁŽƌůĚ͗

ŽŶƚĞdžƚͬĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶ͗The era of Consumerism and Temporality, following industrialŝƐŵĂŶĚƐƚĂŶĚĂƌĚŝnjĞĚƉƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶ͘

>ĂƌŐĞ^ĐĂůĞ͗Urban Infrastructure that serves as a frame for a ŇĞdžŝďůĞ͕ŝŶƚĞƌĐŚĂŶŐĞĂďůĞĐŝƚLJ͘


5

6

DĞĚŝƵŵ^ĐĂůĞ͗Buildings

^ŵĂůů^ĐĂůĞ͗An Experience

ĂƐƉŽĚͲůŝŬĞŶŽĚĞƐƚŚĂƚĮƚŝŶƚŚĞ frame and are customizable and transferable.

of an environment that is constantly ĐŚĂŶŐŝŶŐĂŶĚƌĞůŽĐĂƟŶŐ͘/ƚĞůŝĐŝƚƐĂ ĨĞĞůŝŶŐŽĨůŝǀŝŶŐŝŶĂĐŝƌĐƵƐ͘/ƚŽīĞƌƐĂ life based on user control and ŵĂŶŝƉƵůĂƟŽŶ͘

11


THE CONTEXT

OŶĞƐƵďƐƚĂŶƟĂůƉĂƌƚŽĨƚŚĞĐƌŝƐŝƐŝŶĚƵĐĞĚďLJŐůŽďĂůǁĂƌŵŝŶŐǁŝůůďĞƚŚĞ ĐŚĂŶŐŝŶŐĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐŽĨƚŚĞƉůĂŶĞƚ͛ƐǁĂƚĞƌƐƵƉƉůLJ͘dŚĞƐĞĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐǁŝůů ůĞĂĚƚŽĚĞƐƚƌƵĐƟǀĞŇŽŽĚŝŶŐĂŶĚǀĂŶŝƐŚŝŶŐĨƌĞƐŚǁĂƚĞƌƐŽƵƌĐĞƐǁŚŝĐŚǁŝůů ƚŚƌĞĂƚĞŶƚŚĞƉĂƐƚĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚĞĚǁĂƚĞƌŵĂŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞƐďLJǁŚŝĐŚ ǁĞůŝǀĞ͘dŚŝƐƚŚĞƐŝƐǁŝůůĨŽĐƵƐŽŶƚŚĞŝŶƐƚĂŶĐĞŽĨƌŝƐŝŶŐƐĞĂůĞǀĞůƐĂŶĚŝƚƐ ƚŚƌĞĂƚƚŽĐŽĂƐƚĂůĐŝƟĞƐ͘͞^ŽŵĞϯďŝůůŝŽŶƉĞŽƉůĞͶĂƚůĞĂƐƚŚĂůĨƚŚĞǁŽƌůĚ͛Ɛ ƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶͶůŝǀĞŝŶĐŽĂƐƚĂůĂƌĞĂƐǀƵůŶĞƌĂďůĞƚŽƚŚĞǁŽƌƐƚĞīĞĐƚƐŽĨŐůŽďĂůǁĂƌŵŝŶŐ͗ŚĂƌƐŚĞƌƐƚŽƌŵƐ͕ƌŝƐŝŶŐƐĞĂůĞǀĞůƐ͕ŇŽŽĚĞĚĚĞůƚĂƐŝŶǁŝŶƚĞƌ͕ ƉĂƌĐŚĞĚĚĞůƚĂƐŝŶƐƵŵŵĞƌ͕ĂŶĚůĞƐƐƐĞŶƐĂƟŽŶĂůďƵƚĞƋƵĂůůLJƐĞƌŝŽƵƐƉƌŽďůĞŵƐůŝŬĞƐĂůƚǁĂƚĞƌŝŶĮůƚƌĂƟŽŶŽĨƵŶĚĞƌŐƌŽƵŶĚĂƋƵŝĨĞƌƐ͘LJϮϬϮϱ͕ǁŚĞŶ ƚŚĞŚƵŵĂŶƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶƌĞĂĐŚĞƐϴ͘ϱďŝůůŝŽŶ͕ƚŚĞŶƵŵďĞƌŽĨĐŽĂƐƚĂůĚǁĞůůĞƌƐ ŝƐĞdžƉĞĐƚĞĚƚŽďĞĐůŽƐĞƌƚŽϲďŝůůŝŽŶ͘͟21 This means that for the upcoming ŐĞŶĞƌĂƟŽŶ͕ƚŚĞŵĂŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚŽĨǁĂƚĞƌŝƐŝŵƉĞƌĂƟǀĞ͘

ϮϭĂǀŝĚtŽůŵĂŶ͘͞ĞĨŽƌĞƚŚĞ>ĞǀĞĞƐƌĞĂŬ͗WůĂŶƚŽ^ĂǀĞƚŚĞEĞƚŚĞƌůĂŶĚƐ͘͟ tŝƌĞĚDĂŐĂnjŝŶĞ͕/ƐƐƵĞϭϳ͘Ϭϭ͘;KĐƚŽďĞƌ͕ϮϬϬϵͿ͘


Global Warming more food needed

More intense droughts increase in humidity and

Sea Level Rise

moreǁater used

Wasteful Water Systems

harsh rain storms

harsh storm surges

Flooding Threatens our coastal ĐŝƟĞƐĂŶĚĐƵƌƌĞŶƚ infrastructures

Fresh Water Shortages dŚƌĞĂƚĞŶƐŽƵƌƐƵƌǀŝĂůĂŶĚŚŽǁ ǁĞŽďƚĂŝŶ͕ƵƐĞĂŶĚĚŝƐƚƌŝďƵƚĞ ƉŽƚĂďůĞǁĂƚĞƌ͘

13


IŶƌĞƐƉŽŶƐĞ͕ĂŶĚĂƩĞŵƉƚƚŽĂǀŽŝĚĚŝƐĂƐƚĞƌ͕ƚŚĞŵĞƚŚŽĚŽůŽŐŝĞƐĨŽƌĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŶŐǁĂƚĞƌŵĂŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞƐĂƌĞďĞŝŶŐĂĚĂƉƚĞĚǁŝƚŚĂ ŶĞǁĂƉƉƌŽĂĐŚ͘>ĞĂĚďLJƵƚĐŚŚLJĚƌŽůŽŐŝƐƚƐ͕ĂƉĞŽƉůĞŵŽƐƚĞdžƉĞƌŝĞŶĐĞĚ ǁŝƚŚůĂƌŐĞͲƐĐĂůĞƐĞĂǁĂƚĞƌŵĂŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚ͕ĐŽĂƐƚĂůŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞƐĂƌĞƐŚŝŌŝŶŐ ĨƌŽŵƚŚĞƚƌĂĚŝƟŽŶĂůŚĂƌĚͲĞĚŐĞĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶ͕ŝŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐƐLJƐƚĞŵƐůŝŬĞǁĂůůƐ ĂŶĚĚĂŵƐ͕ďĞĐĂƵƐĞŚŝƐƚŽƌLJŚĂƐƉƌŽǀĞŶƚŚĞLJĂƌĞƵůƟŵĂƚĞůLJŵŽƌĞŚĂƌŵĨƵů ƚŚĂŶďĞŶĞĮĐŝĂů͘͞dŚĞĐŽŶǀĞŶƟŽŶĂůƌĞƐƉŽŶƐĞƚŽŇŽŽĚŝŶŐ͕ŝŶƌĞĐĞŶƚŚŝƐƚŽƌLJ͕ ŚĂƐďĞĞŶŚĂƌĚĞŶŐŝŶĞĞƌŝŶŐͶĨŽƌƟĨLJŝŶŐƚŚĞĐŽĂƐƚĂůŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞǁŝƚŚ ƐĞĂǁĂůůƐĂŶĚďƵůŬŚĞĂĚƐƚŽƉƌŽƚĞĐƚƌĞĂůĞƐƚĂƚĞĂƚƚŚĞĞdžƉĞŶƐĞŽĨŶĂƚƵƌĂů ƟĚĂůǁĞƚůĂŶĚƐĂŶĚĞĐŽƐLJƐƚĞŵƐ͘dŚŝƐĂƉƉƌŽĂĐŚŚĂƐďĞĞŶƉƌŽǀĞŶĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂůůLJĚĂŵĂŐŝŶŐ͕ƵŶƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďůĞ͕ĂŶĚŽŌĞŶŝŶĞīĞĐƟǀĞ͘͟22 Unreliable ĂŐĂŝŶƐƚƚŚĞĨŽƌĐĞƐŽĨŶĂƚƵƌĞ͕ƐƵĐŚĂŐŐƌĞƐƐŝǀĞŵĞƚŚŽĚƐŚĂǀĞďĞĞŶĐĂƚĂƐƚƌŽƉŚŝĐǁŚĞŶƚŚĞLJĨĂŝů͕ůĞĂĚŝŶŐƚŽĚĞƐƚƌƵĐƟǀĞŇŽŽĚŝŶŐ͕ĂŶĚŝŶƵŶĚĂƟŶŐ ƐĞǁĂŐĞƐLJƐƚĞŵƐĂŶĚƐƚŽƌŵƌƵŶŽīǁŚŝĐŚƚŚĞŶƉŽůůƵƚĞƐƚŚĞĂƌĞĂ͘dŚĞLJĂůƐŽ ĚĞƐƚƌŽLJůŽĐĂůŶĂƚƵƌĂůĞĐŽůŽŐŝĞƐ͕ƐĂĐƌŝĮĐŝŶŐƚŚĞŝƌƉŽƐƐŝďůĞďĞŶĞĮƚƐ͕ĂŶĚĞĂƚ ƵƉŐƌĞĂƚĂŵŽƵŶƚƐŽĨŵŽŶĞLJĂŶĚĞŶĞƌŐLJ͘ŶĚŝŶƚŚĞĨƵƚƵƌĞ͕ŐůŽďĂůǁĂƌŵŝŶŐǁŝůůŽŶůLJĐŽŵƉůŝĐĂƚĞƚŚĞƐĞŝƐƐƵĞƐ͘͞DŽĚĞƌŶŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĂůĐƵůƚƵƌĞĚŽĞƐŶ͛ƚ ƐĞĞŵƚŽŚĂǀĞƉƌŝŶĐŝƉůĞƐ͕ĞdžĐĞƉƚƐŽŵĞƚŚŝŶŐůŝŬĞ͚͗/ĨďƌƵƚĞĨŽƌĐĞŝƐŶ͛ƚǁŽƌŬŝŶŐ͕LJŽƵĂƌĞŶŽƚƵƐŝŶŐĞŶŽƵŐŚŽĨŝƚ͛͘tŚŝůĞŝƚƐŐŽĂůƐĂƌĞƵŶĐůĞĂƌ͕ŝƚƐĚĞĨĂĐƚŽ goal appears to be to create ecological and human tragedy.”23dŚĞƐŚŝŌ ŚĂƐŵŽǀĞĚƚŽǁĂƌĚĂŐƌĞĞŶĂŶĚƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďůĞǁĂLJŽĨƚŚŝŶŬŝŶŐ͕ĂŶĚĂŶĂƚƵƌĞĨƌŝĞŶĚůLJĂƫƚƵĚĞ͘24ZĂƚŚĞƌƚŚĂŶĮŐŚƟŶŐĂĚǀĂŶĐŝŶŐǁĂƚĞƌůĞǀĞůƐŝŶĂŶ ĂŶƚĂŐŽŶŝƐƟĐǁĂLJ͕ƚŚĞŶĞǁƐƚƌĂƚĞŐLJŝƐƚŽĐŚĂŶŐĞŚĂƌĚͲĞĚŐĞŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞƐ ŝŶƚŽƐŽŌͲĞĚŐĞŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞƐΎ͕ǁŚŝĐŚĂƉƉůLJŶĂƚƵƌĂůĨŽƌŵƐ͕ŵĂƚĞƌŝĂůƐĂŶĚ ĞĐŽůŽŐŝĞƐƚŽůĞƚƚŚĞǁĂƚĞƌďĂĐŬŝŶƚŽƚŚĞůĂŶĚ͕ƌĞůŝĞǀŝŶŐƉƌĞƐƐƵƌĞďLJŇĞdžŝďŝůŝƚLJ͕ĂŶĚůĞƫŶŐŶĂƚƵƌĂůƐLJƐƚĞŵƐĂďƐŽƌďĂŶĚĮůƚĞƌƚŽdžŝŶƐ͕ƚŽĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚĂŵŽƌĞ ŚĂƌŵŽŶŝŽƵƐƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉǁŝƚŚƚŚĞƐĞĂ͘25 dŚĞŶĞǁƐŽŌͲĞĚŐĞƵƌďĂŶƐƚƌĂƚĞŐLJǁŝůůďĞƐLJƐƚĞŵĂƟĐĂůůLJŵŽƌĞ ƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďůĞ͕ĞĸĐŝĞŶƚ͕ĂŶĚƐĂĨĞ͕ǁŚŝůĞƉƌŽǀŝĚŝŶŐĂŚĞĂůƚŚŝĞƌ͕ĞĐŽůŽŐŝĐĂůůLJ ŇŽƵƌŝƐŚŝŶŐĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͘

 /ƚĐĂŶĂůƐŽďĞǀŝĞǁĞĚĂƐĂŶŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƚLJĨŽƌƚŚĞďƵŝůĚŝŶŐ;ŵĞĚŝƵŵͿƐĐĂůĞ͘ƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĂůĂŶĚůĂŶĚƐĐĂƉĞĚĞƐŝŐŶ͕ĂĚĂƉƚĞĚǁŝƚŚŝŶƚŚŝƐ ŶĞǁŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞĂŶĚŐƌĞĞŶƐƚƌĂƚĞŐLJ͕ĐĂŶĞŶǀŝƐŝŽŶƚŚĞǁĂLJƐŝŶǁŚŝĐŚ ƚŚĞŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƟŽŶŽĨƚŚĞďƵŝůƚǁŽƌůĚĂŶĚŶĂƚƵƌĂůǁŽƌůĚ;ƚŚĞƐĞĂ͕ŵĂƌƐŚĞƐ͕ ƉůĂŶƚƐ͕ĂŶŝŵĂůƐͿĐĂŶƉƌŽĚƵĐĞŶĞǁĨŽƌŵƐĂŶĚĂŵĞŶŝƟĞƐ͕ĂŶĚƚŚƵƐŝŶŇƵĞŶĐĞŽƵƌĚĂŝůLJůŝǀĞƐ͘/ƚĐĂŶĂůƐŽƉƌŽĚƵĐĞƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĂƟĐŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƟĞƐďLJ ƚĂŬŝŶŐĂĚǀĂŶƚĂŐĞŽĨƚŚĞǀĂƌŝŽƵƐŶĞǁĂŵĞŶŝƟĞƐ͕ǁŚŝĐŚĐĂŶLJŝĞůĚƐŽĐŝĂů ĂŶĚĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐďĞŶĞĮƚƐ͘26

ϮϮ'ƵLJEŽƌĚĞŶƐŽŶĂŶĚĚĂŵzĂƌŝŶƐŬLJ͘͞KŶƚŚĞtĂƚĞƌ͗dŚĞEĞǁzŽƌŬͬEĞǁ :ĞƌƐĞLJ,ĂƌďŽƌ͘͟WůĂĐĞƐ͕;KĐƚŽďĞƌϮϬϬϴͿ͘ ϮϯƌƵĐĞDĂƵ͘DĂƐƐŝǀĞŚĂŶŐĞ͘;>ŽŶĚŽŶ͗WŚĂŝĚŽŶWƌĞƐƐ͕ϮϬϬϰͿϭϵϭ͘ ϮϰdƌĂĐLJDĞƚnj͕DĂĂƌƚũĞsĂŶĞŶ,ĞƵǀĞů͘^ǁĞĞƚΘ^Ăůƚ͗tĂƚĞƌĂŶĚƚŚĞƵƚĐŚ͘ ;ZŽƩĞƌĚĂŵ͗EŝWƵďůŝƐŚĞƌƐ͕ϮϬϭϭͿϲ͘ Ϯϱ/ďŝĚ͕͘ϳ͘ Ϯϲ/ďŝĚ͕͘Ϯϯ͘


Large Scale

Hard-edge infrastructure

^ŽŌͲĞĚŐĞŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ

Medium Scale

ocean

site

building

15


IŶEĞǁKƌůĞĂŶƐ͕͞ƚŚĞĨĂŝůƵƌĞŽĨůĞǀĞĞƐĂŶĚŽƚŚĞƌĐŽĂƐƚĂů ƉƌŽƚĞĐƟŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞƐĨĂĐŝŶŐ,ƵƌƌŝĐĂŶĞ<ĂƚƌŝŶĂŝŶϮϬϬϱ ŝƐĂĚƌĂŵĂƟĐĞdžĂŵƉůĞŽĨŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĂůŝŶĂĚĞƋƵĂĐLJ͘͟27 ĞƐŝŐŶĞĚďLJtĂŐŐŽŶŶĞƌΘĂůůƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƐ͕ĂŶĞǁƵƌďĂŶ ƉůĂŶŝƐďĞŝŶŐŝŶƐƚĂůůĞĚ͗ŝƚŝƐŵŽĚĞůĞĚĂŌĞƌƚŚĞŵŽƌĞƐŽŌͲĞĚŐĞƐLJƐƚĞŵƐƚŚĂƚ ĂƌĞďĞŝŶŐĚĞǀĞůŽƉĞĚŝŶƚŚĞEĞƚŚĞƌůĂŶĚƐ͘ƐĂƌĞƐƵůƚ͕ƚŚĞĐŝƚLJŝƐŶŽǁŽƉĞŶ ƚŽƚŚĞŽŶĐĞǁĂůůĞĚŽīŽĐĞĂŶǀŝĞǁƐ͕ĂŶĚĂƐĞƌŝĞƐŽĨƉĂƌŬƐ͕ƵƌďĂŶƐƚƌĞĞƚ ŝŶƐƚĂůůĂƟŽŶƐĂŶĚĞĐŽůŽŐŝĐĂůĚŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ͕ŚĂǀĞƚƌĂŶƐĨŽƌŵĞĚƚŚĞĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ ĨŽƌĂďĞƩĞƌƋƵĂůŝƚLJŽĨůŝĨĞ͘28 7

8

Ϯϳ'ƵLJEŽƌĚĞŶƐŽŶĂŶĚĚĂŵzĂƌŝŶƐŬLJ͘͞KŶƚŚĞtĂƚĞƌ͗dŚĞEĞǁzŽƌŬͬEĞǁ :ĞƌƐĞLJ,ĂƌďŽƌ͘͟WůĂĐĞƐ͕;KĐƚŽďĞƌϮϬϬϴͿ͘ Ϯϴ^ŽĮĂĂůƚĞƌƐ͘͞ŽŵƉƌĞŚĞŶƐŝǀĞ͕/ŶƚĞŐƌĂƚĞĚ͕^ƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďůĞtĂƚĞƌDĂŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚ^LJƐƚĞŵĨŽƌƚŚĞ'ƌĞĂƚĞƌEĞǁKƌůĞĂŶƐZĞŐŝŽŶͬtĂŐŐŽŶŶĞƌΘĂůůƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƐ͘͟ƌĐŚĂŝůLJ͘ƵŐƵƐƚ͕ϰϮϬϭϭ͘ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬǁǁǁ͘ĂƌĐŚĚĂŝůLJ͘ĐŽŵͬϭϱϭϴϰϲ Fig. 7-11 ΞtĂŐŐŽŶŶĞƌΘĂůůƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƐ͘&ƌŽŵƌĐŚĂŝůLJ;ƐĞĞĨŽŽƚŶŽƚĞϮϴͿ


9

10

11

17


TŚĞEĞƚŚĞƌůĂŶĚƐŝƐĂĐŽƵŶƚƌLJǁŚŽƐĞůĂŶĚƐŝƚƐďĞůŽǁƐĞĂ ůĞǀĞů͕ƚŚƵƐ͞ĐŽĂƐƚĂů;ĂŶĚǁĂƚĞƌͿƉŽůŝĐLJďĞĐĂŵĞĂŶŝŶƚĞŐƌĂů ƉĂƌƚŽĨƐƉĂƟĂůƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐƉŽůŝĐLJ͘͟29&ŽƌĐĞŶƚƵƌŝĞƐ͕ƚŚĞƵƚĐŚ ŚĂǀĞƵƐĞĚĚĂŵ͕ĚLJŬĞĂŶĚƉŽůĚĞƌƐLJƐƚĞŵƐŝŶŽƌĚĞƌƚŽŐĂŝŶ ďĂĐŬůĂŶĚĨƌŽŵƚŚĞĐƌĞĞƉŝŶŐƟĚĞƐ͘ƵƚĂŌĞƌ ƐĞǀĞƌĂůŝŶĐŝĚĞŶƚƐŽĨĚĞǀĂƐƚĂƟŶŐŇŽŽĚƐĨƌŽŵĚĂŵďƌĞĂĐŚĞƐ͕ĂŶĚƚŚĞĚŝƐĐŽǀĞƌLJŽĨƐƵĐŚƚŚŝŶŐƐĂƐ͞ƚŚĞƵŶĞdžƉĞĐƚĞĚĞĐŽůŽŐŝĐĂůĞīĞĐƚƐŽĨƚŚĞĂƐƚĞƌŶ Scheldt Storm Surge Barrier” the Dutch community has had to come to ƚĞƌŵƐǁŝƚŚ͞ƚŚĞƌŝƐŬLJŶĂƚƵƌĞŽĨƐƵĐŚƐLJƐƚĞŵƐ͘͟30 Ceasing the method of ƚƌLJŝŶŐƚŽďƵŝůĚŚŝŐŚĞƌĂŶĚŚŝŐŚĞƌĂƐƐĞĂůĞǀĞůƐĂĚǀĂŶĐĞ͕ƚŚĞƵƚĐŚůĂŶĚƐĐĂƉĞŝƐƵŶĚĞƌŐŽŝŶŐĂŶĞdžƚƌĞŵĞŵĂŬĞŽǀĞƌ͕ĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚŝŶŐƚŚĞŵĞƚŚŽĚŽůŽŐŝĐĂůƉĂƌĂĚŝŐŵŽĨĂĐŽĞdžŝƐƚĞŶƚĂƫƚƵĚĞǁŝƚŚƚŚĞǁĂƚĞƌ͘KŶĞŝŶƐƚĂŶĐĞŽĨƚŚĞ ƐŽŌͲŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞĂƉƉƌŽĂĐŚƵƐĞĚŚĞƌĞŝƐƚŚĞƉƌŽĐĞĚƵƌĞŽĨƌĞͲŇŽŽĚŝŶŐƚŚĞ ƉŽůĚĞƌƐ;ǁŚŝĐŚŵĂŬĞƵƉĂďŽƵƚϭͬϯƌĚŽĨƚŚĞůĂŶĚͿ͕ŐŝǀŝŶŐŵŽƌĞƐƉĂĐĞďĂĐŬ ƚŽƚŚĞǁĂƚĞƌ͕ĂŶĚƌĞƐƚŽƌŝŶŐŵŽƌĞŶĂƚƵƌĂůŇŽǁƐƚŽŝŵƉƌŽǀĞ͞ĮƐŚĞƌŝĞƐĂŶĚ ŽƚŚĞƌĞĐŽƐLJƐƚĞŵďĞŶĞĮƚƐ͘͟31

ϮϵsĂŶ<ŽŶŝŶŐƐǀĞůĚ͕D͕͘:͘W͘D͘DƵůĚĞƌ͕D͘:͘&͘^ƟǀĞ͕>͘sĂŶĞƌsĂůŬ͕ĂŶĚ͘t͘ sĂŶĞƌtĞĐŬ͘͞>ŝǀŝŶŐǁŝƚŚ^ĞĂͲ>ĞǀĞůZŝƐĞĂŶĚůŝŵĂƚĞŚĂŶŐĞ͗ĂƐĞ^ƚƵĚLJŽĨ the Netherlands.”:ŽƵƌŶĂůŽĨŽĂƐƚĂůZĞƐĞĂƌĐŚǀŽů͘Ϯϰ͕ŶŽ͘Ϯ;DĂƌ͕͘ϮϬϬϴͿϯϳϱ͘ ϯϬ'ƵLJEŽƌĚĞŶƐŽŶĂŶĚĚĂŵzĂƌŝŶƐŬLJ͘͞KŶƚŚĞtĂƚĞƌ͗dŚĞEĞǁzŽƌŬͬEĞǁ:ĞƌƐĞLJ ,ĂƌďŽƌ͘͟WůĂĐĞƐ͕;KĐƚŽďĞƌϮϬϬϴͿ͘ ϯϭĂǀŝĚtŽůŵĂŶ͘͞ĞĨŽƌĞƚŚĞ>ĞǀĞĞƐƌĞĂŬ͗WůĂŶƚŽ^ĂǀĞƚŚĞEĞƚŚĞƌůĂŶĚƐ͘͟ tŝƌĞĚDĂŐĂnjŝŶĞ͕/ƐƐƵĞϭϳ͘Ϭϭ͘;KĐƚŽďĞƌ͕ϮϬϬϵͿ͘ Fig.12 DĂƉŽĨEĞƚŚĞƌůĂŶĚƐƐŚŽǁŝŶŐĂƌĞĂďĞůŽǁƐĞĂͲůĞǀĞů͘&ƌŽŵ:ŽƵƌŶĂůŽĨŽĂƐƚĂůZĞͲ ƐĞĂƌĐŚ;ƐĞĞĨŽŽƚŶŽƚĞϮϵͿ Fig. 13 /ŵĂŐĞŽĨEĞƚŚĞƌůĂŶĚƐŇŽŽĚnjŽŶĞ͘WƌŽĚƵĐĞĚĨƌŽŵ^ĞĂ>ĞǀĞůZŝƐĞdžƉůŽƌĞƌ͕an interĂĐƟǀĞŵĂƉďĂƐĞĚŽŶǀĞƌƐŝŽŶϮE^^ŚƵƩůĞZĂĚĂƌdŽƉŽŐƌĂƉŚLJDŝƐƐŝŽŶ͘ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬ

ǁǁǁ͘ŐůŽďĂůǁĂƌŵŝŶŐĂƌƚ͘ĐŽŵͬǁŝŬŝͬ^ƉĞĐŝĂů͗^ĞĂ>ĞǀĞů Fig. 14 Ξ'ĞƩLJ/ŵĂŐĞƐ͘/ĂŶtĂƚƐŽŶ͘,LJĚƌŽůŽŐLJ͗ŶŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂůƉƉƌŽĂĐŚ͘(Boca RaƚŽŶ͗Z>ĞǁŝƐ͕ϭϵϵϱͿϱϭϲ͘ Fig. 15 WaterStudio.nl

EĞƚŚĞƌůĂŶĚƐƚƌĂĚŝƟŽŶĂů ĚLJŬĞĂŶĚƉŽůĚĞƌƐLJƐƚĞŵ

12

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vs EĞƚŚĞƌůĂŶĚƐĚLJŬĞĂŶĚ ƉŽůĚĞƌƐLJƐƚĞŵǁŚĞŶ breached by rising sea-levels

ZĞͲŇŽŽĚĞĚƉŽůĚĞƌ

ϭϰ͕dŚĞEŽƌƚŚ^ĞĂ&ůŽŽĚŽĨϭϵϱϯ͕ŝŶƚŚĞEĞƚŚĞƌůĂŶĚƐ͕ĐŽǀĞƌĞĚŽǀĞƌϲϬϬƐƋƵĂƌĞ ŵŝůĞƐ͕ĂŶĚŬŝůůĞĚŽǀĞƌϭ͕ϴϬϬƉĞŽƉůĞ͘dŚŝƐƉƌŽŵƉƚĞĚƌĞŶĞǁĞĚĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌĂƟŽŶŽĨ ƵƚĐŚŚLJĚƌŽůŽŐLJ͕ƐƉĞĐŝĐĂůůLJƚŚĞEĞƚŚĞƌůĂŶĚƐĞůƚĂWƌŽũĞĐƚ͘ 15

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AƚƚŚĞďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐĐĂůĞ͕ƚŚĞŶĞǁŝŶĨƌĂͲ structure has inspired the designs of     ŇŽĂƟŶŐĂŶĚĂŵƉŚŝďŝŽƵƐĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞ ĂƐĂƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďůĞƐŽůƵƟŽŶ͘dŚĞƐĞĂƌĞďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐǁŝƚŚŇŽĂƟŶŐĨŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶƐ ƚŚĂƚ͕ƵŶůŝŬĞůĂŶĚĮůůƉƌŽũĞĐƚƐ͕ǁŝůůŶŽƚĚĞƐƚƌŽLJƚŚĞĞdžŝƐƟŶŐĞĐŽůŽŐLJ͘dŚĞƐĞ ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐƚĂŬĞƚŚĞŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƚLJƚŽƌĞͲƚŚŝŶŬǁŚĂƚĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞĂŶĚŽƵƌ ŝŶŚĂďŝƚĂďůĞĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĐŽƵůĚďĞ͕ĂŶĚĞdžƉůŽƌĞŶĞǁďĞŶĞĮƚƐĂŶĚƉŽƐƐŝďŝůŝƟĞƐƚŚĂƚĐŽŵĞĨƌŽŵƚŚŝƐƚLJƉĞŽĨŝŶƚĞƌĂĐƟŽŶǁŝƚŚǁĂƚĞƌ͘  tĂƚĞƌ^ƚƵĚŝŽ͘Ŷů͕ĂEĞƚŚĞƌůĂŶĚƐďĂƐĞĚĮƌŵƚŚĂƚƐƉĞĐŝĂůŝnjĞƐŝŶŇŽĂƚŝŶŐĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞ͕ŚĂƐĞdžƉůŽƌĞĚŶƵŵĞƌŽƵƐƉŽƐƐŝďŝůŝƟĞƐĨŽƌƉƌŽŐƌĂŵƐĂŶĚ ƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞƚLJƉĞƐ͘/ŶĂŶŝŶƚĞƌǀŝĞǁǁŝƚŚƚŚĞŽŶůŝŶĞŵĂŐĂnjŝŶĞ/E,/dd͕ƚŚĞ ůĞĂĚŝŶŐĚĞƐŝŐŶĞƌŽĨtĂƚĞƌ^ƚƵĚŝŽ͘Ŷů͕<ŽĞŶKůƚŚƵŝƐ͕ƐƉŽŬĞŽŶƚŚĞƐƵďũĞĐƚ͗ ͞ǁŚĂƚĂƩƌĂĐƚƐŵĞƚŚĞŵŽƐƚĂďŽƵƚŇŽĂƟŶŐĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞŝƐƚŚĞĞŶŽƌŵŽƵƐ ŇĞdžŝďŝůŝƚLJǁĂƚĞƌŽīĞƌƐƵƐ͕ĂŶĚƚŚĞǀŝƌƚƵĂůůLJƵŶĞdžƉůŽƌĞĚůŝŵŝƚůĞƐƐƉŽƐƐŝďŝůŝƟĞƐǁĂƚĞƌďƌŝŶŐƐƚŽŵĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƐĞƐǁŽƌůĚǁŝĚĞ͘WůĂŶŶŝŶŐĨŽƌƵƌďĂŶĐŚĂŶŐĞ ƵƐŝŶŐǁĂƚĞƌǁŝůůŚĞůƉƵƐĐŽƉĞǁŝƚŚƚŚĞLJĞƚƵŶĨŽƌĞƐĞĞŶĞīĞĐƚƐŽĨĐůŝŵĂƚĞ ĐŚĂŶŐĞĂŶĚƵƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ͘͟32 He asserted that quality architecture could ďĞĂĐŚŝĞǀĞĚďLJ͞ƵƐŝŶŐƚŚĞƵŶŝƋƵĞƋƵĂůŝƟĞƐĂŶĚĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐŽĨĂƋƵĂƚĞƌƌŝƚŽƌLJ͟ƐƵĐŚĂƐƚŚĞ͞ĐŽŽůŝŶŐǁŝŶĚĞīĞĐƚƐŽĨǁĂƚĞƌ͕ĞŶŽƌŵŽƵƐŇƵŝĚŵĂƐƐǁŝƚŚ ďƵīĞƌƚĞŵƉĞƌĂƚƵƌĞĨŽƌǁĂƚĞƌĐŽŽůŝŶŐ͕ǁĂǀĞĂŶĚƟĚĂůĞŶĞƌŐLJĂƐǁĞůůĂƐ ŇŽĂƟŶŐƐŽůĂƌĮĞůĚƐ͘͟33/ƚĐŽƵůĚŽīĞƌŶĞǁƐLJƐƚĞŵƐŽĨďŽĂƚƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚĂƟŽŶ͕ ĮƐŚŝŶŐĐŽŵŵƵŶŝƟĞƐ͕ĂŶĚĂƐŽůƵƟŽŶĨŽƌƉŽƉƵůĂƟŽŶŐƌŽǁƚŚ͕͞hƌďĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ǁŝůůŐƌŽǁŝŶƚŚĞĐŽŵŝŶŐLJĞĂƌƐĂŶĚϵϬйŽĨƚŚĞŵĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƐĞƐĂƌĞůŽĐĂƚĞĚ ŶĞĂƌƚŚĞǁĂƚĞƌ͕ƐŽŝƚŝƐũƵƐƚůŽŐŝĐĂůƚŚĂƚĐŝƟĞƐǁŝůůĮŶĚĂǁĂLJƚŽůŝǀĞǁŝƚŚƚŚĞ ǁĂƚĞƌŝŶƐƚĞĂĚŽĨŐŽŝŶŐĂǁĂLJ͘>ŽŽŬĂƚƚŚĞƵƚĐŚͶǁĞĂƌĞůŝǀŝŶŐďĞůŽǁƐĞĂ level for hundreds of years instead of leaving for higher Europe. Nobody ǁĂŶƚƐƚŽůĞĂǀĞEĞǁzŽƌŬ͕dŽŬLJŽŽƌ>ŽŶĚŽŶ͘tĞ͛ĚƌĂƚŚĞƌĚĞĂůǁŝƚŚƚŚĞƐĞĂ ůĞǀĞůƌŝƐĞďLJƵƐŝŶŐƚŚĞƐƉĂĐĞŝŶƚŚĞĐŝƟĞƐŽŶǁĂƚĞƌ͘͟34EŽƚƚŚĞŵĞŶƟŽŶ͕ƚŚĞ ďĞĂƵƟĨƵůĂĞƐƚŚĞƟĐƚŚĂƚĐŽŵĞǁŝƚŚƚŚĞƚĂĐƟůĞƋƵĂůŝƟĞƐŽĨǁĂƚĞƌ͘

32 Diane Pham. “INHABITAT INTERVIEW: Water Architect Koen Olthuis on FloatŝŶŐƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐΘ,LJĚƌŽͲŝƟĞƐ͟/ŶŚĂďŝƚĂƚ͘ĐŽŵ;KĐƚŽďĞƌ͕ϮϬϮϬϭϮͿ͘ 33 Ibid. 34 Ibid.

&ůŽĂƟŶŐƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞ can be built similarly to the structure of normal ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐ͕ďƵƚƚŚĞLJƌĞƐƚŽŶĂďƵŽLJĂŶƚĨŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶ͘ŽĐŬƐĐĂŶďĞŵĂĚĞ ďƵŽLJĂŶƚĐŽƌĞƐƐƵĐŚĂƐƟĞƐŽĨǁŽŽĚƉŝůĞƐ͕ƉůĂƐƟĐĚƌƵŵƐĮůůĞĚǁŝƚŚĂŝƌ͕ĂŶĚ ŝŶƐŽŵĞĐĂƐĞƐĞǀĞŶƚŚŽƵƐĂŶĚƐŽĨƵƉĐLJĐůĞĚƐŽĚĂďŽƩůĞƐ͊

&ŝŐ͘ϭϲΞtĂƚĞƌ^ƚƵĚŝŽ͘Ŷů͕tĂƚĞƌDŽƐƋƵĞ͕for the UAE. &ŝŐ͘ϭϳ/ďŝĚ͕͘ƐĞĐƟŽŶĂŶĚŇŽǁĚŝĂŐƌĂŵ 16

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EĞǁtĂƚĞƌŝƐĂŶĞŶƟƌĞŇŽĂƟŶŐŶĞŝŐŚďŽƌŚŽŽĚǁŝƚŚŝŶĂƌĞͲŇŽŽĚĞĚƉŽůĚĞƌŝŶ tĞƐƚůĂŶĚ͕EĞƚŚĞƌůĂŶĚƐ͘dŚĞŶĂŵĞŝƐ ŵĞĂŶƚƚŽĐĞůĞďƌĂƚĞƚŚĞŶĞǁƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉǁŝƚŚǁĂƚĞƌ͕ĂŶĚŚŽǁŝƚŚĂƐŝŵĂŐŝŶĞĚĂŶĞǁŬŝŶĚŽĨƐƵďƵƌďŝĂ͘

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Fig. 18 ©WaterStudio.nl Fig. 19 Ibid. Fig. 20 Ibid.

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͞&ůŽĂƟŶŐ,ŽƵƐĞ͕͟ĂϭϴϲƐƋŵƉƌŽũĞĐƚďLJ DK^ƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƐŝŶKŶƚĂƌŝŽ͕ĂŶĂĚĂ͕ϮϬϬϱ͕ ŇŽĂƚƐĂƚŽƉĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞŽĨƐƚĞĞůƉŽŶƚŽŽŶƐ͕ ĂůůŽǁŝŶŐŝƚƚŽŇƵĐƚƵĂƚĞĂůŽŶŐǁŝƚŚƚŚĞůĂŬĞ͘

&ŝŐ͘Ϯϭ͞&ůŽĂƟŶŐ,ŽƵƐĞͬDK^ƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƐ͘͟ƌĐŚͲ ĂŝůLJ͘;ϮϵĞĐϮϬϬϴͿΞDK^ƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƐ͘ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬ ǁǁǁ͘ĂƌĐŚĚĂŝůLJ͘ĐŽŵͬϭϬϴϰϮ &ŝŐ͘ϮϮ/ďŝĚ͕͘Ξ&ůŽƌŝĂŶ,ŽůnjŚĞƌƌ͕ƉŚŽƚŽŐƌĂƉŚŽĨ &ůŽĂƟŶŐ,ŽƵƐĞ &ŝŐ͘Ϯϯ/ďŝĚ͕͘ΞDK^ƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƐ͘ Fig. 24 Ibid.

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OƚŚĞƌĞdžĂŵƉůĞƐŽĨǁĂƚĞƌͲŝŶƚĞƌĂĐƟǀĞĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞŝŶĐůƵĚĞ͗

>ŝŌĞĚ;ŽƌWŝůĞͿƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞ͕;ƉŝĐƚƵƌĞĚďĞůŽǁͿ ŝƐĂĚǁĞůůŝŶŐŽŶƉŝůĞƐĨĂƌ ĂďŽǀĞƚŚĞŚŝŐŚĞƐƚǁĂƚĞƌůĞǀĞů͕ƚŚĂƚĂůůŽǁǁĂƚĞƌƚŽŇŽǁĨƌĞĞůLJĂƌŽƵŶĚƚŚĞ site.

ŵƉŚŝďŝŽƵƐƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞ͕;ƉŝĐƚƵƌĞĚďĞůŽǁͿĂƌĞďƵŝůƚŝŶĚƌLJĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐďƵƚǁŝƚŚĂĨŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶ͕ƐŝŵŝůĂƌƚŽƚŚĂƚŽĨŇŽĂƟŶŐĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞ͕ ƚŚĂƚǁŝůůŇŽĂƚŝĨƚŚĞůĂŶĚŇŽŽĚƐ͘

25

26

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28

29

Fig. 25 and 26 ©WaterStudio.nl &ŝŐ͘Ϯϳ͕ϮϴĂŶĚϮϵΞĂĐĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƐ &ƌŽŵ͗<ĂƟĞ^ĐŽƩ͘͞dŚĞh<͛ƐĮƌƐƚĂŵƉŚŝďŝŽƵƐŚŽƵƐĞƚŽďĞďƵŝůƚŽŶƚŚĞďĂŶŬƐ of the Thames” tŝƌĞĚDĂŐĂnjŝŶĞ͕;&ĞďƌƵĂƌLJϭϱ͕ϮϬϭϮͿ͘ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬǁǁǁ͘ǁŝƌĞĚ͘ĐŽ͘ƵŬͬ ŶĞǁƐͬĂƌĐŚŝǀĞͬϮϬϭϮͲϬϮͬϭϱͬƚŚĞͲƵŬƐͲĮƌƐƚͲ ĂŵƉŚŝďŝŽƵƐͲŚŽƵƐĞͬǀŝĞǁŐĂůůĞƌLJη͊ŝŵĂŐĞͲ number=5 25


IŶEĞǁzŽƌŬŝƚLJ͕ƐĞǀĞƌĂůĚĞƐŝŐŶƚĞĂŵƐƉĂƌƟĐŝƉĂƚĞĚŝŶ ƚŚĞDŽD͛ƐϮϬϭϬ͞ZŝƐŝŶŐƵƌƌĞŶƚƐ͟ĞdžŚŝďŝƚ͕ǁŚŝĐŚ ĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞĚƚŚĞƚĞĂŵƐƚŽƉƌŽũĞĐƚǀĂƌŝŽƵƐƐŽŌͲĐŽĂƐƚ   ƐŽůƵƟŽŶƐĨŽƌϱĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚnjŽŶĞƐŽĨEz͛ƐǁĂƚĞƌĨƌŽŶƚƚŚĂƚ ĂƌĞŝŶĚĂŶŐĞƌĨƌŽŵƌŝƐŝŶŐƐĞĂͲůĞǀĞůƐ͕ĂŶĚǀĂƌŝŽƵƐƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƟĞƐ ƚŚĂƚŵĂLJĂƌŝƐĞĨƌŽŵƚŚĞŵ͘͞ƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞZĞƐĞĂƌĐŚKĸĐĞ͛ƐƚĞĂŵ͕ŝŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐ ůĂŶĚƐĐĂƉĞĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƐĚůĂŶĚƐƚƵĚŝŽ͕ǁŝůůĞdžĂŵŝŶĞǁĂLJƐƚŽĨƵƌƚŚĞƌĚĞǀĞůŽƉ ƚŚŝƐĐŽŶƟŶƵƵŵďĞƚǁĞĞŶůĂŶĚĂŶĚǁĂƚĞƌ͘tŚĂƚĂƌĞƚŚĞƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĂƟĐĂŶĚ ĨŽƌŵĂůƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉƐƚŚĂƚŵŝŐŚƚƐƚƌĞŶŐƚŚĞŶƚŚŝƐďƵīĞƌůĂŶĚƐĐĂƉĞ͛ƐƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉƚŽƚŚĞĐŝƚLJ͍&ŽƌĞdžĂŵƉůĞ͕ĐĂŶŝƚƐĞƌǀĞƚŽĮůƚĞƌƐƚŽƌŵǁĂƚĞƌǁŚŝůĞĂůƐŽ ŵĞĞƟŶŐĂƐƉĞĐŝĮĐƉƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĂƟĐƌŽůĞ͍tŚĂƚĞĚŐĞĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐĂŶĚŝƐůĂŶĚ ĚĞƐŝŐŶƐLJƐƚĞŵƐŵŝŐŚƚƌĞƐƉŽŶĚƚŽƐƉĞĐŝĮĐƌĞƋƵŝƌĞŵĞŶƚƐĂƐƐŽĐŝĂƚĞĚǁŝƚŚ ĚŝīĞƌĞŶƚĞĐŽƐLJƐƚĞŵƐ͍,ŽǁŵŝŐŚƚǁĞĞdžƉŽƐĞŶĞǁƉƌŽŐƌĂŵƉŽƐƐŝďŝůŝƟĞƐŝŶ ƚŚĞǁĂƚĞƌƚŽĂƵŐŵĞŶƚƌĞĐƌĞĂƟŽŶĂůƵƐĞƐƐƵĐŚĂƐĮƐŚŝŶŐĂŶĚďŽĂƟŶŐ͍͟35

ϯϱŚƩƉ͗ͬͬǁǁǁ͘ŵŽŵĂ͘ŽƌŐͬĞdžƉůŽƌĞͬŝŶƐŝĚĞͺŽƵƚͬϮϬϬϵͬϭϭͬϮϰͬƌŝƐŝŶŐͲĐƵƌƌĞŶƚƐͲŵĞĞƚͲ aro &ŝŐ͘ϯϬŚƩƉ͗ͬͬŝŶŚĂďŝƚĂƚ͘ĐŽŵͬǁĂŶƚͲƚŽͲƐƚŽƉͲŐůŽďĂůͲǁĂƌŵŝŶŐͲƐƚŽƉͲĐŽĂůͬ &ŝŐ͘ϯϭ&ůŝĐŬĞƌ͘ĐŽŵ &ŝŐ͘ϯϮZĞŶĚĞƌŝŶŐďLJĚůĂŶĚƐƚƵĚŝŽ͘&ƌŽŵ͗ŝůĞŶƚŽ͕<ĂƌĞŶ͘͞ZŝƐŝŶŐƵƌƌĞŶƚƐĂƚ DŽD͟ϮϱDĂƌϮϬϭϬ͘ƌĐŚĂŝůLJ͘ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬǁǁǁ͘ĂƌĐŚĚĂŝůLJ͘ĐŽŵͬϱϯϳϯϲ

ŽŵďŝŶĞĚ^ĞǁĞƌ^LJƐƚĞŵ

ϯϬ͕WƌŽũĞĐƚĞĚϯͲϱŵĞƚĞƌƐĞĂůĞǀĞůƌŝƐĞŝŶDĂŶŚĂƩĂŶŝŶƚŚĞLJĞĂƌϮϬϯϱ


Inundated Combined ^ĞǁĞƌ^LJƐƚĞŵ

^ŽŌͲĞĚŐĞƵƌďĂŶĂƌĞĂ ǁŝƚŚŶĂƚƵƌĂůǁĞƚůĂŶĚ ĂďƐŽƌƉƟŽŶĂŶĚĮůƚƌĂƟŽŶ

vs

ϯϭ͕dŚĞĞŶƚƌĂŶĐĞƚŽƚŚĞƐƵďǁĂLJƐƚĂƟŽŶĂƚ^ŽƵƚŚ&ĞƌƌLJŇŽŽĚĞĚ͕ĂƐǁŝƚŚŵƵĐŚŽĨ ƚŚĞĞĂƐƚĐŽĂƐƚ͕ĂŌĞƌ,ƵƌƌŝĐĂŶĞ^ĂŶĚLJƌĞĐĞŶƚůLJŚŝƚEĞǁzŽƌŬ͕ϮϬϭϮ͘

ϯϮ͕WƌŽƉŽƐĞĚŶĞǁŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞĨŽƌŽŶĞϬ

27


32.1

͞dŚŝƐǁĂƐŶŽƚĂĐĂƚĂĐůLJƐŵŝĐƚƌĂŐĞĚLJ͕͘͘͘ƚŚŝƐŝƐĂŶŽƉƉŽƌƚƵŶŝƚLJƚŽĚŽƚŚŝŶŐƐ ďĞƩĞƌ͕ƚŽůŝǀĞŝŶďĞƩĞƌďĂůĂŶĐĞǁŝƚŚŽƵƌĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͘tĞ͛ǀĞŐŽƚƟŵĞƚŽ ůĞƚƚŚŝƐǁŽƌŬŽƵƚ͘dŚŝƐƐŚŽƵůĚďĞĂǁĂŬĞͲƵƉĐĂůů͘͟ĚĂŵzĂƌŝŶƐŬLJ͕ƉƌŝŶĐŝƉĂů ŽĨƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞZĞƐĞĂƌĐŚKĸĐĞ;ZKͿ͕ƚĞůůƐŽ͘ĞƐŝŐŶ ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬǁǁǁ͘ĨĂƐƚĐŽĚĞƐŝŐŶ͘ĐŽŵͬϭϲϲϰϵϳϳͬŚŽǁͲĚĞƐŝŐŶͲĐĂŶͲƐĂǀĞͲŶLJĐͲǁŚĞŶͲƚŚĞͲ ŶĞdžƚͲďŝŐͲƐƚŽƌŵͲŚŝƚƐ

32.2

^ĞĐƟŽŶĚŝĂŐƌĂŵƐƐŚŽǁŝŶŐƵƌďĂŶƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͘ &ŝŐ͘ϯϮ͘ϭ͕ϯϮ͘Ϯ͕ϯϮ͘ϯWƌŽĚƵĐĞĚďLJZKƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƐ͘&ƌŽŵ͗^ƵnjĂŶŶĞ>ĂďĂƌƌĞ͘ ͞,ŽǁĞƐŝŐŶĂŶ^ĂǀĞEztŚĞŶdŚĞEĞdžƚŝŐ^ƚŽƌŵ,ŝƚƐ͟Ž͘ĞƐŝŐŶonline ŵĂŐĂnjŝŶĞ͕;^ĞƉƚĞŵďĞƌ͕ϭϮ͕ϮϬϭϭͿ͘ ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬǁǁǁ͘ĨĂƐƚĐŽĚĞƐŝŐŶ͘ĐŽŵͬϭϲϲϰϵϳϳͬŚŽǁͲĚĞƐŝŐŶͲĐĂŶͲƐĂǀĞͲŶLJĐͲǁŚĞŶͲ ƚŚĞͲŶĞdžƚͲďŝŐͲƐƚŽƌŵͲŚŝƚƐ


32.3 29


AƚƚŚĞďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐĐĂůĞ͕ƚŚĞĚĞƐŝŐŶ teams of each Zone contrived a difĨĞƌĞŶƚĐƌĞĂƟǀĞƉƌŽŐƌĂŵ͘

&ŝŐ͘ϯϯ;ďŽǀĞͿŽŶĞƐĨŽƌ͞ZŝƐŝŶŐƵƌƌĞŶƚƐ͟ĚĞƐŝŐŶĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞ͘LJ'ƵLJEŽƌĚĞŶƐŽŶ ĂŶĚƐƐŽĐŝĂƚĞƐ͕ĂƚŚĞƌŝŶĞ^ĞĂǀŝƩ^ƚƵĚŝŽ͕ĂŶĚZK &ŝŐ͘ϯϰŽŶĞϯ͘&ƌŽŵ͗ŝůĞŶƚŽ͕<ĂƌĞŶ͘͞ZŝƐŝŶŐƵƌƌĞŶƚƐĂƚDŽD͟ϮϱDĂƌϮϬϭϬ͘ ƌĐŚĂŝůLJ͘ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬǁǁǁ͘ĂƌĐŚĚĂŝůLJ͘ĐŽŵͬϱϯϳϯϲ͘ Fig. 35 Zone 1. Ibid. Fig. 36 Zone 4. Ibid.

34 ŽŶĞϮ͗ĂƉƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶƉůĂŶƚƚŚĂƚŵĂŬĞƐďŝŽĨƵĞůĨƌŽŵĂůŐĂĞ͘ ŽŶĞϯ͗ŇŽĂƟŶŐĂƉƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚƐ͘


36 35 ŽŶĞϭ͗ĂĐŽŵŵĞƌĐŝĂůƐƚƌŝƉƚŚĂƚƌĞĂĐŚĞƐŽLJƚŝŶƚŽƚŚĞǁĂƚĞƌĂŶĚ ƉƌŽƚĞĐƚƐƚŚĞŶĂƟŽŶĂůůĂŶĚŵĂƌŬƐĨƌŽŵĚŝĂƉƉĞĂƌŝŶŐƵŶĚĞƌƚŚĞƌŝƐŝŶŐ ocean.

ŽŶĞϰ͗ĂŶŽLJƐƚĞƌĂŶĚƌĞĞĨŶƵƌƐĞƌLJƚŚĂƚĚŽƵďůĞƐĂƐĂƉƵďůŝĐƉĂƌŬ͘

31


TŚĞŶĞǁǁĂƚĞƌͲŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƚĞĚĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ͕ĂŵĂŶŵĂĚĞͲďŝŽŚLJďƌŝĚ͕36 is a ƉƌŽĚƵĐƚŽĨŽƵƌĚĞǀĞůŽƉŝŶŐ'ƌĞĞŶƵůƚƵƌĞΎ͕ĂŶĚĂƐǁĞĞdžƉĞƌŝĞŶĐĞŝƚĂƚƚŚĞ ŚƵŵĂŶ;ƐŵĂůůͿƐĐĂůĞ͕ǁĞĐĂŶĞŶŐĂŐĞǁŝƚŚƚŚŝƐĐƵůƚƵƌĞŽŶĂƉĞƌƐŽŶĂůůĞǀĞů͖ ƚŚĞŚĂƌŵŽŶŝŽƵƐůLJŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƚĞĚĂŶĚƵƟůŝnjĞĚƉƌĞƐĞŶĐĞŽĨƚŚĞǁĂƚĞƌĂŶĚƚŚĞ ŝŶŶĂƚĞƉůĂŶƚĂŶĚĂŶŝŵĂůůŝĨĞŝŶĚĞƐŝŐŶĞůŝĐŝƚĨĞĞůŝŶŐƐŽĨEĂƚƵƌĞ^ƉŝƌŝƚƵĂůŝƚLJΎ͘ dŚĞƐĞĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐĂŶĚƚŚĞƉĞƌĐĞŝǀĞĚƚŚƌĞĂƚƐŽĨŐůŽďĂůǁĂƌŵŝŶŐŚĂǀĞĨŽƌĐĞĚ ŚƵŵĂŶŝƚLJƚŽƌĞŇĞĐƚŽŶŽƵƌǀŝƚĂůƌĞůĂƟŽŶƐŚŝƉǁŝƚŚǁĂƚĞƌͶǁĂƚĞƌĂƐĂƉƌŽǀŝĚĞƌŽĨůŝĨĞͬƐƵƌǀŝǀĂů͕ƉůĞĂƐƵƌĞ͕ĂŶĚƐŽĐŝĞƚLJ͘/ƚŝƐƚŚƌŽƵŐŚƚŚĞĂƉƉƌĞĐŝĂƟŽŶ ŽĨĂůůƚŚĞƐĞƚŚŝŶŐƐƚŚĂƚǁĞĮŶĚĂƐƉŝƌŝƚƵĂůƌĞǀĞƌĞŶĐĞǁŝƚŚǁĂƚĞƌ͘

“The sea, the sea, the sea. It rolled and rolled and called to me. Come in, it said, come in.” -The Wanderer37 ϯϲDĂƩŚŝĂƐ,ŽůůǁŝĐŚĂŶĚDĂƌĐ<ƵƐŚŶĞƌ͕&ĂďŝŽůĂ>ſƉĞnjͲƵƌĄŶĂŶĚEŝŬŬŝDŽŽƌĞ͕ ŶƚŚŽŶLJsŝĚůĞƌĂŶĚDĂƌŬtŝŐůĞLJ͘͞ĐŽZĞĚƵdž͗ĞƐŝŐŶZĞŵĞĚŝĞƐĨŽƌĂŶŝůŝŶŐ WůĂŶĞƚ͘͟ƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĂůŝŐĞƐƚ͘ĚŝƚĞĚďLJ>LJĚŝĂ<ĂůůŝƉŽůŝƟ͘;tŝůĞLJ͖ϭĞĚŝƟŽŶ͕ϮϬϭϭͿϵ͘ ϯϳ^ŚĂƌŽŶƌĞĞĐŚ͘dŚĞtĂŶĚĞƌĞƌ͘EĞǁzŽƌŬ͗,ĂƌƉĞƌŽůůŝŶƐWƵďůŝƐŚĞƌƐ͕ϮϬϬϬ͘

Water is Survival

Water is Spiritual Water is Society

Water is Pleasure


Water is Survival

70%

LJϮϬϱϬ͕ƚŚĞĂƌĞĂƐĂƌŽƵŶĚƚŚĞǁŽƌůĚǁŝůůŚĂǀĞϭϬͲϯϬйůĞƐƐǁĂƚĞƌƐƵƉƉůLJ͘ ͞tĂƚĞƌŝƐĂŵŽƌĞǀĂůƵĂďůĞĐŽŵŵŽĚŝƚLJŝŶƐŽŵĞƌĞƐƉĞĐƚƐƚŚĂŶŽŝůͶŽƌŝƚ ǁŝůůďĞŽǀĞƌƟŵĞ͘͟ -Brian Vastag.͞tĂƌŵŝŶŐDĂLJĂƵƐĞtŝĚĞƐƉƌĞĂĚtĂƚĞƌ^ŚŽƌƚĂŐĞƐ͟EĂƟŽŶĂů 'ĞŽŐƌĂƉŚŝĐEĞǁƐ͘;EŽǀĞŵďĞƌϮϭ͕ϮϬϬϱͿŶĂƟŽŶĂůŐĞŽŐƌĂƉŚŝĐ͘ĐŽŵ tĂƚĞƌŝƐƚŚĞŵŽƐƚĨƵŶĚĂŵĞŶƚĂůĞůĞŵĞŶƚƐƵƉƉŽƌƟŶŐůŝĨĞŽŶĞĂƌƚŚ͘/ƚŵĂŬĞƐƵƉ ŽǀĞƌϳϭйŽĨƚŚĞƉůĂŶĞƚ͛ƐƐƵƌĨĂĐĞĂŶĚƚŚƵƐŽƵƌŚĂďŝƚĂƚ͖ŝƚŝƐƚŚĞƉƌŝŵĂƌLJĨŽƌŵŽĨ ŵĂƩĞƌǁŚŝĐŚŵĂŬĞƐƵƉĂůůůŝǀŝŶŐƚŚŝŶŐƐ͕ĂŶĚƚŚĞĚƌŝǀŝŶŐĨŽƌĐĞŽĨƚŚĞŐůŽďĂůĐůŝŵĂƚĞ ĂŶĚĞĐŽůŽŐŝĐĂůƐLJƐƚĞŵƐ͘EŽƚŽŶůLJĚŽǁĞŶĞĞĚƚŽĐŽŶƐƵŵĞǁĂƚĞƌƌĞŐƵůĂƌůLJƚŽƐƵƌǀŝǀĞ͕ǁĂƚĞƌƐƵƉƉŽƌƚƐƚŚĞůŝǀĞƐŽĨĂůůƉůĂŶƚĂŶĚĂŶŝŵĂůĞĐŽůŽŐŝĞƐǁĞĚĞƉĞŶĚŽŶĨŽƌ ĨŽŽĚ͕ĂŶĚƉƌŽĚƵĐƟŽŶŽĨŐŽŽĚƐĂŶĚƐŚĞůƚĞƌƐ͘tĂƚĞƌŝƐĞƐƐĞŶƟĂůĨŽƌĐůĞĂŶƐŝŶŐŽƵƌ ďŽĚŝĞƐĂŶĚŽƵƌŚĂďŝƚĂƚƐŽĨƚŽdžŝŶƐŝŶŽƌĚĞƌƚŽŬĞĞƉŚĞĂůƚŚLJ͘

68%

of fresh water is used for agriculture

71% 2.5%

water

is potable fresh water 33


Water is Society

“Take almost any path you please, and ten to one it carries you down in a dale, and leaves you there by a pool in the stream. There is magic in it. Let the most absent-minded of men be plunged in his deepest reveries—stand that man on his legs, set his feet a-going, and he will infallibly lead you to water…”38 ~Herman Melville 38 Herman Melville. DŽďLJŝĐŬ. 1851. ŚĂƉƚĞƌϭ͕͞>ŽŽŵŝŶŐƐ͘͟ Fig. 37 Development of Amsterdam. From: sĂŶ<ŽŶŝŶŐƐǀĞůĚ͕D͕͘:͘W͘D͘DƵůĚĞƌ͕ D͘:͘&͘^ƟǀĞ͕>͘sĂŶĞƌsĂůŬ͕ĂŶĚ͘t͘sĂŶĞƌtĞĐŬ͘͞>ŝǀŝŶŐǁŝƚŚ^ĞĂͲ>ĞǀĞů ZŝƐĞĂŶĚůŝŵĂƚĞŚĂŶŐĞ͗ĂƐĞ^ƚƵĚLJŽĨƚŚĞEĞƚŚĞƌůĂŶĚƐ͘͟:ŽƵƌŶĂůŽĨŽĂƐƚĂů ZĞƐĞĂƌĐŚǀŽů͘Ϯϰ͕ŶŽ͘Ϯ;DĂƌ͕͘ϮϬϬϴͿ͘ &ŝŐ͘ϯϴWƌŽĚƵĐĞĚďLJĂƵƚŚŽƌ͕ǁĂƚĞƌƐŽƵƌĐĞĨŽƌdŚĞůŚĂŵďƌĂ͕'ƌĂŶĂĚĂ͕^ƉĂŝŶ͘

ϯϳdŚĞĐŝƚLJŽĨŵƐƚĞƌĚĂŵ͕EĞƚŚĞƌůĂŶĚƐ͕ǁĂƐĨŽƌŵĞĚĂůŽŶŐƚŚĞZŚŝŶĞʹDĞƵƐĞʹ ^ĐŚĞůĚĞĚĞůƚĂƚŽďĞŶĞƚƚƌĂĚĞ͕ƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚ͕ĂŶĚƐŚŝŶŐ͘

R

tĂƚĞƌĚĞĮŶĞƐƚŚĞůĂŶĚǁĞŝŶŚĂďŝƚ͕ĂŶĚƚŚƌŽƵŐŚŽƵƚŚŝƐƚŽƌLJŚĂƐƐĞƌǀĞĚĂƐ ƚŚĞƉĂƚŚĂŶĚƐLJƐƚĞŵďLJǁŚŝĐŚĐŝǀŝůŝnjĂƟŽŶŚĂƐĨŽƌŵĞĚ͘tĞŚĂǀĞƐŚĂƉĞĚ ŽƵƌĐŝƟĞƐĂƌŽƵŶĚĐŽĂƐƚůŝŶĞƐ͕ĚĞůƚĂƐ͕ĂŶĚƌŝǀĞƌƐ͕ƚŽƵƐĞĂƐĂĚŝƌĞĐƚƐŽƵƌĐĞ ƚŽĮŶĚĚƌŝŶŬĂŶĚĨŽŽĚ͕ƵƟůŝnjĞĂƐĂŶĞŶĞƌŐLJƐŽƵƌĐĞĨŽƌƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐŝĞƐ͕ĂŶĚ ĂŶĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐĐĂƚĂůLJƐƚĨŽƌƚƌĂŶƐƉŽƌƚĂƟŽŶĂŶĚƚƌĂĚĞ͘KƵƌďƵŝůƚĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚ ĂƐǁĞŬŶŽǁŝƚŝƐĚĞƉĞŶĚĞŶƚŽŶǁĂƚĞƌŵĂŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚĂŶĚƐLJƐƚĞŵƐƐƵĐŚĂƐ ƉůƵŵďŝŶŐĂŶĚŝŶĚŽŽƌŚĞĂƟŶŐĂŶĚĐŽŽůŝŶŐ͘

ϯϴ͕dŚĞůŚĂŵďƌĂǁĂƐĂŶĂŶĐŝĞŶƚ fortress city built along the Darro ƌŝǀĞƌĚŽǁŶƚŚĞŵŽƵŶƚĂŝŶƐŝĚĞƐŽ ƚŚĂƚǁĂƚĞƌĐŽƵůĚďĞŝƌƌŝŐĂƚĞĚƚŽĂůů ŽĨƚŚĞĂŵĞŶŝƟĞƐƵƐŝŶŐƚŚĞĨŽƌĐĞŽĨ gravity.


Water is Pleasure tĂƚĞƌƐĞƌǀĞƐĂƐĂƉůĂLJŐƌŽƵŶĚĨŽƌƐƉŽƌƚ͕ƌĞĐƌĞĂƟŽŶ͕ĞdžĞƌĐŝƐĞ͕ďƵƚǁĞĂůƐŽ ĞŶũŽLJǁĂƚĞƌŽŶĂŵŽƌĞƉƌŽĨŽƵŶĚůĞǀĞůͶƚŚĞĞŶĐŚĂŶƟŶŐŶĂƚƵƌĞŽĨǁĂƚĞƌ ĂůŽŶĞŚĂƐŵĂĚĞŝƚĂƐLJŵďŽůŽĨƌĞƚƌĞĂƚ͕ƉĂƌĂĚŝƐĞ͕ĂŶĚƉƐLJĐŚŽƚŚĞƌĂƉLJ͘dŚĞ ǀŝƐƵĂů͕ĐŽŶƚĞdžƚƵĂů͕ĂŶĚĂĐŽƵƐƟĐĂĞƐƚŚĞƟĐ͕ĂƐǁĞůůĂƐĂĐůĞĂŶƐŝŶŐĂďŝůŝƚLJ ŐŝǀĞƐĂƋƵĂůŝƚLJŽĨůƵdžƵƌLJ͕ŵĞŶƚĂůĂŶĚƉŚLJƐŝĐĂůŚĞĂůƚŚ͘

͞ƵƚŚĞƌĞŝƐĂŶĂƌƟƐƚ͘,ĞĚĞƐŝƌĞƐƚŽƉĂŝŶƚLJŽƵƚŚĞĚƌĞĂŵŝĞƐƚ͕ ƐŚĂĚŝĞƐƚ͕ƋƵŝĞƚĞƐƚ͕ŵŽƐƚĞŶĐŚĂŶƟŶŐďŝƚŽĨƌŽŵĂŶƟĐůĂŶĚƐĐĂƉĞ in all the valley of the Saco. What is the chief element he employs?”38 ~Herman Melville

Fig. 39 “The Garden of Eden” ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬǁǁǁ͘ƚŚĞĐƵůƚƵƌĞĐŽŶĐĞƉƚ͘ĐŽŵͬĐŝƌĐůĞͬĮŶĚŝŶŐͲƉĂƌĂĚŝƐĞ &ŝŐƵƌĞƐďĞůŽǁĨŽƵŶĚŽŶ'ŽŽŐůĞ/ŵĂŐĞƐ͕ŐŽŽŐůĞ͘ĐŽŵͬŝŵĂŐĞƐ ϯϵ͕dŚĞŝďůŝĐĂů͞'ĂƌĚĞŶŽĨĚĞŶ͟ǁĂƐƉŽƌƚƌĂLJĞĚĂƐƚŚĞƵůƟŵĂƚĞƉĂƌĂĚŝƐĞ͕ǁĂƚĞƌďĞŝŶŐŝƚƐŵŽƐƚƉƌŽŵŝŶĞŶƚĞůĞŵĞŶƚ͘

35


Water is Spiritual ^ƵƌĮŶŐ͖͞ƚŚĞƐƉŽƌƚŚĂƐĂƐĂĐƌĞĚ ƐƚŽƌLJ͘͘͘ĂŶĞĂƌůŝĞƌ͕ĞĐŽůŽŐŝĐĂůůLJ harmonious culture...spiritually ĂƩƵŶĞĚƚŽŶĂƚƵƌĞ͟ ͲƌŽŶdĂLJůŽƌŝŶĂƌŬ'ƌĞĞŶZĞůŝŐŝŽŶ͘ 141. &ŝŐ͘ϰϬ;ZŝŐŚƚ͕ƚŽƉͿŚƩƉ͗ͬͬŶĂturesmightypictures.blogspot. ĐŽŵͬϮϬϭϮͬϬϭͬŚĂǁĂŝŝͲƐƵƌĮŶŐͲĚĂŶŐĞƌŽƵƐͲǁĂǀĞƐ͘Śƚŵů

/Ŷ/ƐůĂŵŝĐĐƵůƚƵƌĞ͕ĂƐŝƚŽƌŝŐŝŶĂƚĞĚĨƌŽŵĚƌLJĐůŝŵĂƚĞƐ͕ǁĂƚĞƌ is a sacred symbol of purity and ƉĂƌĂĚŝƐĞ͘tĞůůƐ͕ĨŽƵŶƚĂŝŶƐ͕ĂŶĚ ǁĂƐŚŝŶŐďĞĨŽƌĞƉƌĂLJĞƌĂƌĞĂĐĞŶtral part of religious ritual. &ŝŐ͘ϰϭ;ZŝŐŚƚ͕ďŽƩŽŵͿŽƵƌƚLJĂƌĚ ĨŽƵŶƚĂŝŶŝŶƚŚĞDŽƐƋƵĞŽĨ^ĞǀŝůůĞ͕ ^ƉĂŝŶ͘dĂŬĞŶďLJĂƵƚŚŽƌ͘ &ŝŐ͘ϰϮEĂƌĐŝƐƐƵƐ͘ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬǁǁǁ͘ƚĂůŝŵďĂ͘ĐŽŵͬŝŶĚĞdž͘ƉŚƉ͍ƉĂŐĞсƐĞĂƌĐŚͬŝŵĂ ŐĞƐΘƐĞĂƌĐŚсůĂƚĞŝŶнƉĂŐŝŶĂнŽǀŝĚнŶĂƌĐ ŝƐƐƵƐΘƚLJƉĞс/ŵĂŐĞƐΘƐƚĂƌƚƉĂŐĞсϮ


͞ŶĚƐƟůůĚĞĞƉĞƌƚŚĞŵĞĂŶŝŶŐŽĨƚŚĂƚƐƚŽƌLJŽĨEĂƌĐŝƐƐƵƐ͕ǁŚŽďĞĐĂƵƐĞŚĞĐŽƵůĚŶŽƚ ŐƌĂƐƉƚŚĞƚŽƌŵĞŶƟŶŐ͕ŵŝůĚŝŵĂŐĞŚĞƐĂǁŝŶƚŚĞĨŽƵŶƚĂŝŶ͕ƉůƵŶŐĞĚŝŶƚŽŝƚĂŶĚǁĂƐ drowned. But that same image, we ourselves see in all rivers and oceans. It is the image of the ungraspable phantom of life; and this is the key to it all.”38 ~Herman Melville

42

37


THE PROPOSED PROJECT

IŶĐŽŶĐůƵƐŝŽŶ͕ƚŚŝƐƚŚĞƐŝƐƐƵŐŐĞƐƚƐƚŚĂƚƚŚĞĐŽŶƚĞdžƚŽĨĂƐŽŌͲĞĚŐĞƵƌďĂŶ ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞŽŶƚŚĞǁĂƚĞƌĨƌŽŶƚŽĨĂĐŽĂƐƚĂůĐŝƚLJĐŽƵůĚƐĞƌǀĞĂƐĂƐŝƚĞĨŽƌ͕ ĂŶĚďĞŶĞĮƚĨƌŽŵĂŶĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĂůƉƌŽŐƌĂŵĚĞƐŝŐŶĞĚĨŽƌƚŚĞƉƌĂĐƟĐĞŽĨ EĂƚƵƌĞ^ƉŝƌŝƚƵĂůŝƚLJ͘dŚŝƐǁŽƵůĚďĞĂŶĞǁŬŝŶĚŽĨƉƵďůŝĐƚĞŵƉůĞŽƌƐĂŶĐƚƵĂƌLJ͕ĂŚƵďĨŽƌƚŚĞŐƌĞĞŶƌĞŶĂŝƐƐĂŶĐĞ͘/ƚĐŽƵůĚƉƌŽǀŝĚĞďŽƚŚĂŶŽƵƚĚŽŽƌĂŶĚ ŝŶĚŽŽƌƐƉĂĐĞĨŽƌǀŝƐŝƚŽƌƐƚŽĞŶŐĂŐĞŝŶĂĐƟǀŝƟĞƐƚŚĂƚĐĞŶƚĞƌĂƌŽƵŶĚƚŚĞůŽǀĞ ĂŶĚĞŶũŽLJŵĞŶƚŽĨŶĂƚƵƌĞ͕ĂŶĚŝƚƐĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶǁŝƚŚƚŚĞƐĞůĨĂŶĚƚŚĞŚĞĂůƚŚLJ ŵŝŶĚ͕ďŽĚLJĂŶĚƐƉŝƌŝƚ͘/ƚǁŽƵůĚďĞĂƉůĂĐĞĨŽƌƚŚĞƵƌďĂŶĚǁĞůůĞƌƚŽƌĞůĂdž͕ ƌĞĐŚĂƌŐĞ͕ĮŶĚĂƉŽƐŝƟǀĞƐƚĂƚĞŽĨŵŝŶĚ͕ǀŝƚĂůŝƚLJ͕ĂŶĚĂĚĞĞƉĞƌŵĞĂŶŝŶŐŝŶ ƚŚĞŝƌďƵƐLJůŝǀĞƐ͘dŚŝƐǁŽƵůĚŝŶĐůƵĚĞĐĞƌƚĂŝŶĂƐƉĞĐƚƐŽĨĂƉƵďůŝĐƉĂƌŬ͕ďƵƚŝƚ ǁŽƵůĚďĞŵƵĐŚŵŽƌĞ͘

38


͞zĞƐ͕ĂƐĞǀĞƌLJŽŶĞŬŶŽǁƐ͕ŵĞĚŝƚĂƟŽŶĂŶĚǁĂƚĞƌĂƌĞǁĞĚĚĞĚ forever.”38 ~Herman Melville

^ŝŵŝůĂƌĞdžŝƐƟŶŐƉƌŽŐƌĂŵƐ͗ƚŚĞƌĞĂƌĞŵĂŶLJƉůĂĐĞƐǁŽƌůĚǁŝĚĞƚŚĂƚŽīĞƌ ĞĐŽͲƐƉŝƌŝƚƵĂůƌĞƚƌĞĂƚƐ͕ĨŽƌĞdžĂŵƉůĞ͕EŽƌƚŚĞƌŶĚŐĞůŐŽŶƋƵŝŶŝŶKŶƚĂƌŝŽ͕ ĂŶĂĚĂŝŶĐŽƌƉŽƌĂƚĞƐLJŽŐĂ͕ƐŚĂŵĂŶŝƐŵ͕ĂŶĚŶĂƚƵƌĞƌĞƚƌĞĂƚƐ͕ŝŶĂĚĚŝƟŽŶƚŽ ƚŚĞŵŽƌĞƚƌĂĚŝƟŽŶĂůĂĐƟǀŝƟĞƐƐƵĐŚĂƐŬĂLJĂŬŝŶŐ͕ĐĂŶŽĞŝŶŐ͕ĂŶĚĚŽŐƐůĞĚĚŝŶŐŝŶǁŝŶƚĞƌ͘ĂƐĞĚĂƚĂƐŽůĂƌͲƉŽǁĞƌĞĚĨĂĐŝůŝƚLJ͕ƚŚĞƌĞŝƐĂůƐŽĂĚŝŶŝŶŐŚĂůů that serves organic and locally raised food. zŽŐĂEĂƚƵƌĞ͗ĞŶƚĞƌĨŽƌ,ĞĂůƚŚ ĂŶĚtĞůůďĞŝŶŐŽīĞƌƐĨĂĐŝůŝƟĞƐĂŶĚĨĞŶŐͲƐŚƵŝŐĂƌĚĞŶƐĨŽƌLJŽŐĂĂŶĚŵĞĚŝƚĂƟŽŶĐůĂƐƐĞƐ͕ĂŶĚŶĂƚƵƌĂůƐƉĂƚŚĞƌĂƉLJ͘ ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬǁǁǁ͘LJŽŐĂŶĂƚƵƌĞ͘ĐŽ͘ƵŬͬ ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬǁǁǁ͘ŵLJŶĂƚŽƵƌ͘ŽƌŐͬĞĐŽŶĞǁƐͬĞĐŽͲƐƉŝƌŝƚƵĂůͲƌĞƚƌĞĂƚƐ &ŝŐ͘ϰϮ͘Ϯ͕ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬǁŝůůŽǁĨƌŝĞŶĚ͘ĮůĞƐ͘ǁŽƌĚƉƌĞƐƐ͘ĐŽŵͬϮϬϭϬͬϬϴͬĚŽĐŬ͘ũƉŐ

39


d,^/d͗W/Zϰ͕K^dKE/EEKsd/KE/^dZ/d

OŶĞƐŝƚĞƚŚĂƚǁŽƵůĚďĞƐƵŝƚĂďůĞĨŽƌƐƵĐŚĂƉƌŽũĞĐƚŝƐǁŝƚŚŝŶƚŚĞŶĞǁ ĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚĞŶĚĞĂǀŽƌĨŽƌƚŚĞ^ŽƵƚŚŽƐƚŽŶtĂƚĞƌĨƌŽŶƚ͕ǁŚŝĐŚŝƐ ďĞŝŶŐƌĞŶĂŵĞĚĂƐƚŚĞ͞ŽƐƚŽŶ/ŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶŝƐƚƌŝĐƚ͘͟>ĂƵŶĐŚĞĚŝŶ:ĂŶƵĂƌLJŽĨϮϬϭϬ͕ƚŚĞŽƐƚŽŶ/ŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶŝƐƚƌŝĐƚǀĞŶƚƵƌĞĂŝŵƐƚŽĞƐƚĂďůŝƐŚ ĂŶŝŶĐƵďĂƚŽƌĨŽƌŝŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶ͕ƉƌŽǀŝĚŝŶŐĂĚĞŶƐĞĐŝƚLJŚƵďĨŽƌƉƌŽĂĐƟǀĞ ŵŝŶĚƐƚŽǁŽƌŬ͕ůŝǀĞ͕ĂŶĚƉůĂLJ͘ZĞƉůĂĐŝŶŐĂďƌŽǁŶͲĮĞůĚ͕ƌƵŶͲĚŽǁŶ͕ŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĂůƐĞĐƟŽŶŽĨƚŚĞĐŝƚLJ͕ŝƚŝƐŚŽƉĞĚƚŽďĞƚŚĞ͞ŶĞǁǁĂƚĞƌĨƌŽŶƚ͟ĂŶĚ center of life in Boston.39 /ƚǁŝůůďĞ͞ϭ͕ϬϬϬĂĐƌĞƐŽĨƌĞƐŝĚĞŶƟĂů͕ĐŽŵŵĞƌĐŝĂů͕ĂŶĚŝŶĚƵƐƚƌŝĂůƐƉĂĐĞ͙ŝŶƚĞŶĚĞĚƚŽĞŶƐƵƌĞŽƐƚŽŶ͛ƐĐŽŶƟŶƵĞĚ ůĞĂĚĞƌƐŚŝƉŝŶƚŚĞŝŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶĞĐŽŶŽŵLJͶďŽƚŚĂƐĂŶĞŶŐŝŶĞĨŽƌũŽď ŐƌŽǁƚŚĂŶĚƚŚĞĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚŽĨŝŶŶŽǀĂƟǀĞƉƌŽĚƵĐƚƐĂŶĚƐĞƌǀŝĐĞƐ͘͟40  ,ŽǁĞǀĞƌ͕ƚŚŝƐĂƌĞĂŝƐŶŽƚĞdžĞŵƉƚĨƌŽŵƚŚĞƚŚƌĞĂƚŽĨƌŝƐŝŶŐ ƐĞĂůĞǀĞůƐ͘ĐĐŽƌĚŝŶŐƚŽƚŚĞEĞǁŶŐůĂŶĚůŝŵĂƚĞŽĂůŝƟŽŶ͕ƐĞĂůĞǀĞůƐ ĐŽƵůĚƌŝƐĞĂƐŵƵĐŚĂƐϰĨĞĞƚǁŝƚŚŝŶƚŚĞŶĞdžƚϱϬLJĞĂƌƐ͘;ƐŽƵƌĐĞͿdŚŝƐǁŝůů ŇŽŽĚƐĞǀĞƌĂůĂƌĞĂƐĂůŽŶŐƚŚĞĐŽĂƐƚ͕ŝŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐƚŚĞŽƐƚŽŶ/ŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶ ŝƐƚƌŝĐƚ͘dŚŝƐǁŽƵůĚĂůƐŽŵĞĂŶƐƚŽƌŵĞǀĞŶƚƐŝŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐϭϬϬͲLJĞĂƌŇŽŽĚƐ ĂŶĚϱϬϬͲLJĞĂƌŇŽŽĚƐΎǁŽƵůĚĂīĞĐƚĂǁŝĚĞƌĂƌĞĂ͕ĐĂƵƐĞŵŽƌĞĚĞƐƚƌƵĐƟŽŶĂŶĚŚĂƉƉĞŶŵŽƌĞĨƌĞƋƵĞŶƚůLJ͕͞ĂĐĐŽƌĚŝŶŐƚŽĐƵƌƌĞŶƚĞƐƟŵĂƚĞƐ͕ ŽƐƚŽŶĐĂŶĞdžƉĞĐƚĂĐŽĂƐƚĂůŇŽŽĚĞƋƵŝǀĂůĞŶƚƚŽƚŽĚĂLJ͛ƐϭϬϬͲLJĞĂƌŇŽŽĚ ĞǀĞƌLJƚǁŽƚŽĨŽƵƌLJĞĂƌƐŽŶĂǀĞƌĂŐĞďLJŵŝĚͲĐĞŶƚƵƌLJĂŶĚĂůŵŽƐƚĂŶŶƵĂůůLJďLJƚŚĞĞŶĚŽĨƚŚĞĐĞŶƚƵƌLJ͙ƚŚŝƐŝƐĂŵŽƌĞĞdžƚƌĞŵĞĞƐƟŵĂƚĞƚŚĂŶ EĞǁzŽƌŬŝƚLJ͛ƐĨŽƌĞdžĂŵƉůĞ͕ǁŚĞƌĞĂϭϬϬͲLJĞĂƌŇŽŽĚĐĂŶďĞĞdžƉĞĐƚĞĚ every 46 to 50 years”41

40

ϯϵŚƩƉ͗ͬͬǁǁǁ͘ďŽƐƚŽŶƐŶĞǁǁĂƚĞƌĨƌŽŶƚ͘ĐŽŵͬĐŝǀŝĐͲƉƌŝĚĞͬƚŚĞͲŝŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶͲĚŝƐƚƌŝĐƚͬ ϰϬŚƩƉ͗ͬͬǁǁǁ͘ŝŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶĚŝƐƚƌŝĐƚ͘ŽƌŐͬ ϰϭW͘<ŝƌƐŚĞŶ͕D͘ZƵƚŚ͕ĂŶĚt͘ŶĚĞƌƐŽŶ͕͞ůŝŵĂƚĞ͛Ɛ>ŽŶŐͲƚĞƌŵ/ŵƉĂĐƚƐŽŶhƌban Infrastructures and Services: The Case of Metro Boston” in Climate Change ĂŶĚsĂƌŝĂďŝůŝƚLJ͗ŽŶƐĞƋƵĞŶĐĞƐĂŶĚZĞƐƉŽŶƐĞƐ͕ĐŽͲĞĚŝƚĞĚďLJZƵƚŚ͕D͕͘<ŝƌƐŚĞŶ͕ W͘,͕͘ĂŶĚŽŶĂŐŚLJ͕<͕͘;ŽŶƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚĐŽŶĚƵĐƚĞĚĂƐƉĂƌƚŽĨƚŚĞϭϵϵϵĂŶĚϮϬϬϬ W^dZŐƌĂŶƚƉƌŽŐƌĂŵͿ͕ŝŶƉƌĞƐƐ͘DĞĚĨŽƌĚ͕D͗dƵŌƐhŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ͕ϮϬϬϰ͘ &ŝŐ͘ϰϯDĂƉƐĨƌŽŵŚƩƉ͗ͬͬǁǁǁ͘ŝŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶĚŝƐƚƌŝĐƚ͘ŽƌŐͬ &ŝŐ͘ϰϰ/ŵĂŐĞƉƌŽǀŝĚĞĚďLJƚŚĞDĞƚƌŽƉŽůŝƚĂŶƌĞĂWůĂŶŶŝŶŐŽƵŶĐŝů;DWͿŝŶ the ŝƚLJŽĨŽƐƚŽŶůŝŵĂƚĞĐƟŽŶWůĂŶhƉĚĂƚĞ͕ 2011.

43


/ŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶŝƐƚƌŝĐƚ

41 44 WƌŽũĞĐƚĞĚŇŽŽĚƉůĂŝŶƐ͕ŽƐƚŽŶϮϬϯϱ


SITE

/ŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶŝƐƚƌŝĐƚϮϬϭϮ džŝƐƟŶŐƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐ Proposed Buildings


43

SITE

/ŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶŝƐƚƌŝĐƚϮϬϱϬ džŝƐƟŶŐƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐ Proposed Buildings ^ĞĂ>ĞǀĞůZŝƐĞϰ͛


SITE

/ŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶŝƐƚƌŝĐƚϮϬϭϮ džŝƐƟŶŐƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐ Proposed Buildings ϭϬϬLJĞĂƌŇŽŽĚƉůĂŝŶ


45

SITE

/ŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶŝƐƚƌŝĐƚϮϬϱϬ džŝƐƟŶŐƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐ Proposed Buildings ϭϬϬLJĞĂƌŇŽŽĚƉůĂŝŶ


TŚĞƌĞĨŽƌĞ͕ŝƚŝƐĐƌƵĐŝĂůƚŚĂƚƚŚŝƐďĞĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌĞĚŝŶƚŚĞ/ŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶŝƐƚƌŝĐƚ͛ƐĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚƉůĂŶ͖ĂŶĚďĞĐĂƵƐĞŝƚŝƐ ĐĞŶƚĞƌĞĚŽŶ͞ŝŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶ͕͟ŝƚŝƐĂǀĞƌLJĂƉƉƌŽƉƌŝĂƚĞƉůĂĐĞ ƚŽŝŶĐŽƌƉŽƌĂƚĞƚŚĞŝŶŶŽǀĂƟǀĞƐŽŌͲĞĚŐĞŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ ĂŶĚƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďůĞƐLJƐƚĞŵƐƚŚĂƚĂƌĞŐƌŽǁŝŶŐŝŶƉƌĂĐƟĐĞĂůů ŽǀĞƌƚŚĞǁŽƌůĚ͘dŚŝƐĂƐƐĞƌƚƐƚŚĂƚƚŚĞ/ŶŶŽǀĂƟŽŶŝƐƚƌŝĐƚƐŚŽƵůĚůŽŽŬŵŽƌĞ ůŝŬĞƚŚĞĂůƚĞƌŶĂƟǀĞƵƌďĂŶƉůĂŶƉƌŽƉŽƐĞĚďLJŵĂƉͲůĂƉ͕ĞŶƟƚůĞĚ͞ZĞƐŝůŝĞŶŝƚLJ͕͟ǁŚŝĐŚŐŝǀĞƐďĂĐŬϭϬϬĂĐƌĞƐŽĨůĂŶĚďĂĐŬƚŽƚŚĞƐĞĂ͕ĂŶĚĨŽůůŽǁƐƚŚĞ green culture vision.42 ϰϮŵĂƉͲůĂď͘͞ZĞƐŝůŝĞŶŝƚLJ͘͟ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬŝƐƐƵƵ͘ĐŽŵͬŵĂƉͲůĂďͬĚŽĐƐͬƌĞƐŝůŝĞŶĐŝƚLJ͘ &ŝŐ͘ϰϱ͕ϰϲ͕ĂŶĚϰϳďLJŵĂƉͲůĂď͘

46

46

45


SITE

47

47


WŽƌŬŝŶŐǁŝƚŚŝŶƚŚĞ͞ZĞƐŝůŝĞŶͲ ŝƚLJ͟ŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞ͕ĂŶĂƉƉƌŽƉƌŝate medium scale site is Pier 4 ĂůŽŶŐEŽƌƚŚĞƌŶǀĞ͘&ŽƌŵĂůůLJƚŚĞůŽĐĂƟŽŶŽĨŶƚŚŽŶLJ͛ƐWŝĞƌϰ ZĞƐƚĂƵƌĂŶƚ͕ĂůĂŶĚŵĂƌŬĨŽƌŚŝƐƚŽƌŝĐƐŽƵƚŚŽƐƚŽŶ͕ŝƚĐŽƵůĚďĞĂŶ ŝŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚƉůĂĐĞƚŽƌĞƉƌĞƐĞŶƚƚŚĞŶĞǁĐƵůƚƵƌĞƚŚĂƚŝƐƌĞƉůĂĐŝŶŐƚŚĞ ŽůĚ͘/ƚŝƐĂůƌĞĂĚLJĚƵĞƚŽďĞƚŽƌŶĚŽǁŶĂŶĚƌĞƉůĂĐĞĚǁŝƚŚĂϮϭͲƐƚŽƌLJ ĂƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚƚŽǁĞƌĂŶĚŵŝdžĞĚͲƵƐĞĐŽŵƉůĞdž͕ƚŚĞĮƌƐƚƉŚĂƐĞŽĨǁŚŝĐŚŝƐ ĂŶƟĐŝƉĂƚĞĚƚŽďĞĐŽŵƉůĞƚĞĚŝŶLJĞĂƌϮϬϭϰ͕43 but the program proƉŽƐĞĚďLJƚŚŝƐƚŚĞƐŝƐŵĂLJďĞĂďĞƩĞƌĂůƚĞƌŶĂƟǀĞĨŽƌƚŚĞƐŝƚĞ͘ ϰϯWĂƚƌŝĐŬZŽƐƐŽ͘͞ĞǀĞůŽƉĞƌƐďƌĞĂŬŐƌŽƵŶĚŽŶĮƌƐƚƉŚĂƐĞŽĨWŝĞƌϰĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚ͘͟ŽƐƚŽŶ͘ĐŽŵ;EŽǀĞŵďĞƌϭϲ͕ϮϬϭϮͿ͘ &ŝŐ͘ϰϴŚƩƉ͗ͬͬǁǁǁ͘ďŽƐƚŽŶĐŽŶĚŽůŽŌ͘ĐŽŵͬĂŶƚŚŽŶLJͲƉŝĞƌͲŶĞǁͲĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚͬ Fig. 49 bostonglobe.com

ϰϴ͕dŚĞĨŽƌŵĞƌƉŝĞƌ͕ŶƚŚŽLJ͛ƐWŝĞƌϰZĞƐƚĂƵƌĂŶƚ

ĞĐŬWůĂƞŽƌŵ͗ Timber Pile and prestressed conĐƌĞƚĞƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞǁŝƚŚ asphalt paveing-Deck 12”Platform: Timber Pile and prestressed concrete construction with asphalt paving--12”

džŝƐƟŶŐ^ĞĂtĂůů

Existing Sea Wall

džŝƐƟŶŐtŽŽĚWŝůĞƐ DƵĚ͕^ĂŶĚ͕^ŝůƚ

Existing Wood Piles Mud, Sand, Silt

Clay

Clay


ϮϬϱϬϰ͛^ĞĂ>ĞǀĞůZŝƐĞ ϰϵ͕dŚĞĐƵƌƌĞŶƚĚĞǀĞůŽƉŵĞŶƚƉůĂŶ͕ĂƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚĐŽŵƉůĞdž

Fill

ϮϬϱϬϱϬϬLJĞĂƌŇŽŽĚΎĂŌĞƌ^ĞĂ>ĞǀĞůZŝƐĞ

ĞĐŬWůĂƞŽƌŵ͗ƉƌĞstressed concrete structure ǁŝƚŚĂƐƉŚĂůƚƉĂǀĞŝŶŐͲͲϭϮ͟ Deck Platform: Timber Pile and ZŽĐŬĮůů͕ƟŵďĞƌĐƌŝď͕ prestressed concrete construcconcrete tion with asphalt pile and stone sea paving--12” ǁĂůů͘ Existing Sea Wall džŝƐƟŶŐ^ĞĂtĂůů Existing Wood Piles džŝƐƟŶŐtŽŽĚWŝůĞƐ Mud, Sand, Silt DƵĚ͕^ĂŶĚ͕^ŝůƚ

concrete pile and stone sea wall construction -rock fill timber crib

Clay Clay

49


EŶƟƚůĞĚ͞dŚĞĞŶƚĞƌĨŽƌ'ƌĞĞŶƵůƚƵƌĞĂŶĚEĂƚƵƌĞ^ƉŝƌŝƚƵĂůŝƚLJ͕͟the ƉƌŽŐƌĂŵǁŝůůŝŶĐůƵĚĞŝŶĚŽŽƌĂŶĚŽƵƚĚŽŽƌƐƉĂĐĞƐƚŚĂƚďƌŝŶŐƚŚĞƐƉŝƌŝƚƵĂů͕ ƐŽĐŝĂů͕ĂŶĚůŝĨĞƐƚLJůĞƉƌĂĐƟĐĞƐŽĨŐƌĞĞŶĐƵůƚƵƌĞĂůůŝŶŽŶĞƉůĂĐĞ͘dŚĞŝŶĚŽŽƌ ƉŽƌƟŽŶƐƉůĂLJŝŶƚŽƚŚĞ͞ƐĞŶƐŝďůĞ͟ĂƐƉĞĐƚƐŽĨƚŚŝƐĐƵůƚƵƌĞǁŚŝĐŚƌĂƟŽŶĂůůLJ ĐŽŝŶĐŝĚĞǁŝƚŚĐŽŶƚĞŵƉŽƌĂƌLJƚĞĐŚŶŽůŽŐLJƚŚĂƚǁŝůůĐŽŶƟŶƵĞƚŽƌĞŵĂŝŶƉƌĞƐĞŶƚŝŶŽƵƌůŝĨĞƐƚLJůĞƐ͕ƉƌŽǀŝĚŝŶŐƐŚĞůƚĞƌƚŚĂƚǁŝůůĂůůŽǁĐŽŵĨŽƌƚĂďůĞƵƐĞƵŶĚĞƌŚĂƌƐŚĐůŝŵĂƚĞĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐ͘dŚĞďƵŝůĚŝŶŐǁŝůůĞŵƉůŽLJŐƌĞĞŶͬƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďůĞ ŵĞĐŚĂŶŝĐĂůĂŶĚŚLJĚƌĂƵůŝĐƐLJƐƚĞŵƐ͕ŝŶĐŽƌƉŽƌĂƚĞŽĐĞĂŶǀŝĞǁƐĂŶĚŶĂƚƵƌĂů ŵĂƚĞƌŝĂůƐƚŽƉƌŽĚƵĐĞƉŚĞŶŽŵĞŶŽůŽŐŝĐĂůĞīĞĐƚƐ͕ĂŶĚŝŶƚĞŐƌĂƚĞŝŶƚŽƚŚĞ ƐŝƚĞǁŝƚŚĂƐŽŌͲŝŶĨƌĂƐƚƌƵĐƚƵƌĞĂŶĚĂŶĂĚĂƉƚĂďůĞĂďŝůŝƚLJĂƐĚĞŵŽŶƐƚƌĂƚĞĚ ďLJtĂƚĞƌ^ƚƵĚŝŽ͘ŶůƚŽƉƌŽƚĞĐƚŝƚĂŐĂŝŶƐƚŇŽŽĚŝŶŐĞǀĞŶƚƐ͘/ŶƐƚĞĂĚŽĨĂĐŽŵŵĞƌĐŝĂůĂƉĂƌƚŵĞŶƚďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƚŚĂƚŽďƐƚƌƵĐƚƐƚŚĞǀŝĞǁƐƚŽƚŚĞŽĐĞĂŶ͕ƚŚŝƐ ƉƌŽŐƌĂŵǁŝůůŽƉĞŶƵƉƚŽǁĂƚĞƌĂŶĚŽīĞƌĂŵŽƌĞƐƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďůĞĂŶĚĐƵůƚƵƌĂůůLJ ŵĞĂŶŝŶŐĨƵůĐŽŶƚƌŝďƵƟŽŶƚŽƚŚĞƉƵďůŝĐǁĂƚĞƌĨƌŽŶƚ͘/ƚĐŽƵůĚĞǀĞŶƐĞƌǀĞĂƐ ĂŶŝŶŶŽǀĂƟǀĞŵŽĚĞůĨŽƌƐŝŵŝůĂƌƉƌŽŐƌĂŵƐƚŽďĞĞŵƵůĂƚĞĚĞůƐĞǁŚĞƌĞ͘

dŚĞƉƌŽŐƌĂŵůŝƐƚŝƐĂƐĨŽůůŽǁƐ͗

GREEN CULTURE NATURE SPIRITUALITY tĞůůŶĞƐƐĐĞŶƚĞƌ͕ŝŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐ͗ ΕŶĂůůͲŶĂƚƵƌĂů^ƉĂ͕ Ε/ŶĚŽŽƌĂŶĚŽƵƚĚŽŽƌƌĞĐƌĞĂƟŽŶƐƉĂĐĞŝŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐƉŽŽůƐ͕ĂŶĚ LJŽŐĂͬŵĞĚŝƚĂƟŽŶƐƚƵĚŝŽƐ͕;ƋƵŽƚĞĂŶĚƐŽƵƌĐĞĂďŽƵƚLJŽŐĂͬ ŵĞĚŝƚĂƟŽŶĂŶĚŶĂƚƵƌĞƐƉŝƌŝƚƵĂůŝƚLJͿ ΕƌƵŶŶŝŶŐͬǁĂůŬŝŶŐͬďŝŬŝŶŐƌŽƵƚĞďLJĐŽŶŶĞĐƟŶŐǁŝƚŚƚŚĞ ,ĂƌďŽƌtĂůŬ͕ ΕKƉĞŶƉĂƌŬƐƉĂĐĞĨŽƌƉŝĐŶŝĐŬŝŶŐ͕ƐŝƫŶŐ͕ƌĞŇĞĐƟŶŐ͕ĞƚĐ͕͘ ΕŶKƌŐĂŶŝĐĨŽŽĚƐĐĂĨĠ ;ĐƟǀŝƟĞƐƚŚĂƚƐƵƉƉŽƌƚƉŚLJƐŝĐĂů͕ŵĞŶƚĂů͕ĂŶĚƐƉŝƌŝƚƵĂů ŚĞĂůƚŚ͞ďƌŝŶŐĂƐƵƌŐĞŽĨŶĞǁǀŝďƌĂŶƚĞŶĞƌŐLJŝŶƚŽĞǀĞƌLJĐĞůů ŽĨLJŽƵƌďŽĚLJ͟ĂŶĚĂƌĞƉĂƌƚŽĨƚŚĞEĂƚƵƌĞ^ƉŝƌŝƚƵĂůŝƚLJĞdžƉĞͲ ƌŝĞŶĐĞĂŶĚǀĂůƵĞƐͿ

ENVIRONMENTALISM ^ŽĐŝĂůĞŶƚĞƌ͕ŝŶĐůƵĚŝŶŐ͗ ΕKĸĐĞƐĨŽƌĂƌƚŚŚĂƌƚĞƌ;ƐŽĐŝĂůĂĐƟǀŝƐƚŽƌŐĂŶŝnjĂƟŽŶ ƚŚĂƚƐƵƉƉŽƌƚƐĞŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂůŝƐŵĂŶĚŐƌĞĞŶǀĂůƵĞƐ͘dŚĞ ĂƌƚŚŚĂƌƚĞƌ/ŶŝƟĂƟǀĞ͘ǁǁǁ͘ĞĂƌƚŚĐŚĂƌƚĞƌŝŶĂĐƟŽŶ͘ŽƌŐͿ ΕůĂƐƐƌŽŽŵƐƉĂĐĞĨŽƌƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚĂŶĚĞĚƵĐĂƟŽŶŽŶ'ƌĞĞŶ ƵůƚƵƌĞĂŶĚƌĞůĂƚĞĚƐƵďũĞĐƚƐ͕ ΕŽŵŵƵŶŝƚLJĞǀĞŶƚƐƉĂĐĞ͕ ΕƉƵďůŝĐŐĂƌĚĞŶǁĂƚĞƌĞĚďLJŽŶƐŝƚĞƌĂŝŶǁĂƚĞƌĐŽůůĞĐƟŽŶ͘

50


dŚĞ,ĂƌďŽƌtĂůŬ͕ƉĂƚŚƐ͗





ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬǁǁǁ͘ĐŝƚLJŽĩŽƐƚŽŶ͘ŐŽǀͬƉĂƌŬƐͬƉĚĨƐͬŽƐϱĐ͘ƉĚĨ

The Boston Harbor ƐƐŽĐŝĂƟŽŶƉůĂŶƐƚŽ install a garden on the aging Northern Avenue Bridge.



džŝƐƟŶŐ Proposed

dŽŽǁŶƚŽǁŶ

T T

ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬǁǁǁ͘ďŽƐƚŽŶ͘ ĐŽŵͬLJŽƵƌƚŽǁŶͬŶĞǁƐͬ

Diagram: Proposed infrastructure

ŝĂŐƌĂŵ͗ŽŶŶĞĐƟŽŶƐ

T

Diagram: Proposed infrastructure

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SYSTEMS

Eco-sustainable systems that could be applied to the hydrology of the ƐŝƚĞ;ƐĞĞƌŝŐŚƚͿ͕ǁŝůůďĞĂŶĞƚǁŽƌŬŽĨŶĂƚƵƌĂůĂŶĚĐŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƚĞĚǁĞƚůĂŶĚƐ͕ ŐƌĞĞŶƌŽŽĨƐ͕ŐƌĞLJǁĂƚĞƌĐŽůůĞĐƟŽŶ͕ƌƵŶŽīĐŽůůĞĐƟŽŶ͕ĂŶĚĂďƐŽƌďĂŶƚ ůĂŶĚƐĐĂƉŝŶŐ͘>ŽŽŬŝŶŐĂƚƉƌĞĐĞĚĞŶƚƐ͕ƐƵĐŚĂƐƚŚĞ͞tĂƚĞƌ^ŚĞĚ͟ďƵŝůĚŝŶŐďLJ ƚŚĞ^ŽůĂƌdĞĂŵĚĞƐŝŐŶƚĞĂŵĂƚƚŚĞhŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJŽĨDĂƌLJůĂŶĚ͕ǁŝůůƐĞƌǀĞĂƐ models and aid the research for applying these systems.

ƉƌĞĐŝƉŝƚĂƟŽŶ

ƌƵŶŽī

seepage &ŝŐ͘ϱϯ^ŽůĂƌdĞĂŵ͘hŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJŽĨDĂƌLJůĂŶĚĚĞƐŝŐŶƚĞĂŵ͕͞tĂƚĞƌ^ŚĞĚ͘͟ ƐŽƵƌĐĞ͗ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬϮϬϭϭ͘ƐŽůĂƌƚĞĂŵ͘ŽƌŐͬĚĞƐŝŐŶ &ŝŐ͘ϱϰ^ŽůĂƌdĞĂŵ͘hŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJŽĨDĂƌLJůĂŶĚĚĞƐŝŐŶƚĞĂŵ͕͞tĂƚĞƌ^ŚĞĚ͘͟^LJƐƚĞŵ ŶĞƚǁŽƌŬĚŝĂŐƌĂŵ͘ƐŽƵƌĐĞ͗ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬϮϬϭϭ͘ƐŽůĂƌƚĞĂŵ͘ŽƌŐͬĚĞƐŝŐŶͬůŝǀŝŶŐͲƐLJƐƚĞŵƐͬ ǁĂƚĞƌͲŵĂŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚ

ƐĞĂůĞǀĞůƌŝƐĞͬƟĚĞ

seepage

53


54

53


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ƐƉĞĐƚƐŽĨĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĂůĂŶĚƐƉĂƟĂůĚĞƐŝŐŶƚŚĂƚĐŽŶƚƌŝďƵƚĞƚŽ ͞ĂƚŵŽƐƉŚĞƌĞ͗͟ >ŝŐŚƚ ƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞŵĂŶŝƉƵůĂƚĞƐ͕ĂŶĚŝƐŵĂŶŝƉƵůĂƚĞĚďLJůŝŐŚƚ͘dŚĞĞīĞĐƚƐƌĞŶĚĞƌĞĚďLJƚŚĞĐŽŵďŝŶĂƟŽŶĂƌĞŽŌĞŶƐĞŶƐĂƟŽŶĂů͕ĂŶĚƌĞŵŝŶĚƵƐƚŚĂƚ ŶĂƚƵƌĞ͕ĂƐůŝŐŚƚ͕ŝƐŽŵŶŝƉƌĞƐĞŶƚ͘ ͞dŚĞƉĞƌĐĞƉƚƵĂůƐƉŝƌŝƚĂŶĚŵĞƚĂƉŚLJƐŝĐĂůƐƚƌĞŶŐƚŚŽĨĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞĂƌĞĚƌŝǀͲ ĞŶďLJƚŚĞƋƵĂůŝƚLJŽĨůŝŐŚƚĂŶĚƐŚĂĚŽǁƐŚĂƉĞĚďLJƐŽůŝĚƐĂŶĚǀŽŝĚƐ͕ďLJŽƉĂĐͲ ŝƟĞƐ͕ƚƌĂŶƐƉĂƌĞŶĐŝĞƐ͕ĂŶĚƚƌĂŶƐůƵĐĞŶĐŝĞƐ͘EĂƚƵƌĂůůŝŐŚƚ͕ǁŝƚŚŝƚƐĞƚŚĞƌĞĂů ǀĂƌŝĞƚLJŽĨĐŚĂŶŐĞ͕ĨƵŶĚĂŵĞŶƚĂůůLJŽƌĐŚĞƐƚƌĂƚĞƐƚŚĞŝŶƚĞŶƐŝƟĞƐŽĨĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐͲ ƚƵƌĞĂŶĚĐŝƟĞƐ͘tŚĂƚƚŚĞĞLJĞƐƐĞĞĂŶĚƚŚĞƐĞŶƐĞƐĨĞĞůŝŶƋƵĞƐƟŽŶƐŽĨĂƌĐŚŝͲ ƚĞĐƚƵƌĞĂƌĞĨŽƌŵĞĚĂĐĐŽƌĚŝŶŐƚŽƚŚĞĐŽŶĚŝƟŽŶƐŽĨůŝŐŚƚĂŶĚƐŚĂĚŽǁ͘͟44 ͞ĂLJůŝŐŚƚ͕ƚŚĞůŝŐŚƚŽŶƚŚŝŶŐƐ͕ŝƐƐŽŵŽǀŝŶŐƚŽŵĞƚŚĂƚ/ĨĞĞůĂůŵŽƐƚĂƐƉŝƌŝͲ ƚƵĂůƋƵĂůŝƚLJ͘tŚĞŶƚŚĞƐƵŶĐŽŵĞƐƵƉŝŶƚŚĞŵŽƌŶŝŶŐʹǁŚŝĐŚ/ĂůǁĂLJƐĮŶĚ ƐŽŵĂƌǀĞůŽƵƐ͙ĂŶĚĐĂƐƚƐŝƚƐůŝŐŚƚŽŶƚŚŝŶŐƐ͕ŝƚĚŽĞƐŶ͛ƚĨĞĞůĂƐŝĨŝƚƋƵŝƚĞďĞͲ ůŽŶŐƐŝŶƚŚŝƐǁŽƌůĚ͘/ĚŽŶ͛ƚƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚůŝŐŚƚ͘/ƚŐŝǀĞƐŵĞƚŚĞĨĞĞůŝŶŐƚŚĞƌĞ͛Ɛ ƐŽŵĞƚŚŝŶŐďĞLJŽŶĚŵĞ͕ƐŽŵĞƚŚŝŶŐďĞLJŽŶĚĂůůƵŶĚĞƌƐƚĂŶĚŝŶŐ͟45

DĂƚĞƌŝĂůƐ DĂƚĞƌŝĂůƐĂƌĞĂůƐŽĐŽŵďŝŶĞĚǁŝƚŚŽƚŚĞƌŵĂƚĞƌŝĂůƐŝŶĂďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƚŚĂƚƉůĂLJ ǁŝƚŚƚĞdžƚƵƌĞ͕ĐŽůŽƌ͕ƚĞŵƉĞƌĂƚƵƌĞĂŶĚƚŽŶĞ͖ĂůůŽĨǁŚŝĐŚĐƌĞĂƚĞĂŶĂƚŵŽsphere and mood. ͞EĂƚƵƌĂůŵĂƚĞƌŝĂůƐʹƐƚŽŶĞ͕ďƌŝĐŬ͕ĂŶĚǁŽŽĚʹĂůůŽǁƚŚĞŐĂnjĞƚŽƉĞŶĞƚƌĂƚĞ ƚŚĞŝƌƐƵƌĨĂĐĞƐĂŶĚƚŚĞLJĞŶĂďůĞƵƐƚŽďĞĐŽŵĞĐŽŶǀŝŶĐĞĚŽĨƚŚĞǀĞƌĂĐŝƚLJŽĨ ŵĂƩĞƌƐ͘EĂƚƵƌĂůŵĂƚĞƌŝĂůĞdžƉƌĞƐƐĞƐŝƚƐĂŐĞĂŶĚŚŝƐƚŽƌLJĂƐǁĞůůĂƐƚŚĞƚĂůĞ ŽĨŝƚƐďŝƌƚŚĂŶĚŚƵŵĂŶƵƐĞ͘dŚĞƉĂƟŶĂŽĨǁĞĂƌĂĚĚƐƚŚĞĞŶƌŝĐŚŝŶŐĞdžƉĞƌŝͲ ĞŶĐĞŽĨƟŵĞ͖ŵĂƩĞƌĞdžŝƐƚƐŝŶƚŚĞĐŽŶƟŶƵƵŵŽĨƟŵĞ͘͟46

͞DĂƚĞƌŝĂůƐƌĞĂĐƚǁŝƚŚŽŶĞĂŶŽƚŚĞƌĂŶĚŚĂǀĞƚŚĞŝƌƌĂĚŝĂŶĐĞ͕ƐŽƚŚĂƚƚŚĞ ŵĂƚĞƌŝĂůĐŽŵƉŽƐŝƟŽŶŐŝǀĞƐƌŝƐĞƚŽƐŽŵĞƚŚŝŶŐƵŶŝƋƵĞ͘͘͘΀ŝƚ΁ŝƐĞŶĚůĞƐƐ͟ϰϳ

ŝƌ ŝƌĞŶĐĂƉƐƵůĂƚĞƐďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐ͕ǁŚŝĐŚĂƌĞƐĂŝĚƚŽďĞĂůŝǀĞ͘dŚĞĂŝƌƉƌĞƐƐƵƌĞ͕ ƚĞŵƉĞƌĂƚƵƌĞ͕ŽĚŽƌ͕ŵŽǀĞŵĞŶƚ͕ŚƵŵŝĚŝƚLJŽƌĚƌLJŶĞƐƐĐŽŶƚƌŝďƵƚĞƐƚŽƚŚĞ ĨĞĞůŝŶŐ͕ĨĂŵŝůŝĂƌĂůŝƚLJ͕ĐŽŵĨŽƌƚůĞǀĞů͕ŚĞĂůƚŚ͕ĂŶĚƐĞŶƐĂƟŽŶĂůĞdžƉĞƌŝĞŶĐĞŽĨ the building.

^ŽƵŶĚ ^ŽƵŶĚŝŶĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞŝƐŚĞĂƌĚƚŚƌŽƵŐŚƉŚLJƐŝĐĂůƉƌĞƐĞŶĐĞĂŶĚƐĞŶƐŝƟǀŝƚLJ͘ ^ŽƵŶĚŝŶĚƵĐĞƐĞŵŽƟŽŶĂůĂŶĚƐĞŶƐƵĂůƌĞƐƉŽŶƐĞƐ͕ĂŶĚŝŶďƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐŝƚĂůƐŽ ŐŝǀĞƐĂƐĞŶƐĞŽĨƚŚĞƐĐĂůĞĂŶĚĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌŝƐƟĐƐŽĨƚŚĞƐƉĂĐĞ͘ ͞/ŶƚĞƌŝŽƌƐĂƌĞůŝŬĞůĂƌŐĞŝŶƐƚƌƵŵĞŶƚƐ͕ĐŽůůĞĐƟŶŐƐŽƵŶĚ͕ĂŵƉůŝĨLJŝŶŐŝƚ͕ ƚƌĂŶƐŵŝƫŶŐŝƚĞůƐĞǁŚĞƌĞ͘dŚĂƚŚĂƐƚŽĚŽǁŝƚŚƚŚĞƐŚĂƉĞƉĞĐƵůŝĂƌƚŽĞĂĐŚ ƌŽŽŵĂŶĚǁŝƚŚƚŚĞƐƵƌĨĂĐĞŽĨŵĂƚĞƌŝĂůƐƚŚĞLJĐŽŶƚĂŝŶ͕ĂŶĚƚŚĞǁĂLJƚŚŽƐĞ ŵĂƚĞƌŝĂůƐŚĂǀĞďĞĞŶĂƉƉůŝĞĚ͘͟ϰϴ

KďũĞĐƚ ŽŶƐƚƌƵĐƚĞĚŽďũĞĐƚƐŝŶĂƐƉĂĐĞĚĞƚĞƌŵŝŶĞƉůĂĐĞ͕ƐĞůĨͲĞdžƉƌĞƐƐŝŽŶ͕ƐƚĂƚƵƐ͕ ŝĚĞŶƟƚLJ͕ĂŶĚĨĂĐŝůŝƚLJ͘dŚĞLJƉƌŽǀŝĚĞĐƵůƚƵƌĂůĐŽŶŶŽƚĂƟŽŶƐ͘ ϰϰ^ƚĞǀĞŶ,Žůů͕:ƵŚĂŶŝWĂůůĂƐŵĂĂ͕ůďĞƌƚŽWĠƌĞnj'ſŵĞnj͘YƵĞƐƟŽŶƐŽĨƉĞƌĐĞƉƟŽŶ͗ ƉŚĞŶŽŵĞŶŽůŽŐLJŽĨĂƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞ͘;^ĂŶ&ƌĂŶĐŝƐĐŽ͗tŝůůŝĂŵ<^ƚŽƵƚWƵď͕ϮϬϬϲͿ͘ 45 Peter Zumthor. AƚŵŽƐƉŚĞƌĞƐ͗ƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĂůŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚƐ͕^ƵƌƌŽƵŶĚŝŶŐKďͲ ũĞĐƚƐ͘;ĞƌůŝŶ͗ŝƌŬŚćƵƐĞƌ'ŵď,͕ϮϬϬϲͿϲϭ͘ ϰϲ^ƚĞǀĞŶ,Žůů͕/ďŝĚ͕͘Ϯϵ͘ ϰϳWĞƚĞƌƵŵƚŚŽƌ͕/ďŝĚ͕͘Ϯϱ͘ ϰϴ/ďŝĚ͕͘Ϯϵ͘ &ŝŐ͘ϱϬͲϱϮ;ŶĞdžƚƉĂŐĞͿ dŚĞƌŵĞsĂůƐ͕ƚŚĞƌŵĂůďĂƚŚƐĂŶĚŚŽƚĞůͬƐƉĂĐŽŵƉůĞdžŝŶsĂůƐ͕ďƵŝůƚŽǀĞƌƚŚĞŽŶůLJ ƚŚĞƌŵĂůƐƉƌŝŶŐƐŝŶƚŚĞ'ƌĂƵďƺŶĚĞŶĐĂŶƚŽŶŝŶ^ǁŝƚnjĞƌůĂŶĚ͘ƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚWĞƚĞƌ ƵŵƚŚŽƌ͕ϭϵϵϲ͘ WŚŽƚŽƐĨƌŽŵ͗ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬǁǁǁ͘ŵŝŵŽĂ͘ĞƵͬƉƌŽũĞĐƚƐͬ^ǁŝƚnjĞƌůĂŶĚͬsĂůƐͬdŚĞƌŵĞйϮϬsĂůƐ


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BIBLIOGRAPHY

EKZE^KE͕'ƵLJ͘ĚĂŵzĂƌŝŶƐŬLJ͘͞KŶƚŚĞtĂƚĞƌ͗dŚĞEĞǁzŽƌŬͬEĞǁ Jersey Harbor”. WůĂĐĞƐ͕;KĐƚŽďĞƌϮϬϬϴͿ͘

>dZ^͕^ŽĮĂ͘͞ŽŵƉƌĞŚĞŶƐŝǀĞ͕/ŶƚĞŐƌĂƚĞĚ͕^ƵƐƚĂŝŶĂďůĞtĂƚĞƌDĂŶĂŐĞŵĞŶƚ^LJƐƚĞŵĨŽƌƚŚĞ'ƌĞĂƚĞƌEĞǁKƌůĞĂŶƐZĞŐŝŽŶͬtĂŐŐŽŶŶĞƌΘĂůů Architects.” ƌĐŚĂŝůLJ͘ƵŐƵƐƚ͕ϰϮϬϭϭ͘ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬǁǁǁ͘ĂƌĐŚĚĂŝůLJ͘ĐŽŵͬϭϱϭϴϰϲ '/KE^͕ƌ͘<ĞŶĚLJů͘͞WƌŝŵĂůƌĞǀĞƌĞŶĐĞ͘͟ŶĞƐƐĂLJŝƐĂĚĂƉƚĞĚĨƌŽŵŚĞƌ ĂĚĚƌĞƐƐƚŽƚŚĞ&ŝƌƐƚhŶŝƚĂƌŝĂŶ^ŽĐŝĞƚLJŽĨDŝŶŶĞĂƉŽůŝƐ͘;Ɖƌŝůϯ͕ϮϬϭϭͿ͘

W,D͕ŝĂŶĞ͘͞/E,/dd/EdZs/t͗tĂƚĞƌƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚ<ŽĞŶKůƚŚƵŝƐŽŶ &ůŽĂƟŶŐƵŝůĚŝŶŐƐΘ,LJĚƌŽͲŝƟĞƐ͟/ŶŚĂďŝƚĂƚ͘ĐŽŵ;KĐƚŽďĞƌ͕ϮϬϮϬϭϮͿ͘

,K>>͕^ƚĞǀĞŶ͘:ƵŚĂŶŝWĂůůĂƐŵĂĂ͕ĂŶĚůďĞƌƚŽWĠƌĞnj'ſŵĞnj͘YƵĞƐƟŽŶƐ ŽĨWĞƌĐĞƉƟŽŶ͗WŚĞŶŽŵĞŶŽůŽŐLJŽĨƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĞ. San Francisco: William K ^ƚŽƵƚWƵď͕ϮϬϬϲ͘ ,K>>t/,͕DĂƩŚŝĂƐ͘DĂƌĐ<ƵƐŚŶĞƌ͕&ĂďŝŽůĂ>ſƉĞnjͲƵƌĄŶĂŶĚEŝŬŬŝ DŽŽƌĞ͕ŶƚŚŽŶLJsŝĚůĞƌĂŶĚDĂƌŬtŝŐůĞLJ͘͞ĐŽZĞĚƵdž͗ĞƐŝŐŶZĞŵĞĚŝĞƐĨŽƌ an Ailing Planet.” ƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĂůŝŐĞƐƚ͘ĚŝƚĞĚďLJ>LJĚŝĂ<ĂůůŝƉŽůŝƟ͘tŝůĞLJ͖ϭ ĞĚŝƟŽŶ͕ϮϬϭϭ͘ :K^,/͕<͘^͘^ƉĞĂŬŝŶŐKĨzŽŐĂŶĚEĂƚƵƌĞͲƵƌĞdŚĞƌĂƉLJ͘EĞǁĞůŚŝ͗EĞǁ ĂǁŶWƌĞƐƐ'ƌŽƵƉ͕ϭϵϵϭ͘ </Z^,E͕W͕͘ZƵƚŚ͕D͕͘ĂŶĚŶĚĞƌƐŽŶ͕t͕͘͞ůŝŵĂƚĞ͛Ɛ>ŽŶŐͲƚĞƌŵ/ŵƉĂĐƚƐ on Urban Infrastructures and Services: The Case of Metro Boston” in ůŝͲ ŵĂƚĞŚĂŶŐĞĂŶĚsĂƌŝĂďŝůŝƚLJ͗ŽŶƐĞƋƵĞŶĐĞƐĂŶĚZĞƐƉŽŶƐĞƐ͕ĐŽͲĞĚŝƚĞĚďLJ ZƵƚŚ͕D͕͘<ŝƌƐŚĞŶ͕W͘,͕͘ĂŶĚŽŶĂŐŚLJ͕<͕͘;ŽŶƌĞƐĞĂƌĐŚĐŽŶĚƵĐƚĞĚĂƐƉĂƌƚŽĨ ƚŚĞϭϵϵϵĂŶĚϮϬϬϬW^dZŐƌĂŶƚƉƌŽŐƌĂŵͿ͕ŝŶƉƌĞƐƐ͘DĞĚĨŽƌĚ͕D͗dƵŌƐ hŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJ͕ϮϬϬϰ͘ Dh͕ƌƵĐĞ͘DĂƐƐŝǀĞŚĂŶŐĞ͘>ŽŶĚŽŶ͗WŚĂŝĚŽŶWƌĞƐƐ͕ϮϬϬϰ͘ DĐKEKh',͕tŝůůŝĂŵ͘ƌĂĚůĞƚŽƌĂĚůĞ͗ZĞƚŚŝŶŬŝŶŐƚŚĞtĂLJtĞDĂŬĞ dŚŝŶŐƐ͘/ŶĐŽůůĂďŽƌĂƟŽŶǁŝƚŚDŝĐŚĂĞůƌĂƵŶŐĂƌƚ͘EŽƌƚŚWŽŝŶƚWƌĞƐƐ͕ϮϬϬϮ͘ Dd͕dƌĂĐLJ͘ĂŶĚDĂĂƌƚũĞsĂŶĞŶ,ĞƵǀĞů͘^ǁĞĞƚΘ^Ăůƚ͗tĂƚĞƌĂŶĚƚŚĞ ƵƚĐŚ͘ZŽƩĞƌĚĂŵ͗EŝWƵďůŝƐŚĞƌƐ͕ϮϬϭϭ͘

dz>KZ͕ƌŽŶ͘ĂƌŬ'ƌĞĞŶZĞůŐŝŽŶ͗EĂƚƵƌĞ^ƉŝƌŝƚƵĂůŝƚLJĂŶĚƚŚĞWůĂŶĞƚĂƌLJ &ƵƚƵƌĞ͘ĞƌŬĞůĞLJĂŶĚ>ŽƐŶŐĞůĞƐ͕ĂůŝĨŽƌŶŝĂ͗hŶŝǀĞƌƐŝƚLJŽĨĂůŝĨŽƌŶŝĂWƌĞƐƐ͕ 2010. dz>KZ͕ƌŽŶ͘ŶĐLJĐůŽƉĞĚŝĂŽĨZĞůŝŐŝŽŶĂŶĚEĂƚƵƌĞ͘EĞǁzŽƌŬ͗ŽŶƟŶƵƵŵ͕ 2008. dK͕:ŽŚŶ͘EĂŶĐLJ:ĂĐŬdŽĚĚ͘ĐŽͲĐŝƟĞƐƚŽ>ŝǀŝŶŐDĂĐŚŝŶĞƐ͗WƌŝŶĐŝƉůĞƐŽĨ ĐŽůŽŐŝĐĂůĞƐŝŐŶ͘ĞƌŬĞůĞLJ͕͗EŽƌƚŚƚůĂŶƟĐŽŽŬƐ͕ϭϵϵϰ͘ sE<KE/E'^s>͕D͘:͘W͘D͘DƵůĚĞƌ͕D͘:͘&͘^ƟǀĞ͕>͘sĂŶĞƌsĂůŬ͕ĂŶĚ ͘t͘sĂŶĞƌtĞĐŬ͘͞>ŝǀŝŶŐǁŝƚŚ^ĞĂͲ>ĞǀĞůZŝƐĞĂŶĚůŝŵĂƚĞŚĂŶŐĞ͗ ĂƐĞ^ƚƵĚLJŽĨƚŚĞEĞƚŚĞƌůĂŶĚƐ͘͟:ŽƵƌŶĂůŽĨŽĂƐƚĂůZĞƐĞĂƌĐŚǀŽů͘Ϯϰ͕ŶŽ͘Ϯ ;DĂƌ͕͘ϮϬϬϴͿ͗ϯϲϳͲϯϳϵ͕ϰϰϰͲϰϰϱ͘WƵďůŝƐŚĞĚďLJ͗ŽĂƐƚĂůĚƵĐĂƟŽŶΘZĞƐĞĂƌĐŚ&ŽƵŶĚĂƟŽŶ͕/ŶĐ͘ŚƩƉ͗ͬͬǁǁǁ͘ũƐƚŽƌ͘ŽƌŐͬƐƚĂďůĞͬϯϬϭϯϳϴϰϮ͘ td^KE͕/ĂŶ͘,LJĚƌŽůŽŐLJ͗ŶŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚĂůƉƉƌŽĂĐŚ. Boca Raton : CRC >ĞǁŝƐ͕ϭϵϵϱ͘ tK>DE͕ĂǀŝĚ͘͞ĞĨŽƌĞƚŚĞ>ĞǀĞĞƐƌĞĂŬ͗WůĂŶƚŽ^ĂǀĞƚŚĞEĞƚŚĞƌlands”. tŝƌĞĚDĂŐĂnjŝŶĞ͕/ƐƐƵĞϭϳ͘Ϭϭ͘;KĐƚŽďĞƌ͕ϮϬϬϵͿ͘ hDd,KZ͕WĞƚĞƌ͘ƚŵŽƐƉŚĞƌĞƐ͗ƌĐŚŝƚĞĐƚƵƌĂůŶǀŝƌŽŶŵĞŶƚƐ͕^ƵƌƌŽƵŶĚŝŶŐ KďũĞĐƚƐ͘ĞƌůŝŶ͗ŝƌŬŚćƵƐĞƌ'ŵď,͕ϮϬϬϲ͘


A.Cavallo_thesis prep book _opt  

Book of gathered research, theory, and thesis statements, in preparation for final my Thesis Project. PDF format. The design project birthe...

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