Digital Design - Module 02 Semester 1, 2018 Andrew MacKinnon (836149) Chelle Yang + Studio 1

Week Three

Reading: Kolerevic B. 2003. Architecture in the Digital Age

Kolerevic described three fundamental type of fabrication techniques in the reading. Outline the three techniques and discuss the potential of Computer Numeric Controlled fabrication with parametric modelling. (150 words max)

Kolerevic describes subtractive, additive and formative fabrication as the three fundamental types of fabrication. Subtractive fabrication is the most common fabrication type and can be done in 2D and 3D, with CNC milling, chemical subtraction, and laser cutting being examples. Additive fabrication involves applying layer after layer to create a 3D object, such as 3D printing layers plastic. Formative fabrication involves applying mechanical forces, heat, steam and re-stricting forms to a material to deform it into a new shape. Computer Numeric Controlled fabrication allows for precise and complex surfaces to be fabricated to be used for all areas of design. Parametric modelling allows for the careful, and often random, calculation of many iterations of forms. This trial and error approach means that many forms can be tried before the final design is complete. The ability to parameterise a model and tweak it live helps create much more customizable and unique designs.

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Week Three

Surface Creation

After completing the script in the workshop, I tidied it up, and began to experiment with the number sliders. I found that the forms I liked the best had two parallel surfaces that seemed to dance playfully. However, as the iteractions went on, I began to change the distance between the surfaces to try and create a pocket of space between them.

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Week Four Panels & Waffle

The panels are six variations of the simple square pyramid. One splits it into four mini pyramids, and the others play with 2D/ 3D and perforations. A curve attractor pulls the panels into the centre of the space creating varying orientations and heights of the forms.

The waffle structure was edited from the 10 verticals to align with the grid of 5 panels. This means that the panels sit on the waffle structure perfectly and allows light from the perforations to enter unimpeded.

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Week Four

Laser Cutting

Preperation for laser cutting was very straight forward after experienced gained in FOD:r last year. The hardest part was exploding and joining the panels in different ways until they unrolled together. Nesting the waffle was very easy as the straight lines were able to be shared as cut lines on the Fab Lab template. Nesting the unrolled nets was harder as they didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t share common edges.

Panels Horizontal Waffle

Labels for reference

I deliberately left some outer edges on the panels and waffle as etch so that there would be no need for masking tape when cut. Numbers for referencing were etched next to the model pieces so that they werenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t printed onto the final design. Vertical Waffle

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Week Five

The boolean script from the workshop was added to create iterations with curve attractors, point attractors and random grid attraction. Although many complex attraction combinations were trialled, the final iterations involved much more simple attraction techniques which were complemented by more complex shapes. Using Lunchboxâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s maths tab, I explored all the different shape types and played with the sizes. I preferred the shapes that cut interesting patterns into the cube, rather than just cutting out the shape. In exploring this, I found that close to symmetry allowed the repetition of voids which meant a more coherent solid was formed. This matched my aesthetic style more.

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Week Five

Isometric

The iteration created by isocahedrons being boolean differenced from the cube created a very interesting structure that had thin horizontal and vertical lines running every which way. Unlike other iterations, this one had a very unique from that showed potential for a real built space. The interior is very spacious with a tall ceiling and long corridors. The area is well defined by the cubes exterior walls where windows are cut to let in light. The side that was once the interior of the cube is the side with all the threshold openings that would allow circulation through the space. While the entrances are narrow, they open into a large space, much like the design of the waffle structure. The cantilevering heavy forms above juxtapose the thin columns and walkways but somehow balance the space. This may be due to the fact that the whole form seems to be erupting from the ground like a crystalline structure in a cave. This structure also works at multiple scales. At a small scale it is a little model and at a larger scale it can be a pavilion where space can be explored. At an even larger scale it could be a tall glass building where the columns are elevator shafts and the voids are rooms and spaces. Finally, at the largest scale, it could act as a lay out for a future vertical city!

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Lofts

1.1

1.2

1.3

Key

1.4

{0,0,0}

{30,150,150}

{0,150,150}

{0,150,150} {0,90,150}

{0,150,120}

Attractor / Control Points (X,Y,Z) Attractor / Control Curves

{30,150,150} {150,150,150}

{0,0,150}

Grid Points Offset Grid Points

{150,30,150} {150,0,150}

{0,0,60}

{0,90,0} {150,150,0} {150,120,0}

{0,0,0}

{120,0,150}

{0,150,0} {150,0,150} {150,0,120}

{150,0,150}

{150,150,60} {150,150,0}

{0,0,0} {150,150,0}

{0,0,0}

{0,150,0}

{150,90,0}

{0,0,0} {30,0,0}

{150,150,0} {150,0,0}

Paneling Grid & Attractor Point/ Curve

{Index Selection}

{Index Selection}

{Index Selection}

{Index Selection}

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

{28,150,166}

{0,31,150}

{155,84,150}

{-10,150,37}

{36,259,-9}

{175,112,-12}

{167,0,110}

{150,61,0}

{36,-24,-9}

{175,112,-12}

{148,-1,16}

Paneling

{Attractor Point Location}

{Attractor Point Location}

{Attractor Point Location}

{Index Selection}

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

Task 01 Matrix The surface iterations were experimentations with curved surfaces thatplayed to mirror each other in asymmetry. The idea was to create as much surface area as possible while still being interesting and not flat. Parallel forms seemed to do this well, but didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t provide much interior space. The design I chose was an iteration with a balance of flatness and curve, as well as an interesting interior reationship. The space moves from a constricted parallel entrance to an open space. After playing with curve and point attractors, I found a combination of the two worked best for the panelling. The curve attractor pulled the forms inwards and the point attractor changed their size from one side to another as well as listing the panel lype used. A variety of panel meshes were used to create variety, while still being coherent as a whole because of their similarities. The varying panelling allowed me to experiment with 2D, 3D and simple and complex forms.

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Grid Manipulation

1.1

1.2

1.3

Key

1.4

{0,0,0}

Attractor / Control Points (X,Y,Z) Chosen Grid’s Boundary Centroids

{178,-51,222}

{167,-22,70}

{Random Attraction}

{Attractor Point Location}

{Attractor point Location}

Centroid Distribution

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

Shape Transformation

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

{-103,200,83}

{165,74,68} {167,-22,70}

{Attractor Point Location}

{Random Scale}

{Attractor Point Location}

{Attractor Point Location}

Task 02 Matrix Early iterations for task 2 were not very successful as the volumes to boolean out were not touching so the space wasn’t deleted. This meant that the final iterations all had similar sizes of volumes. Due to this, I began to experiment with different shapes, including cones, torus’, dodecahedrons, triangles, and spheres. Lunchbox made these iterations very easy. Once the right volumes were chosen, it was a matter of deforming the grid and changing the size and orientaion of the shapes. After many tries of unsatisfactory boolean differences, I found that the basic grid with a very subtle size change created the most interesting final design. The isosahedron shape folded back into its self and when cut out of the rectangle created a very thin skeletal structure. After cutting this down to an 1/8, the resultant solid revealed a very cool space, dominated by horizontal and vertical lines. with large voids in the centre.

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Week Six

Final Isometric Views

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Appendix

Process + Troubleshooting

Early surface iteration had too many folds to waffle successfully.

Testing waffle script on simple surface to try and find errors.

The first attempt to script the waffle wasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t closing the rectangles or creating the notches because the end werenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t connected to the right line components in the script.

Image of script where end points and line containers were not arranged properly. The negative vector below also needed changing.

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Appendix Process

The end point to line error was creating this jagged form when tested on my iterations.

Tried and tested many curve and point attractors, as well as many meshes to create a buildable yet complex panelling array.

Weaverbirdâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s frame and stellate function helped to formulate some complex ideas that went towards the final design.

The Lunchbox plug in helped to create some isocahedron, paraboloid, and dodecahedron variants that were used to formulate final iterations.

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Appendix

Construction of Model

Carefully popped out waffle laser cut pieces and put together with UHU glue.

Carefully took out panel pieces and pre folded before gluing together with UHU glue.

UHU glue was used to glue all the objects together. The panelling was glued straight onto the waffle structure. Only problem encountered was when pressure of panel broke waffle.

The raft of the 3D print was pried off and then the support materialwas removed. Stubborn pieces of plastic were cut or sanded off.

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Appendix Photo Gallery

Close up of flowering panels to highlight craftmanship and shadows.

To show the perforated panels delicateness.

Close up of interior to show volume and shadows created by waffling and panelling.

Plan view to show overall change in width and volume from right to left.

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Appendix

Photo Gallery

Emphasising interior shadows and the powerful horizontal and vertical lines.

Revealing the back sides cut out windows that allow light into the structure.

A light study to demonstrate how the light can project the buildings shape onto the floor plane.

The two finished models together. Helps to see scale.

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Andrew MacKinnon M2 Journal Generating Ideas Through Process

Waffle Structure, Panelling, Solid & Void. Designed using Rhino 5 and Grasshopper. Fabricated with laser cutter and 3D printer.

Andrew MacKinnon M2 Journal Generating Ideas Through Process

Waffle Structure, Panelling, Solid & Void. Designed using Rhino 5 and Grasshopper. Fabricated with laser cutter and 3D printer.