U T A O
A m a n d a
9 3 9 5 6 2
Tu t o r : M oy s h i e E l i a s
Introd u c t io n
A M A N DA KW E K Born in Year 1997 Singapore
Amanda also believes having a good balance work & play lifestyle is one of the important values in her life. Being actively involved in various kinds of sports has helped shape much of who she is today. Sports has also made Amanda a very determined person, to always have a tenacious attitude to persis even in the face of adversity & to always stay optimistic despite the outcome, wanting to get back up even stronger.
Amanda is currently a third year student majoring in Architecture at the University of Melbourne. She graduated with a Diploma in Architecture at Singapore Polytechnic (Singapore) in 2017. Since young, Art has been her passion; particularly passionate in sketching & desigining houses. This piqued her interest on the World of Architecture. Upon entering polytechnic, her interest in architecture was augmented by the process & concepts of projects, especially in functional art; how spatial layouts can be further pushed beyond its limits; enthusiasm for overcoming challenges & wanting to learn more.
Living in this digitsed world, Amanda believes that technology is the way in to go; thus the importance of being able to keep up in order to still be relevant in this industry. Her education in Singapore Polytechnic the last 3 years and working experiences has familiarized herself with softwares such as AutoCAD, Revit, Sketchup, and rendering softwares such as Vray and Podium. â€œ Architecture is an expression of Values.â€? -Norman Foster
Final Ye a r P ro j e c t:
Co -Wo r king S paces
S o f t wa res Use d : Ske tch up , AutoCad, Photoshop, Vray
Prev iou s Wo rk s
S eco nd Ye ar P ro j e ct :
M ulti- Sto rey Resid ential
S o f t wa res Use d : Rev i t , AutoCa d, Photoshop
First Ye ar P ro j e c t :
S o f t wa res Use d : Rev i t , AutoCa d, Photoshop
Conten t s
CO N TE N TS
PART A. Conceptualisation 10
A.1 Design Futuring The Plug-In City The Pod City
A.2 Design Computation Heydar Aliyev Center Vaulted Willow
A.3 Composition / Generation The Green Void Metropol Parasol
A.5 Learning Outcomes
A.6 Algorithmic Sketches Human Figures Contours
A L I S AT I O N
Our world is at a point where ‘we have reached a critical moment in our existence’1. The Earth’s resources are slowly depleting and is becoming insufficient, seeing the way we humans are taking it for granted these days. ‘Many of the challenges we face today are unfixable’2 ; overpopulation, shortage of natural resources, climate changes,etc. However, the only way in which we can still ovecome this problem is to change ‘our values, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviour’2.
Sustainable design is the key to sustainability. Through sustainable design ; we need to address the issues in which we face today, and yet at the same time still be able to adapt to the future. As designers, we need to use our knowledge to help us implement new ideas; not only aesthetically, but also environmentally. To continue to preserve the remaining resources of our Earth for future generations.
1. Tony Fry.(2008).Design Futuring : Sustainability ,Ethics and New Practice. 1st ed. Oxford : Berg, Pg 1 2. Anthony Dunne and Fiona Raby (2013). Speculative Everything: Design Fiction , and Social Dreaming (MIT Press) : Pg 2
A.1 D esig n Fut u rin g
The Pl u g - I n C i t y Pe te r Co o k
Figure 1.1. A section of The Plug-In City showing the different type of towers and how it works together.4
The Plug-In City, designed by Peter Cook , who was part of a collaborative British group called the ‘Archigram’. His work was one of the many ‘visionary creations’ 3 of the 1960’s, addressing the issue of overcrowding in the future and how he would overcome it as shown through his design. Compared to other ‘mainstream architecture’ that ‘resolved this by turning to cookie-cutter suburbia, Cook embraced the change’3 ; ‘to encourage change through obsolescence’ 4. The concept of his project starts of with the idea of having a ‘Megastructure’ 4, also known as the ‘central machine’3, which consists of ‘nodes and cells that could accommodate any type of architectural components’ 5; access routes, residential/housing, transportation, offices , entertainment areas, etc were ‘all accessible through plug-in towers’. On top of that, each building is a has a crane on top. This helps the ‘Megastructure’ to be able to that constantly change the modules to suit the city and it’s community’s ‘ever-changing needs’ 3.
3. Christopher Muscato, Archigram: Plug-in-City, The Walking City & Instant City <https://study.com/academy/lesson/archigramplug-in-city-the-walking-city-instant-city.html> [accessed 29 July 2018]. 4. MoMA, Plug-in City: Maximum Pressure Area, project, Section (1964) <https://www.moma.org/collection/works/796> [accessed 29 July 2018]. 5. LAURENT HUBEEK, Cities of the Future (2012) < http://themobilecity.nl/2012/02/14/cities-of-the-future/> [accessed 29 July 2018].
The Plug -I n C i t y
The importance of able to adapt and keep up with change is one of the strong message that Peter Cook is trying to bring across in this project that he has designed. This can be seen in one part of his illustrations, where a ‘Megastructure’ has been built on top of an existing old building (Refer to Figure 1.2). It showed how ‘progress has overtaken the old ways of the world’6 and how ‘permanent architecture will become irrelevant’6 .
Figure 1.2. A close up image to show how old buildings will be built on top of.5
Similarly in the architecture industry, it brings across a very strong and important message not us humans as well; that if we do not continue to upgrade ourselves and learn how to be adaptive to our surroundings, but instead choose to remain in our comfort zone and continue living the way we live, we could very quickly become irrelevant.
Which links to the next point on how we can be adaptive to be to keep up with the future. The ‘Crane’ in Peter Cook’s design is the main core structure of the building, showing how it is ‘meant to keep up with the fast changing wants and needs of the community that resides in it’ 6. Once again, it brings us back how adaptive we humans must be to change. We need to learn how to be able to keep up with the needs of the future just like the ‘crane’. Not only does it ave reference to us humans in general way of life, but it could also be related to those in the architecture industry. Learning nly how to do things the old fashion way will not be sufficient to survive in the future, nd instead end up lagging behind by a lot. Thus it is important for us to keep improving ourselves, by keeping this open mindset in wanting to learn and, to ensure that we will continue to be useful and relevant, just like the ‘Crane’.
Figure 1.3. A cross section showing the purpose of the crane.5
6. Jed Matthew Paz, Plug-In City Photo Essay Final Draft (2013) <https://prezi.com/ncvbhevnvujg/plug-in-city-photo-essay-finaldraft/> [accessed 30 July 2018]. 7. moderneRegional, Living like in the space capsule <https://www.moderne-regional.de/?s=the+plug+in+city> [accessed 31 July 2018].
A.1 D esig n Fut u rin g
The Po d C i t y Pl a n n i n g Gro up (Se o ul ,Ko rea )
Figure 2.1. Rendered Image of how the Pod City is envisioned to be.8
The Pod City, designed by Planning Group, a Seoul-based Architecture group, who ‘envisioned L’air Nouveau de Paris (the new air of Paris)’ 8. The design of this project is an ‘egg-shaped development’ 8 , which ‘features a series of interconnected pods elevated on stilts, which each pod housing a variety of residential, retail and office units’ 8 . The design of this project was ‘inspired by organic forms of complex micro-organisms’ 8. The pods are then ‘interconnected to promote relationships and collaboration throughout the development’ 8 as well. The pods are also ‘almost fully glazed to provide 360-degree panoramic views over the city’ 8.
The Pod C it y
The Pod city is also trying to be future proof through its design by addressing the issue of overcrowding and their ideas of how they can overcome it. Firstly, the idea of having these pods raised on stilts is one of the ways to address the existance of existing roads and human paths in the area, overcoming the problem of overcrowding due to the lack of land space. New paths are also created vertically above the existing ones to overcome the problem of over congestion for future larger populations. Similarly to architecture, though we all already have a certain set of skills, we must continue to build on what we have ; our knowldge and skills, to use our â€˜pastâ€™ to help shape and define us in the future.
Figure 2.2. A close up image to show how the project adapts to its existing condition.8
Figure 2.3. Internal view of an apartment , show casing nautral daylight entering the space.9
The use of glass all round the pods helps to visually lighten the massive structure of the design, maximizing daylight entering the spaces. The space also uses the colour white alot to help brighten then space. Not only does this helps to conserve energy during the day save cost in terms of lighting in the day time. However, it may overheat the house during the day time, requiring the energy saved on lights to be used for airconditioning instead. Relating back to technology, we should always work with what we have and always push ourselves and continue to be adaptive to changes.
8. Lucy Wang, Planning Korea unveils plans for futuristic pod city in the middle of Paris (2015) <https://inhabitat.com/planning-ko rea-envisions-futuristic-pod-habitats-in-paris/> [accessed 31 July 2018]. 9. Image Source: Lavinia Gather-Stammel, Futuristic Pod City in Paris <http://materialsinnovation.myblog.arts.ac.uk/2017/11/21/specu lative-design-projects/> [accessed 31 July 2018].
A.1 D esig n Fut u rin g
“Sustainability can’t be like some sort of a moral sacrifice or political dilemma or a philanthropical cause. It has to be a design challenge.” -Bjarke Ingels
Com p ar is on
Co mpar i s o n Th e Pl u g- In C i t y & Th e Po d City Overcrowding has always been a main issue which has been in discussion through many decades, resulting many architects to come up their own concepts and versions of how they envision the future would be like to tackle this continuous growing population by having future proof ideas. The Plug-In City and The Pod City are 2 of the many visions that are rather similar on how they would think could overcome this problem.
Similarities are similar that they both show the importance of being adaptive and relevant in our world. This can be seen through both projects, where they adapt to its existing site and building on top of fixed old architectures and make use of the remaining spaces they have to create a more future proof scheme. In addition, they are also similar in the ideas of creating ‘connections’ from one building to another. This helps to address the problem of road conjestion by providing alternative routes for users. We should continue to aim and be like these two projects, not only in the way we think when designing buildings or homes, but also when it comes to ourself; aiming to continue equipting ourselves with technology skills and knowledge to help us ensure that we will still be relevant in our society ; to be sustainable.
Differences However, despite the similarities, The Plug-In City seemed like a more feasible compared to the Pod City. The Plu-In City is more sustainable compared to the Pod City, being able to keep up with the needs of the users, by being able to replace and built to match the needs of the people. It also takes into consideration the presence of its existing buildings and works around it. Whereas the Pod City, though it is future proof in terms of its concept of vertical connections and being able to try to meet the user needs by having everything in one pod, is not as adaptive compared as it requires an empty piece of land without any existing buildings to be able to work out. It is not as sustainable compared to the Plug-in city. In conclusion, technology is something we cannot live without. It is constantly progressing, slowly taking up people’s jobs because they are more efficient in terms of skills and the ability to reduce the number of man power doing a task. Thus, it is an important message to us, that if we do not keep learning how to be adaptive and be up to date with what is around us, technology like robots will soon be taking over our jobs.
Technology has been advancing very quickly through the years ; allowing many people to benefit from it in their own ways; be it at home, school or even in the office. In the architecture industry, we still need to have a clear distinction between these two terms: Computerisation and Computation. Computerisation is the use of softwares to aid our design intention. We usually use this after the design as been decided.
Computation is the use of softwares to help us decipher our design from the start ; parametric design, algorithmic design, etc. However as a whole, we should continue to use these softwares to our advantage. Not only to help us work more efficiently, but also to explore new possibilities to share with other designers and with the world.
A.2 D esig n Co mput ation
H eyda r A l i yev Ce nte r Z a h a H a d i d A rchi te ct s
Figure 3.1. Image showing the unique form of the Heydar Aliyev Center through the use of parametric computation software. 11
The Heydar Aliyev Center, in Baku, Azerbajin, was designed by Zaha Hadid Architects in 2013, upon entering the competition in 2007.
forms – the more striking and unorthodox the better -rather than its social or humanitarian role’13.
The center was ‘designed to become the primary building for the national’s cultural programs’ 10 , breaking away ‘ from the rigid and often monumental Soviet architecture that is so prevalent in Baku’ 10.
Thus, resulting many of her designs to have ‘aggressive geometric designs’a that ‘are characterized by a sense of fragmentation, instability, and movement’ 12. In other words, using these complex looking forms and façade to deceive people’s thoughts into thinking that it is good architecture when in fact it is not as what they expect; being
Hadid’s design philosophy was that ‘the meaning and power of architecture lies in its
10. Heydar Aliyev Center / Zaha Hadid Architects (2013) <https://www.archdaily.com/448774/heydar-aliyev-cen ter-zaha-hadidarchitects> [accessed 4 August 2018]. 11. Image Source: BEGA, Heydar Aliyev Centre, Baku <https://www.bega.de/en/references/heydar-aliyev-center-baku/ > [accessed 4 August 2018]. 12. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Zaha Hadid <https://www.britannica.com/biography/Zaha-Hadid> [accessed 9 August 2018]. 13. CHRISTOPHER HAWTHORNE , A critic’s take on the power of Zaha Hadid (2016) <http://www.latimes.com/entertainment/arts/ la-et-cm-zaha-hadid-appreciation-20160401-column.html#> [accessed 9 August 2018].
Heyd ar Aliyev Ce n te r
Interior image of the centre showing how the facade design has been translated inside as well.
Throughout the design, ‘the most critical yet challenging elements’ was the building skin. They aimed to ‘achieve a surface so continuous that it appears homogenous’ 12 . Many would have thought that the form of the building was derived through computation methods because of the misconception of the term ‘Parametricism’ (a name for what their firm does) ; which means that ‘the algorithms on which the designs are based’13 .
However, it was computerisation that was used instead, as the form of the centre had already been more or less decided through site analysis and was later translated into MAYA, a 3D software, to help digitise their design. From there, other building elements such structure, services, lighting, etc had to work around the form. Thus, this project is a good example of how computerisation allows more flexible compared to computation.
14.Image Source(Top): Paul Steele , AZERBAIJAN – THE HEYDAR ALIYEV CENTRE OF BAKU (2018) <https:// www.baldhiker.com/2018/05/03/azerbaijan-the-heydar-aliyev-centre-of-baku/> [accessed 4 August 2018]. 15.Image Source(Bottom): EOI, Hokuma Karimova, Project Management: Heydar Aliyev Cultural Center <http://www.eoi.es/blogs/hokumakarimova/2012/01/14/heydar-aliyev-cultural-center/> [accessed 4 August 2018].
A.2 D esig n Co mput ation
Vaulte d Wi l l ow M a rc Fo r n e s / Th e Ve r y Many
Figure 4.1. Overall look of the Vaulted Willow Pavilion and how it is relating to its surroundings.11
The Vaulted Willow is a public art pavilion located in Borden Park in Edmonton ,Canada. It was designed by Mark Fornes, from TheVeryMany, which his studio mainly focuses on ‘the computational design and digital fabrication of geometrically complex, self-supporting structures that consists of thousands of flat pieces that are joined together to create organically curving surfaces’16. The design was inspired with the concept
having ‘2D geometry of catenary curves by exploiting a computationally derived dynamic spring network with behavioural attributes’16. This is rather similar to the structural principal ‘borrowed from Gaudi chains model’17 , where he uses ‘ hanging chain model made out of weights on strings that would serve as an upside down version of the arched forms he sought’18. The 2D geometry then resulted into its finalised 3D form with the help of algorithms; that made it easier to make changes if one decides to
16. The New Stack ,Kimberley Mok, The Stunning Bio Forms of Auto-Updated Architecture (2015) <https://thenewstack.io/the-stunning-bio-forms-of-auto-updated-architecture/> [accessed 5 August 2018]. 17. MARC FORNES / THEVERYMANY STUDIO , PUBLIC ART VAULTED WILLOW (2014) <https://theverymany. com/public-art/11-ed monton> [accessed 5 August 2018].
Vau lted Wil l ow
Figure 4.2. & 4.3. Use of Computation softwares to colour code the pieces to differentiate them.15
make changes as all will be updated.
In Fornes’s example of the Vaulted Willow pavilion, it shows that computational design The pavilion is made up of ‘721 individual is a tool in which designers can use to help aluminium “shingles” ’17 that are ‘custom them experiment the many possibilities with made with the help of computation software, algorithms, breaking away from conventional customized to suit the design intention’17. symmetrical forms. At the same, they are With the help of computation, the shingles also able to easily change the form’s size when fixed together becomes ‘self supportand materials without having to redesign the ed shells’ throughout the whole pavilion’17. whole thing from scratch again. Colours are also used to identify the different pieces and where it is to connect with each other, making it easier during installation.
18. MEMETICIAN , A different kind of string theory: Antoni Gaudi (2007) <https://memetician.livejournal.com/201202.html> [accessed 10 August 2018].
COMPOSITION | GENERATION Through the years, computing techniques have constantly been developing and recently rather quickly. Computation has been ‘redefining the practice of architecture’19 as not only by creating ‘opportunities in design process, fabrication and construction’19, it also allows ‘designers to extend their abilities to deal with highly complex situations’ 19, compared to computerisation ; which computers are just used for drafting out presentation
boards virtually and digitsing ideas designs and forms that have already been confirmed. Through the 2 precedents in this portion, we will be able to understand how each uses the method of generation design and what are its advantages and disadvantages.
19. Brady Peters and Xavier De Kestelier, ‘’Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought, ed. by Brady Peters( 2013), p. 8-13
A.3 Co mpo sitio n /Generation
The Gre e n Vo i d L AVA ( Th e L ab ato r y o f Vi s ionary Arc hitec ture) The Green Void, an installation that was designed by LAVA, is one example which shows ‘a new way of digital workflow’20 through using generative mediums to their advantage, allowing them to achieve such complex outcome with ‘minimum surface’22 and ‘use of minimal materials’20 . The aim of this project was to ‘renounce on
Figure 5.1. Internal of the installation showing the parts of the fabric and aluminium tracks coming together. 20
the application of structure in the traditional sense’21 and was inspired by ‘the relationship between man, nature and technology’21. The design process began with the architects who determined the five ‘connection points within the space’22 and the rest was ‘mathematical formula’22 within the 3D parametric software. The finalised form ‘was
Figure 5.2. Overall view of the whole Green Void and its 5 connecting opens.
20. Spec-Net Building News, MakMax Australia and LAVA Green Void for Sydney Customs House (2017) <https://www.spec-net.com.au/press/0109/mak_070109/MakMax-Australia-and-LAVA-Green-Void-for-SydneyCustoms-House> [accessed 9 August 2018]. 21. Green Void / LAVA, Green Void / LAVA (2008) <https://www.archdaily.com/10233/green-void-lava> [accessed 9 August 2018]. 22. Arch2O.Com, The Green Void | LAVA <https://www.arch2o.com/the-green-void-lava/> [accessed 9 August 2018]. 23. Image Source: Designzens, LAVA - Laboratory for Visionary Architecture (2011) <http://www.designzens.com/article/2011/09/21/ green-void> [accessed 10 August 2018].
The G reen Vo i d
then structurally engineered by fabricator MakMax and subjected to a computercontrolled material (CNC) cutting and mechanical re-seaming’24 . Lycra; ‘which is specially treated high-tech nylon’24 that is light weighted, along with aluminium track profiles that were ‘suspended using stainless steel cables’24.
Generation influenced the design of the project, it has also help bridge better understanding between the architect and the structural engineer involved in this project. With the right amount of data, the structural engineers were able to better understand the design intention of the architect and want was needed structurally to overcome this complex design.
Figure 5.3 & 5.4. Showing how algorithms resulted in the final form, of which colours were used to decipher the different pieces of the installation that was used as a guide when producing it.
24. Anuradha Chatterjee, Green void (2009) <https://architectureau.com/articles/exhibition-14/> [accessed 9 August 2018]. 25. Image Source (Left): Rose Etherington, Green Void by LAVA (2008) <https://www.dezeen.com/2008/12/16/ green-void-by-lava/> [accessed 10 August 2018]. 26. Image Source (Right): igreenspot, The Green Void 100 Percent Transportable and Reusable by Lava <http://www.igreenspot.com/the-green-void-by-lava/> [accessed 10 August 2018].
A.3 Co mpo sitio n /Generation
Met ro p o l Para s o l J ü rge n M aye r He r mann , J. MAYER.H a rc hitec ts
The Metropol Parasol is also another example of how this project was made possible with the use of parametric design; generation. It is also known as the ‘world’s largest bonded timber structure’ 27 , is a contemporary urban centre located in La Encarnación square in Seville, Spain. It was designed by German Architect Jürgen Mayer Hermann and was completed in April 2011. The design was inspired by ‘vaults of Cathedral of Seville and the ficus tree in
the nearby Plaza de Cristo de Burgos’27 . The overall consists of six parasol that forms into a large ‘mushroom’ like structure, breaking away from the traditional architecture surrounding this once run down square. Though not stated clearly as to how it was designed, we can roughly assume from the finalised form that the architect probably used 3D computation software like
27. Australian Design Review, Metropol Parasol (2011) <https://www.australiandesignreview.com/architecture/metropolparasol/> [accessed 7 August 2018]. 28. Image Source: Besta Rod Systems, Metropol Parasol, Seville, Spain <http://besista.com/en/references/timber-construction/> [accessed 7 August 2018].
Me t rop o l Pa ra s o l
Grasshopper to design this urban centre. The use of computation design can be seen as a useful tool when designing such complex and organic forms through the play of contours. Such structures also requires a lot accurate data for it to be constructed; especially when the most important part was knowing how to connect the ‘3000 connection nodes at the intersection’29 of the micro-laminated timber structures.
engineer on the same page, saving time and quickening construction period. Computation design also has its flaws, known as having no sense of its surroundings. However, it somehow still manages to bring people together, providing ‘a series of new urban activity to evolve’29.
This also help to place the architect and
29. ARUP, Metropol Parasol, Seville One of the largest timber structures ever built <https://www.arup.com/projects/metropol-para sol> [accessed 7 August 2018]. 30. Image Source(Top): ESPANIA, METROPOL PARASOL <https://www.spain.info/en/que-quieres/arte/monumentos/sevilla/ metropol-parasol-setas-sevilla-encarnacion.html> [accessed 7 August 2018]. 31. Image Source(Bottom): Hector Beade, Metropol Parasol <http://www.hectorbeade.com/bridge/ metropol-parasol/> [accessed 7 August 2018].
PART A.4 CONCLUSION
In conclusion, Part A has allowed me to experience and see how parametric is slowly evolving and changing the way we do things. In todayâ€™s world of advanced technology, computation is another medium and tool in which we can use as an alternative when to the architecture industry as it is fast and effective; helping us produce be able to produce accurate and efficient designs, which are usullaly very crutial.
PART A.5 LEARNING OUTCOMES
In the last three weeks, my exposure parametric computation softwares like Rhino and Grasshopper, was a rather eye-opening experience. The challenge in which I faced initally when using the softwares was the lack of knowledge which did not allow me to express what I had in mind intentionally.
algorithms is about ‘accidents’ that we make that causes us to want to be even more curious and explore what other variations we can or could come up with.
Despite computation method being the ‘way in architecture’ designing , I believe that we should still be sustainable in being able to have a good balance between knowing when to be in charge and when to let the computer However, it was through these obstacles that be in charge. I actually learnt that the beauty of parametric
PA RT A.6 Append ix - Algo r ithmic S ke tch es
S et t i n g u p t h e Bas e S o f t wa res u se d : G rassho p per and Rhino
Part 1. Start of by forming Curves that mimics the curvature of a human body as the base. Afterwhich, using Loft to join these curve lines otgether, forming a surface.
Part 2. Connecting the formed curve surface to Populate Geometry to create random points on the surface of the model.
Part 2a. Adding Number Sliders to control : (i) Seed , referring to the number of boxes formed within the same form. (ii) Count plays around in with the configuration of the different sized boxes and cuboids.
Part 3. OcTree is used and connected to form cubes/cuboids using the random points, which was created by the Populate Geomtry.
Part 3a. Toggle is used to transform the rectangular shaped forms into squares instead to create more variety. Number Slider for Group is used again to play around with how the size cubes formed; it ranges from being congested and large, to small and widely spread out.
Part 4. Finally, Boxing it so as to ensure that all the components are â€˜gluedâ€™ together. Followed by baking the finalised product back into Rhino and rendering it.
PA RT A .6 Ap pend ix - Algo r ithmic S ke tch es
P ROC ESS
MOD EL S
PA RT A .6 Ap pend ix - Algo r ithmic S ke tch es
CON TO UR
Top View - Contours
Birdâ€™s Eye View - Contours
Refere n ce L i st 1. Tony Fry.(2008).Design Futuring : Sustainability ,Ethics and New Practice. 1st ed. Oxford :Berg, Pg 1 2. Anthony Dunne and Fiona Raby (2013). Speculative Everything: Design Fiction , and Social Dreaming (MIT Press) : Pg 2 3. Christopher Muscato, Archigram: Plug-in-City, The Walking City & Instant City <https:// study.com/academy/les son/archigram-plug-in-city-the-walking-city-instant-city.html> [accessed 29 July 2018]. 4. MoMA, Plug-in City: Maximum Pressure Area, project, Section (1964) <https://www.moma.org/collection/ works/796> [accessed 29 July 2018]. 5. LAURENT HUBEEK, Cities of the Future (2012) < http://themobilecity.nl/2012/02/14/cities-of-the-future/> [accessed 29 July 2018]. 6. Jed Matthew Paz, Plug-In City Photo Essay Final Draft (2013) <https://prezi.com/ncvbhevnvujg/plug-in-city-pho to-essay-final-draft/> [accessed 30 July 2018]. 7. moderneRegional, Living like in the space capsule <https://www.moderne-regional.de/?s=the+plug+in+city> [accessed 31 July 2018]. 8. Lucy Wang, Planning Korea unveils plans for futuristic pod city in the middle of Paris (2015) <https://inhabitat. com/planning-korea-envisions-futuristic-pod-habitats-in-paris/> [accessed 31 July 2018]. 9. Image Source: Lavinia Gather-Stammel, Futuristic Pod City in Paris <http://materialsinnovation.myblog.arts. ac.uk/2017/11/21/specu lative-design-projects/> [accessed 31 July 2018]. 10. Heydar Aliyev Center / Zaha Hadid Architects (2013) <https://www.archdaily.com/448774/heydar-aliyev-cen ter-zaha-hadid-architects> [accessed 4 August 2018]. 11. Image Source: BEGA, Heydar Aliyev Centre, Baku <https://www.bega.de/en/references/heydar-aliyev-cen ter-baku/ > [accessed 4 August 2018]. 12. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Zaha Hadid <https://www.britannica.com/biography/Zaha-Hadid> [accessed 9 August 2018]. 13. CHRISTOPHER HAWTHORNE , A critic’s take on the power of Zaha Hadid (2016) <http://www.latimes.com/en tertainment/arts/la-et-cm-zaha-hadid-appreciation-20160401-column.html#> [accessed 9 August 2018]. 14.Image Source(Top): Paul Steele , AZERBAIJAN – THE HEYDAR ALIYEV CENTRE OF BAKU (2018) <https://www. baldhiker.com/2018/05/03/azerbaijan-the-heydar-aliyev-centre-of-baku/> [accessed 4 August 2018]. 15.Image Source(Bottom): EOI, Hokuma Karimova, Project Management: Heydar Aliyev Cultural Center <http://www.eoi.es/blogs/hokumakarimo va/2012/01/14/heydar-aliyev-cultural-center/> [accessed 4 August 2018]. 16. The New Stack ,Kimberley Mok, The Stunning Bio Forms of Auto-Updated Architecture (2015) <https://thenew stack.io/the-stunning-bio-forms-of-auto-updated-architecture/> [accessed 5 August 2018]. 17. MARC FORNES / THEVERYMANY STUDIO , PUBLIC ART VAULTED WILLOW (2014) <https://theverymany. com/ public-art/11-edmonton> [accessed 5 August 2018].
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